Volume 65 - Number 1 - Spring 1999

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce. Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

65:10331 Alm, James; Whittington, Leslie A. Income taxes and the timing of marital decisions. Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 64, No. 2, May 1997. 219-40 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper we estimate the impact of the [U.S.] federal individual income tax on the timing of marital decisions.... Using household data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics, we estimate various models of the probability of delaying marriage as a function of the change in tax burden caused by marriage (as well as several other variables). We find that there is a significant positive relationship between the marriage penalty in a year and the probability of delaying marriage until the following year. The magnitude of the effect, however, is small."
Correspondence: J. Alm, University of Colorado, Department of Economics, Campus Box 256, Boulder, CO 80309-0256. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

65:10332 Babka von Gostomski, Christian. Do children guarantee happy marriages? An empirical analysis using the Mannheim divorce survey of the role of children as a factor in determining the risks of divorce. [Machen Kinder Ehen glücklich? Eine empirische Untersuchung mit der Mannheimer Scheidungsstudie zum Einfluß von Kindern auf das Ehescheidungsrisiko.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1998. 151-77 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Using data from the 1996 Mannheim divorce survey and drawing on the theories of Gary S. Becker and Ulrich Beck, this paper analyses the role of children as a factor in determining risks of divorce.... In western Germany, when the child's relationship to the parents is specified, only the presence of a common child has a positive effect on marriage stability. Other factors related to a higher risk of divorce can be determined for western Germany.... In eastern Germany most of these factors point in the same direction as in the west."
Correspondence: C. Babka von Gostomski, Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Kleinkindpädagogik, Königin-Luise-Straße 47, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10333 Bracher, Michael; Santow, Gigi. Economic independence and union formation in Sweden. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 3, Nov 1998. 275-94 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In the present paper we examine the predictors of forming a first cohabiting union, of progressing from this union to marriage, and of marrying without previously cohabiting by applying hazard regression to event-history data from the 1992 Swedish Family Survey, supplemented by earnings data extracted from the national taxation register. We test a battery of measures that reflect people's past, current, and potential attachment to the labour market. We find that the correlates of union formation for women are largely indistinguishable from the correlates of union formation for men, and that far from being less likely than other women to cohabit or to marry, women with a greater degree of economic self-sufficiency are more likely to do so."
Correspondence: M. Bracher, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10334 Cameron, Samuel; Collins, Alan. Estimates of a hedonic ageing equation for partner search. Kyklos, Vol. 50, No. 3, 1997. 409-18 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This paper presents the first attempts by economists to estimate an equation of the demand curve for sexual relationship partner attributes. The focus is on the age of partner sought as the item demanded. A sample of newspaper `personal ads' is used to construct the demand curve. The estimates show clear evidence of age trade offs in partner search which vary by gender. There is evidence that financially constrained men will trade down in terms of market desirability, i.e., up in partner age, but also that women will offer to buy younger partners with financial signalling."
Correspondence: S. Cameron, University of Bradford, Department of Social and Economic Studies, Richmond Building, Richmond Road, Bradford, West Yorkshire BD7 1DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:10335 Chiang, Chin Long; Hardy, Robert J.; Wun, Chuan-Chuan; Chiang, Robert. Estimation of duration of separation, widowhood, and family life cycle. Theoretical Population Biology, Vol. 54, No. 3, Dec 1998. 202-12 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"This is the second of two reports on a study of the durations related to marriage. Divorce and death of one's spouse, the main causes of dissolution of marriage, are two of the most important events in a person's life. In the United States in 1994, 30.7 million, or 16.2%, of the adult population were either divorced or widowed. Among the widowed, the female to male ratio was 5 to 1! In this paper duration of separation due to divorce and duration of widowhood are the main variables under study. Algebraic formulas are derived and computer programs are written for estimating these durations for husbands and wives, and for living couples of any age. Relations with the duration of marriage, the expectation of life, and the family life cycle are also presented."
Correspondence: C. L. Chiang, University of California, School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

