Volume 64 - Number 3 - Fall 1998

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

64:30755 Betts, Katharine. Population policy: major party positions. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1998. 37-49 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
The author briefly outlines and evaluates the positions of Australia's Labour Party and the government concerning population policy. The need to consider environmental aspects is emphasized. A letter of response by Philip Ruddock, the Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs in the Coalition Government, is included (pp. 43-5).
Correspondence: K. Betts, Swinburne University of Technology, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30756 Fernández Chávez, Flory; Hernández Diaz, Ana L. Public policy on population. The case of Costa Rica from 1970 to 1994. [Políticas públicas sobre población. El caso de Costa Rica de 1970 a 1994.] Ciencias Sociales, Vol. 75, Mar 1997. 163-72 pp. Bogotá, Colombia. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors provide "an exhaustive review of public policies [from 1970 to 1994] regarding population as adopted by the governments of Costa Rica under the administration of six different government administrations: four of Liberación Nacional and two of Unidad Social Cristiana."
Correspondence: F. Fernández Chávez, Apartado No. 6324, 1000 San José, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30757 Gardiner, Peter. The Indonesian National Urban Development Strategy and its relation to policy and planning. In: Urbanization in large developing countries: China, Indonesia, Brazil, and India, edited by Gavin W. Jones and Pravin Visaria. 1997. 160-79 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This chapter deals with the National Urban Development Strategy (NUDS) prepared for Indonesia and issued in 1985. It attempts to focus on the relation of this strategy to the policy-making and planning process as it is actually carried out in Indonesia. An initial discussion of how NUDS dealt with various urban development issues confronting Indonesia emphasizes issues related to levels and spatial patterns of urban growth. This is followed by an examination of the relation of these outputs to the policy and planning process.... Finally, there is a limited discussion of the spatial implications of selected national level policies...."
Correspondence: P. Gardiner, Insan Harapan Sejahtera, P.O. Box 44, Mampang, Jakarta 12701, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30758 Kabeer, Naila. Gender, demographic transition and the economics of family size: population policy for a human-centred development. UNRISD Occasional Paper, No. OP 7, Jun 1996. vii, 71 pp. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development [UNRISD]: Geneva, Switzerland; United Nations Development Programme: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper makes the case for a human-centred approach to the question of population and development. It sets out to demonstrate that, despite the claims made in policy discourse regarding positive developmental consequences of lowering rates of population growth, there is little evidence that concern for human rights and well-being has played much of a role in past population policies or resulted from declines in fertility rates.... The paper argues for retaining population questions at the centre of development policy but suggests that such policy needs to give fuller recognition to the intrinsic human dimension of the inter-relationship between population and development, and in particular, to the gender dimension of this inter-relationship."
Correspondence: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30759 Kippen, Rebecca; McDonald, Peter. Achieving population targets for Australia: an analysis of the options. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1998. 11-23 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"The authors argue that, if Australia is to achieve a stationary population (zero population growth) within one generation, there is only one feasible path: net migration should be between sixty and a hundred thousand a year while the total fertility rate should be between 1.65 and 1.8.... Their analysis shows that a lower stationary population of around 21 million could only be achieved by higher fertility (2.06) and zero migration. In contrast, if fertility were to fall to 1.1, very high migration (around 400,000 p.a.) would be required to achieve a stationary population, and the size of that population would be much larger (around 50 million). They also argue that low fertility (around 1.65) and zero migration would provoke a trend towards a dramatic population decline which would be difficult to check or reverse."
Correspondence: P. McDonald, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30760 Nicaragua. Gabinete Social (Managua, Nicaragua). A final synthesis of the consultations about the development of a national population policy (1994 and 1995). [Sintesis final "consulta a la sociedad civil" sobre la propuesta política nacional de población (períodos 1994 y 1995).] Pub. Order No. DPS/64/46/06/96/14. May 1996. 74 pp. Ministerio de Acción Social: Managua, Nicaragua; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Spa.
This report presents a summary of the debate that took place in Nicaragua in preparation for the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. The report focuses on the factors that need to be taken into consideration in the development of a Nicaraguan population policy.
