Volume 64 - Number 4 - Winter 1998

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population.

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

64:40665 Carrière, Yves. The impact of demographic aging on the provision of social and health services to the elderly who are becoming less independent: institutionalization and help in the home. [L'incidence du vieillissement démographique sur les services sociosanitaires destinés aux personnes âgées en perte d'autonomie: institutionalisation et aide à domicile.] Collection de Thèses et Mémoires, No. 44, Mar 1996. ix, 178, xxiii pp. Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
This doctoral thesis, which is not an official publication of the Department of Demography at Montreal University, deals with the impact of demographic aging on the provision of social and health services in Canada to an elderly population that is becoming increasingly dependent on others for the basic necessities of life. The data are primarily from a 1987 survey on social security in old age and pensions, entitled l'Enquête sur les Prestataires de la Sécurité de la Vieillesse et du Régime de Pensions du Canada. The process of the institutionalization of the elderly and the provision of services for them at their places of private residence are examined separately.
Correspondence: Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40666 Case, Anne; Deaton, Angus. Large cash transfers to the elderly in South Africa. Economic Journal, Vol. 108, No. 450, Sep 1998. 1,330-61 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"We examine the social pension in South Africa, where large cash sums--about twice the median per capita income of African households--are paid to people qualified by age but irrespective of previous contributions. We present the history of the scheme and use a 1993 nationally representative survey to investigate the redistributive consequences of the transfers, documenting who receive the pensions, their levels of living, and those of their families. We also look at behavioural effects, particularly the effects of the cash receipts on the allocation of income to food, schooling, transfers, and savings."
Correspondence: A. Case, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Princeton, NJ 08544-1021. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40667 Gauthier, Hervé; Asselin, Suzanne; Beaupré, Michel; Duchesne, Louis; Jean, Sylvie; Laroche, Denis; Nobert, Yves; St-Laurent, Danielle. From one generation to another: changes in living conditions, Volume 2. [D'une génération à l'autre: évolution des conditions de vie, Volume II.] ISBN 2-551-19005-3. Jul 1998. 261 pp. Bureau de la Statistique du Québec: Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
This is the continuation of a study that examines how life is changing in the Canadian province of Quebec from one generation to the next. In this volume there are chapters on mortality and fertility; two of the main causes of death, cancer and suicide; migration; the economically active population; consumption; housing and car ownership; and educational mobility.
For Volume 1, published in 1997, see 63:30686.
Correspondence: Bureau de la Statistique de Québec, 200 chemin Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Quebec G1R 5T4, Canada. Author's E-mail: herve.gauthier@bsq.gouv.qc.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40668 Huang, Rongquing; Nanjo, Zenji. Measurement of social development in China using the literate life expectancy. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 22, May 1998. 25-30 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The authors investigate whether the concept of "literate life expectancy" developed by Lutz and others can be used as a measure of social development in China.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

64:40669 Huddle, Donald L. Post-1969 immigration and the example of the insolvency of the Social Security system. Population and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 6, Jul 1998. 533-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Advocates of immigration to save [U.S.] Social Security...assume that a pay-as-you-go system will work over the long run.... The present case study shows that trust in immigration to save Social Security is seriously misplaced, and it quantifies the shortfall.... This analysis of the post-1969 immigrant sector Social Security account is a portion of the first comprehensive study of the public sector costs of immigration."
Correspondence: D. L. Huddle, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005-1892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40670 Mason, Karen O. Gender and demographic change: what do we know? In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 158-82 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter reviews what is known about the relationship between gender systems and demographic change.... The next section discusses some inherent difficulties in studying the links between gender and demographic change using the quantitative approaches favoured by demographers.... Subsequent sections consider what is known about the impact of gender systems on fertility and mortality, respectively; a further section briefly reviews ideas about the impact of demographic change on gender systems."
