Volume 65 - Number 3 - Fall 1999

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications. Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations, as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

65:30571 Afzal, Mohammad. Population ageing issues in Pakistan: a further analysis. In: Some problems and issues of older persons in Asia and the Pacific. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 144, 1997. 44-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"[A] country case study for Pakistan was undertaken to collect data from [a] sampled elderly population [in Pakistan].... The data...included information about their socio-demographic and economic characteristics such as health conditions, living arrangements, social support and community involvement.... The first phase of the study with its main focus on analysis of data based on cross-tabulations having been completed, a further in-depth view of the ageing phenomena, including micro-level regression analysis of the information about the elderly, is presented here."
Correspondence: M. Afzal, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30572 Annie E. Casey Foundation (Baltimore, Maryland). 1999 kids count data book: state profiles of child well-being. 1999. 184 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This publication, the tenth in an annual series, presents a selection of data put together from a number of official published sources on the status of children in the United States and on trends in their well-being. The data, which are provided for the whole country and separately by state, concern low birth weight babies; infant mortality; child mortality; teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen fertility; high-school dropouts aged 16-19; teens not attending school and not working aged 16-19; children living with parents who do not have full-time, year-round employment; children in poverty; and children in single-parent families.
For a companion volume presenting similar data for cities, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Annie E. Casey Foundation, 701 St. Paul Street, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30573 Annie E. Casey Foundation (Baltimore, Maryland). City kids count: data on the well-being of children in large cities. 1997. 124 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This publication presents a selection of data put together from a number of official published sources on the status of children in the United States. The data are provided separately for each of the 50 largest cities in the country and concern low birth weight babies, infant mortality, babies born to mothers with late or no parental care, births to females under 18, high-school dropouts aged 16-19, youth aged 16-19 who were unemployed, children in households receiving public assistance, children in poverty, children in single-parent families, and children living in distressed neighborhoods. A selection of general demographic and socioeconomic data is also presented for each city.
For a companion volume presenting similar data by state, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Annie E. Casey Foundation, 701 St. Paul Street, Baltimore, MD 21202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30574 Benítez Zenteno, Raúl. The final result of the transition: the possible denial of the future of the elderly population and of the total population of Mexico. [El curso final de la transición: la negación posible del futuro de la población mayor y de la población total en México.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 17, Jul-Sep 1998. 9-13 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa.
The author briefly considers some future implications of the demographic transition that Mexico has recently experienced. The author makes the following conclusions: that the transition was encouraged by national policies that were primarily economic in orientation; that significant social costs have had to be paid by the people in achieving the transition; that the migration patterns that were part of the transition have adversely affected rural areas; and that the significant aging of the population associated with the transition will cause major problems for society in the coming years.
Correspondence: R. Benítez Zenteno, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30575 Bourdelais, Patrice. Demographic aging: a notion to revisit. History of the Family, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1999. 31-50 pp. Stamford, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The article analyzes the concept of `demographic aging', why `age 60' (years) was chosen as a threshold for the start of `aging', and how these notions have been applied in France. Since the nineteenth century, tremendous changes have occurred in the meaning of `age 60', both in terms of the social and familial roles a person of that age is expected to play, and in terms of expectations regarding such persons' productivity. The author argues that the notions of `demographic aging' and `age 60' have been conducive to a negative portrayal of old age, have served as a hindrance in the development of social policy towards aged people, have played a role in reducing the number of active people over 55 years, and have reduced medical research on the processes of aging."
Correspondence: P. Bourdelais, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 54 boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. E-mail: Patrice.Bourdelais@ehess.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30576 Bourdelais, Patrice. Special issue: the ages of life and the thresholds of age. History of the Family, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1999. 1-3 pp. JAI Press: Stamford, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers concerned with the thresholds of age. They "offer encouragement for the continued analytical use of age as category or threshold, in order to achieve an understanding of how economic and social changes or cultural constructions are involved in the use of age and how such usages affect our perceptions of how society is structured."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: JAI Press, 100 Prospect Street, Stamford, CT 06901-1640. Author's E-mail: Patrice.Bourdelais@ehess.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30577 Chambre, Dany; Poulain, Michel. Forecasting the number of centenarians in Belgium at the dawn of the twenty-first century. [Prévoir le nombre de centenaires en Belgique à l'aube du XXIe siècle.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 619-27 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Three alternative methods of projecting the number of centenarians who will be living in Belgium in the year 2010 are presented, the first two of which use official statistics and the third a database of Belgian centenarians since 1970 developed by the first author. The value of basing projections of this kind on both sources of data is stressed. The results suggest that the number of centenarians will continue to grow, but at a slower pace than in the period 1947-1994.
Correspondence: D. Chambre, Université Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30578 Children's Defense Fund (Washington, D.C.). The state of America's children: yearbook 1999. ISBN 0-8070-4199-8. 1999. xxviii, 160 pp. Beacon Press: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This book contains the annual analysis prepared by the Children's Defense Fund on the status of U.S. children and presents data on family income, child health, children and families in crisis, education, food and nutrition, adolescent pregnancy prevention, and violence, among other topics. It is designed primarily as a handbook for those working with or for children who are looking for up-to-date data and information on children in the United States.
Correspondence: Beacon Press, 25 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108-2892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30579 Gaines, Atwood D.; McDonald, Patricia E.; Wykle, May L. Aging and immigration: Who are the elderly? Journal of Immigrant Health, Vol. 1, No. 2, Apr 1999. 99-113 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present article joins two generally separate streams of research, gerontologic and immigration research in the United States. The paper considers data from several studies of seniors in Cleveland, Ohio in the 1990s; the `Black and White Caregivers' and the `Use of Services of Black and White Elderly'. These are considered not in terms of their original research goals, but rather in terms of a reflective examination of assumptions regarding the identity of the elders and caregivers that framed the two studies." The authors conclude that identifying elderly people by race tends to conceal rather than clarify ethnic and cultural differences among this population.
Correspondence: A. D. Gaines, Case Western Reserve University, Department of Anthropology, 205 Mather Memorial Building, Cleveland, OH 44106. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30580 González González, María J. The breakdown of the rural world: aging in Castilla y León. [Desarticulación del mundo rural: el envejecimiento en Castilla y León.] Estudios Geográficos, Vol. 58, No. 226, Jan-Mar 1997. 59-76 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Demographic trends in the Spanish region of Castilla y León are analyzed. The author notes that this region, which covers 19% of the national territory, contains only 7% of the total population. The region is experiencing a significant degree of demographic aging due to many causes, including both out-migration and declining fertility. Details of the aging process in the various districts and subdivisions of the region are also provided. The author sees no alternative to the region's negative demographic situation in the foreseeable future.
