Volume 64 - Number 4 - Winter 1998

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

64:40705 Campbell, Martha M. Schools of thought: an analysis of interest groups influential in international population policy. Population and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 6, Jul 1998. 487-512 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This analysis, written in 1993, explores the relationships among competing schools of thought in the international population policy arena. If offers the following observations: (1) Five interest groups are influential: the population-concerned community, a market-oriented group, people focusing on equitable distribution of resources, women's advocates, and the Vatican; (2) Only one of the five groups wants to draw attention to population growth; the other four all have other priorities and prefer to reduce attention to demography, seeing attention to population growth as interfering with their priorities; (3) Any attempt to base policy on identified common ground in this situation would result in asymmetry, turning policy attention away from population growth."
Correspondence: M. M. Campbell, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 300 Second Street, Los Altos, CA 94022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40706 Casas Torres, José M. World population policy. [La política demográfica mundial.] In: La explosión demográfica y la regulación de la natalidad, edited by José Botella Llusiá and Salustiano del Campo Urbano. 1997. 71-82 pp. Editorial Síntesis: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Recent global population trends are first described. The author then shows how the United Nations has gradually developed what could be described as a global population policy through a series of international conferences and the setting up of the United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] within the UN system in order to carry out population projects.
Correspondence: J. M. Casas Torres, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40707 Chamratrithirong, Aphichat. The need for another revolution after the reproductive revolution in Thailand. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jul 1998. 1-20 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"Demographers argue that Thai population policy should not be an attempt to influence fertility anymore, but rather be more focused on the distribution of population and the quality of the population.... However, the quality of the population is not only a policy option, but with current disadvantageous situations including the threats of illegal immigrants, it is a must.... The country needs to have, after the reproductive revolution of the past three decades, another revolution, to complete this task."
Correspondence: A. Chamratrithirong, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamontol, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. E-mail: pracr@mahidol.ac.th. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40708 Grimes, Seamus. From population control to "reproductive rights": ideological influences in population policy. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1998. 375-93 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines some of the ideological influences which have shaped population control policy in recent decades and considers the emerging critique of what is now widely regarded as a narrowly focused policy, based on a simplistic definition and analysis of population growth in the less developed world.... Attention is given to the critical role of professional demographers in the USA, who tailored their theories to provide a respectable justification for questionable policy intervention."
Correspondence: S. Grimes, National University of Ireland, Department of Geography, Galway, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40709 Ipsen, Carl. Population policy in the age of fascism: observations on recent literature. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, Sep 1998. 579-92, 670-1 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This essay explores generally the literature on population policy in interwar Western Europe that has emerged in the past 15 years or so and considers in depth several dealing with the Italian Fascist `demographic battle', the topic of the author's own research. Population policy (and theory) in that period inevitably overlapped with eugenic and racial concerns, and those issues are considered as well. The recent proliferation of national studies--on Britain, Germany, and Italy, but surprisingly not France--argues for a new synthesis."
Correspondence: C. Ipsen, Indiana University, History Department, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40710 Oostra, Doeke J. The European umbrella organisation for population policy. Population and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 6, Jul 1998. 513-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of brief notes by different authors on the efforts of European Community member countries' efforts to set up a European population policy. Contributions are included on Belgium, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and the Netherlands.
Correspondence: D. J. Oostra, Espérance, Postbus 137, 8300 AC Emmeloord, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40711 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (Nouakchott, Mauritania). Mauritania. An analytical report on the program and a description of its strategy. [Mauritanie. Rapport d'analyse du programme et d'élaboration de la stratégie.] Jul 1997. [vii], 61 pp. Nouakchott, Mauritania. In Fre.
Prepared by a mission jointly sponsored by the government and UNFPA, this is a report on population policies and programs carried out in Mauritania during the period 1992-1996. The focus is on using past experience to draw up recommendations for a population program for the period 1998-2001.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, Ilot K 159-161, Boite Postale 620, Nouakchott, Mauritania. E-mail: fo.mrt@undp.org. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

64:40712 Baechler, Jean. A family policy. [Une politique de la famille.] Commentaire, Vol. 21, No. 81, Spring 1998. 137-45 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author outlines the theoretical components of an effective family policy in the modern state, with particular reference to France. He suggests that the primary objective should be to encourage the formation and development of the "natural household", which he defines as comprising two parents of the opposite sex and four or five children. Two strategies should be considered in developing such a policy: the negative aspects would involve removing existing barriers, such as taxation, that prevent parents from choosing to create such natural households; the positive aspects would be to fully compensate women who undertake this task of reproduction to the level of income that they would have earned if they had not decided to have large families.
