Volume 65 - Number 3 - Fall 1999

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

65:30647 Becker, Gary S.; Glaeser, Edward L.; Murphy, Kevin M. Population and economic growth. American Economic Review, Vol. 89, No. 2, May 1999. 145-9 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"In this short paper, we only sketch out a few features of our ongoing research on population and growth. We relate population to cities, investments in human capital, and economic growth. Although we do not explore this, our analysis has similar implications for the effects of higher population density on per capita incomes and other variables in different countries and other geographic regions."
Correspondence: G. S. Becker, University of Chicago, Department of Economics, 1126 East 59th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30648 Galor, Oded; Weil, David N. From Malthusian stagnation to modern growth. American Economic Review, Vol. 89, No. 2, May 1999. 150-4 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper examines the historical evolution of the relationship among population growth, technological change, and the standard of living. It considers several unified models that encompass the transition between three distinct regimes that have characterized the process of economic development: the `Malthusian Regime', the `Post-Malthusian Regime', and the `Modern Growth Regime'. We view the unified modeling of this long transition process, from thousands of years of Malthusian stagnation through the demographic transition of modern growth, as one of the most significant research challenges facing economists interested in growth and development."
Correspondence: O. Galor, Brown University, Department of Economics, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

K.1.2. Economic Development and Population in Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

65:30649 Bora, Bijit. Trade and investment in the APEC region: 1980 to 1993. In: International trade and migration in the APEC region, edited by Peter J. Lloyd and Lynne S. Williams. 1996. 14-31 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to review the empirical evidence on trade and investment in the APEC region. Throughout the paper an emphasis is placed on the fact that there are already strong linkages between some countries within APEC.... The paper focuses on trade and investment developments since 1980 and covers trade in goods, services and foreign direct investment flows.... The data analysis...is divided into three categories: the absolute expansion of trade and investment in the region, the changing composition of trade and investment linkages, [and] the geographical bias in the patterns of linkages."
Correspondence: B. Bora, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30650 Chandna, R. C. Development and population growth: the Indian experience. Population Geography, Vol. 18, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1996. 9-26 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"The development processes in association with the demographic trends prevailing in India have been examined in the context of such processes prevailing in South Asia in general and in comparison to [the] East Asian experience in particular.... Within India, the inter-state diversity in population growth and development has been analysed on the basis of a few select indicators including average annual population growth, couple protection rate, infant mortality rate, female literacy, mean age at marriage for females, infrastructural facilities, proportion below poverty line and the per capita income."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30651 Dang, Thu; Gendreau, Francis; Nozawa, Miki. The transition to a market economy, poverty, and demographic changes in Viet Nam. [Transition vers l'économie de marché, pauvreté et changements démographiques au Viêt Nam.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 51-70 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This chapter is in three parts. First, the authors describe Viet Nam's transformation since 1986 toward a market economy with a Socialist orientation. The second part discusses socioeconomic and geographic inequalities that have arisen during this period. The third and final part focuses on the demographic situation, with sections on health and mortality, fertility and family planning, and migration and employment. The authors conclude that it is difficult to establish whether the fertility decline is primarily due to the family planning program or to the country's economic progress. They also note that changing economic conditions have considerably increased internal migration, both to the cities and to regions with land available for cultivation.
Correspondence: T. Dang, Centre sur la Population et le Développement, 27 Tran Xuan Soan, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30652 Desta, Engdawork. Third world development and population: a reflection. Geographical Bulletin, Vol. 40, No. 1, May 1998. 24-30 pp. Ypsilanti, Michigan. In Eng.
"In a world of plenty, many countries continue to suffer from lack of basic necessities.... The reason [that] Third World countries remain underdeveloped is certainly not because of absence of resources or lack of know-how. The relationship between development and population might also be direct but it is not necessarily negative all the time. If the potentials of science and technology are released, most of the constraints of economic sustainability would probably be overcome within a few years."
Correspondence: E. Desta, ADMAS Consultants, 637 Concerto Lane, Silver Spring, MD 20901. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:30653 Ela, Jean-Marc. Population, poverty, and crises. [Population, pauvreté et crises.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 17-34 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study is concerned with the relationships among population factors, poverty, and the economic crises that many developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, are currently experiencing. The author discusses the globalization of the economies of most of these countries and examines the demographic consequences; he also points out the financial hardships caused by economic restructuring. He concludes that these harsh economic conditions are causing major changes in demographic behavior.