Correspondence: M. J. González González, Universidad de León, Campus Universitario Vegazana, 24071 León, Spain. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

65:30581 Grignon, Michel; Pennec, Sophie. On whom do the aged depend when in need? A simulation of the effect of the demographic regimes of different social classes on intergenerational support for the elderly. [De qui dépendent les personnes âgées dépendantes? Une simulation de l'effet des régimes démographiques des différentes classes sociales sur le soutien intergénérationnel aux personnes âgées.] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 654-66 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
An attempt is made to estimate the probability of older people in France who need help on a regular basis having a descendant relative in a position to help them. Comparisons are made between the situation for cohorts born in 1900, 1950, and 2000. Particular attention is given to the impact of the different demographic realities among different social classes in the same cohort. The focus is on the methodological issues involved.
Correspondence: M. Grignon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30582 Han Chande, Roberto. Implications of demographic aging for welfare planning. [Implicaciones del envejecimiento en la planeación del bienestar.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 17, Jul-Sep 1998. 31-8 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa.
The implications of demographic aging for the future planning of socioeconomic welfare for the elderly in Mexico are considered. The inevitability of the demographic aging process is first established. Next, the relationship between demographic aging and development is considered. Finally, the author spells out the problems of providing for the needs of the elderly, particularly in the area of social security and health.
Correspondence: R. Han Chande, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30583 Hansen, Dorthe; Møller, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn. Severe periconceptional life events and the sex ratio in offspring: follow up study based on five national registers. British Medical Journal, Vol. 319, No. 7209, Aug 28, 1999. 548-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Exposure to floods and earthquakes is associated with a lower proportion of male to female children conceived at the time of the disaster. To test the hypothesis that exposure to severe life events before conception might also reduce the sex ratio [the authors] studied all births to Danish women in 1980-92.... They identified 3,072 pregnancies where the mother's partner or children had been admitted to hospital with cancer or myocardial infarction or had died in the year of birth or previous year. The proportion of boys was 49.0% in the exposed group and 51.2% among controls. The nearer the exposure was to conception, the lower the sex ratio."
Correspondence: D. Hansen, John F. Kennedy Institute, G1 Landevej 7, 2600 Glostrup, Denmark. E-mail: d209325@inet.uni2.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:30584 Heigl, Andreas; Rosenkranz, Doris. On the dependency situation of elderly persons requiring care upon mortality and migration in Germany. Results of demographic projections. Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1995. 221-32 pp. Bicester, England. In Eng.
"After almost 20 years of reform discussions in Germany, a new political regulation came into force on 1 January 1995, in order to substantiate requiring care--elderly primary care (Pflegeversicherung). The demographic development in Germany represents one point of reference for considerations on how to finance and legally regulate such a validation. The number of persons requiring care at all ages in Germany is estimated to have presently reached about 1.65 million. Thus, as far as the general population is concerned, requiring care does not represent a serious risk. However, with growing age the need for care does become a `typical' situation in life: about ten per cent of persons aged over 65 were in need of care in 1993, and one third of those aged over 80."
Correspondence: A. Heigl, University of Bamberg, Institute for Population Studies, 96047 Kapuzinestraße, Bamberg, Germany. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, African Development Centre, Washington, D.C.

65:30585 Kabir, M. Humayun. Community perception of the problems of the aged population in Bangladesh. In: Some problems and issues of older persons in Asia and the Pacific. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 144, 1997. 1-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)...in 1993 sponsored a study on the elderly in Bangladesh. The goal of the study was to research more detailed information on the profile and characteristics of aged people, and especially their economic participation and dormant potential. The purpose behind the collection of such information was to suggest ways and means of bringing them into the mainstream of economic and social development at the local level so that they can contribute to their immediate families and communities, and society at large.... This report is the outcome of that research...."
Correspondence: M. H. Kabir, Dhaka University, Institute of Statistical Research and Training, Ramna, Dhaka 2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30586 Krach, Constance A.; Velkoff, Victoria A. Centenarians in the United States. Current Population Reports, Series P-23: Special Studies, No. 199 RV, Jul 1999. iii, 18 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report focuses on the characteristics of those people identified as centenarians in the 1990 Census of Population and Housing for the United States. While its purpose is not to provide the definitive answer to the number of people aged 100 or above in 1990, this report does give a range of estimates." Information is provided on educational status, marital status, poverty status, disability, nativity, geographical distribution, international comparisons, data quality issues, and past census counts.
Correspondence: V. A. Velkoff, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. E-mail: vvelkoff@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30587 Martel, Laurent. How much isolation during old age are women of the baby-boom likely to experience? [Quel isolement durant la vieillesse pour les femmes à l'origine du baby-boom?] In: Morbidité, Mortalité: Problèmes de Mesure, Facteurs d'Evolution, Essai de Prospective. Colloque international de Sinaia (2-6 septembre 1996). 1998. 639-53 pp. Association Internationale des Démographes de Langue Française [AIDELF]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
The objective of this study is to estimate the extent to which the women who were mothers during the baby boom in Canada are likely to be on their own in their old age. The likely presence of both husbands and children is examined. The results show that, in 1991, 33.5% of women aged 65-69 lived alone, and that 6% of women had neither spouse nor child to come to their aid in time of need. The author concludes that women who were mothers in a period of high fertility were no better off than women in other periods.
Correspondence: L. Martel, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30588 Palomba, Rossella. Gender and Genus. [Il genere e Genus.] Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 317-25 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The article analyzes the last ten [years of the journal] Genus from a gender perspective, conceived as a method for exploring male-female relations. 164 articles were examined; 46 were selected because [they were] gender-related. The study shows the difficulties faced by researchers in interpreting and highlighting differences between men and women, when abandoning traditional ways of thinking and data collecting."
Correspondence: R. Palomba, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. E-mail: palomba@irp.rm.cnr.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30589 Partida Busch, Virgilio. The demographic determinants of the aging of the population. [Los determinantes demográficos del envejecimiento de la población.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 17, Jul-Sep 1998. 15-22 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa.
The extent to which changes in the major demographic variables have caused the aging of the population of Mexico is analyzed. These factors include the decline in mortality since 1950, the increase in international migration since 1950, and the decline in fertility since 1963. These effects are illustrated using a series of age pyramids with and without the impact of the factor under consideration.
Correspondence: V. Partida Busch, Consejo Nacional de Población, Avenida Angel Urraza 1137, Col. Del Valle, C.P. 03100 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30590 Peterson, Peter G. Gray dawn: how the coming age wave will transform America--and the world. ISBN 0-8129-3195-5. LC 98-47749. 1999. viii, 280 pp. Times Books: New York, New York. In Eng.
The case is made that global aging will become the transcendent political and economic issue of the twenty-first century. The author argues that, as a consequence of this global aging, renegotiating the established social contract will soon dominate the public policy agendas of the world's developed countries. He points out that by the 2030s, over half of the population of today's developed countries and about two-thirds of their voters will be near or beyond today's eligibility age for publicly financed retirement. He therefore asks questions about who will be doing the work, paying the taxes, saving for the future, and raising the next generation. Some alternative ways to resolve these problems are proposed.
