Volume 64 - Number 4 - Winter 1998

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

64:40623 Abernethy, Virginia. Population explosion triggered by wealth. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, Vol. 12, Summer 1997. 27-32 pp. Knoxville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The author discusses causes and consequences of rapid population growth. The focus is on finding ways to curb growth in order not to overwhelm the carrying capacity of regional environments. Sections are included on triggers for growth, culture and fertility, immigration, and contraception. The extent to which economic development contributes to population growth is examined.
Correspondence: V. Abernethy, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Anthropology, Nashville, TN 37235. Location: Rutgers University Library, Camden, NJ.

64:40624 Chu, C. Y. Cyrus. Population dynamics: a new economic approach. ISBN 0-19-512158-9. LC 98-19032. 1998. xiv, 226 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study attempts to fill "the gap between the classical supply-side population theory of Malthus and the modern demand-side theory of economic demography. In doing so, [the] author...investigates specifically the dynamic macro implications of various static micro family economic decisions. Holding the characteristic composition of the macro population to always be an aggregate result of some corresponding individual micro decision, [he] extends his research on the fertility-related decisions of family to an analysis of other economic determinations. Within this framework, [he] studies the income distribution, attitude composition, job structure, and aggregate savings and pensions of the population.... Offering a wealth of detail, this book provides a balanced discussion of background motivation, theoretical characterization, and empirical evidence in an effort to bring about a renewal in the economic approach to population dynamics."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40625 Jackson, William A. The political economy of population ageing. ISBN 1-85278-692-2. LC 97-39375. 1998. viii, 248 pp. Edward Elgar Publishing: Northampton, Massachusetts/Cheltenham, England. In Eng.
This book examines the debates surrounding the issue of population aging and offers a more optimistic outlook on its impact on the economy than is generally offered. The author "initially considers general theoretical approaches to population ageing, particularly in relation to the rising dependency burden. He then goes on to examine traditional topics such as employment, productivity, pensions and social security, along with less traditional topics such as informal care, within the context of long-run structural changes. The author draws on an extensive range of economic literature and considers neoclassical arguments before analysing the issue from a non-neoclassical economic, social gerontological and sociological perspective. He maintains that conventional economic theory tends to overstate the effects of population ageing on the economy."
Correspondence: Edward Elgar Publishing, 8 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham GL50 2HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40626 Schultz, T. Paul. Economic demography. International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, ISBN 1-85898-517-X. LC 97-38476. 1998. xii, 562; 621 pp. Edward Elgar Publishing: Northampton, Massachusetts/Cheltenham, England. In Eng.
"These readings trace some of the ideas that have helped to adapt economic theory and methods to analyse the determinants and consequences of demographic behaviour, and relate these behaviours to investments in human capital that account for much of modern economic growth." The first volume has the readings organized under the headings: Estimation of wage functions and returns to human capital; Health: length of life, stature and sickness; Individual and household behaviour: production and consumption; and Family coordination: unified and bargaining approaches. Readings in the second volume are organized under the headings: Life cycle choices: marriage, fertility and post-schooling training; Quality-quantity trade-off: fertility and investments in child quality; Gender gap in human capital; Wage structures by cohort size and skills: supplies and demands; Pre-industrial economic-demographic equilibrium; Economic-demographic interactions in today's low-income countries; and Savings, intergenerational exchange and ageing.
Correspondence: Edward Elgar Publishing, 8 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham GL50 2HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40627 Sen, Amartya K. Welfare economics and the quality of life: life expectancy and economic evaluation. Chung-Hua Series of Lectures by Invited Eminent Economists, No. 24, Jan 1998. 73 pp. Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics: Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
This publication contains two lectures presented at the Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research in Taiwan. The lectures are entitled Welfare economics and the quality of life, and Life expectancy and economic evaluation. "The main object of these lectures is to examine the place and role of quality of life in economic evaluation and welfare economics.... In the second lecture...there will be a particular focus on application, viz. the use of life expectancy for evaluative purposes."
