Volume 65 - Number 1 - Spring 1999

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

65:10666 Bjerve, Petter J.; Brunborg, Helge. The Population Commission through 50 years. [Befolkningskommisjonen gjennom 50 år.] Tidsskrift for Samfunnsforskning, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1998. 78-107 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
"The article discusses the role of the United Nations' Population Commission through its first 50 years. The Commission has given advice on the development of population statistics, analyses, projections and policies. The Commission has also played an important role in the planning of and follow-up to the five World Population Conferences. The Commission has concentrated on problems faced by developing countries, including the role of family planning. The important link between population factors and development is emphasized in the 1995 change of name to the Commission for Population and Development."
Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

65:10667 Conly, Shanti R.; de Silva, Shyami. Paying their fair share? Donor countries and international population assistance. LC 98-89128. 1998. x, 84, 40 pp. Population Action International, Population and Environment Program: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, "all nations agreed that donor countries would provide one-third of [the funds needed to provide basic reproductive health care in developing countries], and developing countries the remaining two-thirds. However, the international community lags far behind the ICPD funding goals.... This report takes stock of the funding donor countries provide to population programs and their progress in mobilizing the funds called for by the ICPD." The report provides an overview of support to the developing countries, including the policy environment, contribution trends, channels of assistance, and geographic priorities. It also includes a detailed "report card" on each of the donor countries.
Correspondence: Population Action International, 1120 19th Street NW, Suite 550, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10668 Dangalle, Nimal. Controlling population growth in Sri Lanka: perceptions, policies and strategies. Sri Lanka Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb 1998. 1-24, 124 pp. Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
The author assesses the development of population policies in Sri Lanka. Four phases of population growth strategies are identified, covering the periods 1948-1965, 1965-1977, 1977-1989, and 1989 onward. "Phase 1 is characterized by a non-committing government role and the pioneering efforts of a nongovernment organization.... In Phase 2, with increasing rates of population growth and associated problems, the authorities were forced to make some direct interventions. However, it was in Phase 3 that a specific attempt was made to control population growth. In Phase 4...[the] government has paid more attention to satisfy the demand for various family planning methods...."
Correspondence: N. Dangalle, University of Kelaniya, Department of Geography, Dalugama, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10669 Kuumba, M. Bahati. Reproductive imperialism: population and labor control of underdeveloped world women. Working Papers on Women in International Development, No. 259, Dec 1996. 22 pp. Michigan State University, Women in International Development Program: East Lansing, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper examines various critiques of international population policy. It investigates the relationship between global population control and the increasingly intense needs among transnational corporations for a controllable, cheap labor pool. Finally, it consolidates the evidence that points to an intricate connection between population control programs and global business interests."
Correspondence: Michigan State University, Women in International Development Program, 202 Center for International Programs, East Lansing, MI 48824-1035. E-mail: wid@pilot.msu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10670 Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Población [CONAPO] (Mexico City, Mexico). National Population Program 1995-2000. [Programa Nacional de Población 1995-2000.] [1998]. iii, 113 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This is a report on Mexico's National Population Program for the period 1995-2000. Chapters are included on the national demographic situation; reproductive preferences and contraception; spatial distribution and internal migration; the family and women's status; challenges of population policies; policy objectives and strategies; future prospects; and general features of the national population policy.
Correspondence: Consejo Nacional de Población, Avenida Angel Urraza 1137, Col. Del Valle, C.P. 03100, Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

