Volume 65 - Number 4 - Winter 1999

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

65:41504 Asian Population and Development Association (Tokyo, Japan). Population policies in Asia. APDA Resource Series, No. 6, Mar 1998. 77 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This report contains descriptions of population policies in six Asian countries and Australia. These Asian countries are China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Separate consideration is given to policies concerning fertility, mortality, migration, and population structure.
Correspondence: Asian Population and Development Association, 3F Collins 3 Building, 1-5-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0022, Japan. E-mail: apdatyoj@gol.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41505 Barrett, Deborah; Tsui, Amy O. Policy as symbolic statement: international response to national population policies. Social Forces, Vol. 78, No. 1, Sep 1999. 213-33 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Traditional studies of state policies tend to focus on the achievement of the policies' stated ends. But policies, as systems of meaning and expressions of legitimate statehood, signal various meanings to national and international audiences. In this article, we demonstrate the importance of the symbolic and international realms by investigating the impact of population policies on patterns of financial assistance from international donor organizations. We find that developing countries with policies are more likely to (1) receive population assistance, and (2) receive greater amounts of funding than are countries without policies. These results suggest that studies of policy outcomes should not only evaluate local, intended consequences, but how national policies as international symbols may foster other types of consequences."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. Barrett, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. E-mail: dbarrett@email.unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41506 Blackorby, Charles; Bossert, Walter; Donaldson, David. Foreign aid and population policy: some ethical considerations. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 59, No. 2, Aug 1999. 203-32 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes a two-period foreign-aid model where assistance can be given in the form of consumption or population-control aid. Population size in period 2 is endogenous. Using the family of ethical principles called critical-level utilitarianism (CLU), we examine the properties of ethically optimal resource allocations. Our results show that the direction of the ethical response of population size to changes in the cost of population control and the size of the grant depends on the relationship between the critical level of well-being, an ethical parameter, and the standard of living in the recipient country."
Correspondence: D. Donaldson, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada. E-mail: dvdd@interchange.ubc.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:41507 Chee, Stephen; House, William J.; Lewis, Laurie. Population policies and programmes in the post-ICPD era: Can the Pacific Island countries meet the challenge? Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1999. 3-20 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article assesses the current population and development situation in the Pacific island countries, discusses the significance of population variables in the search for sustainable development, and highlights future key actions that need to be taken by governments and development partners to further implement the recommendations of the Programme of Action adopted at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development so that there will be a major positive contribution to the quality of life of the people of these island countries and territories in the years to come."
Correspondence: S. Chee, UNFPA, Country Support Team, P.O. Box 441, Suva, Fiji. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41508 Dumon, Wilfried A. Recent trends and new prospects of family policies in West European countries. In: Demographie und Politik, edited by Jürgen Dorbritz and Johannes Otto. 1999. 67-81 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
"The growing process of differentiation of our society which has led to specific policies addressing the issues of gender and age-stratification (emancipation policy, child policy, youth policy, policy for the aged, policy for the handicapped, policy combating social exclusion) undoubtedly cannot be amalgamated into one large family policy, yet the family dimension should be taken into consideration in all these specific policies, as it should be taken into account in the general policies addressing social, economic, and cultural issues." The geographical focus is on the countries of Europe, excluding Eastern Europe.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41509 Dumont, Gérard-François. Population trends and the challenge posed by development planning. [Evolutions démographiques et défis de l'aménagement du territoire.] In: Démographie et aménagement du territoire: actes du Xe colloque national de démographie. Bordeaux--21, 22, 23 mai 1996, edited by Janine d'Armagnac, Chantal Blayo, and Alain Parant. 1999. 413-20 pp. Conférence Universitaire de Démographie et d'Etude des Populations [CUDEP]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The relationship between development planning and population dynamics is explored using the example of France. The focus is on the extent to which demographic factors can be and are taken into account in the development of social and economic plans in the country.
Correspondence: G.-F. Dumont, Université Paris-Sorbonne, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41510 Etchelecou, André. Demography and development planning: a challenge for sustainable development. [Démographie et aménagement du territoire: un défi pour le développement durable.] In: Démographie et aménagement du territoire: actes du Xe colloque national de démographie. Bordeaux--21, 22, 23 mai 1996, edited by Janine d'Armagnac, Chantal Blayo, and Alain Parant. 1999. 457-66 pp. Conférence Universitaire de Démographie et d'Etude des Populations [CUDEP]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The extent to which demographic factors are taken into account in the process of planning for sustainable development is explored. The author concludes that demographic factors are more often than not used as an excuse for development projects rather than becoming an integral part of the planning process.
Correspondence: A. Etchelecou, Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Centre de Recherches sur les Interactions Socio-Spatiales et l'Aménagement, 68 rue Montpensier, B.P. 576 Pau-Université, 64010 Pau Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41511 Höhn, Charlotte. Advising policy-makers in population matters. Round-table discussion at the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the BiB, Wiesbaden, November 26, 1998. Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft, No. 93, 1999. 100 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng.