65:10336 Dechter, Aimée R. The effect of women's economic independence on union dissolution. CDE Working Paper, No. 92-28, Jun 1, 1992. 37, 5 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper introduces the expected economic effect of divorce and the expected economic status outside of marriage as alternative measures of [women's] economic independence.... I conduct a discrete event history analysis of the risk of divorce or separation and include the expected economic gains from remaining married and the expected economic vulnerability of women following union dissolution as explanatory variables. Data are drawn from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1968-87)."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Room 4412, Madison, WI 53706-1393. E-mail: cdepubs@ssc.wisc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10337 Harmsen, C. N.; Latten, J. J. Interest in registered partnership higher than expected. [Belangstelling voor geregistreerd partnerschap groter dan verwacht.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 10, Oct 1998. 8-10 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Since 1 January 1998 non-married couples of the same or opposite sex [in the Netherlands have been] allowed to have their partnership officially registered. In the first half of 1998 about 1.8 thousand couples of the same sex and 0.8 thousand of opposite sex were registered. These numbers are somewhat higher than the [legislators] expected at the time of introduction of this legal provision. The average age of persons who registered their partnership is considerably higher than that of persons who married. The average age difference between two male partners is almost twice as large as between two marrying persons."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10338 Heaton, Tim B.; Blake, Ashley M. Gender differences in determinants of marital disruption. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 1999. 25-45 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Because the family is a highly gendered institution, the authors anticipated that characteristics of husbands and wives would have differing influences on marital disruption. Longitudinal data from the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households were used to examine the influence of sociodemographic and attitudinal characteristics of each spouse on the likelihood of marital disruption. In general, wives' variables have a stronger influence than do husbands' variables, suggesting that wives play a greater role in maintenance of marital relationships and are more sensitive to problems in the relationship. The relative influence of each spouse's characteristics is more similar in egalitarian marriages, however. Findings confirm the gendered nature of marital relationships."
Correspondence: T. B. Heaton, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10339 Iwashyna, Theodore J.; Zhang, James X.; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Christakis, Nicholas A. A methodology for identifying married couples in Medicare data: mortality, morbidity, and health care use among the married elderly. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 4, Nov 1998. 413-9 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We describe a method for the development of cohorts of up to three quarters of the 14 million married couples aged 65 and over in the United States. The health care experiences, illness histories, and mortality of these identified couples can be assessed longitudinally using Medicare data. We summarize strengths and limitations of using data from Medicare administrative records for the study of marriage, health, and aging. We illustrate the method by demonstrating substantial differences in survival in a cohort of hospice patients as a function of not only the patient's own diagnosis and illness burden but also the patient's spouse's illness burden."
Correspondence: T. J. Iwashyna, c/o N. Christakis, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 2007, Chicago, IL 60637. E-mail: j-iwashyna@uchicago.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10340 James, Angela D. What's love got to do with it? Economic viability and the likelihood of marriage among African American men. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 29, No. 2, Summer 1998. 373-86 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Data from Public Use Microdata Sample 5% census files are used to analyze the economic and demographic factors affecting the entry into marriage over time of U.S. African American males. Particular attention is given to the relationship between changes in the general state of the economy and marriage patterns. "In 1970, only individual level characteristics were important predictors of marriage among African American men. In the latter two decades, context exerted more significant effects on marriage likelihood. In 1980, the contextual predictors, male joblessness and industrial composition, had a significant effect on the likelihood of marriage. In 1990 the proportion of single women who worked full-time contributed significantly to the model. Female economic independence, represented by the proportion of single women who worked full-time, had a negative effect on the likelihood of marriage among men. These findings suggest that the manner in which context constrains marriage and family formation has changed over the time period in question."
Correspondence: A. D. James, University of Southern California, Department of Sociology, KAP 348E, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2539. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10341 Klein, Thomas. The development and determinants of mate selection in terms of education. [Entwicklung und determinanten der bildungsbezogenen Partnerwahl.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1998. 123-49 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The report analyses the development of homogamy in terms of education and the determinants of education-related mate selection, from the viewpoint of how far the relevance of social control mechanisms of mate selection goes beyond the numeric of marriage opportunities.... This report uses a longitudinal life course perspective in which the numeric of marriage opportunities is controlled methodically.... [It] shows that the influence of a third variable on marriage barriers can be formalised and interpreted as an interaction effect."
Correspondence: T. Klein, Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Soziologie, Sandgasse 9, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10342 Raymo, James M. Later marriages or fewer? Changes in the marital behavior of Japanese women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 60, No. 4, Nov 1998. 1,023-34 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using pooled cross-sectional data from recent censuses and wage surveys, age-specific models of marriage prevalence are estimated in order to examine whether rapid changes in the marital behavior of Japanese women reflect delayed marriage or an increase in the proportion who will never marry. Results indicate that higher wages for females, higher educational attainment, and recency of cohort are associated with lower marital prevalence at ages 30-34, consistent with an interpretation of increasing nonmarriage. Given the rapid pace with which Japan's population is projected to age, the rarity of nonmarital childbearing, and the relative absence of family alternatives to marriage, an increase in the proportion of those who never marry would have potentially major social, economic, and demographic consequences."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. M. Raymo, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. E-mail: jraymo@umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10343 Reniers, Georges. An investigation of the post-migration survival of traditional marriage patterns: consanguineous marriage among Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium. IPD Working Paper, No. 1998-1, 1998. 23 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"It is the objective of this paper to analyse the evolution of a marriage custom in the new context after migration.... First, a comparison will be made between the prevalence of consanguineous marriages in the Turkish and Moroccan communities in Belgium with their respective countries of origin.... The evolution of consanguineous marriage over the different migrant cohorts and migrant generations will [then] be analysed in greater depth."
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: esvbalck@vub.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10344 Samuel, Olivia. Marriage and entry into reproductive life. A study of three rural communities in the state of Morelos, Mexico. [Mariage et entrée en vie féconde. L'étude de trois communautés rurales de l'état de Morelos, Mexique.] Cahiers des Amériques Latines, No. 22, 1997. 71-86 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In rural Mexican society, marriage is an institution which is firmly resistant to the sociocultural, economic and demographic changes which the country has experienced. The high estimation of fecundity and marriage as well as the absence of positive alternatives to this are the determining elements of this stability. However, changes are occurring: females marrying later, more egalitarian relations between the sexes and relationships which are more consensual and communicative. The detailed study on the point of entry to fertile life and especially on that of the relationships created by the engagement which initiates the start of this period, allows these changes to be illustrated. Several of these results are based on the socio-demographic survey carried out in three villages in the state of Morelos in 1989-90."
Correspondence: O. Samuel, Université Versailles Saint Quentin-en-Yvelines, CREDAL, 23 Rue du Refuge, 78000 Versailles, France. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

