Volume 66 - Number 1 - Spring 2000

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications. Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

66:10014 Barkalov, Nicholas B. The fertility decline in Russia, 1989-1996: a view with period parity-progression ratios. Genus, Vol. 55, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1999. 11-60 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"Period parity-progression ratios for Russia, 1988-1996 and 1978-1979, are computed with the age-parity underlying model, [as well as] for 1979-1989--with a cruder indirect technique. Also obtained are, with a newly derived procedure, parity-progression ratios for 77 out of 80 [of] Russia's territorial units referring to 1993-1994. The fertility rise of the 1980s and its steep decline in the 1990s are interpreted in terms of parity-progression evolution, and the difference between the age-parity total fertility rate and the conventional one is examined. At present, Russia's parity-progression schedule is seen as clearly distinct from those of Western nations, despite fairly similar overall fertility levels, and no evidence of convergence toward the West is found. No unusual regional diversity in the parity-progression pattern is detected, with exception for certain ethnic autonomous republics. Some formal properties of the parity-progression table are also studied."
Correspondence: N. B. Barkalov, Development Group International, 700 North Fairfax Street, Suite 604, Alexandria, VA 22314-2040. E-mail: Nbarkalov@devgroup.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10015 Elamin, Mahjoub A.; Bhuyan, K. C. Differential fertility in north eastern Libya. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 45, No. 1, Apr 1999. 12-22 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
This analysis of fertility in Libya is based on a survey of 1,252 couples in north-eastern Libya carried out by the author. The primary focus was to analyze the impact of child loss on subsequent fertility in a relatively affluent population with low contraceptive prevalence. The results also indicate that, even in the absence of contraception, increases in the level of education, age at marriage, and opportunities for female employment outside of the home tend to reduce fertility.
Correspondence: M. A. Elamin, Garyounis University, Department of Statistics, Benghazi, Libya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10016 Gabadinho, Alexis; Wanner, Philippe. Fertility and family surveys in countries of the ECE region: standard country report, Switzerland. UN/ECE Economic Studies, No. 10m, Pub. Order No. GV.E.99.II.E.29. ISBN 92-1-116730-2. 1999. xii, 94 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the thirteenth in the series Fertility and Family Surveys Standard Country Reports, and concerns the survey carried out in Switzerland in 1994-1995 involving 3,881 women and 2,083 men. The report has substantive chapters on economic, social, and cultural trends; population trends; and FFS findings. The chapter on population trends has sections on population structure by age and sex, fertility, nuptiality, mortality, households and families, and population policies. The chapter on FFS findings has sections on household composition, childhood and the parental home, partnerships, children, fertility regulation, fertility preferences, values and beliefs, and female education and occupation.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10017 Gossage, Peter; Gauvreau, Danielle. Demography and discourse in transition: Quebec fertility at the turn of the twentieth century. History of the Family, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1999. 375-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This article examines the relationship between demographic trends and the public discourse in the Canadian province of Quebec. "Using a collection of articles selected from French-language periodicals published between 1870 and 1920, the article analyzes the reactions of certain public commentators to the prospect of fertility decline in this traditionally prolific province. They identify a shift in the public discussion of fertility in Quebec during World War I. Pride in and celebration of Quebec's large families was superseded in the dominant nationalist discourse by anxiety about diminished rates of reproduction and natalist exhortations to women who might be tempted to restrict their fertility."
Correspondence: P. Gossage, Université de Sherbrooke, Department of History and Political Science, 2500 Boulevard de l'Université, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10018 Kulczycki, Andrzej; Saxena, Prem C. New evidence on fertility transition through wartime in Lebanon. Genus, Vol. 55, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1999. 131-52 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This paper analyzes the levels and trends of fertility over the past five decades for Lebanon, through national and sub-national estimates. The article uses the 1996 Population and Housing Survey, the largest demographic dataset for Lebanon since the 1932 census. In 1996, total fertility rates at the governorate level stood as high as 4.0 in North Lebanon and as low as 2.0 in Beirut, unlike in other Arab countries. Cohort fertility rates ranged from 3.74 in Beirut to 5.86 in Bekaa for women born in 1947-51. The disparities in fertility are even more striking at the district level and have widened over time. In the aggregate, fertility decline does not appear to have been significantly interrupted by the hostilities from 1975-1991."
Correspondence: A. Kulczycki, American University of Beirut, Department of Population Studies, Bliss Street, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon. E-mail: andrzej@aub.edu.lb. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10019 Retherford, Robert D.; Thapa, Shyam. The trend of fertility in Nepal, 1961-1995. Genus, Vol. 55, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1999. 61-97 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This article presents new estimates of fertility trends in Nepal for the period 1961-95. The estimates are derived from three national surveys--the 1976 Nepal Fertility Survey (NFS), the 1991 Nepal Fertility, Family Planning and Health Survey (NFFPHS), and the 1996 Nepal Family Health Survey (NFHS). Each survey yields a trend for the fifteen years before the survey, and the trends estimated from the 1991 NFFPHS and the 1996 NFHS overlap during some of these years. Because the data are not perfect, the trends do not coincide. Analysis of the discrepancies allows an improved assessment of the true trend in fertility. The trend so obtained suggests that current fertility is somewhat higher than commonly thought, and that fertility has been declining somewhat more slowly than commonly thought. Our best estimates indicate that, between 1961 and 1995, the TFR declined from 6.10 to 4.95, with the rate of decline accelerating in recent years."
Correspondence: R. D. Retherford, East-West Center, Population and Health Studies, Honolulu, HI 96848-1601. E-mail: retherfr@ewc.hawaii.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10020 Sibanda, Amson. The Kenyan fertility transition: an age-parity specific analysis of fertility levels and trends. Genus, Vol. 55, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1999. 153-94 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This study explores the course and age-parity structure of fertility decline in Kenya. The study utilizes pooled data from the 1988 and 1993 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys. By using parity progression ratios and conditional age-parity specific birth probabilities, it provides a clear picture of the dynamics of the fertility decline that is under way in Kenya. It can be argued that the observed fertility decline is not only a timing effect but is also due to a true decline in the number of children various age cohorts of Kenyan women have been having. In the early and middle ages of reproduction, we see important tendencies toward the delay of the first birth and the lowering of middle and higher order births. Together, these changes are producing dramatic declines in period fertility."
Correspondence: A. Sibanda, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. E-mail: sibandaa@pop.upenn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