This publication contains the contributions of a group of German and international demographers who participated in a round-table discussion held to celebrate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the German Institute for Population Studies (BiB). The common theme was the issue of advising policymakers on population matters. The contributions were organized under five headings: General issues; Mortality; International migration; Fertility; and Aging.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 4, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41512 King, Maurice. The U.S. Department of State is policing the population policy lockstep. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7215, Oct 9, 1999. 998-1,001 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A tight taboo prevents demographers and United Nations agencies from confronting demographic entrapment. Defections from this taboo are apt to be policed by the U.S. Department of State; the presumed reason for this is that radical reduction in number of births in the South (one child families) would question resource consumption in the North. The major health programme of the new millennium has to be a one child world, linked to moderation in resource consumption in the North. Entrapment is merely the worst of many problems (poverty, malnutrition, etc.) in which population plays a large part; to make it taboo...is to hinder the resolution of these other problems also."
Correspondence: M. King, 1 bis Rue du Tir, Geneva 1204, Switzerland. E-mail: mhking@iprolink.ch. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:41513 Kuumba, M. Bahati. A cross-cultural race/class/gender critique of contemporary population policy: the impact of globalization. Sociological Forum, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep 1999. 447-63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This manuscript offers a race/class/gender critique of population policy using women of African descent cross-culturally as illustration. The ways in which global population policies simultaneously facilitate racial inequality, class exploitation, and gender subordination are of particular interest. It further explores the relationship between repressive reproductive polity, or `reproductive imperialism', and the current trends toward increasing international economic polarization. An approach to the understanding of population policy that highlights the reproductive and productive capacities of African women offers a particular vantage point from which to examine this relationship between population control and global capitalist interests."
Correspondence: M. B. Kuumba, Buffalo State College, Sociology Department, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14222. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41514 Miró, Carmen A. Latin America: population and population policies between Bucharest and Cairo. [América Latina: la población y las políticas de población entre Bucarest y El Cairo.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 5, No. 20, Apr-Jun 1999. 9-23 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in the dynamics of population in Latin America between the two world population conferences held in Bucharest in 1974 and Cairo in 1994 are reviewed, as are the changes in population policies that occurred over the same period. The focus is on how government perceptions of population issues changed over time in response to changing demographic conditions and a growing public awareness of population issues; the increasing emphasis on reproductive rights, including access to the means of fertility control, is also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41515 Novick, Susana. The Argentine position in three world population conferences. [La posición argentina en las tres conferencias mundiales de población.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 5, No. 20, Apr-Jun 1999. 25-67 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The article studies and describes the position of different [Argentine] governments as they were submitted to the three World Population Conferences held over the past twenty years: Bucharest (1974), Mexico City (1984), Cairo (1994). A comparative analysis of the official documents written up for those international meetings within the historical context in which they originate[d] helps to understand the evolution of this particular subject. Over the last few decades international organizations have noticeably gained increasing importance in the formulation of each country's domestic policy, and the topic of population is no exception to this general trend."
Correspondence: S. Novick, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales "Gino Germani", Calle Viamonte 430/444, 1053 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41516 Palomba, Rossella; Moors, Hein. Population, family and welfare: a comparative survey of European attitudes, Volume 2. [1998]. [277] pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Results from a series of surveys carried out in various European countries in the early 1990s on attitudes and acceptance of population policies are presented. "The main goal of these surveys was to analyse the values and attitudes affecting couples' decisions regarding procreation, the perception of the advantages of having children, Europeans' aspirations in life, their favourite living arrangements and their preferences in the task of reconciling work and family for mothers. The impact of population-oriented policy on the workplace and family was also considered." The countries involved were Austria, Belgium, the former Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland. The focus in this volume is on a comparative perspective among the various countries in which the surveys were conducted.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

65:41517 Akkerman, Abraham; He, Jiao Sheng. Economic reforms and family planning in China: the one-child policy in rural Guangdong, 1979-1990. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1999. 39-65 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The last two censuses of China have shown that fertility in the province of Guangdong had declined less precipitously than in the rest of China. The observation made here is that the relatively moderate decline in the province's fertility appears to be due to a relaxed implementation of the official one-child policy in some rural areas of China, including rural Guangdong.... [Results suggest] that, within rural Guangdong, population policy had a stronger impact on fertility decline in the economically disadvantaged Mountain counties than in its more developed areas such as the Delta counties of the Han and Pearl Rivers."
Correspondence: A. Akkerman, University of Saskatchewan, Department of Geography, 9 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A5, Canada. E-mail: akkerman@sask.usask.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41518 Critchlow, Donald T. The politics of abortion and birth control in historical perspective. ISBN 0-271-01570-5. LC 95-38897. 1996. 181 pp. Pennsylvania State University Press: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
This collective work, which was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Policy History in 1995, contains eight articles on the history of policies in the United States concerning family planning and induced abortion. The contents are: Birth control, population control, and family planning: an overview, by Donald T. Critchlow; The birth-control movement before Roe v. Wade, by James W. Reed; "Sound law and undoubtedly good policy": Roe v. Wade in comparative perspective, by Ian Mylchreest; World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy, by John Sharpless; Cultural politics at the edge of life, by James D. Hunter and Joseph E. Davis; The right to life movement: sources, development, and strategies, by Keith Cassidy; and The survival of the pro-choice movement, by Suzanne Staggenborg. A selected bibliography compiled by Critchlow and Christina Sanders is also included.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University Press, Barbara Building, Suite C, University Park, PA 16802-1003. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:41519 Kamerman, Sheila B.; Kahn, Alfred J. Family change and family policies in Great Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. Family Change and Family Policies in the West, Vol. 1, ISBN 0-19-829025-X. 1997. xii, 463 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This volume is the first in a series reporting on a multi-country exploration of the family policy of the modern welfare state.... The term `family policy' includes laws, regulations, benefits, and programmes (sometimes) deliberately and explicitly designed to achieve specific objectives with or for individuals in their family roles or for the family unit as a whole." The focus is on families with children. This volume is concerned with the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States; subsequent volumes in the series examine family policies in other developed countries.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library.