Correspondence: J. Baechler, Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40713 Bichot, Jacques. Family policy: anatomy of a conflict. [Politique familiale: les logiques d'un conflit.] Commentaire, Vol. 21, No. 81, Spring 1998. 159-66 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The basic elements of a family policy for France are discussed in the light of the current political debate. The author notes that the family policies inaugurated following World War II are no longer either efficient or appropriate. He suggests that changes are needed that would affect not only family allowances, but also the financing of health insurance, education, and the right to a pension. In particular, the author proposes that those who take on the responsibilities and costs of having and raising children should be entitled to a state pension upon reaching retirement age.
Correspondence: J. Bichot, Université Lumière Lyon 2, 86 rue Pasteur, 69365 Lyon Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40714 Bongaarts, John. The role of family planning programmes in contemporary fertility transitions. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 422-43 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The implementation of family planning programmes has been the principal population policy instrument in the developing world over the past few decades. This paper reviews the controversy over the role these programmes have played in reducing fertility. Opposing views on a number of contentious issues (for example the significance of unmet need and unwanted fertility) are summarized and a consensus position is presented."
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40715 Hureaux, Roland. A new look at policies for children. [Pour une nouvelle réflexion sur la politique de l'enfant.] Commentaire, Vol. 21, No. 81, Spring 1998. 147-57 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The current situation concerning family policy in France is reviewed. The author notes that such policies are under attack both from the left of the political spectrum, in conjunction with attacks on the traditional nuclear family per se, as well as from the right, which sees such policies as intrusions by the state into an area that should remain the exclusive domain of the individual family. He claims that the evidence that pro-family policies can raise fertility is undeniable, and suggests that the state has an obligation to intervene in this area if it wishes the nation under its governance to survive. Furthermore, he notes that most surveys of public opinion indicate that the ideal number of children is 2.6 per woman, which would be sufficient to ensure a reasonable rate of population growth: the objective of population policy should therefore be to enable people to have the number of children that they would like to have.
Correspondence: R. Hureaux, Université de Toulouse I (Sciences Sociales), Place Anatole France, 31042 Toulouse Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40716 McIntosh, Alison. European population policy in the twentieth century: is it relevant for Australia? People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1998. 1-16 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this essay is to present a brief account of European efforts to increase fertility, if possible to replacement level. While the Soviet Union and eastern European countries led the field in introducing pronatalist policies in the 1960s, the focus here will be on western Europe. Because western European nations share the pluralistic, liberal democratic polity and society that characterises Australia, comparisons with Australia will be more valid." Aspects considered include government responses to low fertility, policy efforts after 1965, political and policy contexts, and population policy in the 1990s.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40717 McNicoll, Geoffrey. The governance of fertility transition: reflections on the Asian experience. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 365-82 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The argument I made here is that [the] political-administrative dimension is...important for the course of fertility--not least in illuminating most of what matters in antinatalist policy.... The two countries most drawn on are Indonesia and Thailand.... A side look is also taken at some other Asian experience, notably India. From these accounts are distilled some more general observations about governance and fertility, bearing both on what is special about the region and on the thorny issue of transferability of experience."
Correspondence: G. McNicoll, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40718 Portugese, Jacqueline. Fertility policy in Israel: the politics of religion, gender, and nation. ISBN 0-275-96098-6. LC 97-49490. 1998. xv, 212 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The aim of this book is twofold. Its first goal is to demonstrate that despite the lack of an official policy on national fertility, the Israeli government has introduced numerous measures that taken as a whole constitute an `unofficial' policy designed to increase the Jewish fertility rate and decrease that of the Arabs. These measures include the setting in place of socio-economic incentives for prospective mothers or parents; the deliberate obstruction of women's access to reproductive technologies that could be used to prevent or terminate a pregnancy, such as contraception and abortion; and the promotion of those technologies that treat infertility, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). The book's second objective is to explain how the pronatalist orientation of successive Israeli governments has been shaped by the micro and macro political considerations mentioned above. In order to accomplish this talk, I will discuss the Zionist origins of the state and the `demographic war' legacy that they have left behind. The role of the religious establishment in the formal political sphere will also be taken into consideration as will the influence of familism and patriarchy. Finally, I will examine various demographic and economic forces that are relatively autonomous from the influence of the state."
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

64:40719 Baldwin-Edwards, Martin. The Greek regularization--a comparative analysis with the Spanish, Portuguese and Italian experiences. Centre for Euro-Mediterranean Studies Research Paper, [1998]. [11] pp. University of Reading, Graduate School of European and International Studies: Reading, England. In Eng.
The author discusses immigration law in Greece, and compares the country's situation with that in Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Sections are included on the labor market; unemployment and the black economy; immigration law in the four countries; and the prospects for regularization of policy in Greece. The full text of this paper is available on the Web at http://www.rdg.ac.uk.