Correspondence: K. O. Mason, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848-1601. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40671 Morocco. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Gender and development: socio-demographic and cultural aspects of sexual differentiation. [Genre et développement: aspects socio-démographiques et culturels de la différenciation sexuelle.] Etudes Démographiques, ISBN 9981-1949-0-5. [1998]. 324 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This report examines some of the problems related to the perceived roles of men and women in Morocco and considers how these problems affect the country's efforts to achieve satisfactory levels of socioeconomic development. There are chapters on the prevalent attitude toward the role of women in society, differences in educational opportunity by sex, demographic change and relations between the sexes, relations between the sexes in the rural environment, sex roles and the female contribution to decision making, and the legal situation concerning women's rights.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques, B.P. 178, avenue Maâ El Ainine, 10001 Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40672 Nunes, Brasilmar F. Brazil, a country of the young? [Le Brésil, un pays de jeunes?] Nouvelles Pratiques Sociales, Vol. 9, No. 2, Autumn 1996. 169-86 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The relationship between demographic trends and social development in a developing country is explored. The author notes that in countries like Brazil, where a significant percentage of the population is excluded from the benefits of social and economic progress, different levels of citizenship emerge associated with such inequalities. One result of past demographic trends has been rapid rates of urbanization and increases in urban poverty. The fact that fertility is now falling means that the percentage of young people in the population as a whole is declining, and therefore it is reasonable to look forward to a decline in overall poverty as these demographic pressures become less acute.
Correspondence: B. F. Nunes, Universidade de Brasília, Departamento de Sociologia, Campus Universitário Asa Norte, 70910-900 Brasília DF, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40673 Schmid, Josef. Built on sand? The community of fate linking generations and the generation contract. [Auf Sand gebaut? Die Schicksalsgemeinschaft von Generation und Generationenvertrag.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 22, No. 2-3, 1997. 217-38 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The author takes up a theme in which demography and social policy are very closely connected. `The generation contract', or the succession of generations in terms of social and economic policy, affects all areas of politics that are influenced by population development. Here, we have the opportunity to closely and comprehensively examine the relationship between labour force and the dependent age groups (youth and retired age group).... The emphasis is on population movements of `post industrialism', which had led to a continued deficit in the number of births and increasing life expectancy in the old-age groups." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: J. Schmid, Universität Bamberg, Lehrstuhl für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Hornthalstraße 2, 96047 Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40674 Thøgersen, Øystein. A note on intergenerational risk sharing and the design of pay-as-you-go pension programs. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1998. 373-8 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Different versions of pay-as-you-go public pension programs may have entirely different effects on the intergenerational distribution of income risk. If the pension benefit is a fixed proportion of previous labor income, a pay-as-you-go program increases the net income risk of all generations. On the other hand, a pay-as-you-go program characterized by a fixed labor income tax rate and uncertain pension benefits provides intergenerational risk sharing."
Correspondence: Ø. Thøgersen, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Institute of Economics, Helleveien 30, 5035 Bergen-Sandviken, Norway. E-mail: oystein.thorgersen@snf.no. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40675 Todisco, Enrico. Immigrants and the Italian educational system. [Les immigrés et le système éducatif italien.] Migrations Société, Vol. 10, No. 55, Jan-Feb 1998. 51-66 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The educational needs of immigrants in Italy are described and some recent data on the presence of foreigners in the educational system are analyzed. The author notes that the percentage of foreigners in the system is growing very fast, with annual growth rates exceeding 19%, whereas the percentage of Italians is decreasing by about 1.7% due to the decline in fertility. The analysis is presented separately for the various levels of education, the regions of Italy, and the continent of origin of the foreign children concerned.
Correspondence: E. Todisco, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Facoltà di Economia, Dipartimento di Studi Geoeconomici, Statistici, e Storici per l'Analisi Regionale, Via del Castro Laurenziano 9, Rome 00161, Italy. E-mail: todisco@scec.eco.uniroma1.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40676 van Dijk, Frans. Private support and social security. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1998. 345-71 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the `family' and the `community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on social ties of lending and receiving support. It is shown that support is only an effective alternative in a limited number of situations."
Correspondence: F. van Dijk, University of Amsterdam, Department of Economics, Roeterstraat 11, 1018 WB Amsterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: fransd@fee.uva.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40677 Watkins, Susan C.; Rutenberg, Naomi; Wilkinson, David. Orderly theories, disorderly women. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 213-45 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine the interaction of global social change and gender in the context of South Nyanza District, Kenya.... After setting the stage by describing the control of women in demographic and anthropological theories, we briefly describe our data and methods, the economic characteristics of the area, and the extent of contraceptive use there. We then consider the ways in which opportunities offered by economic development and family planning programmes permit women to evade male control, and men's reactions to this threat."