66:10021 Mishra, Ajay K.; Audinarayana, Narayanayaswami; Kulkarni, Purushottam M. Fertility differentials by education in Uttar Pradesh, India. An analysis of period parity progression ratios. Genus, Vol. 55, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1999. 99-112 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"Fertility histories from a large survey, the National Family Health Survey, Uttar Pradesh, have been utilised to compute period parity progression ratios (PPPRs) following the methodology proposed by Feeney and Yu (1987). The PPPRs have been calculated for the quinquennia between the years 1972 and 1991 and for the first four parities. The findings show that a decline in the PPPRs is seen only after the third and higher order births. There are notable differences in the levels and trends in the PPPRs by education. The decline is sharper for women with the higher level of education. Further, while nearly half of the population in the higher education class had begun to stop childbearing at two or three births even by 1972-76, the primary/middle school educated population reached this level only in 1987-91 and the illiterate population not even by then."
Correspondence: A. K. Mishra, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 046, India. E-mail: popstu@bharathi.ernet.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10022 Schoenmaeckers, Ronald C.; Lodewijckx, Edith; Gadeyne, Sylvie. Fertility among Turkish and Moroccan women in Belgium: results from the census. [Vruchtbaarheid bij Turkse en Marokkaanse vrouwen in België: resultaten van de volkstellingen.] Bevolking en Gezin, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1998. 127-54 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The patterns of family formation and fertility behaviour of Turkish and Moroccan women in Belgium are changing rapidly. The census data (1991) indicate a fertility decline. The reasons are changes in the nuptiality patterns, contraceptive behaviour and migratory flows. The changes are not identical in both communities. Young cohorts postpone their marriage, but this is most prominent among Moroccan women. On the other hand, young Turkish women have a clear preference for smaller families. The changes also differentiate according to migrant 'generation' and level of education. The changes are not restricted to Belgium but are also observed in the countries of origin."
This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. C. Schoenmaeckers, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudie, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

No citations in this issue.