65:10671 Ruhm, Christopher J. The economic consequences of parental leave mandates: lessons from Europe. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 113, No. 1, Feb 1998. 285-317 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This study investigates the economic consequences of rights to paid parental leave in nine European countries over the 1969 through 1993 period. Since women use virtually all parental leave in most nations, men constitute a reasonable comparison group, and most of the analysis examines how changes in paid leave affect the gap between female and male labor market outcomes. The employment-to-populations ratios of women in their prime childbearing years are also compared with those of corresponding aged men and older females. Parental leave is associated with increases in women's employment, with reductions in their relative wages at extended durations."
Correspondence: C. J. Ruhm, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:10672 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Global population assistance report, 1996. ISBN 0-89714-467-8. 1998. 62 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report "is the tenth edition of a report on global population assistance first published by UNFPA in 1988. Providing information on the levels, trends and nature of international population assistance for the period 1987 to 1996, the report focuses on the flow of funds in the form of grants or loans from developed countries for population assistance in developing countries. Data for the report were obtained primarily by surveying donors, namely Governments, multilateral organizations and agencies, development banks and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)...."
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10673 Whyte, Martin K. Human rights trends and coercive family planning in the PRC. Issues and Studies, Vol. 34, No. 8, Aug 1998. 1-29 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
"Overall trends in the human rights situation in the People's Republic of China (PRC) are considered. Several conceptual distinctions are introduced which are designed to reduce confusion in debates about human rights in the PRC. In most realms the human rights situation in the PRC has improved markedly since the death of Mao. Since 1989 the human rights trend has involved fluctuations rather than steady progress, but with no overall retreat from the gains made during the 1980s. However, in the realm of the reproductive rights of China's citizens trends are dramatically different. Coercive family planning efforts produced a sharp deterioration in this human rights realm after 1979. The essay concludes by considering the troubling questions raised by the sharply divergent trends in reproductive rights and other human rights in the PRC."
Correspondence: M. K. Whyte, George Washington University, Department of Sociology, Washington, D.C. 20052. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

65:10674 Akkerman, Abraham; He, Jiao Sheng. Geographical patterns of fertility decline in Guangdong: China's population policy through the censuses of 1982 and 1990. Canadian Geographer/Géographe Canadien, Vol. 42, No. 2, Summer 1998. 174-92 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Notwithstanding the intense debate on the political and ethical aspects of China's population-control policies, detailed geographical examination of their impact on fertility decline has been scarce. Recently released data from the 1990 census, together with the 1982 census information, provide an opportunity for further observations of fertility decline in a multitude of small areas throughout some of China's provinces.... The examination presented in this study facilitates the juxtaposition of past and present population-control policies of the central government against observations of fertility decline in a continuum of small areas in [Guangdong] province."
Correspondence: A. Akkerman, University of Saskatchewan, Department of Geography, 9 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A5 Canada. E-mail: akkerman@sask.usask.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10675 Ene, Ebele N. Family planning, fertility control and the law in Nigeria--the choices for a new century. African Journal of Reproductive Health/Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1998. 82-95 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The objectives of this paper are: (1) to clarify the state of Nigeria's reproductive health policies and laws; (2) to examine whether these laws hinder or encourage family planning; and (3) to use this knowledge to propose an agenda for action for the 21st century. The article analyses the scope of laws regulating fertility choice in Nigeria and the impact of such laws on women's autonomy under the constitution and criminal law. The paper concludes with the notion that Nigerian fertility control laws have harmed, rather than encouraged, population control in the country, and the criminalization of abortion is in conflict with the constitutional rights of women."
Correspondence: E. N. Ene, University of Benin, Faculty of Law, Department of Family Law, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10676 István, Baranyai. The family allowance and expenditures on children. [A családi pótlék és a gyermekekre fordított kiadások.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 76, No. 10, Oct 1998. 805-21 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"Divided into three periods, the study offers a historical overview on the changes of the family allowance system in Hungary.... The author examines [expenditures] on the education of...children in 1985 [and] 1989-1995 and the proportion of the social support and the burdens of the parents."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10677 Lévy, Michel L. Family policies in Europe. [Politiques familiales en Europe.] Population et Sociétés, No. 340, Nov 1998. 1-3 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a brief comparative review of current family policies in Europe. Particular attention is given to the situation in France as it compares with that in the other European countries.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10678 Lutz, Wolfgang. Epilogue: dilemmas in population stabilization. In: The future population of the world: what can we assume today?, edited by Wolfgang Lutz. Rev. ed. 1996. 429-35 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria; Earthscan Publications: London, England. In Eng.
The author examines some of the trade-offs that will be encountered in efforts to stabilize global population growth, given the nature of the dynamics of global population described in the various chapters of this book. The author notes that efforts to lower mortality will certainly continue, particularly in developing countries, despite the inevitable consequence for rates of population growth. The problem of demographic aging is also examined.
Correspondence: W. Lutz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10679 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Government and fertility in transitional and post-transitional societies. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 113, 1998. 45 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Five categories of possible government influence on a nation's fertility are explored: (1) through publicly funded programs that explicitly seek to affect family-size outcomes; (2) through the legal order and system of public administration; (3) through measures that affect economic opportunity, social mobility, and gender relations; (4) through public-sector expenditures and transfer payments keyed to age or family status; and (5) through the state's supplanting of local beliefs and traditions with the symbols of national identity and through the parallel expansion of cultural frames of reference. Aside from the first of these, intentions to influence fertility are either incidental or wholly lacking, although the relationships were plausibly implicated in both the historical and contemporary fertility transitions. Delineating the actual nature and range of government influence can be a source of new insights into how to bring about a socially desired path of fertility in the future, both where present fertility is deemed too high and where it may be too low."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10680 Short, Susan E.; Zhai, Fengying. Looking locally at China's one-child policy. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 4, Dec 1998. 373-87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To sketch a more general picture of [China's] one-child policy, this article presents panel data from three waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1989, 1991, and 1993) collected in 167 communities in eight provinces. Local policy, including policy strength and policy incentives and disincentives, is detailed separately for urban and rural areas. These data confirm that no single one-child policy exists; policy varied considerably from place to place and within individual communities during the 1989-93 period."
Correspondence: S. E. Short, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Maxcy Hall, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