Correspondence: Times Books, Random House, 201 East 50th Street, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30591 Poterba, James M. Population age structure and asset returns: an empirical investigation. NBER Working Paper, No. 6774, Oct 1998. 39 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the association between population age structure, particularly the share of the population in the `prime saving years' 45-60, and the returns on stocks and bonds. The paper is motivated by the claim that the aging of the `Baby Boom' cohort in the United States is a key factor in explaining the recent rise in asset values. It also addresses the associated claim that asset prices will decline when this large cohort reaches retirement age and begins to reduce its asset holdings. This paper begins by considering household age-asset accumulation profiles. Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances suggest that while cross-sectional age-wealth profiles peak for households in their early 60s, cohort data on the asset ownership of the same households show a much less pronounced peak.... The paper then considers the historical relationship between demographic structure and real returns on Treasury bills, long-term government bonds, and corporate stock. The results do not suggest any robust relationship between demographic structure and asset returns.... The paper concludes by discussing factors such as international capital flows and forward-looking behavior on the part of market participants that could weaken the relationship between age structure and asset returns in a single nation."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: poterba@mit.edu. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:30592 Serow, William J.; Cowart, Marie E. Demographic transition and population aging with Caribbean nation states. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, Vol. 13, 1998. 201-13 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper considers the role which the demographic parameters of fertility, mortality and migration will play on the pace and concentration of aging within the context of a developing region. This paper examines the demographic transition and analyzes historic and projected data for the development patterns of the anglophone nation states of the Caribbean. Trends in fertility, mortality, and migration are contrasted among the larger..., mid-sized...and smaller...states. The paper then goes on to consider shifts in the structure of population at older ages due to the decline in fertility and mortality...."
Correspondence: W. J. Serow, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, 659-C Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2240. E-mail: wserow@coss.fsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30593 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). Population growth and demographic structure. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Growth and Demographic Structure, Paris, 16-20 November 1992. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/132, Pub. Order No. E.99.XIII.7. ISBN 92-1-151331-6. 1999. xiii, 313 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of one of the six expert group meetings convened by the United Nations in preparation for the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. This meeting focused on the relationship between population growth and the demographic structure of the population. It contains the recommendations of the meeting, the 14 background papers prepared for it, and 7 discussion notes. The background papers are: Population growth and changes in the demographic structure: trends and diversity, by the UN Secretariat; Reversal of the effects of population growth on economic growth since the end of the 1970s: reality or artefact?, by Didier Blanchet; Development in the context of rapid population growth: an overall assessment, by T. N. Srinivasan; Determinants of a demographic transition in predominantly rural countries, by Uma Lele and Michael Martin; Demographic transition and social development in low-income countries, by Maria-Eugenia Cosio-Zavala; Impact of spatial patterns of development and population redistribution on the demographic transition, by George Martine and J. A. M. de Carvalho; Demographic and epidemiologic trends affecting health policy in developing countries, by Kevin Kinsella; Demographic and developmental consequences of the AIDS epidemic in Africa, by I. O. Orubuloye; Population growth, employment expansion and industrialization: lessons from Latin America and the newly industrialized economies, by Eudardo Rios-Neto; Population growth, education and employment in Latin America, with an illustration from Bolivia, by George Psacharopoulos and Sandra Rosenhouse; The role of the elderly and their support within changing family structures in developing countries, by Poo Chang Tan; Ageing and women in developing countries: examination of issues from a cohort perspective, by Lita J. Domingo; Economic and social implications of population ageing, by George J. Stolnitz; and A growing challenge: the very old, by Jenny de Jong-Gierveld, Pearl Dykstra, and Erik Beekink. The discussion notes primarily look at the demographic structure of the world's regions.
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, DC2 1950, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30594 United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). World population prospects: the 1998 revision. Volume II: sex and age. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/180, Pub. Order No. E.99.XIII.8. ISBN 92-1-151332-4. 1999. ix, 883 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The tables presented in this volume are from the 1998 UN revision of its official world population estimates and projections, the sixteenth round of such estimates and projections undertaken by the UN Population Division. It is part of a three-volume set; the other volumes contain the more comprehensive tables and a description of the results, methods, and sources. The data provided here are for the population by sex and age for the world, its regions, and individual countries for the period 1950-2050. Medium, high, and low variants of the projections are included. The data are also available on magnetic tape and diskettes that can be purchased.
For a related volume with more comprehensive tables, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, DC2 1950, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30595 Velkoff, Victoria A. Age structures of the former Soviet Republics. In: Population under duress: the geodemography of post-Soviet Russia, edited by George J. Demko, Grigory Ioffe, and Zhanna Zayonchkovskaya. 1999. 3-16 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The age structures of the fifteen former Soviet republics represent very different demographic histories...[and] have different policy implications for the new governments of these countries. The European and Baltic areas must plan for the needs of aged populations, whereas the Central Asian countries must plan for the needs of relatively young populations. Before considering the different population demands that will be placed on these new countries, it is necessary to examine the past trends in fertility and mortality that are responsible for shaping these age and sex structures."
Correspondence: V. A. Velkoff, U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs, Silver Spring, MD. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

65:30596 Freundl, Günter. Present stage of knowledge of reproductive biology concerning natural family planning. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 57-74 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The common cycle length variation of the woman's cycle in a healthy population is five days.... We believe that the temperature shift in the middle of the cycle is caused by the peripheral effect of estradiol and progesterone on the peripheral circulation. The time from the beginning of the development of an individual spermatozoa to the appearance of a ripe spermatozoon in the ejaculate is about three months. The lifespan of the ripe oocyte is 18-24 hours. The duration of fertilizing capacity of sperm can be five days with decreasing probability; in very rare cases it can be seven days. The probability of conception in our very simple model was 33.3% at ovulation day (day 0)."
Correspondence: G. Freundl, Frauenklinik, Städt. Krankenhaus D-Benrat, Urdenbacher Allee 83, 40593 Düsseldorf, Germany. E-mail: freundlg@uni-duesseldorf.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30597 Graham, Maureen J.; Larsen, Ulla; Xu, Xiping. Secular trend in age at menarche in China: a case study of two rural counties in Anhui Province. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 31, No. 2, Apr 1999. 257-67 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data from a community-based survey conducted in two rural counties of Anhui Province in China indicate a...downward secular trend in age at menarche for Chinese women.... This rapid decrease in age at menarche may partly be due to better nutrition and living standards reflected by the improved socioeconomic standards experienced in China over the past few decades. To test this hypothesis, a number of determinants of age at menarche were assessed; year of birth, literacy status, county of residence, amount of physical labour, general health status, pesticide exposure before age at menarche, and drinking water source were all found to be associated with age at menarche."