Correspondence: Gabinete Social, Managua, Nicaragua. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30761 Olusanya, P. O. Population programmes in Africa: management lessons and prospects. Environment and Social Policy Working Paper Series, No. ESP-24, Aug 1995. 49 pp. African Development Bank: Abidjan, Ivory Coast. In Eng.
This paper has two main objectives. "The first is to study in depth African population programmes for the insights that may be derived from the implementation of management strategies adopted and their outcomes in terms of target attainment. The second objective is to explore, in line with the findings, how African countries can best approach the implementation of their population programmes in order to attain their policy goals in the shortest possible time." Particular attention is given to policies and programs designed to lower fertility in Tunisia, Morocco, Ghana, Gambia, Kenya, Senegal, and Zambia.
Correspondence: African Development Bank, B.P. 1387, Abidjan 01, Ivory Coast. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30762 van Imhoff, Evert; Henkens, Kène. The budgetary dilemmas of an ageing workforce: a scenario study of the public sector in the Netherlands. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1998. 39-59 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper studies the consequences (particularly the budgetary effects) of alternative senior-worker policies in the Dutch public sector. Special attention is paid to: the ongoing process of population ageing; the interaction between the participation in senior-worker schemes and the use of disability and unemployment schemes; and the effect of labour participation of older workers on employment opportunities for younger workers. From the scenario analysis, it appears that policies aimed at influencing the participation in senior-worker schemes will not result in substantial savings. The main conclusion of the study is that ageing of the labour force will lead to substantial cost increases anyway, whatever the early-retirement policy."
Correspondence: E. van Imhoff, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: imhoff@nidi.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

64:30763 Faria, Vilmar E. Government policy and fertility regulation: unintended consequences and perverse effects. Brazilian Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 1, 1997-1998. 179-205 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Eng.
"This paper...[is] an offshoot of discussions on fertility decline in Brazil. It seeks to explore more fully a set of ideas which hold that the recent and marked fertility decline in Brazil is related to institutional changes brought about by public policies promoted by the Federal Government since 1964. The objective, then, is to shed light on the role played by government policies with regard to fertility regulation."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30764 Jones, Gavin W. Beyond Cairo: changing directions for population policies in the Asia-Pacific region. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1998. 1-11 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"The 1994 Cairo conference on population and development decided that programs designed to reduce fertility should change their emphasis from family planning to improving women's health. For some advocates, fertility reduction was a minor (even suspect) goal compared to the enhancement of women's rights. For others, the reproductive-health approach was judged a more humane, and ultimately more effective, way of reducing fertility. [The author] evaluates these arguments and considers their probable impact on population policy in the Asia-Pacific region."
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30765 King, Leslie. "France needs children": pronatalism, nationalism and women's equity. Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1998. 33-52 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"This article examines debates and discussions surrounding French pronatalist policies enacted in the 1980s. Drawing on data collected from a wide range of primary and secondary sources, including daily newspapers, parliamentary debates, and French feminist publications, I explore the following questions: First, does pronatalism spring from conservative nationalist ideologies that conflict with feminist projects? Second, how have French feminists reacted to the pronatalist agenda? Finally, could women's equity serve as an impetus for instituting policies that would encourage births? My analysis suggests that nationalism in France takes many forms, and a wide spectrum of political actors from both the political left and right have supported pronatalist initiatives in the name of `the nation'."
Correspondence: L. King, University of Illinois, Department of Sociology, 326 Lincoln Hall, 702 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30766 Maynard, Rebecca; Boehnen, Elisabeth; Corbett, Tom; Sandefur, Gary; Mosley, Jane. Changing family formation behavior through welfare reform. In: Welfare, the family, and reproductive behavior: research perspectives, edited by Robert A. Moffitt. 1998. 134-76 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter examines...state waiver demonstrations that were designed specifically to influence [U.S.] fertility, family formation, and family maintenance behaviors. It seeks to identify what useful lessons were generated to guide states in their design of welfare programs under TANF [Temporary Assistance for Needy Families]. We then reflect on how one might better capitalize on the opportunities for knowledge development presented to us by the massive natural experiment that encompasses both the state welfare reform demonstrations of recent years and those reforms now being implemented under PRWORA [Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act]."
Correspondence: R. Maynard, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Education, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30767 Paxson, Heather. Demographics and diaspora, gender and genealogy: anthropological notes on Greek population policy. South European Society and Politics, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 1997. 34-56 pp. Ilford, England. In Eng.
