Volume 65 - Number 3 - Fall 1999

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population.

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

65:30700 Catholic Voices (Washington, D.C.). Catholics and Cairo: a common language. 1999. 54 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We believe that the United Nations 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and its Programme of Action adopted in Cairo constitute another pivotal moment in the articulation of a common language of conscience. Furthermore, Cairo provided the Catholic church with an unprecedented opportunity to enter the world dialogue in terms not unfamiliar to its own traditions and mission." Sections are titled Areas of agreement: shared principles; Areas of debate: women, health, and family; and Reflection: conscience and consensus.
Correspondence: Catholic Voices, 1436 U Street NW, Suite 301, Washington, D.C. 20009-3997. E-mail: cffc@igc.apc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30701 Fouad, Daad M. Features of women's present status in Egypt and their impact on development. CDC Series on Population and Development, No. 2, 1994. 32 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"This paper deals with three major topics.... First, the legal and political rights enjoyed by Egyptian women including recent amendments of Egypt's personal status law; second, women's participation in...economic activities and [the] labor force market; third, women's role in reducing completed family sizes."
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Center, 78 Street No. 4, El-Hdhaba Elolya, Mokattam 11571, Cairo, Egypt. E-mail: cdc@frcu.eun.eg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30702 Larivière, Sylvain; Martin, Frédéric; Aho, Gilbert; Dansou, Raphaël. The concept and measurement of perceptions of poverty in a rural environment for socioeconomic development objectives: an example in Benin. [Concept et mesure des perceptions de la pauvreté en milieu rural pour des fins de développement socio-économique: application au Bénin.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 133-47 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This chapter presents the concepts, methodology, and main results of a study on perceptions of poverty and well-being among rural people in Benin in 1993-1994. The study incorporated both focus group discussions and individual interviews. The importance to rural people of a way to earn money, access to a means of transport, and availability of social services such as health, housing, and safe drinking water is noted. Having the means to educate their children is not considered an important measure of rural well-being.
Correspondence: S. Larivière, Université Laval, Cité Universitaire, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30703 Population Council (New York, New York). The unfinished transition. Population Council Issues Paper, LC 98-158199. 1996. 20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this issues paper we discuss four essential strategies, endorsed [at international conferences held] in Cairo and Beijing, for pursuing gender equality while setting the stage for voluntary fertility decline and improved reproductive health.... [The strategies aim to:] 1. increase investments in girls' education..., 2. meet the needs of adolescent girls..., 3. promote greater male responsibility in parenthood..., [and] 4. foster women's livelihoods."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:30704 Thibon, Christian. The demographic crisis and the socio-political crisis in Burundi. [Crise démographique et crise sociopolitique au Burundi.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 35-50 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author attempts to calculate the extent to which the conflicts that arose in Burundi in 1993 were caused by the deteriorating demographic situation. Although he concludes that increasing environmental and demographic pressures in the country did contribute to the violence that erupted in 1993, their impact was softened by a number of improvements in both the economic and socio-cultural sectors. A major problem has been the increase in social inequalities, particularly the ongoing marginalization of much of the rural population; certain ages and social groups have been particularly hard hit. The development of socioeconomic crises associated with modernization has led to an increasing tendency to identify with one's own ethnic group.
Correspondence: C. Thibon, Université de Pau, Centre de Recherches sur les Pays d'Afrique Orientale, avenue du Doyen Poplewski, 64000 Pau Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30705 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). A demographic perspective on women in development in Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 148, Pub. Order No. E.98.II.F.53. ISBN 92-1-119842-9. 1998. xvi, 135 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study has been conducted in order to assess the status of women in development in Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam. By reviewing the situation in four countries that share borders, it is possible to highlight similarities and to note common patterns. The study is based on data available primarily from national population censuses and demographic surveys. Detailed data and analysis are provided for each country, and a comparative chapter, including policy implications of the findings, is presented." For each country there are sections on the demographic context, family formation, health, education, employment, and migration.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

65:30706 Lux, André. Neo-Malthusian leagues in France from 1896 to 1940: a right-wing ideology under the cloak of a workers' ethos. [Les ligues néo-malthusiennes françaises de 1896 à 1940: idéologie de droite sous un manteau ouvriériste.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 27, No. 2, Autumn 1998. 199-219, 336, 338 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Although they claim to be socialists...the leaders of neo-Malthusian leagues in France (1896-1939)...clearly show the right-wing influence of the English Malthusian League, to the point of relegating the revolutionary utopia and the anti-capitalist struggle to the background. This assertion is based on a highlighting of the close relationship between the texts of their four periodicals and those of the two monthly journals of the Malthusian League on a number of topics related to the ills of overpopulation and the only effective remedy, i.e. adapting individual behavior--through contraception--to the inevitable determinism of the law of population."