Correspondence: Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40628 Williamson, Jeffrey G. Growth, distribution, and demography: some lessons from history. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 35, No. 3, Jul 1998. 241-71 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"If we have learned anything from the recent outpouring of empirical growth equations, it is that life is far too complex to expect `unconditional' convergence among all countries and at all times. For example, when treated properly, both demography and globalization can be shown to have a significant impact on GDP per capita growth. Similarly, no economist should expect an `unconditional' Kuznets curve to emerge from the inequality experience of all countries and at all times. The industrial revolutionary forces that are thought to have an impact on inequality can be offset or reinforced by demography and globalization. This essay assesses the role of globalization and demography on inequality and growth experience in the Old World, the New World, and Asia over the past century and a half."
Correspondence: J. G. Williamson, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

64:40629 Dawson, P. J.; Tiffin, Richard. Is there a long-run relationship between population growth and living standards? The case of India. Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 34, No. 5, Jun 1998. 149-56 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This note examines the existence of a long-run, cointegrating relationship between population and per capita GDP in India for 1950-93. Unit root tests show that per capita GDP is integrated of order one while population is integrated of order zero; further, estimation of the bi-variate relationship using the cointegration procedure of Johansen shows that no long-run relationship exists. Thus, population growth neither causes per capita income growth nor is caused by it."
Correspondence: P. J. Dawson, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Agricultural Economics and Food Marketing, Newcastle upon Tyne NEI 7RU, Tyne and Wear, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40630 Hoerner, Jean-Michel. The third world: between survival and informality. [Le tiers-monde: entre la survie et l'informel.] ISBN 2-7384-3925-X. 1995. 167 pp. L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study is about how the poorest survive in developing countries given the economic conditions created by today's market economy. A case is made that the current global economy, with the important role played by multinational business enterprises and the dominance of the rich developed countries, makes economic progress in poor countries, which are primarily dependent on tropical agriculture, very difficult. A chapter is devoted to the problems related to demographic factors, including rapid declines in mortality, continued high fertility, migration, and rapid urbanization. The importance is noted of developing an informal economy among the very poor as a necessary factor in their survival.
Correspondence: Editions L'Harmattan, 5-7 rue de l'Ecole-Polytechnique, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40631 Nakibullah, Ashraf. Population growth and development: the case of Bangladesh. Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 5, No. 4, Apr 1998. 231-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper raises the question whether population growth is exogenous or endogenous with respect to the development process of Bangladesh during the last three decades.... Based on the results one may conclude that population growth is endogenous in the development process of Bangladesh. This is reflected both in the Granger causality tests and the decompositions of variances of detrended real GDP per capita and population growth."
Correspondence: A. Nakibullah, University of Bahrain, College of Business Administration, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 32038, Isa Town, Bahrain. Location: Princeton University Library (SXF).

64:40632 Schäfer, Hans-Bernd. Population trends and basic necessities in developing countries. [Bevölkerungsdynamik und Grundbedürfnisse in Entwicklungsländern.] Schriften des Vereins für Socialpolitik, Vol. 241, ISBN 3-428-08412-8. LC 95-211346. 1995. 388 pp. Duncker und Humblot: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
This volume contains papers, responses, and discussion summaries of contributions given at the annual meeting of the Verein für Socialpolitik, Gesellschaft für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften's Committee on Developing Countries. Topics covered include the global food supply, population dynamics in pre-industrialized countries, family planning and fertility decline in developing countries, poverty, development aid, social security in developing countries, and education in developing countries.
Correspondence: Duncker und Humblot, Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 9, 12165 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40633 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Population change, development and women's role and status in India. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 132, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1592. 1995. ix, 196 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a planned series of four case studies that examine the interrelationships among three sets of variables: economic development, women's role and status, and demographic change. This report about India "consists of two parts. Part One is concerned with reviewing the situation and trends in the role and status of women against the backdrop of socio-economic development and demographic change and serves to provide the basis for designing a more formal analysis of the interrelationship between the three sets of variables in a larger econometric model, which is the subject of Part Two."