Correspondence: J.-M. Ela, Université Laval, Ecole de Service Social, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30654 Hao, Yan. Dependency of the Chinese elderly: an exploration. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 15, No. 2, Nov 1998. 171-86 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The paper explores the Chinese elderly's dependency, or need for assistance, in four key functional areas: physical, mental, social and economic, based on data from the 1992 National Survey on the Old-age Support System (NSOSS). The approximate indicators, selected on data availability, show that the dependency rates of the elderly differed markedly by functional area. Only a very small proportion of the elderly were physically dependent or partly dependent. In contrast, economic dependency was a common phenomenon. The dependency rates varied by age, sex and urban-rural residence. Older people, females and rural residents were more likely to have a higher need for assistance."
Correspondence: Y. Hao, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30655 Loriaux, Michel. Population and development: a global and systemic approach. [Populations et développements: une approche globale et systémique.] Population et Développement, No. 5, ISBN 2-87209-422-9. 1998. 582 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is a collection of 20 papers by various authors summarizing the results of research on the compatibility between population dynamics and sustainable development. The research was carried out from 1987 to 1995 at the International Centre for Development and Population at the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium. "The twenty or so contributors thus address themselves `systematically' to philosophical and practical questions such as the possibility of alternatives to western-style development, the links between population and development, demographic modelling, the impact of structural adjustment as well as rural and urban planning." The primary geographical focus is on developing countries.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Academia-Bruylant, Grand Rue, 25 Bte 115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30656 Mehta, S. R. Poverty, population and sustainable development: essays in honour of Professor Victor S. D'Souza. ISBN 81-7033-407-1. 1997. xii, 430 pp. Rawat Publications: Jaipur, India. In Eng.
This collection of papers, prepared in honor of Victor S. D'Souza, is a interdisciplinary effort to examine the relationships among poverty, population, and sustainable development. The primary geographical focus of the 21 papers is on developing countries, particularly India, although some papers examine the situation in the developed countries, such as the United States. Following an introductory paper, the papers are divided into three sections, which are entitled: Poverty, backwardness, social stratification, inequality and development; Population, health and development; and Sustainable development: socio-cultural and ecological dimensions.
Correspondence: Rawat Publications, 3-Na-20 Jawahar Nagar, Jaipur 302 004, India. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

65:30657 Montgomery, Mark R.; Arends-Kuenning, Mary; Mete, Cem. The quantity-quality transition in Asia. Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 123, 1999. 58 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Societies in which fertility is falling and human capital investment per child is increasing are experiencing a `quantity-quality' transition. Such transitions imply, over the long term, both slower rates of labor force growth and higher levels of human capital per worker.... The aim of this paper is to explore both the negative and positive feedbacks that have affected the quantity-quality transition in Asia."
Correspondence: Population Council, Policy Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Author's E-mail: mmontgomery@popcouncil.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30658 Nakibullah, Ashraf; Rahman, Aminur. Poverty-led higher population growth in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1-2, Mar-Jun 1996. 151-64 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the issue whether population growth is exogenous or endogenous in the economic progress of Bangladesh for the last three decades.... In particular, we use recent techniques to investigate trends in real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and population growth series of Bangladesh and use the analysis to examine whether long-run movements in population growth are related to long-run movements in real GDP per capita."
Correspondence: A. Nakibullah, University of Bahrain, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 32038, Isa Town, Bahrain. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30659 Shoeeb, Farouk; Naguib, Mohamed; Helal, Abdel G. Demographic factors and development planning in Egypt. CDC Series on Population and Development, No. 7, 1994. 22 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate some...demographic aspects and their relation to...development planning [in Egypt]. The population growth, and age composition were reviewed.... The momentum of population [growth] and aging [of the] population will [also] be discussed."
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Center, 78 Street No. 4, El-Hdhaba Elolya, Mokattam 11571, Cairo, Egypt. E-mail: cdc@frcu.eun.eg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30660 Soliman, Salwa; Abdel-Latif, Abla; El-Mahdi, Alia; Nassar, Heba; Hassan, Ahmad; El Leithy, Heba; Moustafa, Mahasen. Population and development in Egypt. CDC Series on Population and Development, No. 1, 1994. 164 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
This is the first volume in a new series on population and development. "On the occasion of convening of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, September 1994, a study group of economists and demographers...prepared a study on `Population and Development in Egypt', on behalf of Egyptian Non-Governmental Organization (NGOS) through the Sub-Committee of Economic and Development." Chapters are included on population dynamics, population as an engine for growth, population as a burden on development, population and unemployment, population and poverty, and human development.
