Volume 65 - Number 3 - Fall 1999

A. General Population Studies and Theories

Works of a general and comprehensive nature. Studies that are limited to well-defined problems of demography are cited under the relevant topic and are cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

A.1. General Population

Global population studies.

A.1.1. General Population--Long Studies

Comprehensive, book-length surveys of the present status of demography and its principal branches, including the historical development of these studies, analytical studies of demography as a whole, and global population studies.

65:30001 Hardin, Garrett. The ostrich factor: our population myopia. ISBN 0-19-512274-7. LC 97-39272. 1999. vi, 168 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This book examines why the problems associated with the growth of the world's population receive relatively little attention. "One of the tasks of this book is to show how ethics and economics are transformed by paying attention to the insights of ecology. The power figures of contemporary society--journalists and politicians--see their interests served best by denying the reality of limits, thus turning the topic of population into a virtual taboo."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.1.2. General Population--Short Studies

Short (fewer than 100 pages), general works on population and global population studies. Items on activities of research institutions in demography are also included.

65:30002 Martin-Schramm, James B. Population perils and the churches' response. Risk Book Series, No. 76, ISBN 2-8254-1226-0. LC 98-218173. 1997. xxiii, 56 pp. WCC Publications: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This book examines perils posed by global population growth and explores avenues for response within the ecumenical community.... I have tried to be more descriptive regarding the moral issues posed by population growth than prescriptive regarding the ways in which Christians should perceive and respond to them." Chapters cover conceptual, consumption, demographic, ecological, and policy perils; the response of the World Council of Churches; and theological resources and moral guidelines.
Correspondence: WCC Publications, World Council of Churches, 150 route de Ferney, 1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30003 Menniti, Adele; Palomba, Rossella; Rossi, Roberta; Sabatino, Dante. Knowledge and attitudes of Italian students towards demographic trends: Italian EOPEI report. IRP Working Paper, No. 01/97 (E), Dec 1997. 49 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
The authors report on a 1996 survey conducted by the European Observatory for Population Education and Information (EOPEI). The survey "attempted to assess the effects of teaching on population in terms of knowledge acquired, [and to ascertain] students' opinions on social and demographic phenomena or problems including population dynamics, ageing and relationships between the generations, migration, changes in family structures and demographic trends in their country, Europe and the world."
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.2. Population Theory

Discussions of the main principles of demography and population theory not applied to actual data, including such concepts as Malthusianism, the demographic transition, overpopulation, optimum population, and stable and stationary population models as distinct from methodological studies and models using data, which are classified under N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models.