The studies on Japan and Thailand, also published in 1995, are cited elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

64:40634 Ando, Albert. Micro simulation analysis of aggregate savings behavior in Japan: effects of aging population on aggregate savings and design of policies on savings in Japan. NIRA Research Output, Vol. 9, No. 1, ISBN 4-7955-1427-5. LC 97-167758. Jun 1996. iv, 102 pp. National Institute for Research Advancement: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This study attempts to answer one basic question concerning Japan's economy, "namely, whether or not savings by the household sector can respond to shocks, due primarily to changes in the pattern of demographic dynamics or to variations in the rate of change of the productivity of labor, without creating serious imbalances between the investment needs of the Japanese economy and the supply of savings by the household sector of Japan.... The tentative conclusion of our analysis is that the savings behavior of the Japanese household sector is indeed capable of accommodating a variety of conditions and shocks over a very long horizon."
Correspondence: National Institute for Research Advancement, Yebisu Garden Place Tower, 4-20-3 Ebisu, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:40635 Clarke, Harry. International trade, labour migrations and capital flows: long-term evidence for Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1998. 383-408 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The historical links between international factor mobility and the extent of international trade are analysed over the long term for three high labour immigration countries (Australia, Canada and the United States) and one high labour emigration country (the United Kingdom). Time series data are used. Current international openness is assessed relative to this experience. International factor market integration has increased over time with trade liberalization, suggesting that traditional Hecksher-Ohlin thinking cannot be readily used to account for long-term trends in several important economies. Both trade and factor mobility have an episodic character that makes it misleading to assess current international openness only in terms of post World War 2 economic trends."
Correspondence: H. Clarke, La Trobe University, School of Business, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40636 Crettez, Bertrand; Etner, Johanna. The effects of a demographic risk on saving. [Les effets d'un risque démographique sur l'épargne.] Recherches Economiques de Louvain, Vol. 64, No. 3, 1998. 269-91, 359 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of probable future demographic trends on the rate of saving is examined. The geographical focus is on developed countries, which are generally experiencing high rates of demographic aging. An overlapping generations model with uncertain rates of population growth is developed for the analysis. "We show that the assumptions under which precautionary demand for savings arises are no longer sufficient in general equilibrium. The precautionary motive is no more sufficient to determine the effect of an increase in risk on the equilibrium savings demand."
Correspondence: B. Crettez, Université de Franche-Comté, 1 rue Claude Goudimel, 25030 Besançon Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40637 Di Comite, Luigi; Cardamone, Antonio F. Population growth and international migration in the Mediterranean Basin. [Crescita demografica e migrazioni internazionali nel bacino mediterraneo.] LC 97-106762. 1996. 261 pp. Cacucci Editore: Bari, Italy. In Ita; Fre.
These are the proceedings of a conference on cooperation, population growth, and economic development in the Mediterranean Basin held at the University of Bari, October 26-28, 1995. The papers, which are in French or Italian, are as follows: Moroccan immigration to Spain, by Aron Cohen; Population growth and migration pressures, by Luigi Di Comite and Michela C. Pellicani; Population growth and migration in Morocco, by Abdellatif Fadloullah; From economic determinants to the role of South-North migration in development models, by Oscar Garavello; African immigration to Spain: entry via the southern border, by Vicente G. Perez; Public expenditure and the age structure in some Mediterranean countries: some preliminary results from a research program, by Pietro Iaquinta and Anna Paterno; The fertility of immigrants in Italy: the available data and their uses, by Dionisia Maffioli; Population and development: from Malthus to Malthus, by Eros Moretti; and The prospects for quantifying the number of foreigners in Italy: the current situation, by Salvatore Strozza.