65:10345 Shaikh, Kashem. The social and demographic correlates of divorce in rural Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1998. 23-40 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines the rate of divorce by age, sex and duration of marital life at the time of divorce in rural Bangladesh for a period of 18 years from 1975 to 1992. An attempt has also been made to investigate the extent to which the incidence of divorce changes with the various socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The overall divorce rates per thousand married males and females declined from 16.1 to 11.5 and 11.8 to 8.4, respectively, during the study periods 1975-1979 and 1989-1992."
Correspondence: K. Shaikh, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: kshaikh@cis.icddrb.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10346 Wuyts, Marc. Migrant labour, the marriage valve and fertility in Southern Africa: some conceptual issues. Institute of Social Studies Working Paper, No. 246, Apr 1997. 31 pp. Institute of Social Studies: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The paper argues that population is a endogenous variable the dynamics of which depend on the social context in which production and reproduction is organised. Marriage and family structure play a pivotal role.... Historically, in Southern Africa, the timing and incidence of marriage came to depend on the prior accumulation of savings out of migrant labour, and so did rural production. The demise in the migrant labour system in recent decades, however, severely limited this by now traditional route towards marriage and investment in household production. This has major consequences for family formation and perhaps also for fertility behaviour...."
Correspondence: Institute of Social Studies, P.O. Box 29776, 2502 LT The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: publication_dept@iss.nl. Location: University of Illinois Library, Urbana, IL.

65:10347 Yelowitz, Aaron S. Will extending Medicaid to two-parent families encourage marriage? Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 33, No. 4, Fall 1998. 833-65 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Several welfare programs in the United States restrict eligibility to single-parent families. This paper asks whether eliminating this restriction for Medicaid encourages marriage. I identify Medicaid's effect through a series of health insurance reforms that were passed in the 1980s and 1990s targeting young children. These reforms were associated with an increase in the probability of marriage of 1.7 percentage points. While the expansions offered some incentives to become married, they also created other incentives to become divorced (known as the `independence effect'). After controlling for the outflows from marriage due to the independence effect, the estimated effect increases by 10 percent."
Correspondence: A. S. Yelowitz, University of California, Department of Economics, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1477. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control.