65:30004 Bongaarts, John; Bulatao, Rodolfo A. Completing the demographic transition. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 125, 1999. 22 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Despite ongoing declines in fertility in many countries, the population of the world is experiencing a period of rapid expansion, and its size is expected to exceed 10 billion by the end of the demographic transition. Three causes of this growth are identified and quantified: (1) fertility above the replacement level of two surviving children per woman, (2) continuing declines in mortality, and (3) population momentum resulting from a young age structure. A set of simple analytic expressions is proposed for estimating these factors from standard demographic indicators. Population momentum is shown to be the main cause of future growth in most countries and regions."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30005 Galor, Oded; Weil, David N. Population, technology, and growth: from the Malthusian regime to the demographic transition. NBER Working Paper, No. 6811, Nov 1998. 41, [9] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper develops a unified model of growth, population, and technological progress that is consistent with long-term historical evidence. The economy endogenously evolves through three phases. In the Malthusian regime, population growth is positively related to the level of income per capita.... In the post-Malthusian regime, the growth rates of technology and total output increase.... The economy endogenously undergoes a demographic transition in which the traditionally positive relationship between income per capita and population growth is reversed. In the Modern Growth regime, population growth is moderate or even negative, and income per capita rises rapidly. Two forces drive the transitions between regimes: First, technological progress is driven both...by increases in the size of the population and by increases in the average level of education. Second, technological progress creates a state of disequilibrium, which raises the return to human capital and induces patients to substitute child quality for quantity."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: msgalor@pluto.huji.ac.il. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:30006 Hansen, Gary D.; Prescott, Edward C. Malthus to Solow. NBER Working Paper, No. 6858, Dec 1998. 24 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"A unified growth theory is developed that accounts for the roughly constant living standards displayed by world economies prior to 1800 as well as the growing living standards exhibited by modern industrial economies. Our theory also explains the industrial revolution, which is the transition from an era when per capita incomes are stagnant to one with sustained growth.... [The authors] use a standard growth model with...[several] technologies. The first, denoted the `Malthus' technology, requires land, labor and reproducible capital as inputs. The second, denoted the `Solow' technology, does not require land. [The authors] show that in the early stages of development, only the Malthus technology is used and, due to population growth, living standards are stagnant despite technological progress. Eventually, technological progress causes the Solow technology to become profitable and both technologies are employed. At this point, living standards improve since population growth has less influence on per capita income growth. In the limit, the economy behaves like a standard Solow growth model."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: ghansen@econ.ucla.edu. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:30007 Michel, Philippe; Pestieau, Pierre. Optimal population without repugnant aspects. Genus, Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1998. 25-34 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This paper addresses the issue of optimum population with two concerns: avoiding both the absolute undesirable solution that amounts to giving to a finite number of individuals an infinite amount of resources, and the marginal undesirable solution in which equilibrium consumption decreases with increasing income and population. To avoid these two solutions, we introduce a critical level of utility that depends on an individual's marginal income."
Correspondence: P. Michel, GREQAM, 2 rue de la Charité, 13002 Marseille, France. E-mail: michel@chess.cnrs.mrs.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30008 Tapinos, Georges P. Paul Leroy-Beaulieu and the population question. The demographic imperative and the limits of economic liberalism. [Paul Leroy-Beaulieu et la question de la population. L'impératif démographique, limite du libéralisme économique.] Population, Vol. 54, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1999. 103-24 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article charts the intellectual evolution of Paul Leroy-Beaulieu (1843-1916), an economist of Malthusian and liberal views, in response to the slowdown in the growth of the French population. The nature and scope of his critique of Malthus are examined to see whether it should be interpreted as a post-Malthusian law of population for the advanced societies or as a fundamental rejection of Malthusian theory. The analysis reveals the ambiguous and illusory nature of the attempt to reconcile economic liberalism with the political imperative of demographic renewal."
Correspondence: G. P. Tapinos, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: georges.tapinos@sciences-po.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30009 Véron, Jacques. Theories linking population, the economy, and society: anything new since Malthus? [Théories reliant population, économie et sociétés: du nouveau depuis Malthus?] In: Populations et développements: une approche globale et systémique, edited by Michel Loriaux. 1998. 375-90 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author briefly reviews developments in population theory since Malthus, including the positions of neo-Malthusians who maintain that population growth is a threat to successful development, anti-Malthusians who maintain that population growth stimulates creativity and development, and those who maintain that population is a neutral factor in the development process. He suggests that most theoretical work in population attempts to construct generally applicable theories from specific and local conditions, and that although population growth might be good for development in some circumstances, it could well be bad in others. A generally applicable theory of population that takes into account such differences among societies has yet to be developed.
Correspondence: J. Véron, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30010 Villasmil Prieto, Mary C. Theoretical notes for the discussion of the concept of strategies in the framework of population studies. [Apuntes teóricos para la discusión sobre el concepto de estrategias en el marco de los estudios de población.] Estudios Sociológicos, Vol. 16, No. 46, Jan-Apr 1998. 69-88 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"During the last decades the concept of strategies has been [an] object of debate among scholars. Part of this debate has been some criticism regarding its heuristic capacity and the methodological criteria that [have] accompanied its usage. Within this context, this article seeks to point out the axes of articulation along which it is possible to reflect the theoretic-methodological elements that are at stake in this discussion.... In order to exemplify the use of this concept within population studies, the author considers household economic participation as a life strategy, which has been [the] object of much research in Mexico."
Correspondence: M. C. Villasmil Prieto, Sede Académica de México, Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Apartado Postal 20-021, Delegación Alvaro Obregón, 01000 México, D.F., Mexico. E-mail: mcvp@flacso.flacso.edu.mx. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:30011 Vilquin, Eric. The moral values of Malthus. [Les valeurs morales de Malthus.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 27, No. 2, Autumn 1998. 181-98, 335-6, 338 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"More than his other writing, Malthus' first essay `Essay on the Principle of Population' is a militant text, its arguments based more strongly on moral positions than scientific data.... In Malthusian demographic theory, `vice' and `moral constraint', factors in human behaviour, play a fundamental role that is indissociable from their moral significance. With his primary concern to preserve human freedom, but torn between his tendency toward idealism and his demand for realism, Malthus developed a pragmatic morality, a morality of the lesser evil, today described as `Malthusian pessimism'."
Correspondence: E. Vilquin, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. E-mail: vilquin@demo.ucl.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30012 Vimard, Patrice. Family and demographic transitions: a reexamination of theories in light of the crisis. [Transitions démographique et familiale: une relecture des théories à la lumière de la crise.] Universités Francophones, Actualité Scientifique, 1998. 81-98 pp. Editions ESTEM: Paris, France; Université des Réseaux d'Expression Française [UREF]: Paris, France; Association des Universités Partiellement ou Entièrement de Langue Française [AUPELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author first outlines the classical concepts of the demographic transition and the transition to the nuclear family norm, and then discusses how the demographic impact of the economic crisis in the developing world over the past 10 years has led to a reconsideration of those theories. He notes that the theories of demographic and family transition came under question in the 1970s and 1980s, as countries experiencing rapid rates of economic development continued to maintain high rates of fertility and traditional family patterns. The contemporary socioeconomic crisis in developing countries has challenged them even more, as fertility levels decline in many countries suffering most severely from these crises, and as families adapt to cope with their consequences. The need for new theories to explain the complex relationships among socioeconomic and demographic factors in the current socioeconomic situation is noted.
Correspondence: P. Vimard, Université de Provence, Laboratoire Population et Environnement, Centre Saint Charles, case 10, 13331 Marseille Cedex 13, France. E-mail: vimard@orstom.rio.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:30013 Wilson, Chris; Airey, Pauline. How can a homeostatic perspective enhance demographic transition theory? Population Studies, Vol. 53, No. 2, Jul 1999. 117-28 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the emerging interest in the relationship between homeostatic models and demographic transition theory. Firstly, it considers the nature of fertility measurement and concepts. The paper then goes on to examine evidence from pre-transitional societies in which demographic regimes have been most thoroughly studied, summarizing what is known about their character. The nature and current status of homeostatic theories in demography and in the institutional supports of pre-transitional regimes are considered. The implications of the findings on pre-transitional populations for transition theory are then discussed."
Correspondence: C. Wilson, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