Correspondence: S. C. Watkins, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Sociology, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

64:40678 Bookman, Milica Z. The demographic struggle for power: the political economy of demographic engineering in the modern world. ISBN 0-7146-4732-2. LC 96-38905. 1997. [x], 273 pp. Frank Cass: London, England/Portland, Oregon. In Eng.
This book is concerned with the demographic struggle for power between ethnic or religious groups that is currently going on in many countries in the modern world. The purpose of these struggles is to increase the numbers, and consequently the political and economic power, of a specific ethnic or religious group at the expense of other groups in a given country or region. Two main questions are posed: "First, what is it that ethnic groups think they can achieve by augmenting their numbers? To answer this, the link between the size of an ethnic group and its economic and political power is to be identified.... Second, by what methods do leaders of ethnic groups actually manipulate demographic characteristics in their struggle for power? Do they just wage wars to exterminate their opponents, or are there in fact more subtle components to their efforts? This study analyzes such demographic alterations as caused by pronatalist policies, population resettlements, religious and linguistic conversions, immigration policies, etc. This book then places phenomena like ethnic cleansing, mass rapes and genocide into an economic and political framework, according to which the guiding motivation is to alter the ratio of an ethnic population to territory in an effort to increase economic and political power."
Correspondence: Frank Cass Publishers, Newbury House, 900 Eastern Avenue, London IG2 7HH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40679 Gilbar, Gad G. Population dilemmas in the Middle East: essays in political demography and economy. ISBN 0-7146-4706-3. 1997. xix, 141 pp. Frank Cass: London, England/Portland, Oregon. In Eng.
The focus of this book is on the demographic developments that have occurred in two Middle Eastern populations--Palestinians and Egyptians--since World War II, and on the political implications of these demographic trends. The first part of the book concentrates on the Palestinian population in the period from the founding of Israel in 1948 to 1987, and describes the growth of Palestinian populations east of the Jordan river, the natural increase of the population, and the economic and political factors affecting migration. The second part is concerned with demographic developments in Egypt, focusing on the consequences of high rates of natural increase and the development of policies and programs designed to slow the rate of population growth.
Correspondence: Frank Cass Publishers, Newbury House, 900 Eastern Avenue, London IG2 7HH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40680 Kolstø, Pål. Anticipating demographic superiority: Kazakh thinking on integration and nation building. Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jan 1998. 51-69 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"In order to understand and to forecast what kind of nations will take shape in the new states of the former Soviet Union it is important to focus on the express objectives and actual strategies of the nation builders.... In this article I will concentrate on the ideological aspect, that is, on official and semi-official statements outlining the idea of `the Kazakhstani nation', as Kazakhstani nation builders would like to see it develop." Particular attention is given to the changes in the ethnic composition of the country due primarily to the different demographic characteristics of the main ethnic groups that make up the population, the ethnic Kazakhs and Russians, and to the political implications of the growth of the Kazakhs from a minority to a majority ethnic group.
Correspondence: P. Kolstø, University of Oslo, Institute of Eastern European and Oriental Studies, P.O. Box 1030, 0315 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40681 Morrison, Peter A. Demographic influences on Latinos' political empowerment: comparative local illustrations. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 3, Jun 1998. 223-46 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the influences of population structure, socioeconomic factors, and residential patterns on the process by which Latinos have translated their numbers into an effective political presence in five California cities. The distinctive routes to empowerment evidenced in these cities reveal the varied possibilities local demographic settings may offer and the sensitivity of different election systems to those settings. Two alternatives are considered: (1) a change from election at large to election by single-member district, or (2) augmentation of Latinos' citywide voting strength in deciding the second- or third-place winner in a multi-member at-large election format. The findings can inform local districting efforts planned around the 2000 census."