65:10348 Axinn, William G.; Barber, Jennifer S.; Thornton, Arland. The long-term impact of parents' childbearing decisions on children's self-esteem. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 4, Nov 1998. 435-43 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We examine the long-term impact of [U.S.] parents' childbearing decisions on children's self-esteem. We focus on subjective aspects of the home environment in the creation of children's internalized sense of self-worth. [Using] unique 23-year family panel data combining measures of mothers' childbearing, mothers' childbearing intentions, and children's self-esteem...the results demonstrate that parents' childbearing intentions can have a significant long-term impact on their children's self esteem."
Correspondence: W. G. Axinn, University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. E-mail: baxinn@umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10349 Casper, Lynne M.; Bryson, Ken. Household and family characteristics: March 1998 (update). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 515, Oct 1998. 1 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Detailed tabulations are now available which provide statistics on families and nonfamily households in the United States, based on the March 1998 Current Population Survey." This one-page publication presents highlights from those tabulations. "The tables include 18 detailed tables (175 pages), 10 historical tables, 2 summary tables, and 1 state table. The electronic version of these tables is available on the Internet in portable document format using the Adobe Acrobat reader, at the Census Bureau's World Wide Web site (http://www.census.gov).... A paper version of these tables is available as PPL-101 for $39."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10350 Catasus Cervera, Sonia I. Nuptiality, fertility, and the family in Cuba. [Nuptialité, fécondité et famille à Cuba.] Cahiers des Amériques Latines, No. 22, 1997. 103-14 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The analysis of the socio-demographic evolution of the Cuban family must take into consideration global trends and the rapid changes which this entity is undergoing in Latin America and in the Caribbean such as the reduction in its size, the increase in unmarried couples, a higher number of separations and premature pregnancy. In the Cuban case, amongst the factors which have had an effect on the changes in the structure and role of the family, one can give special mention to the socio-economic changes dating from 1959, the independent growth of women on the social and economic front, the process of demographic transition, characterized particularly by the notable variation in birth rates, and linked to the aforementioned phenomenon, the changes which have appeared in the make-up and dissolution of couples."
Correspondence: S. I. Catasus Cervera, Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demográficos, Avenida 41 Número 2003, Playa 13, Havana, Cuba. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

65:10351 Chant, Sylvia. Households, gender and rural-urban migration: reflections on linkages and considerations for policy. Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 10, No. 1, Apr 1998. 5-21 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to argue the importance of considering `the household' in analyses of gender and rural-urban migration, both in respect of how it shapes the gender selectivity of migrant flows and how, in turn, the latter contributes to household diversity across rural and urban areas.... [It] examines the impacts of gender differentiated demographic mobility on contemporary household forms in rural and urban areas including reference to case study evidence from my own research in Mexico, Costa Rica and the Philippines."
Correspondence: S. Chant, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Geography, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10352 Cho, Ae-Jeo. A study of family life cycle of Korean women. Health and Social Welfare Review, Vol. 18, No. 1, Summer 1998. 56-79 pp. Seoul, Republic of Korea. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"The aim of this study is to review the change of life cycle of [South] Korean women during the past three decades, to identify the change of family life and their welfare needs, and finally to provide family welfare policy directions by life cycle stages.... The family formation period and extension period grew gradually shorter, while the completed extension period grew longer. Further, the family contraction period grew shorter, while the family completed contraction period grew longer, which is found especially among the young group. The family dissolution period, the last step of the family life cycle has grown longer in the past, but has started to grow shorter recently." Data are from the 1997 National Fertility and Family Health Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10353 Fauve-Chamoux, Antoinette. Adoption and family recomposition: inventing family continuity. History of the Family, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1998. 385-492 pp. JAI Press: Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This special issue deals with adoption practices and family recomposition in different societies in the past. Contents: Introduction: adoption, affiliation, and family recomposition--inventing family continuity, by Antoinette Fauve-Chamoux; Long way to headship, short way to retirement: adopted sons in a northeastern village in pre-industrial Japan, by Satomi Kurosu; Adoption among the Quing nobility and its implications for Chinese demographic behavior, by Wang Feng and James Lee; Adoption as a strategy on a Chuukese atoll, by Pat Skyhorse; Orphans and adoption in early modern Castilian villages, by David E. Vassberg; and The blended family in Ancien Régime France: a dynamic family form, by Sylvie Perrier.
Correspondence: JAI Press, 100 Prospect Street, P.O. Box 811, Stamford, CT 06904-0811. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10354 Holdsworth, Clare. Leaving home in Spain: a regional analysis. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 4, Dec 1998. 341-60 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper compares regional patterns of leaving home in Spain during the 1970s and 1980s based on analysis of the 1991 Spanish Sociodemographic Survey. The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate that while nationally Spain is representative of a southern European pattern of leaving home, (i.e. relatively late and closely associated with partnership formation), there is considerable regional variation in timing, incidence and initial destinations on leaving home. These differences are explored using hazard rates of leaving home by destination and birth cohort for 11 Spanish regions."
Correspondence: C. Holdsworth, University of Manchester, Centre for Census and Survey Research, Faculty of Economic and Social Studies, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, England. E-mail: Clare.holdsworth@man.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10355 King, D.; Bolsdon, D. Using the SARs to add policy value to household projections. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 30, No. 5, May 1998. 867-80 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Household projections are at the centre of the debate about future housing requirements in England. The Census of Population Sample of Anonymised Records offers actual and potential opportunities to `add value' to traditional projections. This article gives examples of such added value, including testing definitional sensitivity of projection outcomes, assisting further detailed disaggregation of projected components, assisting the matching of household projections to dwelling supply, and offering scope to explore via data linkage the relationships between household projections and `backlog' housing needs, affordability, dwelling size, and tenure."
Correspondence: D. King, Anglia Polytechnic University, Population and Housing Research Group, Victoria Road South, Chelmsford CM1 1LL, England. E-mail: dking@ford.anglia.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