65:41520 Kane, Penny; Choi, Ching Y. China's one child family policy. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7215, Oct 9, 1999. 992-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is a general description of China's one-child policy based on information gathered in frequent visits over the past 25 years and a review of the published literature. "The one child family policy was developed and implemented in response to concerns about the social and economic consequences of continued rapid population growth. Implementation was more successful in urban areas than rural areas. Social and economic reforms have made rigorous implementation of the policy more difficult. The main criticism of the policy is its stimulus to discrimination against females, who may be aborted, abandoned, or unregistered. The policy has eased some of the pressures of rapid population increase on communities, reducing the population by at least 250 million."
Correspondence: P. Kane, University of Melbourne, Department of Psychiatry, Office for Gender and Health, Carlton, Victoria 2053, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:41521 Keil, Thomas J.; Andreescu, Viviana. Fertility policy in Ceausescu's Romania. Journal of Family History, Vol. 24, No. 4, Oct 1999. 478-92 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This study tests a model for the impact that Ceausescu's pro-natalist policies had on the Romanian fertility rate between 1967 and 1989. Using time-series analysis, the authors' findings show that the Ceausescu regime continually struggled with the Romanian population to increase the national birthrate. As a result of the regime's policies, there was a significant increase in overall fertility between 1967 and 1989, when the Ceausescu regime was overthrown.... This article also presents a model of what has happened to the Romanian fertility rate since 1989, showing that there has been a significant decline in fertility in the post-Communist period."
Correspondence: T. J. Keil, Arizona State University, Department of Sociology, Tempe, AZ 85287-1104. Source: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41522 Kent, Mary M. Shrinking societies favor procreation. Population Today, Vol. 27, No. 12, Dec 1999. 4-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The growing concern among a number of countries that their fertility rates have sunk too low is noted. Specific information is provided on measures designed to increase fertility adopted in Hungary, Sweden, and Japan.
Correspondence: M. M. Kent, Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41523 Krause, Martina. Reproductive health and gender perspectives: new research trends and results in Mexico. [Reproduktive Gesundheit und Geschlechterperspektive: neue Forschungslinien und Ergebnisse in Mexico.] In: Demographie und Politik, edited by Jürgen Dorbritz and Johannes Otto. 1999. 253-71 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
The author argues that a focus on the reproductive health of women, including the support of sexual and reproductive autonomy and the attainment of gender equality, is the only effective replacement for the older concepts and practices of population policy, whose focus was on reducing fertility directly. Using the example of Mexico, she demonstrates that efforts to improve reproductive health lower the fertility rate by opening up alternatives to motherhood for women, rather than by simply filling an "unmet need" for family planning.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41524 Kwon, Tai-Hwan. The national family planning program and fertility transition in Korea. East-West Center Working Papers, Population Series, No. 88-20, Aug 1997. 28 pp. East-West Center: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The author investigates "the major features of fertility control policy, the trends and patterns of fertility transition, and the implications of the policy on fertility transition in Korea."
Correspondence: East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848 Author's E-mail: isssnu@dacom.Chollian.co.kr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41525 Lohkamp-Himmighofen, Marlene. Family policy measures on the occasion of maternity and for rearing small children in the EU countries, Norway, and Switzerland. [Familienpolitische Maßnahmen bei Mutterschaft und der Erziehung von Kleinkindern in den Mitgliedstaaten der EU, Norwegen und der Schweiz.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1999. 47-64 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This paper provides an up-to-date account of...the measures adopted [in the European Union] to enable parents to combine family and career. At the heart of the analysis are the regulations governing maternity leave and benefit, paternity leave, parental leave and benefit as well as the crediting of the years spent rearing children to pension schemes currently in force in the 15 EU member states and the neighbouring countries of Switzerland and Norway. The differences between the structures and emphases of the various national measures adopted are exposed and the EU Directives on the protection of mothers and the provision of parental leave presented.... Five different European models can be outlined and the economic and political backgrounds to these models explained."
Correspondence: M. Lohkamp-Himmighofen, Im Schmalzacker 38, 53125 Bonn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41526 Mundigo, Axel I. Population and abortion policies in China: their impact on minority nationalities. Human Evolution, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1999. 207-30 pp. Florence, Italy. In Eng.
"The history of abortion in China is closely linked to the evolution of the country's population policy over the past four decades. Abortion in China has been legal since 1953 and is widely available through services offered by the country's national family planning program. In 1971...the government of China...decided to make a concerted effort to lower demographic growth by means of an effective birth planning campaign and services backed up with legal and safe abortion. Within a decade, in 1979, China strengthened its policy and imposed...the One-Child Family Policy. Ethnic minorities were at first exempt from demographic policies but more recently pressure has been increasingly applied to them to control their fertility. Abortion is now prevalent among nearly all Chinese ethnic minorities.... The paper represents an effort to reverse the gap and confusion in the existing literature on ethnic group response to population and family planning policies in China."