Correspondence: M. J. Graham, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30598 Halpern, Carolyn T.; Udry, J. Richard. Pubertal changes in testosterone and implications for adolescent sexuality. In: Advances in population: psychosocial perspectives, Volume 3, edited by Lawrence J. Severy and Warren Miller. 1999. 127-62 pp. Jessica Kingsley Publishers: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter describes a series of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of adolescent sexuality that was initiated by J. R. Udry and colleagues in the late 1970s. These studies were based on an endocrine-behavior theory, and attempted to fill in some of the gaps left by other theoretical approaches to adolescent sexuality." The results "are consistent with an endocrine-behavior model proposing that pubertal increases in T [testosterone] directly contribute to the timing of sexual initiation during adolescence and to the frequency of sexual experiences." The data are from the United States.
Correspondence: C. T. Halpern, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 East Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30599 Izmirlian, Grant; Brock, Dwight; Ferrucci, Luigi; Phillips, Caroline. Active life expectancy from annual follow-up data with missing responses. In: 1997 proceedings of the section on government statistics and section on social statistics. [1997]. 159-64 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"We present a method which uses regression-smoothed annual transition probabilities to estimate ALE and DLE [active and disabled life expectancy]. The technique makes use of multiple follow-up interviews and allows for missing values in ADL [articles of daily living] status.... An analysis of several cofactor effects upon ALE and DLE is presented using data from [an Iowa epidemiological survey]."
Correspondence: G. Izmirlian, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Aging, EDB, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30600 Jeune, Bernard; Vaupel, James W. Validation of exceptional longevity. Odense Monographs on Population Aging, Vol. 6, ISBN 87-7838-466-4. 1999. 249 pp. Odense University Press: Odense, Denmark. In Eng.
This is a selection of studies by various authors on the problems associated with validating claims of exceptional longevity. "The history of longevity is a history of myths. This volume shows that most reported instances of exceptional longevity are incorrect. This was the rule everywhere until the end of the 19th century and is still the case in the vast majority of countries. It is only when reliable birth registrations are available for a century or more and when reports of ages above 100 are systematically checked against these data that the quality of national statistics on exceptional longevity improves. Several chapters of this volume provide further evidence that genuine centenarians before 1800 were nonexistent or at least extremely rare."
Correspondence: Odense University Press, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark. E-mail: Press@forlag.sdu.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30601 Mirowsky, John. Subjective life expectancy in the U.S.: correspondence to actuarial estimates by age, sex and race. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 7, Oct 1999. 967-79 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This study maps the relationship between subjective and actuarial life expectancy in a 1995 national sample of 2,037 Americans of ages 18-95. Subjective estimates parallel age-specific actuarial ones based on current age-specific mortality rates. However males expect to live about 3 years longer than the actuarial estimate and blacks expect to live about 6 years longer. The apparent optimism remains after adjusting for socioeconomic status and the signs and symptoms of good health. Contrary to economists' rational-expectations hypothesis, young adults do not adjust their life expectancies upward to account for the favorable trends in mortality rates."
Correspondence: J. Mirowsky, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 300 Bricker Hall, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. E-mail: mirowsky.1@osu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30602 Monari, Paola; Montanari, Angela. Length of menstrual cycles and their variability. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 95-118 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The paper presents a study on the length of [the human] menstrual cycle and of its phases [using] a data base provided by the Catholic Marriage Advisory Council of London.... An original aspect of the research is the identification of classes of gynecological age, that is age groups homogeneous as far as the cycle length or the length of its phases is concerned. In spite of the evident dominance of the preovulatory phase length on the total cycle length, the work has evidenced a strong compensatory effect between the pre and postovulatory phases, which leads the total cycle length to concentrate around 27-28 days.... A method to determine a distribution model for cycle length is proposed via kernel density estimation."
Correspondence: P. Monari, Università di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, Via Belle Arti 41, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population, and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation.

65:30603 Agree, Emily M.; Biddlecom, Ann E.; Valente, Thomas W. Multi-generational exchanges in Taiwan and the Philippines: a social network approach. Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 99-06, 1999. 28 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Resource exchanges among multiple family generations are examined using social network measures. A specific focus is on pathways through which older adults transfer resources from one generation to another. The paper uses data that provide...information on transfers in family networks: the 1996 Philippine Survey of the Near Elderly and Elderly and the 1989 Taiwan Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly. Measures of the direction and intensity of exchange are examined to identify similarities and differences between the two countries, and likely explanations for these patterns are discussed. Findings show that although the availability of and coresidence with specific types of family generations appear to be quite similar in both countries, there are substantial differences in the amount and nature of family exchanges."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: E. M. Agree, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. E-mail: eagree@jhsph.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30604 Bauman, Kurt J. Shifting family definitions: the effect of cohabitation and other nonfamily household relationships on measures of poverty. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Aug 1999. 315-25 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"The current official poverty measure compares income to needs within a family.... I explore issues involved in expanding the unit of analysis, including the stability of cohabiting and other nonfamily household relationships and the degree of resource sharing that takes place among different types of people within households. Instability in households with nonfamily members is not a serious problem for inferring poverty from cross-sectional studies. On the other hand, income from people in nonfamily household roles contributes slightly less to helping other household members avoid financial hardship, implying that nonfamily housemates have a greater tendency to keep income to themselves."
Correspondence: K. J. Bauman, U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233-8800. E-mail: kurt.j.bauman@ccmail.census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30605 Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W. Language skills and earnings among legalized aliens. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1999. 63-89 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper uses the data on males and females from the 1989 [U.S.] Legalized Population Survey (LPS), a sample of aliens granted amnesty under 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act, to analyse English language proficiency and earnings.... English language proficiency is greater for those with more schooling, who immigrated at a younger age, who have been in the United States longer, with a more continuos stay, and who have less access to other origin language speakers where they live. Earnings are higher by about 8% for men and 17% for women who are proficient in both speaking and reading English, compared to those lacking both skills."
Correspondence: B. R. Chiswick, University of Illinois, Department of Economics (M/C 144), 601 South Morgan Street, Chicago, IL 60607-7121. E-mail: brchis@uic.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30606 Conning Insurance Research and Publications (Hartford, Connecticut). 21st century demographics for the life-health industry: seizing the day, 1997. Strategic Study Series, LC 98-211094. 1998. 109 pp. Hartford, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper will address five issues that represent the major demographic trends facing the [United States] today and into the next millennium. For each demographic issue, we will examine its specific influences on the life, health and retirement (pension) markets. The five issues are: An aging population, a recent wave of immigration, increasing income inequality and economic volatility, social fragmentation--changes in household composition, [and] the rise of small business and self-employment."
Correspondence: Conning Insurance Research and Publications, City Place II, 185 Asylum Street, Hartford, CT 06103-4105. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30607 El-Sakka, M. I. T.; McNabb, Robert. The macroeconomic determinants of emigrant remittances. World Development, Vol. 27, No. 8, Aug 1999. 1,493-502 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper considers the macroeconomic determinants of migrants' remittances to their countries of origin. In contrast to some previous analyses, we find, using data for Egypt, that both exchange rate and interest rate differentials are important in attracting remittance flows through official channels. We also find that imports financed through remittance earnings have a very high income elasticity which suggests either that these imports are consumer durables and luxury goods or that they are undertaken by higher income groups."