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

66:10023 Arévalo, Marcos; Sinai, Irit; Jennings, Victoria. A fixed formula to define the fertile window of the menstrual cycle as the basis of a simple method of natural family planning. Contraception, Vol. 60, No. 6, Dec 1999. 357-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This study presents a fixed formula that can be used by women to find the period in their menstrual cycle in which they are likely to become pregnant. "This article reports the results of an analysis of the application of a fixed formula to define the fertile window. A large existing data set from a World Health Organization study of the Ovulation Method was used to estimate the theoretical probability of pregnancy using this formula. Information about the variable probability of pregnancy on different cycle days relative to ovulation also was considered in the analysis. Results suggest that a fixed formula in which days 8-19 of the menstrual cycle are considered to be the fertile window would provide the appropriate basis of a simple, effective, family planning method."
Correspondence: M. Arévalo, Georgetown University Medical Center, Institute for Reproductive Health, 3PCH, 3800 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, D.C. 20007. E-mail: arevalom@gunet.georgetown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10024 Bankole, Akinrinola; Ezeh, Alex C. Unmet need for couples: an analytical framework and evaluation with DHS data. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 18, No. 6, Dec 1999. 579-605 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper develops an analytical framework for measuring unmet need for couples. The approach: (1) takes a fresh look at the classification of pregnant and amenorrheic women, and (2) incorporates the contraceptive use and fertility preferences of husband and wife in estimating the level of unmet need in six sub-Saharan African countries. Our findings shows that taking these factors into account results in a 50 to 66 percent reduction in the level of unmet need in these countries. The importance of husbands' variables in determining the level of unmet need is clearly evident when examined among fecund couples in which the wife is neither pregnant nor amenorrheic. The implications of these findings for family planning programs and research are discussed."
Correspondence: A. Bankole, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. E-mail: info@agi-usa.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10025 Feyisetan, Bamikale; Casterline, John B. Fertility preferences and contraceptive change in developing countries. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 130, 1999. 30 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Fertility has declined substantially in developing countries in the period since 1960, primarily as the result of increases in contraceptive prevalence.... One unresolved issue is the causal contribution of changes in fertility desires. The sources of increase in contraceptive prevalence are analyzed in 22 countries in Latin America, Asia, and Africa in the period from the 1970s to the 1990s, using World Fertility Survey and Demographic and Health Survey data.... Two fertility-preference variables are examined, the desire for another birth and the difference between actual and ideal family size. The rates component dominates in all 22 countries, ranging between 75 percent and 90 percent in most of the countries. In only two countries does the composition component exceed 25 percent. The results refute demand-side explanations that ignore or dismiss the potential for substantial increase in prevalence through the satisfaction of existing demand."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10026 Hossain, M. Kabir; Kabir, M. Does micro credit program in rural Bangladesh has any impact on reproductive behaviour of poor rural women? Genus, Vol. 55, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1999. 113-30 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"By collecting empirical data from rural Bangladesh, this paper provides additional evidence that credit-based participatory development programs promoted by non-government organisation [NGO] lead to higher contraceptive use and smaller family size norms than those resulting from normal development and categorical family planning programs. These changes may occur even when NGOs do not provide family planning services. The findings indicate that credit-program membership may exert its effect on family size desires through its impact on women's empowerment. The logistic regression analysis suggests that predictors of current contraceptive use are BRAC [Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee] membership, joint decision by husband and wife, desired family size, mobility and number of living children."
Correspondence: M. K. Hossain, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Department of Statistics, Sylhet-3114, Bangladesh. E-mail: kabirh@sust.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10027 Kamal, Nashid. Inter-spousal communication on family planning as a determinant of the use of modern contraception in Bangladesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 45, No. 1, Apr 1999. 31-43 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
This paper investigates the effects of inter-spousal communication on the use of modern contraception in Bangladesh using data from the 1993-1994 Demographic and Health Survey. The results indicate that the frequency of such communication was a strong predictor of the use of modern reversible methods of contraception. The need for increased involvement of men in family planning programs is stressed.
Correspondence: N. Kamal, Independent University, School of Environmental Science and Management, Department of Population-Environment, House 3, Road 10, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10028 Pattanaik, B. K.; Kaur, Kuldip. A correlative study of factors associated with contraceptive prevalence differentials in rural Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 45, No. 1, Apr 1999. 53-7 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
This study attempts to analyze the impact of education, caste, and religion on contraceptive prevalence in selected villages in Uttar Pradesh, India. The data are from the Small Family Norms through Innovative Methods project, which included 3,913 couples living in nine villages. The results indicate that contraceptive prevalence is higher in those villages with caste Hindus as the predominate population than in villages mainly inhabited by Muslims or low-caste Hindus. The association of female literacy and certain occupations with higher rates of contraceptive prevalence is also noted.
Correspondence: B. K. Pattanaik, Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development, 2-A Sector 10-A, Madhya Marg, Chandigarh 160 019, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