Correspondence: A. I. Mundigo, Center for Health and Social Policy, P.O. Box 994, Manchester, VT 05254. E-mail: 102724.2417@compuserve.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:41527 Powell, Mark. The pronatalist undercurrent of the $500-per-child tax credit. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 5, May 1999. 455-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A review of studies which find a positive impact of tax structure on American fertility suggests this effect will increase with the tax benefits legislated by the 1997 $500-per-child tax credit. The tax credit also resembles pronatalist family allowances in other developed countries. First, however, the article investigates the intent of the tax credit, showing that key supporters hope it will increase fertility among tax paying Americans. Lastly, the pronatalist undercurrent of the tax credit suggests that future efforts will push for further increasing the tax benefits of children in order to increase the American birth rate."
Correspondence: M. Powell, 123 Lower Welden Street, St. Albans, VT 05478. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41528 Roudi, Farzaneh. Iran's revolutionary approach to family planning. Population Today, Vol. 27, No. 7, Jul-Aug 1999. 4-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author outlines family planning policies in Iran since the 1960s. Aspects considered include demand for family planning, fertility decline, and population projections.
Correspondence: F. Roudi, Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41529 Scharping, Thomas. The Chinese one-child policy, 1979-1997: a summary regarding demographics and family policy. [Die chinesische Ein-Kind-Politik 1979-1997: Eine demographische und bevölkerungspolitische Bestandsaufnahme.] In: Demographie und Politik, edited by Jürgen Dorbritz and Johannes Otto. 1999. 132-42 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
This article examines the effects of China's one-child policy on population dynamics in general and on families in particular. The author notes that contrary to expectations, first births still constitute only 50% of total births due to the large number of unapproved or unregistered births. There has been no significant trend toward later marriage and first birth as yet; in fact, maternal age at first birth has declined. Rural areas have more large families than urban ones, and also have the highest sex ratio. The author concludes by sketching out the elements of governmental family policy, which consists of programs to enforce family planning and distribute contraception, coupled with sanctions for higher-order births. He also notes the high level of circumvention of China's family policies, causing unreliable data and future population levels significantly higher than predicted. On the other hand, demographic aging is predicted to become a problem for China by the year 2040.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41530 Schott, Jürgen. The demographic evaluation of pronatalist policies. [Zur demographischen Bewertung pronatalistischer Politik.] In: Demographie und Politik, edited by Jürgen Dorbritz and Johannes Otto. 1999. 85-98 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
A model is developed to evaluate the demographic effects of pronatalist family policies. The author concludes that in industrialized countries, the urge to reproduce is being counterbalanced by an urge to stabilize one's personal existence by participating in modern societal life, including employment. It is suggested that the only way to increase fertility would be to strengthen the value of families at the expense of the current social system, which has to a certain extent replaced them. The author does not consider this a realistic proposition.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41531 Vlassoff, Michael. Where has India's family planning programme gone? Demography India, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1999. 99-109 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Fifty years of Independence and forty-five years of planned interventions for population control--where is India now and where does it want to go?... There have been significant transitions over this time, including rapid policy changes during the last decade. On the one hand, these changes have meant the designing of a comprehensive programme in accordance with new, internationally affirmed approaches. On the other hand, frequent policy programme shifts have also led to uncertainty and confusion among programme personnel.... What is being suggested here is that national policy should accommodate itself better to different situations in different parts of India. The RCH [reproductive and child health] programme is supposed to be client-based and, to the extent that approach actually becomes a reality, the different needs in different regions will, of course, tend to be met. But even at the macro-level, national policy should be bifurcated into one set of policies aimed more at concerns for population growth for some areas, and another set of policies aimed at `post ICPD' concerns for other areas."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

65:41532 Adepoju, Aderanti. Linking population policies to international migration in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume I: Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 301-37 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
This "chapter focuses on how population policies in [Sub-Saharan Africa] are, or could be, linked to migration, internal and especially international, through the intermediary of the population growth-labour force-employment-migration continuum. He argues that the region's rapidly growing population and labour force constrain economic development and are a likely cause of increasing emigration pressure, intensifying migratory flows directed to neighbouring countries and outwards to some countries of the North.... [The author] stresses the need for an appropriate development package for Africa that would provide ample opportunity for migration to be factored into processes of change. Since governments in the region regard migration as a crucial component of the development process, population policies have to explicitly respond to this expressed need and incorporate migration dynamics (both internal and international) into policy goals, objectives, strategies and progammes."
Correspondence: A. Adepoju, IDEP, Population, Human Resources and Development in Africa, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41533 Akande, Jadesola. International legal treaties and instruments relating to migration in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Emigration dynamics in developing countries. Volume I: Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Reginald Appleyard. 1998. 338-62 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
This is a review of the Sub-Saharan African subregional economic organizations' protocols relating to the free movement of citizens of member states. The author notes that the legal concepts and framework governing the situation of non-nationals remains a source of potential conflict, and that many countries are reluctant to accept the principle of free movement among countries, being unwilling to modify their internal laws to achieve the free international flow of labor that is the objective of most subregional agreements.
Correspondence: J. Akande, University of Lagos, Faculty of Law, Lagos, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41534 Andreas, Peter. The escalation of U.S. immigration control in the post-NAFTA era. Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 113, No. 4, Winter 1998-1999. 591-616 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Focusing primarily on the United States-Mexico border, I examine one of the most prominent and politically sensitive border policing tasks: controlling illegal immigration. The rapidly expanding U.S. policing campaign on the southwest border contrasts sharply with the rhetoric and practice of U.S.-Mexican economic integration. The trend, it seems, is toward increasingly restrictive controls over unauthorized immigrant labor flows in the context of a general loosening of controls over cross-border economic activity. Even as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) promotes a de-territorialization of the economy, U.S. border control initiatives reinforce state claims to territorial authority. Thus, the apparent paradox of U.S.-Mexico integration is that a barricaded border and a borderless economy are being created simultaneously."