Correspondence: P. A. Morrison, RAND Corporation, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. E-mail: morrison@rand.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40682 Seltzer, William. Population statistics, the Holocaust, and the Nuremberg trials. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 3, Sep 1998. 511-52, 669, 671 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Drawing on a variety of sources, the article examines how population statistics were used by the Nazis in planning and implementing the Holocaust and how the data systems that gathered these statistics and other information were also employed to assist in carrying out the Holocaust. This review covers experience in Germany, Poland, France, the Netherlands, and Norway. Attention is also given to the role played in this work by some of those then professionally active in demography and statistics. The use and impact of perpetrator-generated Holocaust mortality data and other estimates of Jewish losses presented at the Nuremberg trials are then described. Finally, present-day implications of the historical experience under review are discussed."
Correspondence: W. Seltzer, Fordham University, Institute for Social Research, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40683 Tir, Jaroslav; Diehl, Paul F. Demographic pressure and interstate conflict: linking population growth and density to militarized disputes and wars, 1930-89. Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 35, No. 3, May 1998. 319-39 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
"This study offers some empirical evidence on the relationship between population pressure and international conflict.... We looked at the impact of population growth and density on international conflict involvement, initiation, and escalation for all states in the international system over the period 1930-89. Generally, population growth pressures had a significant impact on the likelihood that a state would become involved in military conflict.... In part, our results also suggest that some portion of the optimist argument may be correct--advanced technology may mitigate some of the deleterious effects of high population growth."
Correspondence: J. Tir, University of Illinois, Department of Political Science, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

64:40684 Acharya, Manju P. Chronic social stress and emotional well-being: an analysis of mental health of immigrants in Alberta. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1998. 1-27 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article examines the cause and effect relationships between chronic stress and mental health status of 20 to 64 year old immigrants living in Alberta. For the purpose of this analysis, the 1994/95 Canadian National Population Health Survey data were used.... It seems that age and household income have a strong effect on general chronic stress, which in turn influences the mental health of the immigrants. By splitting the place of origin into developed and developing regions, differences in the use of indicators to predict mental health condition of immigrants were noticed. The study presents two path models to examine the social stressor theory."
Correspondence: M. P. Acharya, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40685 Agree, Emily M.; Freedman, Vicki A. Implications of population aging for geriatric health. Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. WP 98-05, Aug 1998. 23 pp. Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this [paper] is to provide insight into the implications of population aging for geriatric health.... [The authors] review...the major theories of morbidity-mortality linkages. To evaluate these theories, evidence regarding recent changes in morbidity, disability, and mortality in the U.S. is presented, and the likely implications of population aging for the future of geriatric health are discussed."
Correspondence: E. M. Agree, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Room W4033, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. E-mail: eagree@jhsph.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40686 Alam, Moneer. Health sector financing by states: an exploration. Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1997. 177-206 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Three issues are briefly investigated here. These are: (i) health expenditure of 16 major states [in India] over two points of time--1985-86 and 1989-90, (ii) their distribution by major heads of health services, rural and urban, preventive and curative, salary and non-salary components, etc., and (iii) an assessment of these allocations against the health status attainments by states...."
Correspondence: M. Alam, Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40687 Archambault, Paul. Depressive and suicidal states in young people: results from a socio-demographic survey of the 25-34 age group. [Etats dépressifs et suicidaires pendant la jeunesse: résultats d'une enquête sociodémographique chez les 25-34 ans.] Population, Vol. 53, No. 3, May-Jun 1998. 477-515 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Young people aged 25-34 [in France] were questioned about their backgrounds and about the events which had marked their lives.... The disappointments, failures, setbacks and uncertainty which characterize these itineraries are evaluated in order to measure their long-term impact on the psychological health of the young adult. The article analyses the disruptions in family life that are responsible for the deep-rooted causes of personality disorders at the time of the transition to adulthood. These underlying causes interact with the contingent causes represented by the personal experiences of the individuals questioned (unemployment, relationship breakdown), and the measurement and interpretation of these interactions is the subject of subsequent discussion."