"Greece's declining birth rate is said to constitute a `problem of national survival'. The state tries to minimize the impact that demographic weakening will have on the well-being of the nation by downplaying the diaspora and by encouraging women at home to produce more babies. Responsibility for the demographic situation has been placed on women, their attitudes toward mothering and their use of abortion. Maternal pensions have been forwarded by the state as family policy and population policy, and criticized by Athenian women as a means of professionalizing motherhood and perpetuating a limited vision of female adulthood."
Correspondence: H. Paxson, Stanford University, Department of Anthropology, Stanford, CA 94305-2024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30768 Soottipong, Rossarin; Lucas, David; Gray, Alan. The roles of policy and community organisation in fertility reduction of the Karen people of Thailand. Working Papers in Demography, No. 75, 1998. 31 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to explore the roles of government policy and community organisation in influencing fertility [decisions] of the Karen [people in Thailand], drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data.... The quantitative data show the importance of the social integration policy of speaking Thai and Buddhism in fertility reduction of the Karen. The qualitative data suggest that the community organisations play an important role in fertility behaviour of the Karen."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30769 Tunde, Lawuyi. Family planning in Nigeria: not yet uhuru. African Anthropology/Anthropologie Africaine, Vol. 1, No. 1-2, 1994. 21-30 pp. Yaoundé, Cameroon. In Eng.
This study examines the context of family planning in Nigerian culture and "broadens the historical database of demographic [studies,] calls attention to various debates within the field, and examines the Nigerian [population] policy. It raises vital questions on the development process." Aspects considered include the theory of potentiality, potentiality and economic development, and the 1988 population policy.
Correspondence: L. Tunde, University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Location: Indiana University Library, Bloomington, IN.

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

64:30770 Aniol, Wlodek. Poland's migration and ethnic policies: European and German influences. ISBN 83-86088-39-7. 1996. 74 pp. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung: Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"One of the main characteristics of the systemic transformation in Poland after 1989 is a growing Western impact on her domestic and foreign policies. This book examines how Polish migration and ethnic policies are affected and shaped by the European integration process and by an assertion of German power. Chapter I provides several introductory remarks on Poland's `return to Europe'. Chapter II deals with the Europeanization of Polish migration policy. Chapter III concentrates on implications of Poland's openness to the West for protection of ethnic minorities, with special regard to the German minority situation."
Correspondence: Fundacja Friedricha Eberta, Podwale 11, 00-252 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30771 Betts, Katharine. Immigration to Australia: a new focus for the 1990s? In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 59-98 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
The author "gives an overview of the development of Australian immigration policy and also describes the current debate." Sections are included on immigration and multiculturalism; immigration statistics; the current migration program; politics of immigration; and on-shore migration, asylum seekers, and the 1992 Migration Reform Act.
Correspondence: K. Betts, Swinburne University of Technology, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Melbourne, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30772 Birrell, Bob; Rapson, Virginia. The 1998-99 immigration program. People and Place, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1998. 24-36 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"The Australian Government has maintained its commitment to reform the Australian immigration program in the program year 1998-99. This article assesses the implications of the proposals for the parent category, explores the extent to which the removal of fraudulent applications explains the striking downturn in spouse/fiancé(e) visas, and examines the impact of applying a two-year waiting period to labour-market payments made to New Zealand citizens settling in Australia."
Correspondence: B. Birrell, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30773 Bosswick, Wolfgang. Asylum policy and migration in Germany. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 305-35 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
"This article attempts to give an overview of the development and the main positions in the public debate in Germany about political asylum. Firstly, we will summarize the parts of German asylum legislation which are relevant for understanding the specifics of German asylum law. Secondly, we will look at the development of legislation and legal practice, and the long-lasting discussions about the legal interpretation of the constitutional right to political asylum in Germany. Thirdly, the political struggle over the constitutional amendment, and the different positions concerning current evaluation of the amendment will be summarized."