Correspondence: M. I. T. El-Sakka, University of Kuwait, Safat 13096, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:30608 Foster, William. The impact of immigration on incomes in the destination country. In: International trade and migration in the APEC region, edited by Peter J. Lloyd and Lynne S. Williams. 1996. 195-209 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England; Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"The present chapter addresses one aspect of immigration's economic impact--its long-term effect on destination-country incomes.... The chapter's key questions are...how immigration might affect the average level of income, or `living standards' of the destination country, and how it might affect the destination country's distribution of income between groups and across individuals. The chapter focuses almost entirely on the effects of permanent immigration.... The chapter also focuses specifically on the long-term effects of immigration.... [The data] relate mainly to Australia...but immigration and research perspectives from Canada, New Zealand and the USA are also incorporated where appropriate."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:30609 Gittleman, Maury; Joyce, Mary. Have family income mobility patterns changed? Demography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Aug 1999. 299-314 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We examine the mobility of individuals in the United States based on equivalent family income--that is, total income of all family members adjusted for family size according to the equivalence scale implicit in the U.S. poverty line. Our analysis, which tracks movements across quintiles, centers on four questions: How much movement is there across the family income distribution? How has this mobility changed over time? To what extent are the movements attributable to factors related to changes in family composition versus events in the labor markets? In light of major socioeconomic changes occurring in the quarter-century under study, have the determinants of mobility changed over time? Our findings indicate that mobility rates in the 1980s differed little from those in the 1970s."
Correspondence: M. Gittleman, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30610 Hentschel, Jesko; Lanjouw, Jean O.; Lanjouw, Peter; Poggi, Javier. Combining census and survey data to study spatial dimensions of poverty. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 1928, 1998. 31 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors "demonstrate how sample survey data and census data can be combined to yield predicted poverty rates for all households covered by the census. This represents an improvement over ad hoc poverty maps. However, standard errors on the estimated poverty rates are not negligible, so additional efforts to cross-check results are warranted."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Room MC3-555, Washington, D.C. 20433. E-mail: planjouw@worldbank.org. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, African Development Centre, Washington, D.C.

65:30611 Hinde, Andrew; Turnbull, Fiona. The populations of two Hampshire workhouses, 1851-1861. Local Population Studies, No. 61, Autumn 1998. 38-53 pp. Colchester, England. In Eng.
"Shortly after the New Poor Law was introduced in 1834, the workhouse became a fully integrated part of the system of poor relief in most of southern and eastern England.... Unfortunately, in practice, things did not work out quite as straightforwardly as the architects of the New Poor Law had supposed.... If...the workhouses did not, generally, contain the underemployed able-bodied poor who had been habitual recipients of relief under the Old Poor Law, who did end up being admitted?" The authors characterize the workhouse population according to age and sex, population dynamics, and poverty category.
Correspondence: A. Hinde, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30612 James, Estelle. New systems for old age security: theory, practice, and empirical evidence. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 1766, May 1997. 41 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author "summarizes the major findings and recommendations in Averting the Old Age Crisis, describing problems in traditional pension systems and proposals for reform. Then she describes how those reforms are being implemented in many countries and examines empirical evidence about pension reform's impact on growth."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Room N8-024, Washington, D.C. 20433. E-mail: skhan@worldbank.org. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, African Development Centre, Washington, D.C.

65:30613 Jarvis, Sarah; Jenkins, Stephen P. Marital splits and income changes: evidence from the British Household Panel Survey. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 2, Jul 1999. 237-54 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"We provide new evidence about what happens to people's incomes when their or their parents' marital union dissolves using longitudinal data from waves 1-4 of the British Household Panel Survey. Marital splits are accompanied by substantial declines in real income for separating wives and children on average, whereas separating husbands' real income on average changes much less.... In addition we analyse the extent to which the welfare state mitigates the size of the income loss for women and children relative to men, and document the accompanying changes in social assistance benefit receipt and paid work, and maintenance income receipt and payment."
Correspondence: S. Jarvis, University of Essex, Institute for Social and Economic Research, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30614 Johnson, Paul; Stears, Gary. Why are older pensioners poorer? Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 60, No. 3, Aug 1998. 271-90 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We show that older [UK] male pensioners have substantially lower incomes than younger pensioners.... We find that cohort differences more than account for the lower incomes of older pensioners in the sense that the mean income of older pensioners is actually higher than the mean income of the same cohort of pensioners when they were younger. We explore a number of possible reasons for this and conclude that it is driven by differential mortality between richer and poorer pensioners. We show how this manifests itself in a long time series of cross-sectional datasets."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30615 Kloosterman, Robert C.; van der Leun, Joanne; Rath, Jan. Across the border: immigrants' economic opportunities, social capital and informal business activities. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1998. 249-68 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"In this article, we [explore] the relationship between informal economic activities and recent immigrants in the Netherlands.... We will give an overview of important trends on both the demand and the supply side of entrepreneurial activities in the informal economy. We argue that the potential for informal economic activities by immigrants in large Dutch cities has been growing since the early 1980s. After having outlined this analytical framework, we examine some recent evidence on informal economic activities by immigrants in the Netherlands, especially in the bakeries sector, before concluding the discussion."
Correspondence: R. C. Kloosterman, Technical University Delft, OTB Research Institute for Policy and Technology, P.O. Box 5030, 2600 GA Delft, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30616 Levine, Elaine. The declining socioeconomic prospects of Latinos of Mexican origin in the United States. [Perspectivas socioeconómicas decrecientes para latinos de origen mexicano en Estados Unidos.] Papeles de Población, Vol. 4, No. 17, Jul-Sep 1998. 139-72 pp. Toluca, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This document analyzes how the changes in the labor market conditions in the U.S. and the ongoing crisis in Mexico interact to create conditions under which it becomes increasingly more difficult for Mexican immigrants and their children to advance economically in the U.S. Even for second and third generation of [Latinos] from Mexico the educational levels, and hence wage and salary levels, are extremely low. Given the transformation that currently characterize the U.S. labor market--the growth of the service sector employment and a decline in the number of manufacturing jobs, the increased participation of women and [Latinos] in the labor force, and the rising number of contingent workers--the future perspectives for [Latinos] from Mexico, and even [Latinos] in general, do not look good."
Correspondence: E. Levine, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Investigaciones sobre América del Norte, Ciudad Universitaria, Del. Coyacán 04510, México, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30617 Newbold, K. Bruce. Outmigration from California: the role of migrant selectivity. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 30, No. 2, Apr 1998. 138-52 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the income selectivity of outmigrants from California [United States]. It was hypothesized that poorly educated migrants are negatively self-selective and the better educated would be positively self-selective. Using data derived from the1990 PUMS data file, this paper studies the effects of expected wage differentials in determining the selectivity of outmigrants from California.... Results reveal no significant or systematic selectivity of the better educated migrants, while self-selection was more important among the poorly educated nonmigrants."