Correspondence: A. Lux, Université Laval, Département de Sociologie, Cité Universitaire, Sainte-Foy, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30707 Mukomel, Vladimir; Payin, Emil. The causes and demographic-social consequences of interethnic and regional conflicts in the post-Soviet Union. In: Population under duress: the geodemography of post-Soviet Russia, edited by George J. Demko, Grigory Ioffe, and Zhanna Zayonchkovskaya. 1999. 177-97 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors monitor "the immediate demographic impact of armed ethnic conflicts in different parts of the former USSR. Although the assertion is made that the numbers of casualties routinely reported by the media constitute overstatements, the reality appears to be grim nonetheless. Mukomel and Payin describe all major ethnic and national conflicts in some detail, as well as their causes and the potential for their resolution."
Correspondence: V. Mukomel, Center for Ethnopolitical Research, Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30708 Rogerson, Peter A.; Yang, Zongxiang. The effects of spatial population distributions and political districting on minority representation. Social Science Computer Review, Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 1999. 27-39 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"In this article, the authors explore the relationships between the geographical distribution of [U.S.] population, potential political redistricting schemes, and the resulting level of minority representation. The maximal fraction of districts that are minority districts is twice the fraction of minorities in the total population. The authors show how this maximum declines with increasing residential segregation. Finally, they provide some simulation results for both hypothetical cities and Buffalo [N.Y.] council wards showing the degree of minority representation under random districting plans. This gives a baseline indicator of how population distribution is expected to influence representation and can then be compared with actual plans."
Correspondence: P. A. Rogerson, State University of New York, Department of Geography, Wilkeson Hall, Buffalo, NY 14261. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30709 Todisco, Enrico. Demography and local authorities. [Demografia e poteri locali.] 1998. xii, 291 pp. Cacucci Editore: Bari, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
This book contains a selection of contributions by various authors on how demographic considerations affect the work of local authorities in Italy. The first part contains four papers: the first two, by Enrico Todisco and Raimondo Cagiano de Azevedo, look at the European dimension; the third, also by Todisco, examines legislative outputs of the Italian regions from a demographic perspective; and the fourth, by Laura Lecchini, Odo Barsotti, and Marco Bottai, analyzes how demographic issues, such as zero birth rates, the problems of the elderly, migration, juvenile problems, unemployment, and the handicapped, are dealt with at the municipal level in Italy. The second part contains six reports presenting results from the survey of mayors of municipalities in six Italian regions.
Correspondence: Cacucci Editore, Via Nicolai 17, 70122 Bari, Italy. E-mail: info@cacucci.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

65:30710 Agha, Sohail. Sexual behavior of truck-drivers in Pakistan: implications for AIDS prevention programs. PSI Research Division Working Paper, No. 24, 1999. 21 pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines "the level of risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases among truck drivers and their helpers in Pakistan [using data for] a representative sample of 300 long-distance truck drivers and their helpers.... Multiple sexual partnerships with men and women are common among truckers.... Awareness of AIDS and knowledge of sexual transmission of this disease is high. However, most truckers do not believe that AIDS exists in Pakistan. Nor are they aware that condoms are an effective way of preventing HIV."