Correspondence: W. Bosswick, Universität Bamberg, Europäisches Forum für Migrationsstudien, Katharinenstraße 1, 96052 Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30774 Camilleri, Reno. Migration policies in the Mediterranean basin: recent international achievements. In: Mediterranean Conference on Population, Migration and Development. Proceedings: Palma de Mallorca, 15-17 October 1996. 1997. 77-122 pp. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
"This paper aims at assessing migration policies pursued recently by countries surrounding the Mediterranean basin and other European states as they affect and influence South to North migratory movements. Without disregarding or in any way minimising the intensity of existing problems whose solution may not be in sight, the intention is to trace the positive developments in the debate on such issues through the individual and collective efforts of scholars, planners, politicians, governmental and non-governmental organisations, the churches, and international organisations." Sections are included on European migration policies, political awareness of migration problems, the quest for migration data, and summary and recommendations.
Correspondence: R. Camilleri, Ministry for Economic Services, Auberge d'Aragon, Valletta, Malta. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30775 Clark, William A. V. Large-scale immigration and political response: popular reaction in California. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1998. 1-10 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the debate on immigration to the United States, with a focus on the California vote to deny welfare benefits to illegal immigrants. "Examining the vote on Proposition 187 provides a window on reaction to large-scale immigration and offers some insights on the recent arguments about anti-immigrant sentiment and `nativism'. A spatial analysis of the vote by tracts in Los Angeles County provides a more complex picture of the nature of reaction to immigration than is suggested by media and political rhetoric about racism and immigrant phobia."
Correspondence: W. A. V. Clark, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. E-mail: wclark@geog.ucla.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30776 Clarke, Harry. The Australian immigration program: policy design and the case for reform. CEPR (ANU) Discussion Paper, No. 354, ISBN 0-7315-2218-4. Nov 1996. 28 pp. Australian National University, Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This study analyses reform of migration policy [in Australia]. We organise discussion around two main issues--the need to base policy on consensus and the case for implementing policies using forward planning and stable intakes.... This paper identifies a case for planning using long-term objectives. It supports pressures directed toward ensuring greater representation in policy determination. Arguments for stability however are inferior to those supporting well-chosen unstable policies regardless of whether policies do represent a consensus or whether they are elitist."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Centre for Economic Policy Research, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail: baird.cepr@coombs.anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30777 Coleman, David. Immigration policy in Great Britain. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 113-36 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
The author discusses current immigration policy in Great Britain. He "emphasizes that Britain has a clearly defined migration policy, in the sense of not wanting further immigration and limiting it to a few cases of family reunification, humanitarian commitments and the recruiting of some needed specialists for the British economy. That policy goals and achieved ends can be so far apart is a lesson that can be drawn from British immigration policy, but which is also true for other countries."
Correspondence: D. Coleman, Oxford University, Department of Demography, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30778 Diamond, Jeff. African-American attitudes towards United States immigration policy. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 2, Summer 1998. 451-70 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Since the 1980s, debate over immigration policy in the United States has been growing in its intensity.... One frequently made argument for restricting immigration is that such reform is necessary in order to protect an especially vulnerable segment of the African-American community from competition with newly arrived immigrants.... Given the prevalence of this concern, it is somewhat surprising how little attention has been given to blacks' own attitudes towards immigration policy. This paper seeks to uncover these attitudes."
Correspondence: J. Diamond, Boston University, 147 Bay Street Road, Boston, MA 02215. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30779 Duignan, Peter; Gann, L. H. The debate in the United States over immigration. ISBN 0-8179-9522-6. LC 97-39555. 1997. xiii, 304 pp. Hoover Institution Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
"After the introduction, which examines the historical debate over immigration, the book looks at the current spectrum of economic, political, social, and legal issues related to immigration into the United States--from compelling arguments for limited immigration to forceful arguments for open borders. As part of the program on American Institutions and Economic Performance, leading scholars and business experts convened at the Hoover Institution in October 1996. Amid swirling controversy over passage of California's Proposition 187, which denies welfare benefits to illegal immigrants, conference participants discussed current state and federal immigration policies and the strengths and weaknesses of proposed changes."
Correspondence: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-6010. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30780 Garling, Scipio. Immigration policy and the environment: the Washington D.C. metropolitan area. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 1, Sep 1998. 23-54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The following report will clarify the relationship between immigration and the environment through an analysis of both demographic and environmental data. This analysis will involve, first, an examination of the theoretical background of the population-environment debate and the conceptual models that help to illustrate this relationship. Second, general concepts of natural resource allocation will be discussed with an example from the fisheries management literature. Third, the population growth in the Washington, D.C. area will be examined, followed by the impacts of this growth on some aspects of the local and regional environment."