Correspondence: K. B. Newbold, University of Illinois, Department of Geography, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:30618 Noumbissi, Amadou; Sanderson, Jean-Paul. Poverty and demographic behavior in Cameroon: looking for an indicator of poverty. [Pauvreté et comportements démographiques au Cameroun: à la recherche d'un indicateur de pauvreté.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 149-63 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The extent to which the demographic behavior of the poorest sections of a society differs from that of other groups is examined using the example of Cameroon. Data are from the 1991 Demographic and Health Survey. Specifically, the authors attempt to answer the following questions: Is poverty an obstacle or an incentive to changes in demographic behavior? Does poverty give rise to or block declines in mortality and fertility? And does poverty exaggerate the diversity of demographic responses in matters of nuptiality, contraception, and health?
Correspondence: A. Noumbissi, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. E-mail: noumbissi@demo.ucl.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30619 Pezzin, Liliana E.; Schone, Barbara S. Parental marital disruption and intergenerational transfers: an analysis of lone elderly parents and their children. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Aug 1999. 287-97 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using a sample of lone elderly [U.S.] parents and their adult children, we analyze the direct and indirect effects of marital disruption on four important dimensions of intergenerational transfers: coresidence, financial assistance, adult children's provision of informal care, and parental purchase of paid care. Our findings suggest that divorce has deleterious effects on intergenerational transfers, particularly for elderly fathers. Remarriage further reduces exchange. Our results reveal that parents engage in lower levels of transfers with stepchildren relative to biological children. Moreover, intergenerational transfers are sensitive to characteristics of biological children but not to those of stepchildren. Taken together, these results suggest that exchange at the end of the life course continues to be adversely affected by marital disruption."
Correspondence: L. E. Pezzin, Hopkins Center on the Demography of Aging, 600 North Wolfe Street, Marburg B-186, Baltimore, MD 21287-2080. E-mail: lpezzin@jhmi.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30620 Plane, David A. Geographical pattern analysis of income migration in the United States. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 3, May-Jun 1999. 195-212 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"How one conceptualises the impacts of migration depends on whether one takes the viewpoint of aggregate area-level income change, of per capita change, or of longer-term (future earnings) change. Several empirical analytical measures are proposed in order to conceptualise the various income impacts of migration.... [A] decomposition procedure is developed for examining how the changes in per capita income of states reflect three different income differentials: those between (a) in-migrants and `stayers', (b) out-migrants and `stayers', and (c) in-migrants and out-migrants. Examination of these measures, and of typologies based on them, highlights how income migration significantly and differentially impacts upon U.S. states. The methods are illustrated here in the context of an important new American data source: the 1993-94 migrant income data released by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service."
Correspondence: D. A. Plane, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Tucson, AZ 85721. E-mail: plane@u.arizona.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30621 Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L. Undocumented workers in the labor market: an analysis of the earnings of legal and illegal Mexican immigrants in the United States. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1999. 91-116 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper studies the differences in earnings between Mexican legal and illegal immigrants in the United States. The analysis includes a cross-sectional examination of the wage differences between legal and undocumented workers as well as a longitudinal analysis examining the impact of legalization on the earnings of previously-undocumented workers. It is shown that the average hourly wage rate of male Mexican legal immigrants in the United States was 41.8% higher than that of undocumented workers while female legal immigrants earned 40.8% more."
Correspondence: F. L. Rivera-Batiz, Columbia University, Department of Economics, New York, NY 10027. E-mail: flr9@columbia.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

65:30622 Aprile, Rocco; Palombi, Massimo. Demographic trends and teaching staff costs: the case of Italy. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 265-84 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"The State General Accounting Office [of Italy] has developed a model for projecting teaching staff. The model enables us to measure the effects of demographic scenarios and personnel policy alternatives, and can take future disequilibria explicitly into account in a calculation of permanent staff redundancies and substitute assignments. The central scenario of the national institute of statistics indicates a decline amounting to 271,000 teachers by 2045, but only a third of this will translate into effective savings in relation to GDP."
Correspondence: R. Aprile, Ragioneria Generale dello Stato, Via F. Depero 24, 00155 Rome, Italy. E-mail: r.aprile@mailer3.finsiel.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30623 Bawah, Ayaga A.; Akweongo, Patricia; Simmons, Ruth; Phillips, James F. Women's fears and men's anxieties: the impact of family planning on gender relations in northern Ghana. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 30, No. 1, Mar 1999. 54-66 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The Navrongo experiment, a family planning and health project in northern Ghana, has demonstrated that an appropriately designed, community-based family planning program can produce a change in contraceptive practice that had been considered unattainable in such a setting. Simultaneously, however, evidence suggests that newly introduced family planning services and contraceptive availability can activate tension in gender relations.... Data from focus-group discussions with men and women are examined in this report and highlight the strains on gender relations resulting from contraceptive use. The measures taken to address this problem and methods of minimizing the risk of adverse social consequences are discussed."
Correspondence: A. A. Bawah, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30624 Chiemprachanarakorn, Chalermkwun; Lucas, David; McMurray, Chris. Why do some Thai students drop out after 6 years of compulsory primary schooling? Working Papers in Demography, No. 79, 1999. 21 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The objectives of this study are first, to examine the underlying factors which may influence Thai students to dropout at the end of six years compulsory primary education; second, to explore the association between the individual characteristics of children, households, household heads and mothers; third, to use bivariate and multivariate analysis to determine which factors have the strongest association with the risk of dropping out."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30625 Filmer, Deon; King, Elizabeth M.; Pritchett, Lant. Gender disparity in South Asia: comparisons between and within countries. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 1867, 1998. 50, [9] pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using data assembled from the Demographic Health Surveys of over 50 countries and from the National Family Health Surveys of individual states in India, [the authors] create a new data set of comparable indicators of gender disparity.... The level of gender disparities in health and education outcomes for girls in South Asia is the highest in the world.... There is almost no correlation between per capita income and the gender disparities in health and education outcomes."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Room MC3-638, Washington, D.C. 20433. E-mail: sfallon@worldbank.org. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, African Development Centre, Washington, D.C.

65:30626 Filmer, Deon; Pritchett, Lant. The effect of household wealth on educational attainment: evidence from 35 countries. Population and Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, Mar 1999. 85-120, 206, 208 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The authors use household survey data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 44 surveys (in 35 countries) to document different patterns in the enrollment and attainment of children from rich and poor households... There are three major findings. First, the enrollment profiles of the poor differ across countries but fall into distinctive regional patterns.... Second, there are enormous differences across countries in the `wealth gap', the difference in enrollment and educational attainment of the rich and poor.... Third, the attainment profiles can be used as diagnostic tools to suggest issues in the educational system, such as the extent to which low attainment is attributable to physical unavailability of schools."