65:10681 Abernethy, Virginia D. Immigration debate in a pressure cooker. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 2, Nov 1998. 99-108 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author critically examines the status of immigration policy in the United States, with a focus on the extent of misinformation about population growth and immigration. "A vocal minority and wealthy contributors to both major political parties combine left and right in an alliance that supports high levels of immigration. While the public remains relatively uninformed, and barring recession, the latent disgruntlement with high levels of immigration is unlikely to coalesce into a strong grassroots movement. The mis- and disinformation campaigns, to the extent that they reflect interest group strategy, have been a resounding success."
Correspondence: V. D. Abernethy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10682 Anyanwu, Sarah O. Spatial population maldistribution in Nigeria: causes and suggestions. Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives and Area Studies, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1996. 25-42 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The paper highlights the main government policies that have prompted spatial population maldistribution and consequently [caused an] urbanisation problem and evaluates the effectiveness of various Nigerian governments' spatial population distribution policies and programmes. The paper reveals that apart from the administrative reforms of the Federal Government and...recent government programmes...all other policies and programmes related to spatial population redistribution in Nigeria have failed to achieve the desired objectives. The spread effects have been non-existent or very minimal in spite of the high financial costs...."
Correspondence: S. O. Anyanwu, Federal University of Technology, Department of Management Sciences, Yola, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:10683 Ceyhan, Ayse; Tsoukala, Anastassia. Controls, frontiers, and identities: the stakes involved in immigration and asylum. [Contrôles-frontières-identités: les enjeux autour de l'immigration et de l'asile.] Cultures et Conflits, No. 26-27, ISBN 2-7384-5745-2. Summer-Autumn 1997. 263 pp. L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This special issue contains seven papers that examine some issues concerning frontier controls in Germany, France, Greece, and the United States, with particular regard to the control of immigration. The relationship between the process of tightening border controls and the increasing difficulties that immigrants, both legal and illegal, face in their attempts to assimilate into their new countries of residence is analyzed.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Editions L'Harmattan, 5-7 rue de l'Ecole-polytechnique, 75005 Paris, France. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:10684 Cobb-Clark, Deborah A. Incorporating U.S. policy into a model of the immigration decision. Journal of Policy Modeling, Vol. 20, No. 5, Oct 1998. 621-30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Immigration to the United States has become an important component of labor market and overall population growth. Understanding the role of U.S. policy in the immigration process is vital because immigration is the only component of labor market and population growth over which policymakers have direct control. This paper incorporates immigration policy into a model of the immigration decision and considers its interaction with relative economic conditions in determining the characteristics of successful immigrants."
Correspondence: D. A. Cobb-Clark, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail:dcclark@coombs.anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SSRC).

