Volume 65 - Number 3 - Fall 1999

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration. Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects.

65:30033 Dehghan, Farhad; Vargas Uribe, Guillermo. Analysing Mexican population concentration: a model with empirical evidence. Urban Studies, Vol. 36, No. 8, Jul 1999. 1,269-81 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"In this study, we analyse the economic determinants of population concentration in Mexico, estimating a time-series/cross-sectional model for 1895-1990 in which the Pareto coefficient is a measure of population concentration. The fundamental lesson of this paper is that there is a clear and unequivocal U-shaped pattern between population concentration and economic development. This finding was not confirmed in cross-national studies. Our results are consistent with central-place theory and suggest that as development proceeds, agglomeration benefits of large cities are exhausted and the optimum level of production is exceeded. Hence, government policies aimed at encouraging decentralisation may not interfere with economic growth and efficiency."
Correspondence: F. Dehghan, University of Wisconsin, Department of Economics, Platteville, WI 53818. E-Mail: Dehghan@am.uwplatt.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:30034 Marpsat, Maryse. Models of "neighborhood effects" in the United States: a review of recent surveys. [La modélisation des "effets de quartier" aux Etats-Unis: une revue des travaux récents.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1999. 303-30 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"At a time when the media, politicians and researchers are exercised by the question of `difficult areas', this article examines the way in which American social scientists have analyzed neighborhood effects on individual behaviour and situations, particularly among young people.... The article begins by defining the field of study and reviewing the background to the development of the methods used and the problems that remain. Two articles and a work of synthesis dealing with this aspect of the scientific literature are then examined to highlight the relative consensus which exists among American researchers about the topics to be investigated and the range of interpretations considered. There follows a detailed examination of a number of studies...."
Correspondence: M. Marpsat, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: marpsat@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30035 Newbold, K. Bruce. Spatial distribution and redistribution of immigrants in the metropolitan United States, 1980 and 1990. Economic Geography, Vol. 75, No. 3, Jul 1999. 254-71 pp. Worcester, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1980 and 1990 5 percent [U.S.] Public Use Microdata Samples, I compare the settlement patterns and reasons for migration among foreign-born cohorts.... Although it is not possible to follow individuals over the two periods, aggregate changes in group location and migration patterns can be evaluated. Both period (differences associated with migration over time) and cohort (differences in migration behavior across arrival cohorts within a particular period) effects can be modeled. Of interest are the distribution, redistribution, and magnitude of change in the immigrant settlement system, along with why these adjustments occur for the 25 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. Results indicate that arrival cohorts of different vintages show contrasting responses to the determinants of settlement and migration behavior, although the overall distribution of the foreign-born population changed little over the two census periods."
Correspondence: K. B. Newbold, University of Illinois, Department of Geography, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30036 O'Leary, John. The resurgence of marvellous Melbourne--trends in population distribution in Victoria, 1991 to 1996. People and Place, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1999. 33-8 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Between 1991 and 1996 the population of Melbourne [Australia] grew faster than that of Regional Victoria. During the same period the population of Sydney grew faster than that of Regional New South Wales. Both these developments were unexpected. They occurred during a period of declining net overseas migration. Both developments can be partly explained by fewer people leaving Melbourne and Sydney and moving to the regional areas of their respective states. In Victoria, this development can also be partly explained by an increase in the number of people migrating interstate from Regional Victoria."
Correspondence: J. O'Leary, Monash University, School of Geography and Environmental Science, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30037 ter Heide, Henk. Future population distribution in the past and present. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 90, No. 1, 1999. 117-24 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"There is at present much public interest in the future geography of the Netherlands. Plans for new infrastructure to accommodate rail, road and air traffic are hotly debated. The location of new residential areas and the disposition of economic activity are also frequently discussed. Supply and demand of employment and housing show diverging trends in various parts of the country. For planners this raises the question as to the likely or advisable future population distribution."
Correspondence: H. ter Heide, Machtelderf 13, 2743 HD Waddinxveen, Netherlands. E-mail: h.terheide@geog.uu.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration.

65:30038 Birrell, Bob; O'Connor, Kevin; Rapson, Virginia. Explaining spatial concentrations of the poor in metropolitan Melbourne. People and Place, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1999. 53-64 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Analysis of data from the 1996 Census of six Melbourne localities suggests that some recent explanations for spatial concentrations of the poor in metropolitan areas are incomplete. In these middle-suburban locations the better-off are moving out, leaving behind those with less resources. While people of Australian or English-speaking background are more likely than those of non-English-speaking background (NESB) to leave, the inflow from overseas is predominantly of poor NESB people. Together, these two processes are adding to the spatial concentrations of the poor in Melbourne."
Correspondence: B. Birrell, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30039 Burnley, Ian. Levels of immigrant residential concentration in Sydney and their relationship with disadvantage. Urban Studies, Vol. 36, No. 8, Jul 1999. 1,295-315 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines levels of birthplace and language-group segregation in Sydney. This is because the label `ghetto' has been applied by the popular press and some social scientists to residential concentrations, in particular, those of persons from Asia. Because one of the defining criteria for ghettos has been poverty and disadvantage, the paper then assesses whether disadvantage is associated with immigrant concentrations; and whether the linkage is causal in Sydney, Australia's largest metropolis."
Correspondence: I. Burnley, University of New South Wales, School of Geography, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. E-mail: i.burnley@unsw.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:30040 Chaubey, P. K. Factor decomposition of urbanisation growth. Demography India, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1998. 319-26 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author "considers the factor decomposition of urbanisation growth which is defined as percentage change in a given urbanisation index. We have considered here three indices only--the urban rural ratio, urban proportion of population and the new index proposed by [the author]." The method is illustrated with population data for India for 1981 and 1991.
Correspondence: P. K. Chaubey, G. B. Pant Social Science Institute, Allahabad, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30041 Laskar, Serajul I. Urbanization in Bangladesh: some contemporary observations. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1-2, Mar-Jun 1996. 207-16 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The author analyzes "levels and trends of urbanization in Bangladesh [and] also makes an attempt to elucidate the implications of urbanization.... The...analysis corroborates that although the overall level of urbanization remained low, the sheer magnitude of total urban population has become formidable."
Correspondence: S. I. Laskar, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Adamjee Court, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