Correspondence: D. Filmer, World Bank, Development Research Group, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30627 Guérin-Pace, France; Blum, Alain. The comparative illusion: the conception and application of an international survey of illiteracy. [L'illusion comparative: les logiques d'élaboration et d'utilisation d'une enquête internationale sur l'illettrisme.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 271-302 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article analyses the comparability of a series of surveys conducted in several OECD countries with the aim of measuring individual reading ability in everyday situations.... Discussion focuses first on the scope for adapting to different national contexts questions intended to construct a measurement. Second, the variations in actual cultural practices in relation to such a survey are examined from the perspective of individual behaviour. The conclusion is that this survey was carried out in conditions which do not allow a comparability of the results and that consequently it is hard to determine what has in fact been measured."
Correspondence: F. Guérin-Pace, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: guerin@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30628 Guo, Guang; VanWey, Leah K. Sibship size and intellectual development: Is the relationship causal? American Sociological Review, Vol. 64, No. 2, Apr 1999. 169-206 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this study, we test the alternative interpretation of the effect of sibship size on a child's intellectual development through sibling analysis and analysis of repeated measures of the same individuals. Both analyses are variations of change models or fixed-effects models. Change models enable us to control permanent family effects including family socioeconomic status (SES), family genetic makeup, and intellectual atmosphere in the home by `differencing them out'. Thus, we can determine if, and how much, the sibship-size effect is confounded by other family influences that are difficult or impossible to control in conventional regression analysis. The data are from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY)." Also included are comments by Meredith Phillips (pp. 188-92) and D. B. Downey, B. Powell, L. C. Steelman, and S. Pribesh (pp. 193-98), and a reply by Guo and VanWey (pp. 199-206).
Correspondence: G. Guo, University of North Carolina, Department of Sociology, CB 3210, Hamilton Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3210. E-mail: guang_guo@unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30629 Massey, Douglas S.; Fischer, Mary J. Does rising income bring integration? New results for Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in 1990. Social Science Research, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sep 1999. 316-26 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"In this paper [the authors] update earlier work on racial and ethnic segregation by income to test assertions made by some observers that segregation is now largely a matter of class rather than race [in the United States]. Using the Summary Tape Files of the 1990 Census of Population, [the authors] measure the segregation of Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians within four categories of income: poor, lower middle class, upper middle class, and affluent. For all metropolitan areas containing at least 5,000 members of the group in question, [the authors] compute indices of dissimilarity and interaction between minority members of a certain income and Whites of all income, thus measuring the extent of overall racial/ethnic segregation by social class. We find that Black residential segregation persists at high levels across all income levels, and that the gap between Blacks and other minority groups actually increases as income rises."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. E-mail: dmassey@lexis.pop.upenn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30630 Meekers, Dominique; Ahmed, Ghyasuddin. Pregnancy-related school dropouts in Botswana. Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 2, Jul 1999. 195-209 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper uses data from a nationally representative sample of Botswana women in conjunction with focus group interviews to describe the impact of schoolgirl pregnancy, and to identify the factors that facilitate the return to school of girls who did drop out because of pregnancy. The results indicate that the problem of schoolgirl pregnancy may be much more severe than is commonly assumed. Although the situation is improving, there is a need to continue to improve programmes to reduce adolescent pregnancy, and a need to try and increase the number of young mothers who return to school to complete their education."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. Meekers, Population Services International, 1120 Nineteenth Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30631 Mensch, Barbara S.; Clark, Wesley H.; Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Erulkar, Annabel S. Premarital sex and school dropout in Kenya: Can schools make a difference? Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 124, 1999. 51 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from nearly 600 adolescents aged 12-19 in combination with data collected from 33 primary schools that the adolescents attended, this paper explores whether certain aspects of the school environment affect the likelihood of early and unprotected sex among adolescent girls and boys in three districts of Kenya. Because of the concern with `schoolgirl pregnancy' in Kenya, the paper also explores the temporal relationship between premarital sex and pregnancy on the one hand, and school dropout on the other."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30632 Pang, Ching L. Invisible visibility: intergenerational transfer of identity and social position of Chinese women in Belgium. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1998. 433-52 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The effects of migration on identity and the social position of Chinese women in Belgium were examined from an intergenerational perspective. At the macro level, policies and the general discourse on migration and migrants in Belgium were examined to assess the level of inclusion or exclusion of Chinese women.... The findings will show that although the Chinese are non-existent in official policy and statistics, they are set apart in mainstream society because of their different phenotypical traits. This leads to their exocitization and discrimination in many such social settings as daily life, the workplace and at recreational centers."
Correspondence: C. L. Pang, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Instituut voor Sociale en Economische Geografie, 42 W. de Croylaan, 3001 Heverle, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30633 Tokindang, Joël S. Households and the housing crisis in Dakar: increasingly delayed residential emancipation for younger generations. [Ménage et crise du logement à Dakar: une émancipation résidentielle de plus en plus tardive des jeunes générations.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 183-202 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
An analysis of residential patterns in Dakar, Senegal, is presented using data from a survey carried out in 1989. The results show that next to employment, housing availability is the most important factor governing an individual's ability to initiate a new household in the city. Many individuals never manage to set themselves up independently, and those who succeed do so at later ages because of the unfavorable economic climate. Increasing levels of unemployment and the weakening of traditional extended family ties, combined with the rapid increase in the number of young people suffering the consequences of these trends, give cause for concern.
Correspondence: J. S. Tokindang, Population Council, B.P. E666, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

65:30634 Ballard, Roger. Asking ethnic questions: some hows, whys and wherefores. Patterns of Predjudice, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1998. 17-37 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
The author examines the results of including an ethnic question in the 1991 census of Great Britain. "Half a century has now passed since mass migration began, and in most communities at least a quarter of a century since the influx reached its peak. Hence we are now in an excellent position to begin to assess how each of these communities has fared during the intervening years, and thus how far their hopes of upward mobility have in fact materialized. Furthermore, and perhaps most significantly, we can now begin to explore just how varied these trajectories of adaptation have proved to be."
Correspondence: R. Ballard, University of Manchester, Department of Religions, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, England. E-mail: r.ballard@man.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30635 Ballard, Roger. Negotiating race and ethnicity: exploring the implications of the 1991 census. Patterns of Predjudice, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1996. 3-33 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Even though the inclusion of an ethnic question has undoubtedly added an important new dimension to the [UK] Census, deciding how data associated with the new ethnic group variable can best be interpreted is by no means a straightforward task.... My central objective is to bring the underlying issues into clearer analytical focus. To this end I begin with a brief review of the current state of racial inequality and ethnic diversity in Britain--both to set the issues in a wider context and to highlight the differing significance of the concepts of race and ethnicity--and then move on to consider the way in which the question itself was constructed."
Correspondence: R. Ballard, University of Manchester, Department of Religions, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, England. E-mail: r.ballard@man.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30636 Evinger, Suzann. How to record data on mixed racial heritage for the 21st century. In: 1997 proceedings of the section on government statistics and section on social statistics. [1997]. 204-9 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"For the past four years, the [U.S.] Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has been conducting a comprehensive review of the statistical standards that are used throughout the Federal Government to collect and publish data on race and ethnicity.... The review's objective has been to enhance the accuracy of demographic information about our Nation's population, which is becoming increasingly diverse primarily from growth in immigration and from interracial marriages." This paper briefly outlines the recommendations and standards of the review.