65:10356 Krause, Neal. Received support, anticipated support, social class, and mortality. Research on Aging, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec 1997. 387-422 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships among received support, anticipated support, social class, and mortality [in Great Britain]. Anticipated support is defined as the belief that significant others will provide assistance in the future should the need arise. Data from a prospective nationwide survey of older adults indicate that greater received support is associated with an increased mortality risk. However, the findings further reveal that anticipated support is associated with lower mortality risk, but these beneficial effects are evident only in the upper social classes. Finally, the analyses suggest that there may be a reciprocal relationship between received support and anticipated support. However, the relationship between these dimensions of support varies by social class standing." Data are from the Health and Lifestyle Survey, involving a two-wave panel design and extended follow-up of mortality over an 11-year period. Data were collected in 1984-1985 and 1991-1992.
Correspondence: N. Krause, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, 1420 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. E-mail: nkrause@umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

65:10357 Manting, D.; Alders, M. P. C. Household scenarios for the European Union. Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 10, Oct 1998. 11-27 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article reports on three Household Scenarios for the countries of the European Union.... These scenarios predict the numbers of persons living alone, living with a partner, living as a child at the parental home and living in another household position, as well as the institutional population. The period covered is 1995-2025. In all three scenarios, the number of persons living alone will grow.... The total number of households increases in all scenarios, whereas the average household size will decline in all scenarios."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10358 Ogden, Philip E.; Hall, Ray. The mobility of people living alone in France and Great Britain. [La mobilité des personnes seules en France et Grande-Bretagne.] Economie et Statistique, No. 316-317, 1998. 77-95, 177-83 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa; Ger.
"The 1990 French census and the 1991 British census both report that over one-quarter of all housing is occupied by people living alone.... Migration is often an occasion to leave home and live alone. Leaving the parental home...is tending to become an essential step on the way to securing an executive position, especially for women. Two longitudinal statistical sources, the Longitudinal Study in England and the Continuous Demographic Sample in France, are used to describe the main residential changes. The findings show remarkable similarities between the two countries in this regard."
Correspondence: P. E. Ogden, University of London, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Department of Geography, 327 Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10359 Okada, Aoi; Kurosu, Satomi. Succession and the death of the household head in early modern Japan: a case study of a Northeastern village, 1720-1870. Continuity and Change, Vol. 13, No. 1, May 1998. 143-66 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"This study analyses succession patterns using a population register from a village in Northeastern Japan between 1720 and 1870. It was observed that natural sons or adopted sons/sons-in-law (if heads had no sons) inherited upon the retirement or death of the household head. Women had a chance to succeed only when heads died or departed leaving no male heirs.... A link between demographic conditions and family strategy is also considered, contrasting succession patterns between Northeastern and Central Japan."
Correspondence: S. Kurosu, International Research Center for Japanese Studies, 3-2 Oeyama-cho, Goryo, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 610-11, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10360 Phillipson, Chris; Bernard, Miriam; Phillips, Judith; Ogg, Jim. The family and community life of older people: household composition and social networks in three urban areas. Ageing and Society, Vol. 18, No. 3, May 1998. 259-89 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The post-war period has witnessed considerable change in England affecting family structures and social relationships both within, and between, the generations. In this paper, we report on research which has examined the impact of these changes on the lives of older people. Three urban areas [located in London and the West Midlands] are the locations for this project.... Our research comprised a questionnaire-based survey of 627 older people...over the age of 75 (and 19 second generation members in their networks). We also undertook 35 interviews with Indian and Bangladeshi elders.... Findings reported concern the living arrangements of older people and their relationships with network members. In particular, we note the marked trend towards solo living or living in married pairs amongst the white population, and the importance of multi-generation households amongst the two minority ethnic groups."
Correspondence: C. Phillipson, University of Keele, Department of Applied Social Studies, Center for Social Gerontology, Keele ST5 5BG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10361 Rowland, Donald T. Consequences of childlessness in later life. Australasian Journal on Ageing, Vol. 17, No. 1, Feb 1998. 24-8 pp. Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
The author examines "the consequences of childlessness for living arrangements and instrumental support [using] statistics on 8,313 women aged 65 years and over from the 1986 [U.S.] Census Households Sample File, a 1 per cent sample of the census returns.... The paper first compares the living arrangements of childless women with those of mothers to illustrate the distinctiveness of the two populations. The paper then uses logistic regression modelling to analyse the effects of childlessness on the risk of living in particular situations."
Correspondence: D. T. Rowland, Australian National University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail: Donald.Rowland@anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10362 Schicha, Christian. Life cycles of mothers with more than two children: individualization processes in the relationships of parents with large families. [Lebenszusammenhänge kinderreicher Mütter. Individualisierungsprozesse in Partnerschaftsverläufen großer Familien.] Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe 22, Soziologie, Vol. 284, ISBN 3-631-30201-0. 1996. 245 pp. Peter Lang: Frankfurt, Germany. In Ger.
This micro-sociological study examines the relational networks and subjective experiences of 25 women with three or more children in order to determine to which extent individualization processes affect the motivations of these women. Four case studies are presented.
Correspondence: Peter Lang, Eschborner Landstraße 42-50, Postfach 940225, 6000 Frankfurt 90, Germany. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