Correspondence: Cacucci Editore, Via Nicolai 17, 70122 Bari, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40638 Gendell, Murray. Trends in retirement age in four countries, 1965-95. Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 121, No. 8, Aug 1998. 20-30 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Using sample survey data, trends in the average age at exit from the labor force in the United States, Germany, Japan, and Sweden are analyzed. The results show that all four countries experienced a decline in the average age at which workers retire and an increase in the duration of retirement. Projections of the dependency burden and of the balance between pension revenues and expenditures are made to the year 2030 in order to examine the potential impact of these trends on the financial status of the public pension systems concerned. The author suggests that of the four countries considered, the United States may be in the best position to prepare for the projected future increases in its system dependency ratio.
Correspondence: M. Gendell, Georgetown University, Center for Population Research, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (Docs).

64:40639 Mullins, Daniel R.; Wallace, Sally. Changing demographics and state fiscal outlook: the case of sales taxes. Public Finance Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1996. 237-62 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Broad-scale demographic changes have implications for state and local finance in terms of the composition of the base of revenue sources and their yields. This article examines the effect of such changes on the potential future yield of consumption-based taxes. The effect of household characteristics and composition on the consumption of selected groups of goods subject to ad valorem retail sales taxes is estimated, generating demographic elasticities of consumption. These elasticities are applied to projected demographic changes in eight states through the year 2000. The results show rather wide variation in expected consumption shifts and potential tax bases across the states, with income growth having the greatest effect...." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: D. R. Mullins, Indiana University, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40640 Paradysz, Jan. An examination of the current demographic situation. Proceedings of a conference held in Baranowo, December 7-9, 1994. [Badanie koniunktury demograficznej. Materialy z konferencji Baranowo 7-9.12.1994 r.] ISBN 83-85530-47-9. 1995. 190 pp. Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej w Poznaniu: Poznan, Poland. In Pol.
These are the proceedings of a 1994 conference on the current demographic situation in Poland. The 20 papers are organized under four main topics: the methodology used to analyze the demographic situation, with a focus on the links between economic conditions and demographic factors; the demographic situation during the demographic transition; regional aspects of the demographic situation; and the implications of current demographic trends for business and commerce.
Correspondence: Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej w Poznaniu, ul. Powstanców Wielkopolskich 16, 60-967 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40641 Serow, William J. Economic and fiscal implications of an aging America. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. 98-141, 1998. 36 pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper will begin with a brief review of the...literature dealing with the macroeconomic consequences of population aging in industrialized societies and will place the question into the context of the political and economic framework of the United States.... The varying demographic sources of aging are then introduced and their economic implications are reviewed. The role of population aging within the context of the subnational fiscal impacts is...examined by reviewing patterns of change in demand for state-government provided public goods and services associated with an older population. These include primarily health care and income security."
Correspondence: Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2240. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40642 Taslim, M. A. Do migrants worsen the current account? International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1998. 409-26 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"There is some concern in Australia that immigration contributes to a widening of its current account deficit. Several cross-section studies have found that migrant households have a lower saving rate than the local born households. In conjunction with a well-known national income identity that the current account deficit is equal to the excess of investment over saving, such findings have been interpreted by many to mean that the migrants contribute to increasing the level of foreign liabilities at a rate greater than by the local-born. This article utilizes aggregate time series data to investigate the relationship between the current account and immigration. It finds that although an increase in net migration tends to raise the current account deficit, the longer term effect of immigration on the current account is negligible."
Correspondence: M. A. Taslim, University of New England, Department of Economics, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40643 Thomson, David. Cohort fortunes and demographic change in the twentieth century. Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure Working Paper Series, No. 6, ISBN 0-9527065-5-5. 1998. i, 125 pp. Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Demographers have long been convinced that economic and population developments must be linked, but empirical demonstration of possible connections has been disappointing. A central problem, this paper argues, is that our tools for assessing the economic circumstances in which demographic actors make their decisions have been and remain woefully inadequate, and that there will be little progress in demographic analysis until this is rectified. The issues are explored using data on personal incomes which has been collected at each New Zealand population census since 1926."