Correspondence: S. Evinger, Office of Management and Budget, 725 17th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20503. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30637 Hilton, John S.; Hill, Joan M.; Davis, Mary C. The sample design and analysis of the race and ethnic targeted test. In: 1997 proceedings of the section on government statistics and section on social statistics. [1997]. 210-5 pp. American Statistical Association [ASA]: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"The 1996 Race and Ethnic Targeted Test (RAETT) is the major vehicle for testing alternative versions of the race and Hispanic origin questions for [U.S.] Census 2000." The article includes information on survey methodology, editing race data, data analysis methods, and selected results.
Correspondence: J. S. Hilton, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Room 2505/SFC-2, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30638 Islami, Hivzi. The demographic realities of Kosovo. [Realtà demografica del Kossovo.] Religioni e Società, Vol. 12, No. 29, Sep-Dec 1997. 39-57 pp. Florence, Italy. In Ita.
This is a general description of the Albanian people living in Yugoslavia and its successor states, and of the efforts that have been made over time to prevent the aspirations of this ethnic group from resulting in a politically united Greater Albania. The main focus is on the history of Serb efforts to influence the ethnic composition of the Serbian province of Kosovo, considered by Serbs to be an integral part of Serbia, although mainly populated in recent years by Albanians.
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:30639 Krótki, Karol J. Polish Canadians in numbers: a demographic study. Population Review, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1997. 25-35 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
The author analyzes the numerical development of the Polish population in Canada. Aspects considered include population size; language; intermarriage and multiculturalism; the recency of immigrant arrivals in Canada; the preservation of heritage languages; and multiculturalism without multilingualism.
Correspondence: K. J. Krótki, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30640 Mészáros, Árpád. The gypsy population in Hungary in the 1990s. [Romské obyvatelstvo v Madarsku v 90. letech.] Demografie, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1999. 120-37 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
"The population of Gypsies in Hungary, as arrived at by various estimates made over the past 100 years, has risen at a rate exceeding the increase of the population as a whole.... The rise in number and proportion arises from the high fertility rate--more than twice of the country in total." Aspects examined include age distribution, spatial distribution, employment and occupations, unemployment, income, and socioeconomic status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30641 Peloe, Andrew; Rees, Phil. Estimating ethnic change in London, 1981-91, using a variety of census data. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 5, No. 3, May-Jun 1999. 179-94 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper provides estimates of ethnic minority populations in 1981 in Greater London so that spatial population change can be measured. The estimation method involves the application of conditional probabilities of ethnicity given the country of birth. Several different data sources from the census of population have been used to compute the conditional probabilities. Each of these sources has deficiencies; the new method proposed here employs data on 1981-91 survivors in the ONS Longitudinal Study (LS). The estimated ethnic minority populations for 1981 are smaller than those generated using 1991 Census data, and hence the estimate of change is larger. Careful pairwise comparisons are made between alternative estimates. A set of very different maps of change, based on the LS method, are presented and interpreted for the ethnic groups of London at the borough scale."
Correspondence: A. Peloe, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. E-mail: a.peloe@geog.leeds.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30642 Rothenberg, Paula S. Race, class, and gender in the United States: an integrated study. 4th ed. ISBN 0-312-17429-2. LC 97-65202. 1998. xi, 604 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of readings on aspects of race, gender, and sexuality within the context of class in the contemporary United States. This edition contains a new chapter entitled "Us and them": becoming an American, in which changes in the concept of "citizen" over time and the role that race, class, and gender have played in determining who did or did not become a citizen are examined, the relative successes and failures of various racial and ethnic groups are analyzed, and issues related to U.S. immigration policy and attitudes toward immigrants are discussed.
Correspondence: St. Martin's Press, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30643 Stevens, Gillian. A century of U.S. censuses and the language characteristics of immigrants. Demography, Vol. 36, No. 3, Aug 1999. 387-97 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Since 1890, every U.S. census but one has asked about the language characteristics of the U.S. population. This almost uninterrupted data series, however, has been shaped by contemporaneous presumptions about the ties between language and ethnicity, the likelihood of proficiency in English among various subgroups, and practical constraints. I describe shifts across censuses in the phrasing of questions about language, the coding of responses, and the subpopulations for which the questions were asked and the results were published. I then describe the data generated by these items and discuss their interpretation."
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 1998 annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Chicago.
Correspondence: G. Stevens, University of Illinois, 702 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801. E-mail: gstevens@uiuc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30644 Taylor, John. The contemporary demography of indigenous Australians. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 14, No. 1, May 1997. 77-114 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Increased public policy focus on indigenous Australians over the past 30 years has resulted in a substantial expansion of demographic analysis over the same period. This paper reviews these efforts and summarizes the main topics, findings and debates. The accumulated evidence points to both demographic change and continuity. Change: in that mortality has declined; fertility levels have been much reduced; urbanization has burgeoned and population growth has entered a phase of rapid increase. Continuity: because mortality is still much higher than the Australian average; fertility remains at a level well above that reported for all women; most individuals still live away from major cities; and the estimation of overall numbers still hinges on a social construction of identity."
Correspondence: J. Taylor, Australian National University, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30645 Termote, Marc. The impact of linguistic mobility on the demographic evolution of Quebec francophones. [L'impact de la mobilité linguistique sur l'evolution démographique des francophones du Québec.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 27, No. 2, Autumn 1998. 267-94, 337, 339-40 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The aim of this article is to examine to what extent a growing linguistic mobility toward French would be able to curb, or even reverse, the effects of the slow growth rate of Quebec's Francophone population. To answer this question, a large number of hypotheses on the future evolution of linguistic behaviour, all very favourable to the Francophone group, were combined with various demographic contexts. The results of all the scenarios tend toward the same conclusion: the impact of linguistic mobility is marginal, so that a decline in the number and relative importance of the Francophone group seems inevitable."
Correspondence: M. Termote, Université du Québec, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique--Urbanisation, 3465 rue Durocher, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2C6, Canada. E-mail: marc_termote@inrsurb.uquebec.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30646 Vedovelli, Massimo; Villarini, Andrea. The diffusion of the Italian language around the world: language, education, and emigration. A general bibliography (1970-1999). [La diffusione dell'italiano nel mondo: lingua, scuola ed emigrazione. Bibliografia generale (1970-1999).] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 132, Dec 1998. 582-764 pp. Centro Studi Emigrazione: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This special issue presents a bibliography on the diffusion of the Italian language around the world, covering the literature published between 1970 and 1999. It updates previous bibliographies on the same subject published in this journal. The bibliography, which is unannotated, includes keywords explained in the introduction and also provides an author index as well as a subject and geographical index.
Correspondence: Centro Studi Emigrazione, Via Dandolo 58, 00153 Rome, Italy. E-mail: cser@pcn.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.