65:10685 Funk, Albrecht. The myth of control: the eastern frontier of the Federal Republic of Germany at the beginning of the 1990s. [Les mythes du contrôle: la frontière orientale de la République Fédérale d'Allemagne au tournant des années 1990.] Cultures et Conflits, No. 26-27, Summer-Autumn 1997. 73-91 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Some aspects of the sovereignty of the modern state, and particularly of its ability to control international migration, are examined in the context of recent German experience. The author first considers the frontier that existed between the two German states prior to 1989, which attempted to rigorously control migration. Next, he discusses the agreements that the German authorities have attempted to make with governments to the east in an effort to establish a measure of border control following the fall of the Berlin Wall. Finally, the author examines the German government's efforts to develop an international system of common frontiers with countries to the east and south.
Correspondence: A. Funk, University of Pittsburgh, Department of Political Science, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260-0001. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:10686 Geokas, Michael C. The European Union and the specter of uncontrolled in-migration. Journal of Political and Military Sociology, Vol. 25, No. 2, Winter 1997. 353-62 pp. De Kalb, Illinois. In Eng.
"It is reasonable to assume that overpopulation, political upheaval, unemployment, and water scarcity (North Africa and the Middle East) will generate waves of migration towards the EU [European Union] due to a host of push and pull factors. This prospect is viewed with trepidation in [the] EU and considerable energy has been expended for suitable solutions under constant pressure by right-wing parties.... A number of measures are hereby proposed [to deal with the situation]...."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10687 Gonzalez, Joaquin L. Philippine labour migration: critical dimensions of public policy. ISBN 981-3055-83-9. LC 97-96130. 1998. xv, 198 pp. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies [ISEAS]: Singapore. In Eng.
"There are currently more than six million Filipino workers in over 120 countries in jobs ranging from maids to managers. The Philippine Government has encouraged the manpower exodus to absorb the country's surplus labour and to bring foreign exchange earnings into the Philippine economy. However, non-governmental organizations have argued that social dysfunctions associated with working abroad have not been adequately addressed. Using an analytical framework that blends multiple stakeholders' perspectives, the author assesses the historical, demographic, economic, social, and political dimensions of Philippine labour migration policy from the early 1900s to the late 1990s. Focusing on recent issues, he provides an integrated evaluation from a public policy perspective, balancing both state and societal viewpoints."
Correspondence: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 30 Heng Mui Keng Terrace, Pasir Panjang Road, Singapore 119614. E-mail: pubsunit@iseas.edu.sg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10688 Hailbronner, Kay; Martin, David; Motomura, Hiroshi. Immigration controls: the search for workable policies in Germany and the United States. Migration and Refugees: Politics and Policies in the United States and Germany, Vol. 4, ISBN 1-57181-089-7. LC 97-3810. 1998. x, 230 pp. Berghahn Books: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is the fourth in a projected series of five volumes publishing the results of the German-American Project on Migration and Refugee Policies, convened by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. The project's aim was to study German and U.S. immigration policy from a comparative perspective. This volume includes five papers of the working group: The obstacles to effective internal enforcement of the immigration laws in the United States, by David A. Martin; Internal controls and actual removals of deportable aliens: the current legal situation in the Federal Republic of Germany, by Hans-Joachim Cremer; The new techniques for managing high-volume asylum systems, by Stephen Legomsky; New techniques for rendering asylum manageable, by Kay Hailbronner; and Conclusion: immigration admissions and immigration controls, by Kay Hailbronnner, David A. Martin, and Hiroshi Motomura.
Correspondence: Berghahn Books, 55 John Street, 3rd floor, New York, NY 10038. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:10689 Hettne, Björn; Abiri, Elisabeth. The securitization of cross-border migration: Sweden in the era of globalization. In: Redefining security: population movements and national security, edited by Nana Poku and David T. Graham. 1998. 187-201 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter analyzes the process by which cross-border migration in Sweden has developed into a security issue. The analysis is contextualized broadly within the current globalization process.... The chapter also raises the question of what kind of national security a democratic state like Sweden should strive for. When the linkage between migration and security is analyzed academically, a common hypothesis is that a securitization of migration discourse--that is, a change in the official migration discourse of a state--is more likely to precede the securitization of the migration policy--that is, changes in the migration policy of the entity.... This chapter argues that the development of the link between migration and security in Sweden has been the other way around--security as a policy making act preceded the speech act."
Correspondence: B. Hettne, Göteborgs Universitet, Vasaparken, 411 24 Gothenburg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10690 Heyman, Josiah McC. Finding a moral heart for U.S. immigration policy: an anthropological perspective. American Ethnological Society Monograph Series, No. 7, ISBN 0-913167-88-6. LC 98-27617. 1998. vii, 120 pp. American Anthropological Association: Arlington, Virginia. In Eng.
"I hold that the ways that immigrants and hosts relate to each other politically, socially, and culturally need to change. This monograph...suggests that immigrants and hosts could develop their own policies in the sense of mutual accommodation.... The anthropological perspective opens the more radical range of possibilities explored in this proposal. More importantly, it emphasizes people making their own solutions, expressed through its core inquiry into human moral tendencies synthesized with legal, political, and economic processes in the contemporary United States."
Correspondence: American Anthropological Association, 4350 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 640, Arlington, VA 22203-1620. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10691 Hoy, Caroline. Women, migration and current urban dynamics in China: fertility and family planning. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 96/7, Mar 1996. 24 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"I discuss attempts [in China] to use legislation on marriage and contraception status to control mobility and access to resources by migrants. I will show that descriptions of the extent to which migrants engage in any form of `deviant' behaviour relating to marriage or births such as marriage below the legal ages or births out of plan tend to be exaggerated and are in fact characteristic of the wider population. Using data from a survey of temporary registered migrants conducted in Beijing in June 1994 I explore patterns of marriage and fertility in response to migration."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10692 Labayle, Henri. The free migration of individuals within the European Union from Schengen to Amsterdam. [La libre circulation des personnes dans l'Union européenne, de Schengen à Amsterdam.] L'Actualité Juridique, No. 12, Dec 20, 1997. 923-35 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The issue of unrestricted migration among the member countries of the European Union is examined from a legal perspective. The focus is on changes occurring over the period from the implementation of the Schengen agreement in 1990 to the treaty of Amsterdam in 1997.
Location: New York University Law Library, New York, NY.