Correspondence: P. Andreas, Harvard University, Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41535 Archavanitkul, Kritaya; Guest, Philip. Managing the flow of migration: regional approaches. IPSR Publication, No. 233, ISBN 974-662-129-7. Apr 1999. xi, 36 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Nakhon Pathom, Thailand; International Organization for Migration [IOM]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The goals of this paper are to: (1) review approaches to migration management, (2) examine the parties involved in dealing with managing migration, (3) identify the current approaches related to migration policy in the ASEAN countries, (4) and, suggest areas where regional approaches to migration management might be useful. Our paper focuses almost exclusively on undocumented migration."
Correspondence: Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, Salaya, Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. E-mail: directpr@mahidol.ac.th. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41536 Birrell, Bob. The 1999-2000 immigration program. People and Place, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1999. 48-59 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Beginning in July 1999, major changes to the way skilled migrants are selected [in Australia] will be introduced. The new criteria will better target the skills needed by Australian employers. However, because overseas students trained in Australia are to be given the highest selection priority and because universities are rapidly expanding places for such students, there is a risk that opportunities for local aspirants in some professional areas will diminish."
Correspondence: B. Birrell, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41537 Bolaffi, Guido. A policy for immigrants. [Una politica per gli immigrati.] Tendenze, No. 13, ISBN 88-15-05563-0. 1996. 78 pp. Il Mulino: Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
The author makes the case that Italy needs an immigration policy that takes into account the need to regulate and control immigration in the light of the country's long-term social and economic requirements, and not the current hodge-podge of emergency measures that have been adopted in response to recent immigration crises.
Correspondence: Società Editrice il Mulino, Strada Maggiore 37, 40125 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41538 Dávila, Alberto; Pagán, José A.; Viladrich Grau, Montserrat. Immigration reform, the INS, and the distribution of interior and border enforcement resources. Public Choice, Vol. 99, No. 3-4, 1999. 327-45 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the [U.S.] Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) interior and border enforcement effort allocation choice following the enactment of IRCA [Immigration Reform and Control Act] in 1986. The INS increasingly allocated a disproportionate amount of resources along the border as a result of the new law. It is contended that this behavior is consistent with that of a public agency intent on maximizing its budget and not in accord with minimizing the undocumented population in the United States. The theory developed here is then used to evaluate proposals that could potentially reconcile the INS's objectives with those of the policy makers and the public."
Correspondence: A. Dávila, University of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78539-2999. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41539 d'Haëm, Rudolph. The entry and length of stay of foreigners in France. [L'entrée et le séjour des étrangers en France.] Que Sais-Je?, ISBN 2-13-049771-3. Jan 1999. [125] pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study examines the laws governing immigration in France, focusing on the legislation defining the rights and responsibilities of immigrants. Th first part examines the various legislative, constitutional, bilateral, and jurisprudential sources of foreigners' legal rights in France. The second part examines the content of these rights as they concern different categories of foreigner, the right of asylum, penal sanctions for infractions, and measures governing the expulsion of foreigners.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires de France, 108 boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

65:41540 Espenshade, Thomas J.; Baraka, Jessica L.; Huber, Gregory A. Restructuring incentives for U.S. immigration. In: Migration and restructuring in the United States: a geographic perspective, edited by Kavita Pandit and Suzanne D. Withers. 1999. 113-36 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the impact on immigration of two pieces of U.S. federal legislation signed into law in 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act. "We suggest that the combined effects of the 1996 immigration and welfare reforms will produce unintended, and possibly undesirable, consequences.... We will argue that the 1996 reform measures, instead of preserving legal immigration and discouraging illegal immigration, are more likely to reduce legal immigration and expand incentives for illegal immigration."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41541 Feldblum, Miriam; Klusmeyer, Douglas. Immigrants and citizenship today: a comparative perspective. Research Perspectives on Migration, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1999. 19 pp. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, International Migration Policy Program: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this special issue...we address...questions of citizenship and immigration in three sections: (1) Integrating Foreigners, (2) When Immigrants Naturalize, and (3) After Nationality, Then What? This issue spotlights the developing trends in citizenship in the United States, Western Europe, Canada, and Israel by explaining new research on states' immigrant integration practices, nationality policies, immigrants' membership and naturalization choices, and supranational citizenship."
Correspondence: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, International Migration Policy Program, 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41542 Ghosh, Jayati; Pyrce, Vanessa J. Canadian immigration policy: responses to changing trends. Geography, Vol. 84, Pt. 3, No. 364, Jul 1999. 233-40 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
"The present [Canadian] immigration policy is highly selective; it encourages immigrants who can make a positive contribution to the economy, and who will make minimal demands on the country's immigration services. However, many immigrants, especially the non-skilled dependents of skilled and well-educated applicants, need such services and further cuts in provision could be to the country's long-term disadvantage."
Correspondence: J. Ghosh, University of Wisconsin, Department of Geography, 800 West Main Street, Whitewater, WI 53190. E-mail: ghoshj@uwwvax.uww.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41543 Goulbourne, Selina. Law and migration. International Library of Studies on Migration, ISBN 1-85898-039-9. 1997. [455] pp. Edward Elgar Publishing: Northampton, Massachusetts/Cheltenham, England. In Eng.