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30711 Barlow, Robin; Brown, Joseph W. Reproductive health and infectious disease in the Middle East. ISBN 1-84014-384-3. LC 98-72620. 1998. xvi, 228 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"In March of 1997, a two-day conference entitled `Health Issues in the Middle East' was held at the School of Public Health, University of Michigan.... The two themes most frequently proposed among the submissions were reproductive health and infectious disease. This book offers a selection of the papers presented on those two themes." The section on reproductive health includes papers on maternal health; contraceptive use and reproductive morbidity in Lebanon; the cost-effectiveness of mobile family planning units in Tunisia; fertility and family planning in the West Bank; and infertility in Egypt.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Ashgate Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30712 Belouali, Radouane; Guédira, Najib. Reproductive health in policy and practice: Morocco. Nov 1998. 32 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study is one of a number of case studies coordinated by the Population Reference Bureau (PRB), covering four countries (Morocco, Uganda, Brazil, and India). The objective of the case studies is to determine how central elements of the ICPD [International Conference on Population and Development] Programme of Action have been implemented and to identify achievements and obstacles." The present study on Morocco contains sections on demographic trends, the policy environment for reproductive health, the status of women, reproductive health programs and services, individuals' perceptions of services, and sources of financing for reproductive health care, 1991-1998.
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. E-mail: popref@prb.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30713 Bernabeu Mestre, Josep. The health transition and the development of medicine (diagnostics, prophylaxis, and therapy), 1885-1942. [Transición sanitaria y evolución de la medicina (diagnóstico, profilaxis y terapéutica), 1885-1942.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1998. 15-38 pp. Barcelona, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Considering the conceptual framework of health transition, this research brings to us some reflections about the role of medical and scientific factors [in] the decreasing of mortality rates that characterized the demographic transition in the western European societies." The importance of increased scientific knowledge for the improvement of health and hygiene is stressed. The author also considers the development of various approaches to evaluate the impact of medical and scientific knowledge in historical and contemporary Europe.
Correspondence: J. Bernabeau Mestre, Universitat d'Alacant, Història de la Ciència, 03080 Alicante, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30714 Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta. Family structure, resource dilution and child nutrition: an analysis of Jamaica. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 99-05, Mar 1999. 26 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This article examines the impact of family structure and resource dilution on child well being in Jamaica. The goal is to expand the knowledge and understanding of child well being in three ways: (1) by testing the effects of family structure on children's nutrition in Jamaica (2) by evaluating the joint effect of family structure and resource dilution characteristics in determining children's nutritional status and (3) by testing the effects of other household characteristics on children's nutrition."
This paper was originally presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16801. Author's E-mail: jbronte@pop.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30715 Campbell, Oona; Lewando-Hundt, Gillian. Profiling maternal health in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria. In: Reproductive health and infectious disease in the Middle East, edited by Robin Barlow and Joseph W. Brown. 1998. 22-44 pp. Ashgate: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"This chapter reviews aspects of maternal health in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria.... It pinpoints both similarities and differences between the five countries examined, and can inform the development of policy and planning for maternal health in the region.... We argue that the lack of attention to maternal health as a regional issue by both those outside and within the Middle East masks substantial intra-regional variation in factors contributing to maternal health outcomes, as well as variation in the outcomes themselves. The dearth of regional analysis also hinders the development of a coordinated approach to reviewing the regional profile of maternal health and to developing effective interventions for improving maternal health."
Correspondence: O. Campbell, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30716 Castillo-Salgado, Carlos; Mujica, Oscar; Loyola, Enrique. A subregional assessment of demographic and health trends in the Americas: 1980-1998. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 80, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1999. 2-12 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Analysis of some 38 demographic, socioeconomic, vital statistics and resource availability indicators show encouraging health and social progress between 1980 and 1998.... Improvements in social as well as health indicators were evidenced throughout the various subregions but at differing levels and at varying rates. Marked changes in total fertility, infant mortality, life expectancy and morbidity rates characterized the period between 1980 and 1998. The discrepancies between countries are highlighted and areas in need of further improvement outlined."