65:10693 Lee, Kenneth K. Huddled masses, muddled laws: why contemporary immigration policy fails to refect public opinion. ISBN 0-275-96272-5. LC 98-11126. 1998. xii, 168 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This study examines why, when opinion polls in the United States indicate that a strong majority want to reduce levels of immigration, Congress has failed to respond to this wish by passing laws designed to reduce immigration. The author "explains why recent immigration policy has failed to reflect the public opinion by approaching the question from a broad, historical outlook, and from a focused, contemporary perspective. He traces several momentous historical changes that have abetted the pro-immigration bloc and weakened the restrictionists' clout (mainly, the rise of conservative economics in the 1970s and the growing racial liberalism in America). He also examines immigration policy on a micro-level: detailing the intense lobbying that went on for the 1990 and 1996 immigration bills, and he also shows how unlikely players as, for example, Christian Coalition's Ralph Reed, helped defeat the restrictionist bill in 1996."
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10694 Morris, Lydia. Governing at a distance: the elaboration of controls in British immigration. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 4, Winter 1998. 949-73 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article considers the possibility that aspects of recent thinking on governmentality could be applied to the delimitation of rights and elaboration of controls in the policy and practice of British immigration over the period of Conservative rule. First, the complex of external strategies which interact to control and inhibit migration, including the discursive assertion of sovereign boundaries in the face of moves towards a frontier-free Europe are reviewed. Then, turning to official expression of concern over public funds, the centrality of this rationale in the drive for correspondence between benefit regulations and immigration rules is documented.... Finally, the paper shows how the rationality dictating these changes has itself been questioned and further elaborates the limits of `governmentality' in practice."
Correspondence: L. Morris, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10695 Rasmussen, Hans K. No entry: immigration policy in Europe. ISBN 87-16-13358-7. LC 98-106367. 1997. 206 pp. Handelshøjskolens Forlag: Copenhagen, Denmark. Distributed by Global Management, LLC, Book Service, 2564 Branch Street, B2, Middleton, WI 53562. E-mail: 102135.2151@compuserve.com. In Eng.
"How will the influx of millions of refugees and immigrants influence a Europe which has given up its internal borders?... This book deals with the demographic conflicts between a European society with a fast growing proportion of elderly and old people and the Third World's explosive growth with energetic young people reaching out for a share of the Promised Land of Europe. Can the pressure on Europe's borders be upheld--and is it wise to do so? The turbulent historical development of Europe is outlined by the author as a background for the discussion."
Translated from Danish by M. D. R. Murphy.
Correspondence: Handelshøjskolens Forlag, Nansensgade 19, 1366 Copenhagen K, Denmark. E-mail: cbspress@cbs.dk. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:10696 Sassen, Saskia. Immigration policy in a global economy. SAIS Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1997. 1-19 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses trends in immigration policy making. "The state has been transformed by the growth of a transnational economic system. Because immigration policy is deeply rooted in state sovereignty, it is critical to examine the implications of global transformations as national legal innovation lags behind systemic change." Sections are included on the state and the new economic regime, constraint on states' policy making, and when different regimes intersect.
Correspondence: S. Sassen, Columbia University, Department of Urban Planning, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