Correspondence: Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB1 1QA, England. E-mail: campop@lists.cam.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40644 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Population change, development and women's role and status in Japan. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 133, Pub. Order No. ST/ESCAP/1580. 1995. v, 94 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is one in a planned series of four case studies that examine the interrelationships among three sets of variables: economic development, women's role and status, and demographic change. In this report about Japan "we will analyse, on the basis of a macroeconomic demographic-social security model, various population compositional adjustment problems, shedding light upon the changing status of Japanese women and their career development." The focus is on the changing role of women in a rapidly aging population that has traditionally looked to women to provide support for the elderly.
The studies on India and Thailand, also published in 1995, are cited elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (UN).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

64:40645 André, Catherine; Platteau, Jean-Philippe. Land relations under unbearable stress: Rwanda caught in the Malthusian trap. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol. 34, No. 1, Feb 1998. 1-47 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper reports the findings of an in-depth case study of a highly densely populated area in northwest Rwanda which has been conducted during the period 1988-1993. It demonstrates that acute competition for land in a context characterized by too slow expansion of non-agricultural income opportunities has resulted in increasingly unequal land distribution and rapid processes of land dispossession through both operation of the (illegal) land market and evolution of indigenous tenure arrangements. It is also shown that pervasive incidence of land disputes and the threat of landlessness have led to rising tensions in social relations and even within the core of family life, thus paving the way for evermore overt expressions of disharmony and violence. A connection between these ominous conditions and the civil war that broke out in 1994 is established."
Correspondence: J.-P. Platteau, University of Namur, Faculty of Economics, Centre de Recherche en Economie du Développement, 8 Rempart de la Vierge, 5000 Namur, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40646 Clarke, John I.; Tabah, Léon. Population-environment-development interactions. 1995. 430 pp. Comité International de Coopération dans les Recherches Nationales en Démographie [CICRED]: Paris, France. In Eng; Fre.
This volume contains a selection of papers presented at a CICRED conference on population and the environment, held at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria, November 24-26, 1993. The primary objective of the meeting was to provide participants with the opportunity to describe progress in research at their respective centers on population and environment issues since an earlier meeting organized by CICRED in Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, in 1991. The 23 papers, which are in English or French, are organized under four topics: Concepts, theories and methods of analysis; Polls, perceptions and policies; Mortality and health in urban and industrialized environments; and Some population-environment-development problems.
Correspondence: Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography, 133 boulevard Davout, 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. E-mail: cicred@ined.fr. Location: University of Chicago Library, Chicago, IL.

64:40647 Gupta, Sunit; Gupta, Mukta. Environment, population and resources: critical challenges. 1997. viii, 346 pp. Anmol Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors review the environmental consequences of current population trends in India, including the decline in available natural resources because of increasing demand, and attempt to establish the linkages among various existing ecosystems. There are chapters on forest and wasteland development, forest policies, poverty and environmental degradation, urbanization, energy demand and management, water supply, food supply, environmental pollution, and environmental legislation. The book concludes with statistical sections on population trends and population and resources indicators.
Correspondence: Anmol Publications, 4374/4B Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40648 Hildyard, Nicholas. Too many for what? The social generation of food "scarcity" and "overpopulation" Ecologist, Vol. 26, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 282-9 pp. Sturminster Newton, England. In Eng.
"Discussions of population and food supply which leave out power relations between different groups of people will always mask the true nature of food scarcity...and lead to `solutions' that are simplistic, frequently oppressive and which, ultimately, reinforce the very structures creating ecological damage and hunger. Moreover, by degrading the environment, often irreversibly, the forces which are generating organized scarcity...are inexorably undermining the capacity of the land to produce food. In doing so, they threaten to bring about those conditions of absolute scarcity where even equitable economic and social arrangements may prove insufficient to prevent widespread human impoverishment."
Location: Princeton University Library (ST).