This volume presents a selection of previously published studies that address both theoretical and policy issues concerning migration laws and the rights of individual migrants. The 15 papers presented are organized into four parts: International law and the protection of human rights; International law and refugees; Constitutionalism, due process and the courts; and Race, gender and class issues in immigration and asylum law. The geographical focus is worldwide.
Correspondence: Edward Elgar Publishing, 8 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham GL50 2HU, England. E-mail: Info@e-elgar.co.uk. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

65:41544 Guild, Elspeth; Niessen, Jan. The developing immigration and asylum policies of the European Union. ISBN 90-411-0254-X. 1996. xvii, 528 pp. Kluwer Law International: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Just as free movement and equal treatment were of crucial importance for the development of the European Community, so common policies on immigration and asylum are indispensable for the deepening of the European Union. This book summarises, against the backdrop of the developing overall goals of the European Community and the European Union, the outcome of European policy-making in these fields. Furthermore, the book contains the important texts concluded by the Member States in the field of immigration and asylum, both intergovernmentally and within the Third Pillar of the Maastricht Treaty. The commentary analyses the contents of each document by reference to the existing international human rights obligations of the Member States."
Correspondence: Kluwer Law International, P.O. Box 85889, 2508 CN The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: Alan.Stephens@KLI.WKAP.NL. Location: Princeton University Library.

65:41545 Hanson, Gordon H.; Robertson, Raymond; Spilimbergo, Antonio. Does border enforcement protect U.S. workers from illegal immigration? NBER Working Paper, No. 7054, Mar 1999. 38, [11] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine the impact of government enforcement of the U.S.-Mexican border on wages in the border regions of the United States and Mexico.... We examine labor markets in southern California, southwestern Texas, and Mexican cities on the U.S.-Mexico border. For each region, we have high-frequency time-series data on wages and on the number of person hours that the U.S. Border Patrol spends policing border areas. For a range of empirical specifications and definitions of regional labor markets, we find little impact of border enforcement on wages in U.S. border cities and a moderate negative impact of border enforcement on wages in Mexican border cities. These findings are consistent with two hypotheses: (1) border enforcement has a minimal impact on illegal immigration, or (2) immigration from Mexico has a minimal impact on wages in U.S. border cities."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: gohanson@umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41546 Harouni, Rahma. The debate over a statute for immigrants in France in the 1930s. [Le débat autour du statut des étrangers dans les années 1930.] Le Mouvement Social, No. 188, Jul-Sep 1999. 61-75 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"A public debate on migration policies was initiated in France by the great slump of the 1930s. Owing to the precarious situation of the foreigners, [who were] either economic migrants threatened [by repatriation] by the Laval-Flandin decrees or political refugees forbidden to work, the associations and left political parties joined in a committee: the `Centre de liaison des comités pour le statut des immigrés'. It raised great expectations as the Front Populaire had just been elected. Throughout the history of this union and of the repetitive failures of the various plans drawn for the Statute of Immigrants, the article sets forth the contradictions of the French left confronted with the question of immigration, the helplessness of the Front Populaire faced with political innovation in the matter and at last the obstacles set up by the traditional State controlled practices, those of a pragmatic policy of adjustment issued by the concerned ministries (Home and Foreign office)."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41547 Haus, Leah. Labor unions and immigration policy in France. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 3, Fall 1999. 683-716 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"While [French labor unions] continue to favor some restrictionist measures, they have modified their positions with respect to a number of aspects of French immigration policy and have opposed some restrictionist measures considered or adopted by various French governments in the 1980s and 1990s. This study seeks to understand this multidimensional approach of unions and to account for the variation in preferences of unions at those times when unemployment hit in the interwar period and in recent years. The study asks to what extent the explanation is enhanced by considering changing union assumptions on the ability of the state to control effectively migration due to economic internationalization."
Correspondence: L. Haus, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12601. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41548 Hernández Borge, Julio. The woman in Spanish migratory legislation. [La mujer en la legislación emigratoria española.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 13, No. 39, Aug 1998. 223-38 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The aim of the present paper is to analyse the treatment of women in the Spanish migratory legislation, because it had an influence on the feminine presence in the contemporary migration streams. The laws reflect the sexist structure of the society and the traditional feminine subordination to men. In this paper the Spanish legislation from the middle of last century to the present time is reviewed."
Correspondence: J. Hernández Borge, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Plaza de la Universidad 1, 15071 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41549 Heyman, Josiah M. Why interdiction? Immigration control at the United States-Mexico border. Regional Studies, Vol. 33, No. 7, Oct 1999. 619-30 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"International borders are open to some movements and forbid others. These roles appear to be opposites, with intensified cross-border transactions accompanied by heightened interdiction of unauthorized immigrants and narcotics. This is an outcome of the contradictory political interests and ideas which promote and oppose globalization. These political processes not only shape general policies, but are expressed in the specific tasks and technologies applied by border control agencies. They are revealed through detailed ethnographic fieldwork on U.S. agencies on the Mexican border, including the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), its Border Patrol and Inspection branches, the U.S. Customs and the military."