66:10029 Dominik, Rosalie; Trussell, James; Walsh, Terri. Failure rates among perfect users and during perfect use: a distinction that matters. Contraception, Vol. 60, No. 6, Dec 1999. 315-20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To make an informed decision when choosing a contraceptive, women and couples need to know how effective different methods are when used perfectly, where perfect use is defined as following the directions for use. In this article, we show that unbiased estimates of pregnancy rates during perfect use can be guaranteed only if information on consistency and correctness of use is available for each menstrual cycle. The estimated probability of pregnancy during a year of perfect use among the subset of women who always used a method perfectly will be biased upward."
Correspondence: J. Trussell, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-209. E-mail: trussell@princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

66:10030 Hotchkiss, D. R.; Magnani, R. J.; Lakssir, A.; Brown, L. F; Florence, C. S. Family planning program effects on contraceptive use in Morocco, 1992-1995. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 18, No. 6, Dec 1999. 545-61 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study illustrates the use of panel data and a fixed-effects estimator to investigate the impact of family planning program inputs on contraceptive utilization in Morocco during the 1992-1995 period. By controlling the potential bias resulting from common unobserved determinants of program resource allocation decisions and program outcomes, the methodology helps overcome an important constraint to the use of non-experimental study designs in undertaking meaningful impact assessments. Data from a panel of women interviewed in both the 1992 and 1995 Morocco Demographic and Health Surveys were used in the study, along with `program' data from Service Availability Modules undertaken in conjunction with each survey round. The results indicate that changes in the family planning supply environment, in particular increased presence of nurses trained in family planning and the level of infrastructure at public clinics, played a significant role in the increased use of modern contraceptives during the study period."
Correspondence: D. R. Hotchkiss, Tulane University, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Department of International Health and Development, 1440 Canal Street, New Orleans, LA 70112. E-mail: david.hotchkiss@tulane.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10031 Narayana, M. R. Evaluation of the family welfare programme within a district: methodology for capturing people's response. Journal of Family Welfare, Apr 1999. 58-69 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
The author attempts to develop a methodology for measuring the people's response to the national family welfare program in India, and for using the results to measure program effectiveness at the local level. Data primarily concern the district of Chitradurga in Karnataka, and were collected in a survey carried out in 1994-1995. The author demonstrates that this methodology can be used to identify the better- and worse-performing public heath centers in the region.
Correspondence: M. R. Narayana, Institute of Social and Economic Change, Qualitative Unit, Nagarbhavi P.O., Bangalore 560 072, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10032 Sunil, T. S.; Pillai, V. K.; Pandey, A. Do incentives matter?--Evaluation of a family planning program in India. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 18, No. 6, Dec 1999. 563-77 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Indian Family Planning programs in the past have introduced a number of approaches such as providing monetary benefits, and motivational programs to improve contraceptive use among rural illiterate women. Under the Ammanpettai family welfare program, the Melatur PHC administered three program types involving a combination of monetary and motivational approaches to improve contraceptive use in the three treatment areas. The program was introduced during January 1989 and was simultaneously discontinued after a period of two years. The present evaluation was conducted in 1994. Data from a random sample of 933 non-sterilized women at the time of social survey using a questionnaire approach is used in this study.... The results...suggest that motivational programs are more likely to improve long term use of temporary family planning methods than cash incentive programs. One implication of our finding is that motivational programs should provide peer based family planning education and training in community work to contact persons who make door to door visits to promote family planning programs."
Correspondence: T. S. Sunil, University of North Texas, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 311157, Denton, TX 76203-1157. E-mail: sunils@scs.cmm.unt.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