64:40649 Pugh, Cedric. Sustainability, the environment and urbanization. ISBN 1-85383-357-6. 1996. xiv, 250 pp. Earthscan Publications: London, England. In Eng.
This book contains a selection of eight studies by various authors on aspects of the "brown" agenda in developing countries, defined as the improvement of such factors as poor sanitation and water quality, pollution, and housing problems. The studies examine the economic background to such problems, as well as conceptual issues such as sustainability, infrastructure, and health problems. The assessment of environmental appraisal methods is also included. The primary focus is on the situation in the cities of the developing world.
Correspondence: Earthscan Publications, 120 Pentonville Road, London N1 9JN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40650 Sheffield, John. World population growth and the role of annual energy use per capita. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 59, No. 1, Sep 1998. 55-87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article takes the World Bank's middle case population projection and asks for each region of the developing world, how much energy will be associated with that population growth pattern if historical trends continue. Turned around, these calculations take successive incremental increases in annual commercial energy use per capita and corresponding decreases in population growth rate so as to continue the historical trends for developing regions of the world, and bring the world's population to stability by 2150. This approach leads to populations of the developing regions which are close to the projections of the World Bank for the period up to 2150."
Correspondence: J. Sheffield, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Energy Technology Program, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6248. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:40651 Zhao, Jianhua. Analysis of the impact of population growth in Henan Province on its environment and ecosystem. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1997. 363-73 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the effects of population growth on the...environment and ecosystem [of China's Henan Province]. This paper also proposes a key countermeasure to deal with the population growth and environmental improvement of Henan Province."
Correspondence: J. Zhao, Henan Education College, Henan Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

64:40652 Brown, Lawrence A.; Pavri, Firooza; Lawson, Victoria A. Gender, migration and the organisation of work under economic devolution: Ecuador, 1982-90. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 3, Sep 1998. 259-74 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on labour force segments defined on the basis of migrant status and gender, in terms of the impact of economic devolution related to structural adjustment policies (SAPs).... Data representing all of Ecuador, and broken down by conceptually meaningful occupational and economic-sector-of-employment categories, are used to observe changes over the decade of the 1980s when the impacts of SAPs were most felt.... The results show that females were more adversely affected than males and migrants more than non-migrants. Concerning the combination of migration status and gender, male non-migrants fared distinctly better than the other categories."
Correspondence: L. A. Brown, Ohio State University, Department of Geography, 1036 Derby Hall, 154 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1361. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40653 Brown, Richard P. C. Comparative labor market performance of visaed and non-visaed migrants: Pacific islanders in Sydney. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1998. 395-411 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Using survey data for Tongan and Samoan migrants in Sydney [Australia] the effects of visa restrictions on labor market performance of migrants are assessed. Univariate analysis suggests a positive association between unemployment and the unrestricted entry of Samoan step-migrants from New Zealand. A probit model of the determinants of unemployment is estimated with controls for human capital and demographic variables. While human capital endowments are important, visa restrictions do not have a significant effect on either group's employability."
Correspondence: R. P. C. Brown, University of Queensland, Department of Economics, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. E-mail: brown@commerce.uq.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40654 Coomans, Géry. Demographic perspectives and regional labor markets in the European Union: toward the year 2015. [Perspectives démographiques et marchés régionaux du travail dans l'Union Européene: horizon 2015.] Revue du Marché Commun et de l'Union Européenne, No. 416, Mar 1998. 145-58 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In many regions of the [European] Union, the active population is heading for a precocious demographic contraction. Where high levels of job occupation restrict reserves which could be used, the creation of employment will run up against relative or absolute labour shortages. The adjustment of local labour markets will then be based on various types of flow e.g. migration of more or less qualified labour, flight of capital offshore. This means that a restructuring of the entire European unemployment map is possible, within 10 to 15 years. Furthermore, the ageing of populations in employment will cause numerous problems, which must be confronted in advance."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:40655 Dex, Shirley; Joshi, Heather; Macran, Susan; McCulloch, Andrew. Women's employment transitions around child bearing. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 60, No. 1, Feb 1998. 79-98 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Longitudinal employment histories have provided dynamic evidence on mothers' transitions and continuity in employment.... This perspective reveals how the lives of women in the more recent generations have been affected by policies which should facilitate less intermittent attachment to paid work.... These issues are explored here using the employment histories of British women who had become mothers, using the latest sweep of the National Child Development Study (NCDS) 1958 birth cohort at age of 33."