Correspondence: J. M. Heyman, Michigan Technological University, Department of Social Sciences, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931-1295. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:41550 Hill, Lloyd B. Democracy and human rights: a paradox for migration policy. Africa Insight, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1997. 188-99 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is twofold. Its first aim is to provoke a debate on an apparent tension between two of the guiding norms of the new order [in South Africa]--democracy and human rights. This tension results from a discrepancy between the levels at which the two concepts operate, and this will be elaborated on in due course. This tension can be observed in a number of foreign and domestic policy contexts.... The second purpose is thus to explore this tension within the context of a specific policy issue: transnational migration. Migration is an issue which--perhaps more than any other--is situated within that precarious nexus between domestic and foreign policy. For this reason trends in regional and international migration hold important implications for the choice of appropriate migration strategies, and for the impact of these within the domestic context of democratic `nation building' and the broader context of Southern African `regional development'."
Correspondence: L. B. Hill, University of Stellenbosch, Centre for International and Comparative Politics, Stellenbosch 7600, Cape Province, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:41551 Koser, Khalid; Black, Richard. Limits to harmonization: the "temporary protection" of refugees in the European Union. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1999. 521-43 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the limits to harmonization at the level of the European Union through a case study of policy towards people who fled the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the early 1990s. Specific attention is paid to the development of the policy of granting `temporary protection' instead of full refugee status to Bosnian asylum-seekers, which stretched across all fifteen member states. It is argued that `temporary protection' emerged as a set of specific responses to the outbreak of war in the former Yugoslavia, involving compromises between states' desires to restrict asylum on the one hand, but meet demand from public opinion and international organizations to offer protection to refugees on the other."
Correspondence: K. Koser, University College London, Department of Geography, Migration Research Unit, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41552 Massey, Douglas S. International migration at the dawn of the twenty-first century: the role of the state. Population and Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jun 1999. 303-22, 406-7, 409 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This note reviews recent theoretical and empirical work on the determinants and efficacy of state immigration policies to draw conclusions about the future direction of policy regimes throughout the globe and their likely effects. An age of increasingly restrictive immigration policies is emerging, but it is still unclear how effective these policies will be in controlling the volume and composition of international migration. States can be located along a continuum of efficacy with respect to the imposition of restrictive policies. Unfortunately virtually all research done to date has focused on the effectiveness of restrictive policies in major immigrant-receiving developed countries."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. E-mail: dmassey@lexis.pop.upenn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41553 Money, Jeannette. Fences and neighbors: the political geography of immigration control. ISBN 0-8014-3570-6. LC 98-46766. 1999. xii, 247 pp. Cornell University Press: Ithaca, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This study examines why some countries welcome immigrants and some do not, and why immigration policies change over time. The focus is on the wealthiest countries, which are magnets for both economic migrants and refugees. Particular attention is given to the political implications of the fact that immigrants tend to concentrate in specific locations in their new country of residence. "Drawing on detailed evidence from Britain, France, and Australia, and more briefly from the United States, [the author] demonstrates that local support for and opposition to immigration is contingent upon economic conditions, as well as the numbers of foreigners entering the country and their access to the resources of the welfare state. Whether these local pressures are translated into policies of openness or closure at the national level depends on whether the local constituencies are critical to maintaining or gaining a national electoral majority."
Correspondence: Cornell University Press, Sage House, 512 East State Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41554 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (Paris, France). Immigrants, integration and cities: exploring the links. OECD Proceedings, ISBN 92-64-16068-X. LC 98-180150. 1998. 194 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
This volume contains a selection of papers prepared for a 1996 OECD meeting on immigration and urban development. "This publication analyzes in detail the nature and content of policies being implemented to promote the integration of immigrants in urban areas. It examines how the changing socio-economic context in cities may affect immigrants and the advantages and disadvantages of urban concentrations of immigrants.... It also highlights the importance of associating not only immigrants and key local actors, but the concerned wider population as well, in defining and implementing urban development and integration policies."
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:41555 Pellerin, Hélène. Regionalisation of migration policies and its limits: Europe and North America compared. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 5, Oct 1999. 995-1,011 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Migration policies in both the European Union and North America converge in substantial and formal ways. Such convergence can be explained by neoliberal restructuring that affects strategies and the geography of production, as well as state forms. But neoliberal transformation does not homogenise migration policies completely. Both regions exhibit significant differences that can be explained by the ways in which space is occupied by social forces. An examination of social forces in the regions allows us to account for the specificities of the two regions in terms of migration policies."
Correspondence: H. Pellerin, University of Ottawa, Department of Political Science, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:41556 Pellerin, Hélène. The cart before the horse? The coordination of migration policies in the Americas and the neoliberal economic project of integration. Review of International Political Economy, Vol. 6, No. 4, Winter 1999. 468-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the content of the Regional Conference on Migration (RCM), which aims to encourage the coordination of migration policies in Central and North America. The author makes the case that this initiative is designed not so much to control the flow of migrants between countries, but "as a mechanism through which specific patterns of social and spatial relations are being locked into the region. The coordination of migration policies in the RCM constitutes an effort to manage the mobility of capital and labour in an orderly manner. In addition, the coordinating effort serves two other purposes: to attribute specific responsibilities to states, and to depoliticize the issue of migration. Such developments fit neatly with the neoliberal project of integration, with the imposition of particular state-society relations onto the various countries involved."