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Center, 78 Street No. 4, El-Hdhaba Elolya, Mokattam 11571, Cairo, Egypt. E-mail: cdc@frcu.eun.eg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30661 Takouo, Dieudonné. Poverty and demographic changes in Yemessoa (Cameroon). [Pauvreté et changements démographiques à Yemessoa (Cameroun).] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 239-48 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of the demographic impact of the current African economic crisis on the town of Yemessoa in Cameroon, about 50 kilometers from the capital, Yaoundé. Data are from surveys carried out in the town in 1994 and 1995. Heads of households generally agreed that it no longer made sense to have a large number of children. The lack of job opportunities and the increasing inability of parents to provide dowries has led to a general postponement of marriage and a growing acceptance of consensual unions. Another consequence of the economic crisis has been an increase in return migration to the rural village of origin, although many return migrants envisage this step as a temporary one.
Correspondence: D. Takouo, OCISCA-ORSTOM, Institut Français de Recherche pour le Développement en Coopération, B.P. 1857, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30662 Taylor, Alan M. Growth and convergence in the Asia-Pacific region: the role of openness, trade and migration. In: International trade and migration in the APEC region, edited by Peter J. Lloyd and Lynne S. Williams. 1996. 175-94 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"This study has attempted to distil the key content of the empirical growth literature relevant to the question of how openness, trade and migration have affected growth and convergence in the Asia-Pacific Region. I surveyed a large body of impressive work, yet found the conventional reduced-form approaches wanting in terms of insight into precise growth mechanisms. Instead I added a structural approach to estimating the components of the dynamic system of economic growth. This shed some light on the mechanics of economic growth in the Asia-Pacific Region."
Correspondence: A. M. Taylor, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

K.1.3. Economic Development and Population in Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

65:30663 Artus, Patrick. The real effects of demography on the economy. [Les vrais effets de la démographie sur l'économie.] Population et Avenir, No. 641, Jan-Feb 1999. 4-5 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The impact of current demographic trends, particularly demographic aging, on the economies of developed countries is examined using the example of Japan. The author concludes that the relatively large cohorts born after World War II will bear the brunt of the economic burden: not only will their earnings be lower, but the return on their savings in old age will also be lower than that of previous cohorts.
Correspondence: P. Artus, Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30664 Auerbach, Alan J.; Oreopoulos, Philip. Analyzing the fiscal impact of U.S. immigration. American Economic Review, Vol. 89, No. 2, May 1999. 176-80 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper reconsiders the fiscal impact of immigrants [in the United States] over time.... Of particular value in the present context is that generational accounting permits us to consider not only the net contribution of immigrants to fiscal balance, but also the size of this impact relative to the overall imbalance. Generational accounting also allows us to compare changes in immigration policy to other policies in terms of their impact on fiscal balance and the welfare of different generations."
Correspondence: A. J. Auerbach, University of California, Department of Economics, Berkeley, CA 94720-3880. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30665 Corina, Giovanni A.; Honkkila, Juha; Paniccià, Renato; Popov, Vladimir. Long-term growth and welfare in transitional economies: the impact of demographic, investment and social policy changes. WIDER Working Paper, Vol. 122, LC 98-123178. Dec 1996. vii, 56 pp. United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economics Research [WIDER]: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the long-term growth and welfare impact of the transition to the market economy in the countries of Eastern Europe.... We examine four sets of factors that will influence growth and the welfare of wage earners up to the year 2030.... The overall impact of these factors is simulated by means of a mini-model which calculates changes in potential output, gross average wage, pension bill and welfare over 1990-2030. The simulation results indicate that the long-term growth of potential output will remain modest until 2020 because of the slow accumulation of both physical and human capital, and the stagnation of labor supply."
Correspondence: United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economics Research, Katajanokanlaituri 6 B, 00160 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: wider@wider.unu.edu. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30666 Demange, Gabrielle; Laroque, Guy. Social security and demographic shocks. Econometrica, Vol. 67, No. 3, May 1999. 527-42 pp. Evanston, Illinois. In Eng.
"An overlapping generations model of social security with shocks to the productivity of labor and capital and demographic shocks is studied. We focus attention on stationary long run allocations. An allocation is interim optional if there does not exist another feasible allocation that improves the expected welfare of all generations, computed conditionally on the state of the world when they are born. We characterize the set of interim optimal allocations and study the equilibria associated with various institutional forms of social security from the point of view of this optimality criterion."