Correspondence: S. Garling, Federation for American Immigration, Research and Publication, 1666 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 400, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30781 Hailbronner, Kay. Migration policies, third-country nationals and EC law. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 181-209 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
The author "provides an overview of the policies of European institutions concerning migration problems with special emphasis on the legal aspects of the status of third-country nationals." Sections are included on European Community competence with regard to migration; intergovernmental cooperation; freedom of movement for third-country nationals; and recent policy developments.
Correspondence: K. Hailbronner, Universität Konstanz, Department of International Law, SFB 178, Postfach 5560, 7750 Konstanz, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30782 Hassan, Riaz; Jamrozik, Adam. An open door or fortress Australia: policy choices for Australia in the 21st century. CEPR (ANU) Discussion Paper, No. 352, ISBN 0-7315-2216-8. Nov 1996. 19 pp. Australian National University, Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The questions addressed in this paper focus on four related areas in which Australia will need to develop a global perspective and corresponding policies: population policies which will take into consideration the global movements of labour...; tertiary education programs which will include the needs of, and inputs from, other countries; economic activity with a focus on the introduction of new forms of agricultural production, especially in the country's northern regions; and cultural policy which will extend the concept of multiculturalism to the core social, economic and political institutions and will include internal as well as external dimensions."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Centre for Economic Policy Research, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail: baird.cepr@coombs.anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30783 Heckmann, Friedrich. Is there a migration policy in Germany? In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 157-72 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
"Since the end of World War II migration has been a major feature of the social structure of Germany. I shall give a brief overview on these migrations; the main topic of the paper, however, will be the consequences of these processes for the Federal Republic." Aspects considered include immigration, changes in the social structure, and new political challenges; the lack of a coherent migration policy in Germany; and goals and means of migration policies in general.
Correspondence: F. Heckmann, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg, Department of Sociology, Feldkirchenstraße 21, 8600 Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30784 Heckmann, Friedrich; Bosswick, Wolfgang. Migration policies: a comparative perspective. ISBN 3-432-26901-3. 1995. 373 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
"This book comprises the most important papers from the conference `Migration Policies--a Comparative Perspective', organized as a foundation symposium...in Bamberg in November 1993.... The articles demonstrate that migration and integration policies vary from country to country and are closely connected to specific national traditions. Nevertheless, each national policy has to provide answers to certain key questions.... The chapters of this book give an overview as to what answers have been given to these questions in different countries, particularly in the area of migration policies." Sections are included on experiences of "classical immigration countries", migration policies in Europe, the new east-west migration, refugee policies, and migration and the media.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Ferdinand Enke Verlag, P.O. Box 300366, 70443 Stuttgart, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30785 High, George B. Major issues of contemporary American immigration policy. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 45-57 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
The author "discusses recent developments in the American debate [on migration policy] and points out how it has come to the forefront of public attention.... Immigration is one of the policies in the United States that struggles under the weight of old images and traditional thinking that we have limitless capacity to absorb immigrants." Aspects considered include the impact of immigration, studies on the costs of immigration, national legislation, and the response from immigration advocates.
Correspondence: G. B. High, Center for Immigration Studies, 1815 H Street NW, Suite 1010, Washington, D.C. 20006-3604. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30786 Huntoon, Laura. Immigration to Spain: implications for a unified European Union immigration policy. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 2, Summer 1998. 423-50 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the difficulties of establishing a joint policy regarding the free movement of people within the European Union by focusing on changing immigration policies in one member--Spain.... Administrative control of entry, estimates of legal and illegal immigrants present, and the current state of bilateral relations with Morocco are examined to illustrate the political difficulties of a unified immigration policy within Spanish society and for the EU.... Conclusions suggest that control of borders, although difficult, may be the easier part of implementing a joint immigration policy. Control of settlement is more difficult and problematic, involving the role of immigrants in European society. Moreover, high rates of native unemployment may coexist with immigration, given local demand for low-skilled, low-paid workers."
