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User's Guide

General Policy

This bibliography is designed to cover the world's demographic and population literature, including books and other monographs, serial publications, journal articles, working papers, doctoral dissertations, and machine-readable data files.

Along with the approximately 400 journals surveyed on a regular basis, many other periodicals covering biological, geographical, economic, and sociological literature are reviewed by scanning the principal bibliographic journals for each discipline, including Biological Abstracts; Current Contents: Social and Behavioral Sciences; Current Geographical Publications; Geographical Abstracts: Human Geography; Journal of Economic Literature; PAIS International in Print; and Sociological Abstracts.

English is the working language used in this bibliography. The primary emphasis is on coverage of material in the European languages, including the Slavic languages; however, relevant items in Asian languages are also included where possible.

Routine official statistical publications that do not contain substantive articles are cited in a special issue of Population Index entitled Governmental and International Serial Publications Containing Vital Statistics, issued periodically. For the most recent revision, see Population Index, Vol. 61, No. 4, Winter 1995. These publications will not be cited in the regular quarterly issues unless substantial changes in their contents have occurred.

Selection of citations is based on the quality and relevance of the material and on the scarcity of literature for various geographic and subject areas. Therefore, coverage is less complete in peripheral fields, selection less rigid in underdeveloped areas.


The bibliography is arranged by subject. Citations appear only once and are classified according to the guidelines described in the headnotes to each section.

Citations are arranged alphabetically by first author under the appropriate subject headings.

Cross-references are provided by subject; the relevant citation numbers are listed at the end of each subject section following the phrase, "[See also titles...]".

Appropriate Geographical and Author Indexes are published with each issue and cumulatively for each annual volume. In addition, cumulative indexes have been published by G. K. Hall & Co. of Boston for the years 1935-1968 and 1969-1981.


A. Citation Number

The first element in every citation will be its identifying number:


The first two digits indicate the volume in which the citation appears. The first digit following the volume indicates the issue number; 1, 2, 3, and 4 refer to the Spring, Summer, Fall, and Winter issues, respectively. Thus, a reference in the text to 57:20367 would refer the reader to a citation in the second (Summer) issue of Volume 57.

B. Authors

The first element following the citation number is the author. The following paragraphs describe the rules used by Population Index concerning how authors are cited.

1. Citations are normally made under the name of the primary individual author, editor, or compiler. Personal names are entered in inverted form with the surname first, followed by the first given name and any initials that appear on the publication:

Valentine, Emily A.

For non-Anglo-Saxon names, the rules developed by the U.S. National Library of Medicine are followed.

2. Where no individual author(s) can be identified from the title pages of the item in question, the reference will be cited under the corporate author. The style for corporate authors is as follows:

a. Publications of official governmental agencies without a clearly identified individual author are cited under the country and agency concerned. The name of the country is given in English and the institution in the appropriate language, with an acronym included if in common use, plus the city and country (if not in the United States) in which the agency is located:

Czech Republic. Federalni Statisticky Urad (Prague, Czech Republic)

Hong Kong. Census and Statistics Department (Hong Kong)

United Kingdom. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS] (London, England)

United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.)

b. Publications of official intergovernmental agencies and institutions without a clearly identified individual author are cited under the agency concerned, in the language in which it is known best (which is normally assumed to be English), with an acronym included if in common use, plus the city and country (if not the United States) in which the agency is located:

United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York)

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]. Development Centre (Paris, France)

United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile)

c. Publications of nongovernmental organizations, universities, etc., are cited under the corporate author if no individual author exists, together with appropriate acronyms and the city and country (if not the United States) of location:

Family Planning Foundation (Madras, India)

Open University (Milton Keynes, England)

C. Titles

The next essential element in any citation is the title of the work concerned. The English-language title is provided in italics, followed in brackets by the title in the original language of the publication, if available. Titles in non-Roman European and Slavic languages are transliterated. For bilingual and the occasional trilingual publications, the titles are provided in all of the languages concerned.