Correspondence: C. Castillo-Salgado, Pan American Health Organization, Special Program on Health Analysis, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30717 Center for Health and Gender Equity [CHANGE] (Takoma Park, Maryland); Population Council (New York, New York). The implications of health sector reform for reproductive health and rights. [1998]. 104 pp. Takoma Park, Maryland. In Eng.
This is the report of a meeting on the implications of health sector reform on reproductive health and rights held in Washington, D.C., December 14-15, 1998. Following two introductory papers, there are four papers on the situation in Zambia, followed by four papers on other countries, including South Africa and China. The primary focus is on how such reforms affect access to good-quality reproductive health care. The report provides a summary of the presentations, discussions, and interim conclusions of the meeting.
Correspondence: Center for Health and Gender Equity, 6930 Carroll Avenue, Suite 910, Takoma Park, MD 20912. E-mail: change@genderhealth.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30718 Çilingiroglu, Nesrin E. A new subdiscipline of demography: health demography. [Demografide yeni bir alt alan: saglik demografisi.] Turkish Journal of Population Studies/Nüfusbilim Dergisi, Vol. 20, 1998. 79-86 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
"The 1980s witnessed the emergence of an applied subdiscipline within demography that is coming to be termed Health Demography. Health Demography can be defined as the application of concepts, contents, methods and techniques of demography to the study of health status, health behaviour and health care. It should be noted that unlike the clinical study of health, the emphasis is on the study of populations and not individuals...."
Correspondence: N. E. Çilingiroglu, Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30719 Corrêa, Sonia; Piola, Sérgio; Arilha, Margareth. Reproductive health in policy and practice: Brazil. Oct 1998. 32 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This case study focuses on the implementation in Brazil of the ICPD [International Conference on Population and Development] recommendations on reproductive health and rights.... The study covers various actions included in the reproductive health agenda: prenatal care, obstetrical assistance, gynecological cancer; prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS; incomplete abortion care and access to abortion services, as permitted by law; and contraception assistance. The study emphasizes abortion-related issues and contraception assistance...."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. E-mail: popref@prb.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30720 Cutler, David M.; Sheiner, Louise. Demographics and medical care spending: standard and non-standard effects. NBER Working Paper, No. 6866, Dec 1998. 33, [21] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this paper, [the authors] examine the effects of likely demographic changes on medical spending for the elderly. Standard forecasts highlight the potential for greater life expectancy to increase costs: medical costs generally increase with age, and greater life expectancy means that more of the elderly will be in the older age groups. Two factors work in the other direction, however. First, increases in life expectancy mean that a smaller share of the elderly will be in the last year of life, when medical costs generally are very high.... Second, disability rates among the surviving population have been declining in recent years by 0.5 to 1.5 percent annually.... Thus, changes in disability and mortality should, on net, reduce average medical spending on the elderly. However, these effects are not as large as the projected increase in medical spending stemming from increases in overall medical costs."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: dcutler@fas.harvard.edu. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:30721 Emch, Michael. Diarrheal disease risk in Matlab, Bangladesh. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 4, Aug 1999. 519-30 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The objective of this research project is to assess risk for diarrheal disease in rural Bangladesh by analyzing the complex and dynamic interaction of biological, socioeconomic, cultural/behavioral and environmental factors over time and space. Risk factors of cholera and non-cholera water diarrheal disease are calculated to compare the relative importance of risk for several independent variables. Diarrheal diseases data were collected for people who were hospitalized at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (ICDDR) hospital from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 1994.... Water use and availability variables were more important for non-cholera watery diarrheal risk than for cholera but nevertheless they were important for both. Socioeconomic status is an important indirect cause of both of these diseases because poverty is the root cause of many of the other variables, such as lack of sanitation and clean water."
Correspondence: M. Emch, University of Northern Iowa, Department of Geography, Sabin Room 1, Cedar Falls, IA 50614. E-mail: mike.emch@uni.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30722 Gaüzère, Franck; Commenges, Daniel; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Letenneur, Luc; Dartigues, Jean-François. Illness and dependency: description of changes using multistate models. [Maladie et dépendance: description des évolutions par des modèles multi-états.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 205-22 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The progression of an illness can be modelled with a three-state model: healthy, ill, dead. The model used in this article contains no reversible transitions: it is fully specified by the transition intensities between the different states.... This method is applied here to data from the PAQUID study to describe the evolution of serious dependency among elderly people over 65 living in south-west France. The prevalence of serious dependency increases with age for both sexes. The age-related increase in the intensities of the transition to dependency is faster for women than for men."