Correspondence: P. Archambault, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: Paul.Archambault@gecapital.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40688 Basu, Alaka M. Gender in population research: confusing implications for health policy. Population and Development Program Working Papers Series, No. 97.07, 1997. 27 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This paper discusses some of the health policy implications of an increasing trend in population research--its `political correctness' , defined not in the popular, often derogatory, sense, but as the ideological commitment to certain principles. One of these commitments, that to the notion of gender equality, is examined in terms of how it can falter when it seeks greater strength and legitimacy by being tied to other less-resisted goals such as for better health."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Author's E-mail: ab54@cornell.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40689 Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad [CEDES] (Buenos Aires, Argentina); Centro de Estudios de Población [CENEP] (Buenos Aires, Argentina). A workshop of social studies about reproductive health and sexuality. [Taller de investigaciones sociales en salud reproductiva y sexualidad.] 1993. [viii], [109] pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
These are the proceedings of a workshop held November 1-2, 1993, in Buenos Aires on aspects of reproductive health and sexuality in Argentina. Topics covered include abortion, public health services and institutions, population policies and women's status, and adolescent pregnancy and sexual behavior.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad, Programa Regional de Investigación Social, Entrenamiento y Asistencia Técnica en Salud Reproductiva y Sexualidad, Sanchez de Bustamante 27, 1173 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40690 Darby, Sarah C.; Anderson, Roy M. Statistical issues in HIV research. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A: Statistics in Society, Vol. 161, No. 2, 1998. 161-272 pp. Royal Statistical Society: London, England. In Eng.
This special issue contains a selection of nine papers presented at a meeting on statistical issues in HIV research held at the Royal Statistical Society in London on May 16, 1997. The papers are as follows: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome projections in England and Wales: interplay of methodology and data, by D. De Angelis, N. E. Day, and O. N. Gill; Cofactors and markers of disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus infection, by C. A. Sabin, A. Mocroft, A. Cozzi Lepri, and A. N. Phillips; Measures of mortality in the study of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus in the UK haemophilia population, by S. C. Darby and D. W. Ewart; Human immunodeficiency virus, DNA and statistics, by E. C. Holmes; The influence of behavioural heterogeneity on the population level effect of potential prophylactic type 1 human immunodeficiency virus vaccines, by G. P. Garnett; Measuring sexual partner networks for transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, by A. C. Ghani and G. P. Garnett; Issues in the design and analysis of therapeutic trials in human immunodeficiency virus infection, by A. G. Babiker, J. H. Darbyshire, T. E. A. Peto, and A. S. Walker; Design of human immunodeficiency virus intervention trials in developing countries, by R. Hayes; and Statistical issues in phase III human immunodeficiency virus vaccine trial design, by M. E. Halloran.
Correspondence: Royal Statistical Society, 12 Errol Street, London EC1Y 8LX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40691 Gorski, Peter A. Perinatal outcome and the social contract: interrelationships between health and society. Acta Paediatrica Japonica, Vol. 40, No. 2, Apr 1998. 168-72 pp. Carlton South, Australia. In Eng.
"Rates of infant mortality and prematurity or low birth weight serve as indirect measures of the health of a nation. This paper presents current population data documenting the still serious problem of perinatal outcome in the USA as well as in other economically developed countries. International comparisons suggest that nations which have the greatest inequality of income and social opportunity also have the most adverse perinatal, child and adult health outcomes. Furthermore, the data assert that these effects are independent of average national wealth or gross national economic productivity. Health status differs by social class and race, even among the most affluent sectors of the population. All social classes, even the wealthiest, suffer the health consequences of social inequalities. An explanatory socio-psychological theory of causality is proposed."
Correspondence: P. A. Gorski, Massachusetts Caring for Children Foundation, 100 Summer Street, 14th Floor, Boston, MA 02110. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40692 Hill, Gerry B.; Forbes, William F.; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Lindsay, Joan; McDowell, Ian; Wilkins, Russell. The entropy of health and disease: dementia in Canada. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1997. 87-100 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The object of this paper is to combine two concepts which have developed on the interface between public health and demography: health expectancy and the analysis of linkage in demographic models. The paper addresses, in the general case, the question: what are the marginal effects of changes in incidence or mortality rates on the expectation of life with, and without, a particular irreversible, non-communicable disease or type of disability? A simple model of disease in a population is described, and general solutions for the two components of the expectation of life are obtained.... It is shown that, under certain conditions, the entropy of the expectation of disease free life, with respect to changes in incidence, can be approximated by an extension of Sullivan's index. Data on dementia among elderly Canadians, obtained from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, are used for illustration."