Correspondence: H. Pellerin, University of Ottawa, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science, 75 Laurier Ave., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:41557 Raposo, Cremilde. Canadian immigration regulations and strategies of illegal migrants. [La législation canadienne sur l'immigration et les stratégies des immigrants clandestins.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1999. 271-97, 363, 368 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article examines selected pieces of immigration legislation which the author feels are most pertinent in demonstrating how illegal migrants use their perceptions of immigration regulations in devising their strategies and tactics for remaining in Canada. The analysis proceeds from an investigation of immigration legislation and then summarizes the accounts of experience of twenty illegal migrants."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41558 Romero Silva, Absalón. An optimum control model for the determination of migration policies. [Un modelo de control óptimo para la determinación de políticas de migración.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 14, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1999. 741-53, 784 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article presents the use of an optimum control model based on Pontryagin's Discrete Maximum Principle for the determination of migration policies in the Federal District and the state of Mexico between 1982 and 1995."
Correspondence: A. Romero Silva, Universidad de las Américas, Instituto de Investigación, Santa Catarina Mártir, Apartado Postal 100, 72820 Cholula, Puebla, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41559 Santel, Bernhard. A comparison of the immigration policies of Germany and the United States. [Einwanderungspolitik in Deutschland und den Vereinigten Staaten im Vergleich.] Gegenwartskunde, Vol. 46, No. 4, 1997. 455-65 pp. Hamburg, Germany. In Ger.
The author argues that the contrast often made between Germany and the United States on the subject of immigration is misleading. In the author's view, claims that Germany, unlike the United States, is not a country of immigrants, does not desire to become one, and possesses no immigration policy are oversimplifications, if not downright false. He concludes that as regards migration policy in practice, the two countries have far more in common than is generally assumed.
Location: Princeton University Library.

65:41560 Singer, Audrey. U.S. citizenship applications at all-time high. Population Today, Vol. 27, No. 9, Oct 1999. 4-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author reviews recent trends in U.S. citizenship applications, with a focus on the impact of government laws, programs, and initiatives.
Correspondence: A. Singer, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, International Migration Policy Program, 11 Dupont Circle, Washington, D.C. 20036-1207. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41561 Stark, Oded; Wang, Yong. Externalities, human capital formation, and corrective migration policy. ZEF Discussion Papers on Development Policy, No. 11, Aug 1999. 17 pp. Zentrum für Entwicklungsforschung: Bonn, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
"When productivity is fostered by an individual's own human capital as well as by the economy-wide average level of human capital, individuals under-invest in human capital. A strictly positive probability of migration to a richer country raises both the level of human capital formed by optimizing individuals in the home country and the average level of human capital of non-migrants in the country. Conditions are provided under which the welfare of all workers is higher with migration than in its absence. A well-controlled, restrictive migration policy can enhance welfare and nudge the economy toward the social optimum."
Correspondence: Zentrum für Entwicklungsforschung, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 53113, Bonn, Germany. E-mail: zef@uni-bonn.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41562 Tomasi, Lydio F. Proceedings of the 1996 annual National Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy. In Defense of the Alien, Vol. 19, ISBN 0-934733-95-3. 1997. xiii, 216 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of the 1996 Annual Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy in the United States. The primary focus of this conference was on the implications of newly proposed legislation affecting immigration under consideration by the 104th Congress. The 20 papers included here are organized under four topics: Critical analysis of practical implications of newly proposed legislation; Welfare reform: what benefits for immigrants?; Redefining the roles of local and state government in immigration policy; and Refugee resettlement and asylum reform.
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. E-mail: cmslft@aol.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41563 Vogel, Dita. Illegal residence in Germany--methodological considerations for the use and collection of data. [Illegaler Aufenthalt in Deutschland--methodische Überlegungen zur Datennutzung und Datenerhebung.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1999. 165-85 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"In Germany...there are foreigners without a legal residence status, people who illegally reside within the country. How many are they? And how do they spend their lives? Have they all submerged, or are there also foreigners who live within the country with knowledge of the authorities?... This article particularly focuses on the problems related to the study of such questions, and also unfolds possible starting points for an empirical analysis."
Correspondence: D. Vogel, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Studiengang Niederlande-Studien, Postfach 2503, 26111 Oldenburg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41564 Zappalà, Gianni; Castles, Stephen. Citizenship and immigration in Australia. Migration and Multicultural Studies Program Working Paper, No. 6, ISBN 0-86418-501-4. 1998. v, 34 pp. University of Wollongong, Research Institute of Social Change and Critical Inquiry, Migration and Multicultural Studies Program: Wollongong, Australia. In Eng.
"In this paper we will examine the meaning of citizenship in Australia and discuss some of the current tendencies towards change.... We will examine rules for naturalisation, and how these have evolved in response to attempts to manage mass immigration since 1945.... We will review some of the current public debates on citizenship, and finally discuss models of citizenship and where Australia fits in international comparison."
Correspondence: University of Wollongong, Research Institute of Social Change and Critical Inquiry, Migration and Multicutural Studies Program, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. E-mail: mms@uow.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:41565 Zolberg, Aristide R. The politics of immigration policy: an externalist perspective. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 42, No. 9, Jun-Jul 1999. 1,276-9 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"The process of decision making [in immigration policy] at the level of a given state is driven by two quite distinct types of considerations, each of which relates to a distinct sphere of social interactions. In the perspective of capitalist dynamics, immigrants of any kind--including refugees--are considered primarily as workers.... However, all types of immigrants--including even temporary workers--also constitute a political and cultural presence." The need for policies to reconcile these dimensions is emphasized.
Correspondence: A. R. Zolberg, New School for Social Research, Graduate Faculty, 66 West 12th Street, New York, NY 10011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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