English-language title:

Birth rate and death rate in Bangladesh, 1975.

Italian-language title:

Urban shantytowns in the third world. [Periferie urbane nel terzomundo].

Bilingual English- and French-language title:

Infant mortality. [Mortalité infantile].

In many cases, the work being cited is not a separate publication but part of a larger publication, e.g., an article in a journal or a chapter in a book. In such cases, the journal title or book title forms the next part of the citation.

1. Journal titles are given in the appropriate language; for bilingual or trilingual journals, the title is given in the two or three languages concerned. Subtitles of journals are not given. The journal title is followed by the volume, issue number, date of publication, pages, and place of publication:

Population, Vol. 47, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1992. 478-82 pp. Paris, France.

2. The title of the book in which a relevant chapter is published is given in the original language only:

In: La recherche en sciences humaines.

In: Population and resources, edited by B. Berelson.

D. Publishing Information

The next element in a citation is the publishing information. For a book, this would normally consist of the name of the publisher and the place of publication:

Hart and Davies, New York, New York.

In addition, the citation would include the following information, where it is available:

1. Date of publication

2. Edition

3. Publication order number

4. Name and number of the series in which the book or monograph is published

5. Distributor

6. Total number of pages

7. International Standard Book Number (ISBN)

8. U.S. Library of Congress card number

For further information concerning publishers of items cited in this bibliography, users are referred to the Publisher's International ISBN Directory, 24th edition, 1997/98, published jointly by K. G. Saur (Munich, Germany), the International ISBN Agency (Berlin, Germany), and R. R. Bowker (New York, New York/London, England). For information on journals, users are referred to Ulrich's International Periodicals Directory, 36th edition, 1998, published by R. R. Bowker (New Providence, New Jersey).

E. Abstracts

The primary objective of the abstracts provided is to indicate the content and scope of the item cited. Every effort is made to include information on the sources of data, the size of the population studied, and the time frame covered. Where possible, a summary of the findings and results of the study will also be included.

F. Information on Sources

Citations are selected from publications available to the Editors or references cited in the literature. For a complete listing of those bibliographies, journals, and other serial publications reviewed on a regular basis in compiling Population Index, see the most recent Cumulative Index. Library of Congress proof sheets serve as another major source of material.

When entries are obtained from secondary sources, reference to the source is given following the citation, or, if an abstract is given, following the abstract.

G. Location of Items Cited

For each item cited, the information is included, where possible, on at least one location where a copy of that item can be found. This information is primarily provided to assist librarians who need to obtain copies of these items using the interlibrary loan system or other information networks. In the case of items located in the Princeton University Library system, additional information is included on the specific satellite library holding that item. The primary locations are:

Princeton University Library (FST): Firestone, the main university library

Princeton University Library (SPR): Office of Population Research library

H. Correspondence

For each item cited, the Editors try to provide an address from which a copy of that item can be obtained. For books and monographs, the address is normally that of the publisher; for journal articles or book chapters, it is that of the individual author. E-mail addresses are also provided where possible.

I. Other Information

1. Where information included in citations is incomplete and is supplied by the Editors, it is normally given in brackets. In cases of greater uncertainty, a question mark is also included:

[1989], or [Prague?]

2. The original language of the publication is indicated, as well as the availability of summaries in other languages, where applicable.

3. Spelling is based on Webster's Third New International Dictionary, 1993, and on the 1994 (tenth) edition of its abridgment, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. In direct quotations, the actual spelling of the original is used.

4. Place names are normally standardized to conform to the first spelling given in Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988 edition, with the exception of Chinese, in which the Pinyin transliteration is used.

5. Care is taken to avoid citing the same item more than once, but items will be recited in the following circumstances:

a. The occurrence of a substantive error in the original citation

b. The availability of substantive additional information to that given in the original citation

6. Where the full text of the item cited is available on the World Wide Web, information is provided on the relevant website address.


Support for gathering and editing the bibliographic data appearing in Population Index is provided by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development under Contract No. N01-HD-7-3267, with additional support provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development.