Correspondence: G. Demange, DELTA, 48 Boulevard Jourdan, 75014 Paris, France. E-mail: demange@delta.ens.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:30667 France. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE] (Paris, France). Regional trends, 1998. [Tendances régionales, 1998.] Synthèses, No. 22, ISBN 2-11-066-9926. Mar 1998. 195 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is the first in a planned annual series of reports that will examine economic trends at the regional level in France. It has four sections, which analyze major trends over the course of the 1990s in territory and population, productive capacity, employment, and household income. It also includes estimates of economic activity, employment, and unemployment in the regions in 1997. The final section presents the most recent statistical data on these topics.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30668 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (Paris, France). Maintaining prosperity in an ageing society. ISBN 92-64-16093-0. LC 98-186025. 1998. 142 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"Within the next decade, the numbers of retired people in OECD countries will start to grow much faster than those of working age. In the absence of major changes to pension systems and to the way people allocate their time between education, work and leisure, it is likely that fiscal and social strains will start to emerge. Some groups may be unfairly burdened through high taxation and others would face unexpected reductions in their material living standards. The appropriate policy response is multi-faceted, covering fiscal, social, labor market, financial market, health and education policies....Through this multi-disciplinary study, the OECD points to the need to take action now by implementing a comprehensive and consistent set of policies."
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30669 Sarris, Alexander H.; Zografakis, Stavros. A computable general equilibrium assessment of the impact of illegal immigration on the Greek economy. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1999. 155-82 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the impact of illegal immigration on the economy of the small open type, like that of Greece. The theoretical analysis uses a small stylised model to show that there is no unequivocal case for illegal immigration to lead to declines in the real wages of unskilled labour and increases in the real wages of skilled. Empirical analysis using a recently constructed applied general equilibrium model for Greece, adapted to the purpose in hand, shows that the inflow of illegal immigrants has resulted in declines of the real disposable incomes of two classes of households among the fifteen modelled, namely those headed by an unskilled person, that are poor and middle income. All other households gain."
Correspondence: A. H. Sarris, University of Athens, Department of Economics, 8 Pesmazoglou Street, GR 10559 Athens, Greece. E-mail: asarris@hol.gr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30670 Sullström, Risto; Laakso, Seppo; Loikkanen, Heikki. Finnish population centres growing. Unitas, Vol. 69, No. 4, 1997. 9-15 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The authors discuss regional development in Finland. "The recent upturn in migration has spurred debate about changes in Finland's regional structure and the ways and means open to regional policymakers.... Will the future population and economic activity concentrate on a few growth areas, or will Finland remain broadly inhabited, with basic public services guaranteed in every corner of the country? Or will the course of development be somewhere between these alternatives?"
Correspondence: R. Sullström, University of Helsinki, Department of Economic and Social History, Aleksannterinkatu 7, 000100 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Stanford University Library, Stanford, CA.

65:30671 Weil, David N. Population growth, dependency, and consumption. American Economic Review, Vol. 89, No. 2, May 1999. 251-5 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"In this paper I [examine] how population growth affects the average level of utility or, more specifically, consumption per capita [in developed countries]. Further, I focus on only a single channel: the effect of population growth on the ratio of dependent consumers to working-age adults."
Correspondence: D. N. Weil, Brown University, Department of Economics, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

65:30672 Chumpitaz, Carlos C. Water and the population-environment relation in Mexico: an evaluation using environmental statistics. [El agua y la relación población-medio ambiente en México: una evaluación desde las estadísticas del medio ambiente.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 3, No. 14, Oct-Dec 1997. 33-57 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa.
The author assesses the potential use of statistics on the environment in Mexico as an instrument of information about population-environment relations. Principal data sources are described and evaluated. The focus is on water as an element in the population-environment situation. Data availability and compatibility are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30673 Courade, Georges. Food and agricultural policies. [Alimentation et politiques agricoles.] In: Populations et développements: une approche globale et systémique, edited by Michel Loriaux. 1998. 263-96 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author notes that global problems in providing adequate food supplies are generally agreed to be due to problems not of production but of distribution, and particularly to the lack of financial resources in the countries that need food aid the most. Using the example of Africa, the author discusses the extent of insecurity concerning the food supply in most countries, the levels of malnutrition, and the effect of current global economic trends such as structural adjustment on primary agricultural production. He makes the case that market forces cannot solve Africa's food problems, and that, despite the weakness of the governmental sector in many African countries, the development of efficient agricultural and food policies is essential.
Correspondence: G. Courade, Institut Français de Recherche pour le Développement en Coopération, 24 rue Bayard, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30674 Cropper, Maureen; Griffiths, Charles; Mani, Muthukumara. Roads, population pressures, and deforestation in Thailand, 1976-89. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 1729, Feb 1997. 48 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Between 1976 and 1989, Thailand lost 28 percent of its forest cover. To analyze how road building, population pressure, and geophysical factors affected deforestation in Thailand during that period, [the authors] develop a model in which the amount of land cleared, the number of agricultural households, and the size of the road network are jointly determined."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Room N10-031, Washington, D.C. 20433. E-mail: amaranon@worldbank.org. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, African Development Centre, Washington, D.C.