Correspondence: F. Gaüzère, Université de Bordeaux 2, Épidemiologie, Santé Publique et Développement, INSERM U330, 146 rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France. E-mail: Franck.Gauzere@u-bordeaux2.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30723 Gray, Alan; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Yoddumnern-Attig, Bencha; Chongsatitmun, Chiraluck; Thongkrajai, Eamporn; Singsungchai, Pechnoy. Gender, sexuality and reproductive health in Thailand. IPSR Publication, No. 232, ISBN 974-662-090-8. 1999. x, 103 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study...is a critical review of the research that has been done on gender and sexuality in relation to reproductive health in Thailand during the 1990s." Following a general introduction, Chapter 2 is concerned with family planning, maternal and child health, and the consequences of unwanted pregnancies, including abortion and complications. Chapter 3 covers sexually transmitted diseases, reproductive tract infections, HIV/AIDS, infertility, and reproductive tract malignancies. Chapter 4 provides information on sex education, adolescent health, menopause and the elderly, and sexual abuse and violence. Final chapters are included on methodology and recommendations.
Correspondence: Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, Tambon Salaya, Ampoe Phutthamonthon, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. E-mail: directpr@mucc.mahidol.ac.th. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30724 Hussain, M. Imam. Disease and health of the aged in Bangladesh. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1998. 311-7 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper is aimed to study: (i) The prevalence of different diseases, some selected differentials related to health conditions of urban aged (55 years and over) and (ii) The overall health status of the elderly in Bangladesh.... This study reveals that about 65 per cent of the Muslims and 60 per cent of the Hindus among the urban elderly (60 years and above) are found to have been suffering from different diseases.... Religious differentials were observed in the prevalence of these diseases." Other aspects considered include occupation, education, smoking status, and source of water.
Correspondence: M. I. Hussain, University of Chittagong, Department of Statistics, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30725 Khanna, J.; Van Look, P. F. A. Reproductive health research: the new directions. Biennial report 1996-1997. ISBN 92-4-156192-0. 1998. 161 pp. World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This report documents work carried out in the area of reproductive health by this WHO program. Part 1 describes activities of the program in the areas of understanding people's reproductive health needs and perspectives, developing new methods of fertility regulation, expanding family planning options, evaluating reproductive health care, assessing and improving reproductive health services, and building national research capacity in reproductive health research. Part 2 looks at reproductive health research following the conferences in Cairo and Beijing. The geographical focus is worldwide.
Correspondence: World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30726 Kramer, Elizabeth J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Ying, Yu-Wen. Immigrant women's health: problems and solutions. ISBN 0-7879-4294-4. LC 98-40198. 1999. xxiv, 438 pp. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, California. In Eng.
This book, which is a compilation of studies by various authors, examines the health problems facing immigrant women in the United States. The studies are concerned with the major clinical, behavioral, and policy issues, problems, and prospects concerning the health of these women. The first chapter includes a paper on the relevant demographics, definitions, and data limitations.
Correspondence: Jossey-Bass, 350 Sansome Street, San Francisco, CA 94104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30727 Liao, Youlian; McGee, Daniel L.; Cao, Guichan; Cooper, Richard S. Black-white differences in disability and morbidity in the last years of life. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 12, Jun 15, 1999. 1,097-103 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"To assess black-white differences in disability and morbidity in the last years of life, the authors analyzed data from the [U.S.] National Health Interview Survey from 1986 to 1994, with mortality follow-up through December 1995. A baseline household interview was conducted for 10,187 decedents aged 50 years and over within 2 years before death. Data collected included long-term limitation of activity, number of chronic conditions, number of bed days, doctor visits, and days of short hospital stay during the year preceding the interview. For both blacks and whites, educational attainment was inversely associated with disability/morbidity indices. Black decedents had greater morbidity compared with whites, and this difference was consistent across educational levels."