66:10033 El-Gibaly, Omaima; Ibrahim, Barbara; Mensch, Barbara S.; Clark, Wesley H. The decline of female circumcision in Egypt: evidence and interpretation. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 132, 1999. 33 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from a nationally representative survey of adolescents, this paper investigates the prevalence and social correlates of circumcision among girls aged 10-19, the circumstances surrounding the procedure, and the attitudes of adolescents towards it.... Circumcision may have begun to decline prior to the time when the current cohort of girls were at risk; however, the data hint at a temporal association between the decline and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, a time when the campaign against circumcision gained momentum.... A multivariate analysis indicates that girls who have been or are currently in school, who live in urban governorates, and who are older are more likely to believe that circumcision is not obligatory. When the analysis includes boys as well as uncircumcised girls, a large gender gap emerges, with boys considerably more supportive of the practice than are their female counterparts."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

66:10034 Malhi, Prahbhjot; Raina, Gayatri; Malhotra, Dalip; Jerath, Jagat. Preferences for the sex of children and its implications for reproductive behaviour in urban Himachal Pradesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 45, No. 1, Apr 1999. 23-30 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
Data for a sample of 425 currently married women aged 30-49 living in the city of Simla, India, in 1996-1997 are used to analyze the impact of sex preference for children on fertility intentions and contraceptive acceptance. The results indicate that the preference for male children has a substantial impact on desired fertility and on family planning behavior. The authors conclude that the general desire of women to have two surviving sons will make further declines in fertility difficult to achieve.
Correspondence: P. Malhi, Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Paediatrics, Chandigarh 160 012, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility. Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology.

66:10035 Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Castañeda-Camey, Xochitl. Tolerance and resistance: abortion from the point of view of traditional midwives in a rural area of Mexico. [Tolerencias y resistencias: el aborto desde la perspectiva de las parteras tradicionales de un área rural de México.] Revista de Saúde Pública/Journal of Public Health, Vol. 33, No. 4, Aug 1999. 334-41 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Por.
The attitudes and behavior of traditional midwives in a rural area of Mexico with regard to abortion are analyzed using qualitative methods involving interviews, focus groups, and observation. The results indicate that, although there is a profound rejection of all abortions whether induced or spontaneous, there is a wide use and general acceptance of methods to provoke menstruation when it is delayed. The importance of taking local attitudes and beliefs into consideration in developing appropriate health services is stressed.
Correspondence: J. Blanco-Muñoz, Avenida Universidad 655, Col. Santa María Ahuacatitlan, 62508 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. E-mail: jblanco@insp3.insp.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

No citations in this issue.

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

No citations in this issue.

Copyright © 2000, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.