Correspondence: S. Dex, University of Cambridge, Judge Institute, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:40656 Fernandez, Marilyn; Kim, Kwang Chung. Self-employment rates of Asian immigrant groups: an analysis of intragroup and intergroup differences. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 3, Fall 1998. 654-81 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Self employment rates and related business activities of four groups of recent adult Asian immigrants (Koreans, Chinese, Asian Indians, and Vietnamese) are empirically examined with the 1990 [U.S.] census data. As expected, both intra- and intergroup differences in self-employment rates are observed among the four groups. Korean immigrants are sharply different from other Asian immigrant groups in their rate of self-employment and pattern of intragroup differences in self-employment rates. As a whole, for non-Korean Asian immigrant groups, intragroup differences in self-employment rates can be explained by the interactive model and by the related issue of immigrants' labor market disadvantage in the United States.... The pattern of their intragroup difference is better explained by the linkage between their business and their home country economies reflecting the international dimension of immigrant small business entrepreneurship."
Correspondence: M. Fernandez, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA 95053. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40657 Lattes, Alfredo E.; Bertoncello, Rodolfo. Demographic dynamics, migrants from bordering countries and economic activity in Buenos Aires. [Dinámica demográfica, migración limítrofe y actividad económica en Buenos Aires.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 12, No. 35, Apr 1997. 5-30 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Preliminary results are presented from an ongoing research project on the economically active population in the Buenos Aires metropolitan region of Argentina in the period 1981-1991. The primary focus is on the relationship between migration and economic activity, which is studied by comparing the native labor force with workers coming from countries sharing a common border with Argentina. The extent to which the level of economic activity is affected by changes in the age and sex structure of the labor force as well as by place of origin is considered.
Correspondence: A. E. Lattes, Centro de Estudios de Población, Casilla 4397, Correo Central, 1000 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40658 Lundberg, Shelly; Rose, Elaina. Parenthood and the earnings of married men and women. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 98-9, Jun 1998. 19, [7] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"In this paper, we use a sample of individuals in intact marriages for the years 1980-1992 from the PSID [U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics] to provide a comprehensive description of the relationship between parenthood and both hourly wages and annual hours worked. The analysis consists of two parts. First, we use random effects estimates to generate age-earnings and age-hours profiles for parents and non-parents. Second, we use fixed effects to estimate the effect of the birth of the first child on wages and hours worked for parents. We focus on the joint response of household members to the appearance of the child, and allow responses to vary for households in which the wife is a continuous participant in the labor force and those in which her participation is intermittent."
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40659 Maguid, Alicia. Migrants from bordering countries in the labor force of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, 1980-1996. [Migrantes limítrofes en el mercado de trabajo del area metropolitana de Buenos Aires, 1980-1996.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 12, No. 35, Apr 1997. 31-62 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The place of immigrants from countries bordering Argentina in the labor force of the Buenos Aires metropolitan area in the period 1980-1996 is analyzed. The results suggest that up to 1991, such immigrants integrated themselves relatively easily into the labor force in the traditional way, primarily by taking jobs rejected by the native labor force because of low wages or poor working conditions. However, economic changes occurring since 1991 have changed the situation radically and called into question the present and future role of such immigration. In particular, worsening economic conditions have resulted in a decline in the number of jobs available, particularly in the manufacturing and building sectors, and immigrants have been affected more harshly than natives by these changes. The author considers whether these changes are likely to result in more competition between immigrant and native labor for the work available, or whether immigration flows will decline in response to these changes.