65:30042 Le Bris, Emile. Urbanization and urban policies in developing countries. [Urbanisation et politiques urbaines dans les pays en développement.] In: Populations et développements: une approche globale et systémique, edited by Michel Loriaux. 1998. 297-356 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general review of some of the problems associated with urbanization in the developing world. The author describes differences in urbanization patterns over time by continent and the causes and consequences of urbanization. Particular attention is given to the almost universal development of a large, poverty-stricken underclass in most cities, and to the possibilities for urban policies in such conditions. Case studies on urbanization in the Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso are presented.
Correspondence: E. Le Bris, Institut Français de Recherche pour le Développement en Coopération, 24 rue Bayard, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30043 Lindenboim, Javier; Ramondo, Natalia; Lugo, María A. The urban population of Argentina, 1960-1991: a methodological revision and some statistical results. [La población urbana argentina, 1960-1991: revisión metodológica y resultados estadísticos.] Cuaderno del CEPED, No. 1, 1997. [viii], 133 pp. Centro de Estudios sobre Población, Empleo y Desarrollo: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
This is an analysis of urbanization trends in Argentina over the period 1960-1991, taking into account changes in boundaries and corrections to the data that were unavailable previously. Data are primarily taken from the 1991 census. In the first part, the authors examine reasons why data comparability between different official sources is difficult. In the second part, they describe the methods used to overcome these difficulties and present a series of comparable data on urbanization. The third and fourth parts contain the actual data. The data are also provided by region, province, and locality.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios sobre Población, Empleo y Desarrollo, Avenida Córdoba 2122 1er piso, 1120 Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: ceped@econ.urba.ar. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30044 Lo, Fu-chen; Yeung, Yue-man. Globalization and the world of large cities. ISBN 92-808-0999-7. LC 98-19736. Oct 1998. xvi, 529 pp. United Nations University Press: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This collective work is the product of a number of research projects undertaken at the United Nations University in Tokyo on the world's mega-cities. The 18 contributions cover "a number of critical themes which relate to globalization, such as urban corridors, Islamic cities, new technologies, transport and telecommunications, financial centres, and food issues. World cities are discussed not simply for the functions they perform in the global economy, but also to examine the processes by which they came to perform those functions." Part 1 presents 14 regional surveys and studies on selected world cities. Part 2 provides four papers on key issues about the urban future.
Correspondence: United Nations University Press, United Nations University, 53-70 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan. E-mail: mbox@hq.unu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30045 McCracken, Kevin. Recent trends in Sydney's population. Geography Bulletin, Vol. 31, No. 1, Summer 1999. 5-11, 38 pp. Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"In the summer 1990 issue of this journal the author published a...paper on [Sydney, Australia's] population geography. The profile drawn in that paper was Sydney as of the mid-1980s. The aim of the present article is to provide readers with an up-date on that profile, examining the demographic evolution of the city over the past decade...." Aspects considered include population growth, internal patterns of population change, ethnic composition, health, and age distribution.
Correspondence: K. McCracken, Macquarie University, Department of Human Geography, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30046 Medvedkov, Yuri; Medvedkov, Olga. Turning points and trends in Russia's urbanization. In: Population under duress: the geodemography of post-Soviet Russia, edited by George J. Demko, Grigory Ioffe, and Zhanna Zayonchkovskaya. 1999. 201-29 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter focuses on a major trend in urban processes in contemporary Russia: the absolute decrease of urban population from 1992 to 1997. This negative trend is a drastic departure from trends in the Soviet period.... Improved statistical sources in Russia provide an opportunity to study urban trends in detail, including interregional differences. The approach in this analysis is neither prescriptive nor judgmental; rather, we are guided by the desire to understand urban processes in Russia."
Correspondence: Y. Medvedkov, Ohio State University, Department of Geography, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1361. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

65:30047 Ioffe, Grigory; Nefedova, Tatyana. Rural population change and agriculture. In: Population under duress: the geodemography of post-Soviet Russia, edited by George J. Demko, Grigory Ioffe, and Zhanna Zayonchkovskaya. 1999. 231-59 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors "take up the issue of rural depopulation, which, as it appears, did not lose a bit of relevance in Russia even as rural-urban migrations were reversed in favor of the countryside in 1991.... The authors distinguish between natural increase, migration, and settlement reclassification as factors of rural population dynamics. They consider the history of rural consolidation in Russia and the predominant views on rural processes in Russia and in the West. Among other things, they conclude that the spatial contraction of robust farming activities in Russia spurred by population dynamics in the final analysis may be to Russia's benefit."
Correspondence: G. Ioffe, Radford University, Department of Geography, Radford, VA 24142. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.