65:10363 Siqwana-Ndulo, Nombulelo. Rural African family structure in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 29, No. 2, Summer 1998. 407-17 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Household structures in the Transkei region of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, are examined. In particular, the author questions assumptions about the African family and household structure based on the cultural values stressing individualism prevalent in Western societies, and suggests that the African extended family system is based on a value system that emphasizes collectivity and interdependence. "The household structure varies from time to time, depending on which kin are present as individuals go back and forth in their struggles to survive. The article concludes that there is no evidence that African families are going to evolve to nuclear families and calls for more systematic studies of African family and household arrangements based on the principles of social organization of the Africans, rather than some imagined universal household structure."
Correspondence: N. Siqwana-Ndulo, University of Transkei, Department of Sociology, UNITRA Gender Studies Center, Private Bag XI, UNITRA 5100, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

65:10364 Tamashevich, V.; Bokun, N. Households in the Belarussian Republic: the current situation and trends. [Domashnie khozyaistva v Respublike Belarus': sostoyanie i tendentsii razvitiya.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 7, 1998. 64-74 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The characteristics of households in Belarus are analyzed. The most recent data are for 1997. The characteristics covered include household size, age and sex distribution, and income.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

65:10365 Thomson, Elizabeth; Mosley, Jane; Hanson, Thomas L.; McLanahan, Sara S. Remarriage, cohabitation, and changes in mothering. NSFH Working Paper, No. 80, May 1998. 47 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"We use data from two waves of the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households to investigate changes in mothering behavior associated with union formation among single mothers. We consider three dimensions of mothering: (1) time and supervision; (2) discipline and decision-making; and (3) relationship quality. Our major finding is that union formation and/or the disruption of new unions have very few effects on mothering. Mothers' and children's reports sometimes produce different results, but the patterns do not suggest that children's reports are any more or less accurate than those of mothers. The most consistent effects of union change indicate that the presence of a partner reduces mothers' time with children but also inhibits mothers' harsh discipline."
The full text of this paper is available on the Web at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/nsfhwp/home.htm.
Correspondence: E. Thomson, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. E-mail: thomson@ssc.wisc.edu.

65:10366 United Nations (New York, New York). Family: challenges for the future. Pub. Order No. E.95.IV.4. ISBN 92-1-130165-3. 1996. 443 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This publication contains a selection of papers that were prepared for the International Year of the Family in 1994. It includes a chapter on family forms and functions, which discusses differences in family characteristics in different societies and cultures around the world.
Correspondence: United Nations Publication, United Nations, Room DC2-853, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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