Correspondence: Y. Liao, Loyola University, Stritch School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Maywood, IL 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30728 Mishra, Vinod K.; Lahiri, Subrata; Luther, Norman Y. Child nutrition in India. National Family Health Survey Subject Report, No. 14, Jun 1999. 39 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India; East-West Center, Population and Health Studies: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"India's 1992-93 National Family Health Survey (NFHS) collected anthropometric data on the height and weight of children below four years of age." Using this information, "this report estimates levels of child malnutrition and effects of selected demographic and socioeconomic factors on child malnutrition. The analysis focuses primarily on the country as a whole, with some findings for individual states. The results of this study indicate high levels of both chronic and acute malnutrition among Indian children.... The lower prevalence of wasting than stunting or underweight indicates that chronic malnutrition is more prevalent in India than acute malnutrition.... A multivariate analysis of the effects of selected demographic and socioeconomic factors on child malnutrition indicates that the strongest predictors of child nutrition in India are child's age, child's birth order, mother's education, and household standard of living."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: iips.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30729 Parent, Gérard; Baya, Banza; Ouédraogo, André; Kambiré, Roger; Compaoré, Issaka. Food, nutrition, and the socioeconomic situation of households: the case of Bagré in Burkina Faso. [Alimentation, nutrition et situations socio-économiques des ménages: le cas de Bagré au Burkina Faso.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 301-14 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study focuses on whether the construction of a major dam near Bagré in Burkina Faso has resulted in better nutrition for the local population, or whether its impact on the region's health environment has been negative. The area is primarily agricultural, with limited and fragile natural resources, and is experiencing increasing demographic pressures from a growing population. Data are from a 1994 socio-demographic census and a 1995 biomedical survey involving some 10,000 people in total. The results suggest that widespread malnutrition persists, and that the local population is not yet taking full advantage of the new environment associated with the building of the dam.
Correspondence: G. Parent, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, B.P. Ouagadougou 01, Burkino Faso. E-mail: parent@ouaga.orstom.bf. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30730 Poppius, Esko; Tenkanen, Leena; Kalimo, Raija; Heinsalmi, Pertti. The sense of coherence, occupation and the risk of coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jul 1999. 109-20 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) was studied in 4,405 Finnish middle-aged working men in different occupations according to their sense of coherence (SOC). The study design was prospective and the follow-up time was eight years. Clinical findings such as total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and body-mass index showed differences when comparing blue and white collar workers. Lifestyle factors such as smoking also differed, but leisure time physical activity depended on SOC.... The SOC had a salutogenic effect among white collar workers, but failed to have any consequent effect on the health of blue collar workers."
Correspondence: E. Poppius, Helsinki Heart Study, Kalliolinnantie 4, FIN-00140, Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: esko.poppius@finnair.fi. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30731 Tchupo, J. P.; Kuépié, M.; Dipoko, D.; Abbo, M.; Barnes, J.; Timyan, J.; Meekers, D. An operational research project on the reproductive health of adolescents in Cameroon. Basic quantitative data from Edéa and Bafia (1996). [Projet de recherche operationnelle sur la santé reproductive des adolescents au Cameroun: données quantitatives de base a Edéa et Bafia (1996).] Sep 1996. 74, [13] pp. Population Services International, Research Division: Washington, D.C.; Institut de Recherches et des Etudes de Comportements: Yaoundé, Cameroon. In Fre.
Results are presented from a reproductive health survey of 1,606 young people aged 12-22 from two villages, Edéa and Bafia, in Cameroon. The survey was conducted in the summer of 1996. Topics covered include the socio-demographic characteristics of those surveyed; perceptions of self and risk-taking behavior; knowledge of reproductive health; sexual activity; the risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS, and contraception; sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy; and communication and sources of information on such matters. The results indicate that, although sexual activity is common, knowledge or use of contraception is not, and that there is widespread ignorance about reproductive health matters.