65:30675 Kahl, Colin H. Population growth, environmental degradation, and state-sponsored violence: the case of Kenya, 1991-93. International Security, Vol. 23, No. 2, Autumn 1998. 80-119 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author advances a hypothesis of state exploitation in an attempt to determine the relationship of population growth and environmental degradation to civil strife. "I contend that demographic and environmental stress can sometimes lead to civil strife initiated by state elites who seek to capitalize on scarcities of natural resources and related social grievances to advance their parochial interests. I also identify two key intervening variables, institutional inclusivity and groupness, that help determine the likelihood that countries plagued by severe population and environmental pressures will experience state-sponsored violence.... [I demonstrate] the plausibility of the state exploration hypothesis by examining the wave of ethnic violence that swept over Kenya between 1991 and 1993."
Correspondence: C. H. Kahl, Columbia University, Department of Political Science, New York, NY 10027. E-mail: chk12@columbia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:30676 Kidanu, Aklilu. Integration of population, environment equitable, and sustainable development issues into the curriculum of the Demographic Training and Research Centre of the Institute of Development Research at Addis Ababa University. LC 98-981235. 1996. xii, 190 pp. Addis Ababa University, Institute of Development Research: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a workshop held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, April 18-19, 1995. The contents are as follows: Population, environment and development--policy and programmatic implications of past and current situations, by Seyoum G. Selassie; Interdisciplinary and inter-agency cooperation project on environment and population education and information for human development, by R. C. Sharma; Population pressure and problems of arable land degradation in Ethiopia, by Belay Tegene; The impact of population growth and environmental degradation on biological diversity and the need for collaborative work, by Zemede Asfaw and Endashaw Bekele; Population and renewable resources in Ethiopia: with emphasis on forest, water and rangeland resource, by Tegegne G. Egziabher; The status of population and environmental education in Ethiopia: a review of the curricula, by Assefa Hailemariam and Yohannes Kinfu; and Review of training and research programs on population, and environmental studies in selected universities/institutions: learning from their experiences, by Markos Ezra.
Correspondence: Addis Ababa University, Institute of Development Research, Demographic Training and Research Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30677 Klineberg, Stephen L.; McKeever, Matthew; Rothenbach, Bert. Demographic predictors of environmental concern: it does make a difference how it's measured. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 79, No. 4, Dec 1998. 734-53 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine...systematically how the selection of a particular measure of environmental concern affects its relation to demographic variables. We first discuss four distinct ways of measuring that concern in the literature, and review the variation that previous studies report in the relationship of the various measures to background factors. We then present new data [for Texas] to show that the characteristics of a particular measure greatly affect the variables that are found to be related to it.... The only two demographic variables that are consistently correlated with environmental concern across all the different measures are age and education."
Correspondence: S. L. Klineberg, Rice University, Department of Sociology, ms 28, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251. E-mail: slk@rice.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30678 Legrand, Thomas. Global population growth and the environment: a review of the issues. [Croissance de la population mondiale et environnement: les enjeux.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 27, No. 2, Autumn 1998. 221-52, 336, 338-9 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article reviews the hypothesized effects of global population growth on the environment and considers their policy implications." The focus is on the ethical considerations of population growth; the complexity of environmental processes; the concentration of adverse effects of population growth on renewable, rather than nonrenewable, resources; the need for noncoercive efforts to slow population growth; and the impact of difficult-to-resolve political and administrative problems.
Correspondence: T. Legrand, Université de Montréal, Centre de Recherche et Développement en Economique, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Quebec H3C 3S7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30679 Mostafa, Mahasen M. Population, development and environmental policies in Egypt. CDC Series on Population and Development, No. 4, 1994. 61 pp. Cairo Demographic Center: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"This paper aims at illustrating the nature of the relationship and the interaction between population and sustainable development activities that affect environment. It also emphasises the effects of environmental degradation on population and development activities. The study also explains the environmental policies in Egypt."
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Center, 78 Street No. 4, El-Hdhaba Elolya, Mokattam 11571, Cairo, Egypt. E-mail: cdc@frcu.eun.eg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30680 Neupert, Ricardo F. Population, nomadic pastoralism and the environment in the Mongolian Plateau. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 5, May 1999. 413-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between population, economic activity and the environment in the Mongolian Plateau.... The Mongolian Plateau is shared by two entities, with two different economic and social organisation: the Republic of Mongolia and the inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.... The argument discussed here is that the difference in resource depletion and environmental degradation between the two regions is mainly the result of different population dynamics, which has resulted in different human and animal population densities.... Although the analysis presented in this paper focuses mainly on demographic dissimilarities between the pastoral societies in the two regions, institutional and policy factors are also recognised as relevant for the explanation of environmental differences."
