Volume 66 - Number 1 - Spring 2000

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population.

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

66:10061 Blanchet, Didier. Funded and pay-as-you-go pension systems in the demographic context: some comparative results. [Jubilación mediante capitalización y reparto según el contexto demográfico: resultados comparativos.] Notas de Población, Vol. 27, No. 69, Jun 1999. 7-40 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper compares the properties of funded and pay-as-you-go pension systems in a growth model with two overlapping generations and two classes. The impact of funding and capital formation, the optimal shares of the two systems according to the population growth rate and the behaviours of pure funding and pure pay-as-you-go systems in a non-stable population are discussed. It is shown that, under the assumptions of the model, the share of unfunded pensions should decrease when the population growth rate declines. Furthermore, in a non-stable population, it is shown that funding has the perverse outcome of increasing intergenerational equality at the expense of large cohorts." This article is translated from an original French article published in 1990.
Correspondence: D. Blanchet, Ecole National de la Statistique et l'Administration Economique, 3 avenue Pierre Larousse, 92245 Malakoff Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10062 Maruyama, Katsura. The cost sharing of child and family care leave. Review of Population and Social Policy, No. 8, 1999. 49-74 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"Child care leave and family care leave are necessary for employees to cope with both work and family. This article examines the cost distribution of the child care leave and family care leave systems [in Japan]. It finds that exemption from social insurance premiums and benefits paid through employment insurance reduce the opportunity cost of child care leave. But there are various problems related to the payment of benefits. In the case of child care leave, the cost to the corporation is relatively high, whereas in the case of family care leave the burden of cost falls mainly on the employee. On the other hand, the cost to society is minor.... Because an employee's salary is usually reduced when he or she changes jobs, the effects of preventing retirement through the leave system is significant. In addition, there are advantages to increasing the number of workers who remain on the payroll with respect to tax and social insurance revenue."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

66:10063 Poston, Dudley L.; Bouvier, Leon F.; Hong, Dan. The impacts of apportionment method, and legal and illegal immigration, on Congressional apportionment in the year 2000. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 18, No. 5, Oct 1999. 507-24 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper first discusses two methods for apportioning the U.S. House of Representatives, Equal Proportions and Major Fractions. The method of Equal Proportions will be used in the 2000 apportionment, but it is biased in favor of smaller states. The method of Major Fractions is a mathematically unbiased method, but will not be used in 2000. However, we show that apportionments for 2000 would not differ much according to these two methods. We also consider different definitions of the apportionment population, mainly based on including or excluding legal and illegal immigrants from the apportionment process We show that the apportionment results for 2000 will not differ if illegal immigrants who entered the USA in the 1990s are kept in, or removed from, the apportionment population. But the apportionment results will differ in a major way if all persons immigrating to the USA in the 1990s are kept in, or removed."
Correspondence: D. Poston, Texas A&M University, College of Liberal Arts, Department of Sociology, College Station, TX 77843-4351. E-mail: dudley@tamvm1.tamu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

66:10064 Bravo, Jorge; Medici, André. Indirect estimations of the prevalence and mortality from chagas, malaria, and tuberculosis in Bolivia: two applications to the evaluation of health programs. [Estimaciones indirectas de la prevalencia y mortalidad por enfermedad de chagas, malaria y tuberculosis en Bolivia: dos aplicaciones a la evaluación de programas de salud.] Notas de Población, Vol. 27, No. 69, Jun 1999. 159-82 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The feasibility and usefulness of making indirect estimates of morbidity and mortality due to Chagas disease, malaria and tuberculosis is demonstrated by use of incomplete demographic and epidemiological data from various sources. The first application to the Bolivian case is the estimation of the economic cost, in terms of production lost due to the three diseases. Death, but even more so the illness produced by these causes, impose a very high economic cost to the country, over 7% of the gross domestic product, according to the medium estimate for 1998. The second application shows that the new Bolivian Epidemiological program, initiated in 1999, can help to avoid the death of 14 thousand to 21 thousand children under 6 years of age due to Chagas disease alone over the next 6 years. Its impact on the suffering, the economic loss and deaths of thousands of adults in the future documents the high cost-effectiveness of this type of program."
Correspondence: J. Bravo, Centro Latinoamericano y Caribeño de Demografía, División de Población, Casilla 179-D, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10065 Fordyce, E. J.; Singh, T. P.; Vazquez, F. M.; McFarland, J.; Thomas, P.; Forlenza, S.; Chiasson, M. A. Evolution of an urban epidemic: the first 100,000 AIDS cases in New York City. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 18, No. 6, Dec 1999. 523-44 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Between 1981 and August 1997, 100,000 AIDS cases were reported in New York City (NYC): 77,067 men, 20,818 women, 307 teenagers, and 1,808 children. This report examines AIDS trends in NYC as the epidemic evolved from a predominantly white male epidemic among men with same sex contact (MSM) mostly from a single borough to a geographically diffuse epidemic that includes injecting drug users (IDU), persons of color, and women infected heterosexually. Case data were collected by active surveillance methods augmented by electronic laboratory based reporting. Mortality data were obtained from NYC Vital Statistics. 1990 Census data were used to derive incidence rates and prevalence by neighborhood income. Rates per 100,00 adults by neighborhood ranged from 260 to 5,500. Total AIDS incidence peaked in 1993 and has subsequently declined.... AIDS prevalence is rising among socially and economically marginalized populations, and will remain a major public health challenge well into the next century."
Correspondence: E. J. Fordyce, Office of AIDS Surveillance, Box 44, New York City Department of Health, 346 Broadway, Room 706, New York, NY 10013-4089. E-mail: 112017.1057@compuserve.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10066 Zweifel, Peter; Felder, Stefan; Meiers, Markus. Ageing of population and health care expenditure: A red herring? Health Economics, Vol. 8, No. 6, Sep 1999. 485-98 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper studies the relationship between health care expenditure (HCE) and age, using longitudinal rather than cross-sectional data. The econometric analysis of HCE in the last eight quarters of life of individuals who died during the period 1983-1992 indicates that HCE depends on remaining lifetime but not on calendar age, at least beyond 65+. The positive relationship between age and HCE observed in cross-sectional data may be caused by the simple fact that at age 80, for example, there are many more individuals living in their last 2 years than at age 65. The limited impact of age on HCE suggests that population ageing may contribute much less to future growth of the health care sector than claimed by most observers." The data concern Switzerland, and are from two data-bases concerning deceased individuals over the period 1982-1994.
Correspondence: S. Felder, Otto von Guericke University, Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Leipziger Straße 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany. E-mail: stefan.felder@medizin.uni-magdeburg.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

66:10067 Whitney, Glayde. Reproduction technology for a new eugenics. Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 2, Winter 1999. 179-92 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Eugenics acquired a bad press when the only way of determining the presence of deleterious genes was by observation of the parental phenotype, but today the store of genetic knowledge and reproductive technology is vastly greater than at any time in the past and the rate of acquisition of new knowledge and techniques for avoiding the transmission of defective genes to future generations is accelerating. The author discusses the brightening future for voluntary eugenic intervention, but warns against the dangers inherent in government regulation."
Correspondence: G. Whitney, Florida State University, Department of Psychology, Gainesville, FL 32306-1051. E-mail: whitney@Darwin.psy.fsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 2000, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.