Correspondence: M. Baldwin-Edwards, European University Institute, Via dei Roccettini 9, 50016 San Domenico di Fiesole, Florence, Italy.

64:40720 Blos, Michael; Fischer, Peter A.; Straubhaar, Thomas. The impact of migration policy on the labour market performance of migrants: a comparative case study. New Community, Vol. 23, No. 4, Oct 1997. 511-35 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article investigates the impact of migration policy on the labour market performance of migrants in Sweden and Switzerland. It concentrates on the income and employment of groups of foreign residents relative to natives and looks at socio-demographic characteristics and educational policies. In so far as declared goals are concerned, the Swedish and the Swiss migration policies reflect opposite approaches. From its aims and instruments, the Swiss policy has been economically oriented, considering migrants as merely temporary guests.... The Swedish policy has emphasised humanitarian and political aspects, rejecting migration for economic labour market reasons and aiming at the long-term integration of foreigners once admitted to the country."
Correspondence: M. Blos, Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Holstenhofweg 85, 2000 Hamburg 70, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40721 Bonetti, Paolo. A preliminary appraisal of the new Italian immigration law. [La nuova legge italiana sull'immigrazione: una prima lettura.] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 129, 1998. 137-49 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
The author attempts to provide a preliminary analysis of the likely impact of the new legislation concerning immigration that was adopted in Italy in March 1998. This law has three main objectives, which are to improve the efficiency of immigrant labor flows, to reduce levels of illegal migration, and to improve the process of integration of legal migrants.
Correspondence: P. Bonetti, Università degli Studi di Milano, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza, Via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40722 de Beer, J. What is the effect of immigration policy? [Welk effect heeft het immigratiebeleid?] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 8, Aug 1998. 10-2 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In 1993 and 1994 the Dutch government took new measures in order to restrict immigration. The effect of these measures on the size of immigration is estimated by adding intervention variables to a regression model in which immigration is explained by a linear trend and the unemployment rate.... It is estimated that immigration in 1994-1997 was 20% lower than it would have been if the restrictive measures had not been taken."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40723 Fassin, Didier; Morice, Alain; Quiminal, Catherine. The laws of inhospitality: immigration policies and the test posed by undocumented immigrants. [Les lois de l'inhospitalité: les politiques de l'immigration à l'épreuve des sans-papiers.] ISBN 2-7071-2743-4. 1997. 278 pp. Editions La Découverte: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a collection of studies by various authors on topics related to the presence of illegal, or undocumented, immigrants in France. The general view of the book is that the changes adopted over the past 20 years in the laws affecting immigration have encouraged the development of xenophobic and racist attitudes toward immigrants in general, although they were primarily designed to facilitate the integration of legal immigrants and accelerate the expulsion of illegal immigrants. The contributors suggest that French society has been weakened by this attack on the social contract, involving limits to the right of asylum, barriers to reuniting families, insecurities in the workplace, and increased tolerance of racism, which have combined to undermine the foundations of democracy. The case is made for the adoption of more liberal immigration laws.
Correspondence: Editions La Découverte, 9 bis rue Abel-Hovelacque, 75013 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40724 Groenendijk, Kees. Regulating ethnic immigration: the case of the Aüssiedler. New Community, Vol. 23, No. 4, Oct 1997. 461-82 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"The migration of ethnic Germans to Germany is one of the major migration movements to Western Europe after 1950. The efforts of successive German governments to regulate and control the immigration of Aüssiedler may well give some insight into the capacities of governments of democratic states to regulate immigration. This article gives a historical overview of the various instruments used by the German government in order to regulate the immigration of Aüssiedler. The effect of those instruments on the migration movement and the relative (in)effectiveness of the policy instruments are explored on the basis of a comparison of the migration from Poland, Romania and the former USSR."
Correspondence: K. Groenendijk, University of Nijmegen, Comeniuslaan 4, P.O. Box 9201, 6500 HC Nijmegen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40725 Hu, Su-yun; Zhao, Min. A study of the management mode of a rural migrant community. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1997. 337-46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the current government policy regarding the management of rural migrants and the current situation for rural migrants in Shanghai City [China]. The authors indicate in this paper that the current system for managing rural migrants in Shanghai City, which mainly relies on the police department, is not very effective. The authors think that the residents' committee, the basic unit of the community in China, is a more effective way to manage and serve the rural migrant community."
Correspondence: S.-y. Hu, Shanghai Social Science Academy, Research Center for Population and Economic Development, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40726 Lobo, Arun P.; Salvo, Joseph J. Changing U.S. immigration law and the occupational selectivity of Asian immigrants. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 3, Fall 1998. 737-60 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines whether recent Asian immigrant flows [to the United States] are less selective (measured by the share of professionals among entering immigrants) than earlier ones and analyzes how changes in immigration law have affected occupational selectivity. It does this by first examining shifts in the categories of admission utilized by Asian immigrants since 1965 and by analyzing the occupational characteristics of these immigrants by their categories of admission.... The focus is on the following Asian source countries: Mainland China, India, Korea, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Two-thirds of all immigrants from Asia since the 1965 law went into effect emigrated from these countries."