Correspondence: R. F. Neupert, UNFPA, P.O. Box 4595, Maputo, Mozambique. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30681 Templeton, Scott R.; Scherr, Sara J. Effects of demographic and related microeconomic change on land quality in hills and mountains of developing countries. World Development, Vol. 27, No. 6, Jun 1999. 903-18 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we review and conduct a microeconomic meta-analysis of more than 70 studies to determine how and why demographic change and related variables affect production and land resources that are used for and impacted by production in hilly-mountainous areas [in developing countries].... Much of the evidence is consistent with a U-shaped graphical relationship between land productivity on the vertical axis and relative land-labor costs on the horizontal."
Correspondence: S. R. Templeton, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30682 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Population and environment dynamics, poverty and quality of life in countries of the ESCAP region. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 147, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1893. 1997. 195 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This report is the product of an ESCAP project on population and environmental dynamics, poverty, and quality of life in Asia and the Pacific. The project was carried out in four countries, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, and the Philippines. "The main purposes of the project were to highlight the impact of population growth and distribution on resources, the environment and sustainable development, and to investigate those relationships through macro- and micro-level studies. The project involved the preparation of country profiles on population, the environment, poverty, quality of life and sustainable development, with a view to enhancing awareness and appreciation of those relationships among policymakers, planners and community leaders." The report presents highlights of the discussions, major findings, and recommendations from meetings that took place over the course of the project and from country case studies prepared for those meetings.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30683 Wrigley, E. A. Corn and crisis: Malthus on the high price of provisions. Population and Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1999. 121-8, 206, 208 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author discusses "the influences that can both give rise to starvation even when the local harvest is of a normal size and yet can also leave prices largely unaffected, even in conditions of food shortage so acute that there are many famine deaths...." Malthus's essay on this topic is examined, with a focus on his analysis of the causes of price differentials and scarcity.
Correspondence: E. A. Wrigley, British Academy, 10 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5AH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

65:30684 Basu, Bharati. Efficiency wages, unemployment and international factor movements. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1998. 317-38 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the implications of unemployment resulting from efficiency wages for international factor movements in a standard Heckscher-Ohlin model where the relative size of the endowments of skilled and unskilled workers and the efficiency wage induced unemployment level in the unskilled labour market are simultaneously determined given the population, supply of capital and its distribution in the economy.... It is shown that the optimum labour inflow in the market with domestic distortion and the optimum capital inflow are always positive because they reduce the severity of distortion by raising employment and income for the residents. The income and employment of foreigners also increase. Under this situation the optimum labour or capital outflow on the other hand is always zero. These conclusions directly contradict the result obtained for international factor movements in the presence of exogenously determined unemployment."
Correspondence: B. Basu, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859. E-mail: B.BASU@cumich.edu. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, African Development Centre, Washington, D.C.

65:30685 Bernhardt, Annette; Morris, Martina; Handcock, Mark; Scott, Marc. Inequality and mobility: trends in wage growth for young adults. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 99-03, Jul 1998. 32, [8] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper compares the intragenerational mobility of two...cohorts of young white [U.S.] men: the first entered the labor market in the late 1960s, the second in the early 1980s. For each cohort, we analyze wage profiles across 16 years using a mixed-effects model. We find that long-term wage growth has both stagnated and become more unequal in recent years.... Our findings suggest a decline in the economic welfare of workers who entered the labor market in the 1980s."
Correspondence: A. Bernhardt, Columbia University, Institute on Education and the Economy, Teachers College, Box 174, 525 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027. E-mail: ab273@columbia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30686 Boyle, Paul; Cooke, Tom; Halfacree, Keith; Smith, Darren. Integrating GB and US census microdata for studying the impact of family migration on partnered women's labour market status. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 3, May-Jun 1999. 157-78 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Large microdata sample files from national censuses are increasingly being used in social science research, yet little work has been done to integrate such data-sets despite the literature that draws attention to this potential. We argue that, while such research is to be encouraged, there are problems in integrating different data-sets that must be given due attention. The example considered here is a cross-national analysis of the effects of family migration on labour market participation rates for female partners using data from the 1991 British Census Sample of Anonymised Records and the 1990 United States Public Use Microdata Sample. However, the lessons from this exercise are argued to be of more general interest. The problems we address are divided into those of: data collection, manipulation and reliability; question type and definition; and the measurement of individual and family variables. We also present some brief empirical findings from our two samples."