Correspondence: Population Services International, Research Division, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: generalinfo@psiwash.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30732 United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF] (New York, New York); World Health Organization [WHO] (Geneva, Switzerland). Action for children affected by AIDS: programme profiles and lessons learned. Pub. Order No. E.94.XX.USA.8. ISBN 92-806-3149-7. Dec 1994. v, 119 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a survey of various programs that have been developed in response to the particular problems that the AIDS epidemic poses for children around the world. Following an introduction to the problem on a global basis, there are chapters on the situation in Uganda, Zambia, Kenya, the Dominican Republic, Thailand, and the United Kingdom. A final chapter discusses the conclusions and lessons learned from these programs.
Correspondence: United Nations Children's Fund, 3 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30733 Weir, Sharon S.; Roddy, Ronald E.; Zekeng, Leopold; Ryan, Kelley A. Association between condom use and HIV infection: a randomised study of self reported condom use measures. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 53, No. 7, Jul 1999. 417-22 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "compare the association between different measures of condom use and prevalent HIV infection...[in] Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon [using data for] 2,266 female sex workers.... The association between condom use and prevalent HIV infection varied for different measures of condom use. None of the five level measures showed a dose response protective effect of condom use.... Regardless of the type of measure or reference period, the strongest association between use and infection was for use with partners who were not clients."
Correspondence: S. S. Weir, Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Durham, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

65:30734 Ball, Helen L.; Hill, Catherine M. Insurance ovulation, embryo mortality and twinning. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 2, Apr 1999. 245-55 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"If [dizygotic] twin births are a `side-effect' of a mechanism which compensates for defective embryos one might predict that embryo defect rates and twinning rates will covary. This prediction is tested using national-level data on twinning rates and rates of trisomy-21 (Down's syndrome), and a strong positive correlation is found, even when controlling for maternal age.... In this paper it is proposed that the `insurance ova' explanation for twinning in humans could be expanded to incorporate a model of rejection of anomalous embryos, be they anomalies of number or type."
Correspondence: H. L. Ball, University of Durham, Department of Anthropology and University College, Stockton, 43 Old Elvet, Durham DH1 3HN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30735 Miller, Warren B.; Pasta, David J.; MacMurray, James; Chiu, Connie; Wu, Shijuan; Comings, David E. Genetic influences on childbearing motivation: a theoretical framework and some empirical evidence. In: Advances in population: psychosocial perspectives, Volume 3, edited by Lawrence J. Severy and Warren Miller. 1999. 53-102 pp. Jessica Kingsley Publishers: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter attempts to expand our understanding of the biological underpinnings that motivate humans for parenthood. In the first section, the authors develop their theoretical framework in three steps, discussing social bonding in higher mammals, the neural systems regulating parental behavior, and the motivating forces that underlie human childbearing. "In the second section of the chapter, we report some empirical evidence regarding genetic influence on childbearing motivation. First, we offer the rationale behind our selection of particular genes for study. Next, we describe our methodology in an ongoing investigation into the antecedents of human reproductive behavior. This is followed by the presentation of our results. The section concludes with an integrative discussion and interpretation of these results."
Correspondence: W. B. Miller, Transnational Family Research Institute, 669 Georgia Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30736 Peel, Robert A. Essays in the history of eugenics: proceedings of a conference organised by the Galton Institute, London, 1997. ISBN 0-9504066-3-5. 1998. xv, 233 pp. Galton Institute: London, England. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference devoted to the history and achievements of the Galton Institute, founded in 1907 as the Eugenics Education Society. The first three papers examine the development of the eugenics movement in the United Kingdom and its efforts to apply scientific ideas to the problems of society. Particular attention is given to the relationship between the eugenics and the birth control movements. The remainder of the papers examine the role of eugenics in the development of several disciplines, including demography, human genetics, psychometrics, and biometry. There are also two papers on eugenics in France and Scandinavia, and in the United States.
The study on eugenics and demography, by Chris Langford, was previously cited in Population Index; see 64:40010.
Correspondence: Galton Institute, 19 Northfields Prospect, Northfields, London SW18 1PE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.