A.3. Interrelations with Other Disciplines

Interdisciplinary studies of demographic problems and studies of the interaction of demography with other disciplines. This coding is also used for reports, studies, and surveys from other disciplines that include information of demographic interest.

No citations in this issue.

A.4. Textbooks and Teaching Programs

Major demographic textbooks and teaching aids, general surveys and collections of readings that are particularly suitable as supplements to coursework, studies on the organization and coverage of training programs in demography, and selected items on population education.

65:30014 Mostert, Willem P.; Oosthuizen, J. S.; Hofmeyr, B. E. Demography: textbook for the South African student. ISBN 0-7969-1880-5. LC 98-208770. 1998. [xi], 237 pp. Human Sciences Research Council: Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
"The purpose of [this volume] is to introduce students to demographic methods and concepts on the basis of South African examples.... Three themes underlie all the chapters. The first is that population dynamics in South Africa reflect the demographic situation in other countries of the world. The second theme is the interrelatedness of economic, social, political, environmental and population variables. The third is the need for demographers to treat available data with care, and to assess information and adapt it where necessary to different situations."
Correspondence: Human Sciences Research Council, Private Bag X41, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:30015 Srinivasan, K. Basic demographic techniques and applications. ISBN 0-7619-9209-X. LC 97-40482. 1998. 224 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This textbook is intended for teaching a one-semester basic course in Demographic Techniques of three credit hours at the masters level. The emphasis is on pointing out the scope of applications of these techniques for policy and management decisions in health and population fields. It is directed at middle-level executives working in the field of public health or family planning or intending to work in future in these fields in developing countries. It can also be used for undergraduate-level courses in sociology and economics offering the subject of Demographic Techniques."
Correspondence: Sage Publications, M-32 Greater Kailash Market I, New Delhi 110 048, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1999, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.