Correspondence: P. Boyle, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30687 Flippen, Chenoa; Tienda, Marta. Pathways to retirement: patterns of late-age labor force participation and labor market exit by race, Hispanic origin, and sex. OPR Working Paper, No. 99-1, Jan 1999. 37 pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper examines the late-aged labor force participation behavior of [U.S.] black, white, and Hispanic men and women to determine how patterns of labor market exit differ among groups.... We show that black, Hispanic, and female elderly experience more involuntary job separation in the years immediately prior to retirement, and that the resulting periods of joblessness often eventuate in `retirement' or labor force withdrawal."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Author's E-mail: tienda@opr.princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30688 Geva-May, Iris; Dean, James W. Absorption of immigrants to Israel: on remedies for market and policy myopia. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 17, No. 4, Fall 1998. 697-705 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we argue that a mismatch between the inflows of various types of human capital on the supply side and the existing employment mix of the Israeli economy on the demand side points to what we will call `market myopia.'... We define market myopia in this context to mean the inability of Israeli labor markets to provide timely employment for immigrants in the occupations and professions for which they have been trained and educated, and in which, typically, they were working before their arrival in Israel.... In our opinion what is needed is an explicit revision of strategy in light of both the new Israel and the new global economy of the 1990s."
Correspondence: I. Geva-May, University of Haifa, Department of Political Science, Mount Carmel, 31 905 Haifa, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30689 Greenlees, Clyde S.; Saenz, Rogelio. Determinants of employment of recently arrived Mexican immigrant wives. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer 1999. 354-77 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This study, based on data from the 1990 Public-Use Microdata Sample (PUMS), focuses on a multilevel analysis of the determinants of employment among married Mexican-origin women who immigrated to the United States in the 1980s. The analytical model incorporates the individual wife's human capital, family household resources, and the areal structural labor market conditions that describe the local labor environment. From this model, nine hypotheses are derived and examined through logistic regression. The results provide support for all but two of the hypotheses."
Correspondence: R. Saenz, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840-7896. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30690 Gurak, Douglas T. Ethnic differences in occupational mobility in New York State from 1980 to 1990: a cohort approach. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 98.01, [1998]. 18, [9] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This chapter uses 1980 and 1990 [U.S.] Census data to provide an improved though still imperfect image of the occupational integration of New York's ethnic minorities during the 1980s.... While the impact of continued in-migration to New York State, as well as of out-migration, will influence the evolving system of ethnic relations, how those in place are doing remains a key component of the evolving system."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30691 Le, Anh T. Self-employment and earnings among immigrants in Australia. International Migration, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1999. 383-412 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article contributes to the small Australian literature on the earnings of immigrants in the self-employment sector. Earnings functions for both the foreign-born and Australian-born are estimated, and the results show that compared with native-born workers, foreign-born workers have higher earnings in the wage/salary sector but lower earnings in the self-employment sector. Among the foreign-born, the results suggest that self-employed immigrants are less skilled compared with those who are wage/salary employed. Thus, low-skilled immigrants may be forced into self-employment."
Correspondence: A. T. Le, University of Western Australia, Department of Economics, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30692 Luxembourg. Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [STATEC] (Luxembourg). Residential mobility, sectoral mobility, and other changes in employment in Luxembourg between 1994 and 1997. [Mobilité résidentielle, mobilité sectorielle et autres changements dans l'emploi entre 1994 et 1997.] Bulletin du STATEC, Vol. 46, No. 1, 1999. 42 pp. Luxembourg. In Fre.
This report analyzes changes in the labor force in Luxembourg between 1994 and 1997. Separate consideration is given to migration, including internal migration and international migration; changes in employment among the various sectors of the economy; and new additions to the active labor force.
Correspondence: Service Central de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, B.P. 304, 6 Boulevard Royal, 2013 Luxembourg. E-mail: statec.post@statec.etat.lu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30693 Mata, Fernando; Pendakur, Ravi. Immigration, labor force integration and the pursuit of self-employment. International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer 1999. 378-402 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Using correspondence analysis, we look at age-education cohorts of male immigrants who arrived in Canada between 1945 and 1961 and compare them to similar age-education groups of Canadian-born males in order to examine shifts in employment patterns across four census periods. We find that immigrants with low levels of schooling consistently had higher rates of self-employment than similar groups of Canadian-born males, and the longer they stayed in Canada, the more likely they were to become self-employed. We posit that the pursuit of self-employment may be tied to the existence of a segmented labor market, particularly for immigrants with low and moderate levels of schooling."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30694 McKay, John. Married women and work in nineteenth century Lancashire: the evidence of the 1851 and 1861 census reports. Local Population Studies, No. 61, Autumn 1998. 25-37 pp. Colchester, England. In Eng.