Correspondence: A. P. Lobo, New York City Department of City Planning, 22 Reade Street, New York, NY 10007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40727 Money, Jeannette. No vacancy: the political geography of immigration control in advanced industrial countries. International Organization, Vol. 51, No. 4, Autumn 1997. 685-720 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This article examines the domestic political sources of immigration control in advanced market economy countries after World War II.... I briefly describe the distinctive patterns of immigration in selected OECD countries and the standard explanations advanced to account for these patterns. I explain...how the geographic concentration of immigrant communities affects the domestic distribution of costs and benefits associated with immigration control policies.... I illustrate the model with an analysis of British immigration policy.... I compare the analysis with the British literature on immigration control to evaluate the power of the general framework against country-specific explanations."
Correspondence: J. Money, University of California, Department of Political Science, Davis, CA 95616-8682. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40728 Papademetriou, Demetrios G.; Aleinikoff, T. Alexander; Meyers, Deborah W. Reorganizing the U.S. immigration function: toward a new framework for accountability. International Migration Policy Program, No. 7, ISBN 0-87003-138-4. LC 98-73642. 1998. viii, 63 pp. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors "examine whether the institutional framework that has been created [in the United States] to manage immigration meets fair and reasonable expectations of program integrity and delivery and--if it does not--to offer appropriate alternatives. Our premise is that immigration can best be managed in the context of laws grounded in a realistic policy vision, and appreciation of the relationship of immigration to other major domestic policy priorities, and clarity about the international objectives and obligations of the United States." Chapters are included on the U.S. government's immigration function; the history of that function; reorganization and restructuring; problems with the current structure; principles and elements of reform; and proposals for change.
Correspondence: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036. E-mail: carnegie@ceip.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40729 Sassen, Saskia. The de-facto transnationalizing of immigration policy. Jean Monnet Chair Papers, No. 33, LC 96-22379. 1996. 36 pp. European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre: Florence, Italy. In Eng.
The author explores some implications of the growing trend toward globalization--involving the lifting of certain border controls affecting the flow of capital, information, and services--for traditional concepts of national sovereignty and the rights of countries to control the flow of immigrants and refugees. "I will focus first on the constraints faced by the state in highly developed countries in the making of immigration policy today, and then on the constraints resulting from the state's role in the implementation of global economic processes and institutions. In the final section I discuss the implications of these two types of constraints for immigration policy making and implementation."
Correspondence: European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre, Via dei Roccettini 9, 50016 San Domenico di Fiesole, Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40730 Seifert, Wolfgang. Admission policy, patterns of migration and integration: the German and French case compared. New Community, Vol. 23, No. 4, Oct 1997. 441-60 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
The author examines "different concepts of citizenship and nationality [that] prevail in Germany and in France. These differences lead to different patterns of migration into these countries and to different policies governing the integration of migrants.... This article will show for the German case, but also with reference to France, how a given immigration policy leads to the establishment of a given migration pattern. Germany and France have in common the recruitment [of] a great number of foreign workers in the period of economic prosperity after the end of the Second World War. These workers were employed predominantly in industrialised mass production and in heavy industry.... Migration patterns, and policies governing immigration and integration, varied considerably up until the freeze in recruitment of 1973 (Germany) and 1974 (France). Thereafter, immigration policies in France and Germany came to resemble each other, and to focus upon the limitation of further movement."
Correspondence: W. Seifert, Humboldt-Universität, Unter den Linden, 10099 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40731 Wihtol de Wenden, Catherine. Immigration: the meanderings of a reform. [Immigration: les méandres de la réforme.] Banquet, No. 11, Feb 1998. 187-95 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The current confusion in France in 1997 concerning the reform of immigration legislation is described. The author also examines changes in such legislation in France from 1945 to 1997.
Correspondence: C. Wihtol de Wenden, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CERI I), 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

64:40732 Zheng, Xinzhen. Strategic thinking regarding the immigration issue in Guangdong Province. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1997. 299-306 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Many people have been moving to Guangdong Province from other parts of China since 1978. This paper analyzes the immigration issue in the province and suggests that the provincial government should handle this matter carefully and should give consideration to both national (Chinese) and regional (Guangdong Province) interests. The government of Guangdong Province should place priority on admitting a work force with higher education or higher work skills, which will promote the economic progress of the province."
Correspondence: X. Zheng, Guangdong Social Science Academy, Institute of Social Science, Guangdong, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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