Correspondence: G. B. Hill, University of Ottawa, 550 Cumberland Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40693 Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai. Best practice of reduction of vulnerability of girls to HIV/AIDS. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jul 1998. 53-83 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
The author discusses possible means of preventing transmission of HIV/AIDS to young girls in Thailand. Reasons for girls entering prostitution and strategies for preventing entry into the commercial sex industry are considered. The author outlines the goals and accomplishments of the Sema Life Development Project, which was designed as a child prostitute eradication policy.
Correspondence: C. Kanchanachitra, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Puthamontol, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. E-mail: prckc@mahidol.ac.th. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40694 Khlat, Myriam. Demographic evaluation of health programmes: proceedings of a seminar in Paris, February 26-28, 1996. 1997. 225 pp. Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED]: Paris, France; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This collection of 14 papers is the product of a seminar on demographic evaluation of health programs held in Paris in February 1996. "In the first part are treated the various approaches and problems associated with evaluation, including data sources, collection methods, outcome measures and estimation techniques. Part two presents examples of evaluative research concerning the impact on mortality of specific health programmes. These are based on a variety of sources, including survey data, the demographic surveillance system of Matlab, population laboratories in Africa, and death registers. Finally, given that equity is often seen as an important concern in evaluation, the contributions in the third part examine the impact of interventions on health differentials within populations."
Correspondence: Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. Location: University of Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia, PA.

64:40695 Khoshnood, Babak; Lee, Kwang-sun; Wall, Stephen; Hsieh, Hui-lung; Mittendorf, Robert. Short interpregnancy intervals and the risk of adverse birth outcomes among five racial/ethnic groups in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 148, No. 8, Oct 15, 1998. 798-805 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Data from the National Center for Health Statistics for over 4.8 million births for the period 1989-1991 are used to study the effects of short interpregnancy intervals on the risks for low birth weight and preterm delivery for singleton births in the United States. The focus is on differences among African American, Mexican, Native American, non-Hispanic white, and Puerto Rican mothers. Intervals of less than 6 months and between 6 and 12 months occurred with greatest frequency among Native Americans, followed by Puerto Ricans, African Americans, Mexicans, and non-Hispanic whites. "Our results suggest that the length of the interval between pregnancies has a similar and substantial effect on the risk of low birth weight and preterm delivery among five major racial/ethnic groups of mothers in the United States."
Correspondence: B. Khoshnood, University of Chicago, Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics MC 6060, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:40696 Markides, Kyriakos S.; Miranda, Manuel R. Minorities, aging, and health. ISBN 0-8039-5973-7. LC 97-4841. 1997. xii, 467 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
This volume contains a selection of papers by various authors on aspects of the health and health-care needs of the ethnic minority elderly in the United States. The contributions are in six major areas: "mortality and life expectancy; chronic diseases and disabilities; diet and nutrition; mental health; health services and long-term care; and health policy"
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Sage Publications, 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. E-mail: order@sagepub.com. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40697 Pieris, Indrani. Health treatment behaviour in Sri Lanka. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 332-62 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper, using Sri Lankan Demographic Change Project data, examines how health care behaviour has contributed to Sri Lanka's good health status.... The study found that in general Sri Lankans were sensitive to illness and responded quickly to it, usually by resorting to Western medicine either from a government clinic or from a private doctor.... A notable feature of Sri Lankans' health behaviour, particularly that of the Sinhalese, regardless of their religion, education, or the age and sex of the patient, is their willingness to change treatment when one treatment type is evaluated to be ineffective."
Correspondence: I. Pieris, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40698 Qadeer, Imrana. Reproductive health: a public health perspective. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 41, Oct 10-16, 1998. 2,675-84 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This article examines the concept of reproductive health as it emerged in the 1980s, its consequences for health research and family planning programmes in India, its advocacy for the third world agenda and the reasons behind it, its epidemiological basis, and offers an alternative public health perspective for understanding reproductive health." The author comes to two main conclusions. "Firstly, within reproductive health, priorities should be clearly articulated and reflected in the budgetary allocations. Secondly, maternal and child health, nutrition, contraceptive services, and communicable disease control must be integrated."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40699 Smith, F. B. The first health transition in Australia, 1880-1910. In: The continuing demographic transition, edited by G. W. Jones et al. 1997. 29-50 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author reviews the first white Australian health transition during the period 1880-1910. The focus is on comparisons between trends in Australia and those in the United Kingdom. Aspects considered include causes of death, reasons for changes in incidence of various causes, and changes in contraceptive use and fertility rates.