"This paper sets out to re-examine the view that there was a steep decline in the employment of married women over the second half of the nineteenth century [in the United Kingdom and at the local level]. It relies largely on the printed census reports for 1851, 1861 and 1911.... By 1911 the proportion of married women working had declined somewhat in the country as a whole. However, the data in the Census Reports...in national terms, any decline in the proportion of married women in employment was much less than hitherto believed."
Correspondence: J. McKay, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30695 Smits, Jeroen. Family migration and the labour-force participation of married women in the Netherlands, 1977-1996. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 133-50 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of long-distance migration on the labour-force participation of married women in the Netherlands using data from the 1977 and 1995/96 labour-force surveys. The results show that married women who migrated in the year before the interview to another province participated less in paid employment than other married women.... In 1995/96, women with a high educational level and women who live in the Randstad experienced less negative effects of migration. At the same time, the negative effects of migration were stronger for women with children at home and for women whose husbands held prestigious jobs."
Correspondence: J. Smits, University of Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Roetersstraat 11, 1018 WB Amsterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: j.smits@fee.uva.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30696 Solé, Carlota; Ribas, Natalia; Bergalli, Valeria; Parella, Sonia. Irregular employment amongst migrants in Spanish cities. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1998. 333-46 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article presents data on the employment situation of non-European Union immigrants in Spain. This type of economic migration is heterogeneous by country of origin and level of education. Once in Spain, the majority of immigrants (most of them Moroccan) find work in domestic service (mainly women), hotel and restaurant services, the building industry and retail trade. Migrants in agriculture work in irregular situations and under worse labour conditions than all other migrants. All migrants experience difficulty in obtaining residence and labour permits. The net effect of legislation has been the construction of a category of illegal immigrants."
Correspondence: C. Solé, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociología, Departamento de Sociología, C./Aribau, 146 Bis 2, 08036 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: carlota.sole@Compuserve.com. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30697 Venturini, Alessandra. Do immigrants working illegally reduce the natives' legal employment? Evidence from Italy. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1999. 135-54 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The paper uses estimates, provided by [Italy's] Central Statistical Office, of standard units of labour to examine how immigrants working (illegally) in the shadow economy affect the employment of (legal) labour in the official economy. The results of our cross sector-time series analysis of the demand for legal labour in the Italian economy between 1980 and 1995 show that the increase of illegal units of labour produces a reduction in the use of legal labour, albeit a very limited one. An analysis by sectors shows that the competitive effect of illegal foreign workers is not homogeneous and is strongest in the agricultural sector, while complementarity between the two categories of labour is evident in the non-tradable services sector."
Correspondence: A. Venturini, University of Bergamo, Department of Economics, Piazza Rosate 2, 24100 Bergamo, Italy. E-mail: venturin@ibguniv.unibg.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30698 Wirakartakusumah, M. Djuhari; Sirait, Hisar; Hidayat, Zainul. Determinants of work and co-residence of the elderly in Indonesia. In: Some problems and issues of older persons in Asia and the Pacific. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 144, 1997. 22-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The main objective of this study is to unveil the economic, social and demographic factors which prompt senior citizens [in Indonesia] to: (a) continue working; and (b) live with their married children.... First, it describes the characteristics of senior citizens in four Indonesian provinces.... Second, it probes the ratio of co-residency, based on determinants of social, economic and demographic variables, by the elderly with their married children. Third, it looks into the social, economic and demographic factors which cause senior citizens to remain on the workforce. It also reviews the implications of their continued employment on the social life and structure of the household."
Correspondence: M. D. Wirakartakusumah, University of Indonesia, Faculty of Economics, Demographic Institute, Gedung A, Lantai 2 and 3, Depok 16424, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30699 Zarca, Bernard. Socio-occupational proximity between siblings and between their partners: a medium-term comparison. [Proximités socioprofessionnelles entre germains et entre alliés: une comparaison dans la moyenne durée.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 37-71 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author addresses intergenerational transmissions of socio-occupational position from parents to children and their partners using 1990 data for France. "The phenomenon of transmission and transfer are found to be present over time in all social categories though to varying degrees, with a trend towards a greater equality between siblings. On the other hand, The phenomena of complementarity are tending to lose their force, except among the small [group of] self-employed who form the most traditional sections of French society."
Correspondence: B. Zarca, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.