65:10697 Sciortino, Giuseppe. Too much solidarity? Migration policies between border controls and labor market management. [Troppo buoni? La politica migratoria tra controlli alle frontiere e gestione del mercato del lavoro.] Sociologia del Lavoro, Vol. 64, 1996. 50-84, 190 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Contrary to the widespread view that developed countries are losing the immigration battle, the author argues that "European immigration controls systems, occasional ambiguities notwithstanding, have been increasing their efficiency at a reasonable rate in the last decades and that their main limits are to be found, rather than in humanitarian lobbying, in the transformations of European labour markets. The paper argues that the key challenges for immigration control systems are to be found not at the countries' edges but rather in the public control of the workplaces."
Correspondence: G. Sciortino, Università di Trieste, via Mazzini 11, Gorizia, Italy. E-Mail: sciortino@pug.univ.trieste.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10698 Sharma, Nandita R. Birds of prey and birds of passage: the movement of capital and the migration of labour. Labour, Capital and Society/Travail, Capital et Société, Vol. 30, No. 1, Apr 1997. 8-38 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study highlights the relationship between the restructuring activities of the Canadian state and changes in its immigration policies by focusing on the creation of a migrant worker's program where, arguably, the connections become most clear.... It is argued that the implementation of a migrant worker's program in Canada can be accounted for by placing it within the context of the state's attempts to attract capital investment, capitalists' concern with `disciplining' workers and increasing their return on investment."
Correspondence: N. R. Sharma, University of Toronto, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M52 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

65:10699 Skeldon, Ronald. Migration policies and national security. In: Redefining security: population movements and national security, edited by Nana Poku and David T. Graham. 1998. 29-49 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This chapter examines the interplay between migration policies and security concerns. It looks at primary policies, aimed at controlling the flow of migrants, and secondary policies, catering to migrants or potential migrants in some way or other, for example to encourage integration. The author also discusses illegal migrants and internal migration in developing countries.
Correspondence: R. Skeldon, University of Hong Kong, Department of Geography and Geology, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10700 Tsoukala, Anastassia. The control of immigration in Greece in the 1990s. [Le contrôle de l'immigration en Grèce dans les années quatre-vingt-dix.] Cultures et Conflits, No. 26-27, Summer-Autumn 1997. 51-72 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author describes the measures that were adopted in Greece at the beginning of the 1990s, particularly Law 1975, which was adopted in 1991, in an effort to both control the increasing flow of immigrants and decrease the problems faced by immigrants.
Correspondence: A. Tsoukala, Panteios University of Social and Political Sciences, Institute of International Relations, Leoforos A. Syngrou 136, 176 71 Athens, Greece. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

65:10701 Velázquez Flores, Rafael. Antecedents of and reflections on immigration policy in the United States. [Antecedentes y reflexiones en torno a la política migratoria de Estados Unidos.] Relaciones Internacionales, Vol. 64, Oct-Dec 1994. 89-99 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"In [recent] years, the [measures used] to control the immigration phenomenon have wounded the bilateral relations between Mexico and the United States. These measures find their origin in economic and political interests that, definitely, do not stop the immigration stream. The paper...examines the...actions taken by the U.S. government against immigration. It also analyses the possible causes of this immigration policy as well as some of its contradictions."
Correspondence: R. Velázquez Flores, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

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