Correspondence: F. B. Smith, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40700 Soet, Johanna E.; DiIorio, Colleen; Dudley, William N. Women's self-reported condom use: intra and interpersonal factors. Women and Health, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1998. 19-32 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"In the past several years, the greatest proportionate increase in AIDS diagnoses has occurred among women. Yet, while the risk of HIV infection increases, female college students continue to report inconsistent HIV prevention behaviors.... In this study we examined the relative salience of both intra and interpersonal factors on African American and white women's use of condoms. We found that interpersonal variables were particularly salient predictors of condom use. There were no ethnic differences in the effects of interpersonal variables; however, there were differences in the effects of self-efficacy on condom use." Data were collected from female students attending six colleges/universities in a large metropolitan area in the southeastern United States.
Correspondence: J. E. Soet, 1518 Clifton Road, 5th Floor, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40701 Weinberg, Clarice R.; Wilcox, Allen J. Reproductive epidemiology. In: Modern epidemiology, edited by Kenneth J. Rothman and Sander Greenland. 2nd ed. ISBN 0-316-75780-2. 1998. 585-608 pp. Lippincott-Raven: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
This is a general introduction to the study of reproductive epidemiology. Some basic practical and conceptual differences between reproductive epidemiology and chronic or infectious disease epidemiology are first spelled out. The remainder of the chapter addresses such issues as reproductive life events, the characteristics of the menstrual cycle, fertility, pregnancy loss, pregnancy complications, birth weight, and birth defects.
Correspondence: C. R. Weinberg, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Biostatistics Branch, MDA3-03, P.O. Box 1233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40702 Zabin, Laurie S.; Kiragu, Karungari. The health consequences of adolescent sexual and fertility behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 2, Jun 1998. 210-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article reviews the literature on health consequences of adolescent sexual behavior and child-bearing in sub-Saharan Africa, and the social and cultural context in which they occur. It suggests that, in addressing the most serious health sequelae, sexual intercourse that occurs in early marriage and premaritally must both be considered.... Differences between health effects among adult and adolescent women are often differences in degree. They are attributable to behavioral, social, and biological causes, exist in traditional and nontraditional settings, in union and out of union, and are exacerbated by declining ages at menarche, pressures of HIV/AIDS and STDs, and a dearth of appropriate services--especially for young people."
Correspondence: L. S. Zabin, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, Department of Population Dynamics, 4503 Hygiene, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40703 Zimmer, Zachary; Liu, Xian; Hermalin, Albert; Chuang, Yi-Li. Educational attainment and transitions in functional status among older Taiwanese. Demography, Vol. 35, No. 3, Aug 1998. 361-75 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We attempt to ascertain the influence of education on changes in physical functioning [of the aged] in a rapidly developing country. Data come from the 1989 Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan and a follow-up interview in 1993 (N=4,049, age =60+).... High levels of educational attainment result in a decreased incidence of functional limitation for those originating in a state of independence. Contrary to expectations, however, education has little influence on those who originate functionally limited."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Z. Zimmer, University of Nevada, Department of Sociology, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 455033, Las Vegas, NV 89154. E-mail: zimmerz@nevada.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

64:40704 Ulizzi, L.; Astolfi, P.; Zonta, L. A. Natural selection in industrialized countries: a study of three generations of Italian newborns. Annals of Human Genetics, Vol. 62, Pt. 1, Jan 1998. 47-53 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"We have studied the impact of natural selection on the Italian population, analysing the relationship between stillbirth and three related variables: birth weight, birth order and maternal age. A progressive relaxation of selection with time has been demonstrated by the reduction of the Haldane index calculated with respect to the three variables."
Correspondence: L. Ulizzi, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologica Molecolare "C Darwin", P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. E-mail: ulizzi@axcasp.caspur.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

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