Correspondence: A. Maguid, Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, CONICET, Avenida Pte Julio A. Roca 609, 1067 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40660 Martin, Philip. Guest worker policies for the twenty-first century. New Community, Vol. 23, No. 4, Oct 1997. 483-94 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article reviews the rationale for and evolution of macro guest worker programmes in Germany and the USA in the 1950s and 1960s, and then turns to the micro guest worker programmes developed over the past decade. The article then notes that there is a widening disjuncture between the growing need for detailed and credible labour market information to administer the new micro programmes at a time when governments are reducing their presence in labour markets. This may make it hard to avoid the traditional problems associated with guest worker programmes, namely the distortion of the economic sectors that become dependent on foreign workers, and the settlement of some foreign workers."
Correspondence: P. Martin, University of California, Department of Agricultural Economics, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:40661 Ouyyanont, Porphant. Bangkok as a magnet for rural labour: changing conditions, 1900-1970. Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 36, No. 1, Jun 1998. 78-108 pp. Kyoto, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper deals with wage formation and the transition of Thailand from an `expensive' to a `cheap' labour country which occurred around the 1950s. Significant factors explaining the change include population growth, the rice premium, labour productivity and changing rural conditions. Crucial, though, was the growth of Bangkok and the decline of Chinese immigration which took place after 1950."
Correspondence: P. Ouyyanont, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, School of Economics, Nonthaburi 11120, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40662 Piras, Luca. Some materials for the study of "labor force differences" of immigrants from outside the European Union. [Materiali per uno studio del "differenziale lavorativo" degli immigrati extracomunitari.] Studi Emigrazione/Migration Studies, Vol. 35, No. 129, 1998. 87-98 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The article analyses the social, economic and theoretical dynamics which cause the non-EU immigrant workers [in Italy] to adopt specific work patterns to increase their own integration into the labour market of the host country. This requires an availability on the part of the immigrants to a vast range of jobs, working conditions and lack of a proper contract which are unacceptable [to] local workers. This situation may also create replacement phenomena in some specific areas. The higher profits gained by firms as a consequence of this, as well as the availability of a flexible labour market, is to be found only in illegal situations and feeds the demand for this category of non-EU workers. The article deals also with the social integration processes which alter this working behaviour as well as the phenomenon of specific offers to newly arrived immigrants, which, in turn, generates high turn-over levels in the firms with the expulsion of the more integrated immigrants."
Correspondence: L. Piras, Ministerio del Lavoro della Previdenza Sociale, Direzione Provinciale del Lavoro di Viterbo, Viterbo, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40663 Seifert, Wolfgang. Social, occupational and economic mobility of Mediterranean migrants in Germany. Demographie Aktuell, No. 6, 1995. 16 pp. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Philosophische Fakultät III, Institut für Sozialwissenschaften, Lehrstuhl Bevölkerungswissenschaft: Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This is a paper presented at the European Population Conference in Milan, Italy, in September 1995. "Mediterranean immigrants still hold the lower positions in the German labour market. The employment profile is clearly different from German employees.... The situation of the second generation of immigrants has clearly improved.... But compared to Germans of the same age their occupational success is limited. The social situation of immigrants is characterised by increasing segregation."
Correspondence: Humboldt-Universität, Lehrstuhl Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Unter den Linden, 10099 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:40664 Zhang, Junjie; Beaujot, Roderic. Family attributes in the return to full-time and part-time employment. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1998. 29-44 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"On the basis of the 1992-93 [Canadian] Survey of Income and Labour Dynamics, we consider the return to full-time and part-time employment as competing risks for persons who have been not-employed after a period of employment. It is found that family characteristics play a larger role than human capital factors in this transition. In particular, married men are more likely to return to employment, especially full-time. While married women are not significantly different from single women, cohabitating women are more likely to return to full-time employment."
Correspondence: J. Zhang, University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, Department of Sociology, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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