Correspondence: L. Huntoon, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30787 Joppke, Christian. Why liberal states accept unwanted migration. World Politics, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jan 1998. 266-93 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The phenomenon of unwanted immigration reflects the gap between restrictionist policy goals and expansionist outcomes.... Why do liberal states accept unwanted immigration?... In the following, I propose [that]...the capacity of states to control immigration has not diminished but increased.... But for domestic reasons, liberal states are kept from putting this capacity to use. Not globally limited, but self-limited sovereignty explains why states accept unwanted immigrants."
Correspondence: C. Joppke, European University Institute, Via dei Roccettini 5, 50016 San Domenico di Fiesole, Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30788 Knipping, Helge M.; Saumweber-Meyer, Uta. Basic principles of asylum law and asylum proceedings in the Federal Republic of Germany. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 267-304 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
The authors, who work at Germany's Federal Office for the Recognition of Foreign Refugees, "give a detailed description of the Federal Office's legal foundation, its organizational structures and present asylum proceedings." Sections are included on the history of asylum law; duties of the Federal Office; provisions of the new asylum procedure; admission and allocation; and court proceedings.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30789 Martin, Philip L. The United States: benign neglect toward immigration. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 21-44 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
The author provides an overview of U.S. immigration policy over the past 50 years. "Other industrial countries are also experiencing rising levels of immigration, as well as a growing gap between immigration policy goals and outcomes. What makes the United States unique is its seeming policy of benign neglect toward this gap." Sections are included on a global perspective, industrial country reactions, reasons for migration, the U.S. experience, and immigration trends and policy development in California.
Correspondence: P. L. Martin, University of California, Department of Economics, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30790 Perlmutter, Ted. Immigration politics Italian style: the paradoxical behaviour of mainstream and populist parties. South European Society and Politics, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 1996. 229-52 pp. Ilford, England. In Eng.
"The politics surrounding Italy's first comprehensive immigration legislation (1990) and its emergence in the subsequent election campaign contradict our traditional understanding of how political parties respond to immigration. The Italian Republican Party, a small, liberal, governing party, waged a highly polemical campaign against the Law, whereas the Northern League, a party known for its right-wing tendencies, chose not to mobilize. By measuring the Italian experience against traditional theory, this article demonstrates the importance of considering party system fragmentation and differences between populist and extreme-right parties in explaining the likelihood that parties will exploit the issue."
Correspondence: T. Perlmutter, New York University, Center for European Studies, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30791 Schilling, Roland S. Refugees and immigration in Europe and the Third World. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 263-6 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
The author discusses policies regarding refugees or migrants seeking asylum who are traveling from third-world countries to destinations in Europe.
Correspondence: R. S. Schilling, Federal Bureau for the Recognition of Foreign Refugees, Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Zirndorf, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30792 Schmalz-Jacobsen, Cornelia. Ten points concerning German immigration policy. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 173-9 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
"[Germany] has not yet established a ministry for migration and integration. The various responsibilities are spread over several ministries." The author "enumerates important points that could become core elements of an immigration policy concept."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30793 Schmid, Josef. Population development models as criteria for migration policies? In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 211-20 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper I would like to discuss the correspondence of demographic configurations (embedded in economic and political settings) and policies which aim at population change by...immigration. I want to go back a little in history and make my points clear by referring to a historical typology, which helps to delineate the relationship between stages of population development and the political inclinations engaged in migration policy."
Correspondence: J. Schmid, Universität Bamberg, Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Feldkirchenstraße 21, 8600 Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30794 Schnapper, Dominique. The significance of French immigration and integration policy. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 99-111 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
The author discusses immigration trends and policy in France since World War II. "The French policy towards immigrants has been specific, insofar as it has been closely linked to the forms and the particular history of the formation of the population and of national integration. On the other hand, the rise of the Front National is, in spite of appearances, but secondarily and indirectly related to the problem of immigrants."
Correspondence: D. Schnapper, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Départment de Sociologie, 54 boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30795 Schüklenk, Udo. Using medicine to control immigration. Hastings Center Report, Vol. 27, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1997. 52 pp. Garrison, New York. In Eng.
In this one-page article, the author states that "a variety of means have been introduced to prevent sick migrants from entering developed countries.... Vulnerable people from countries that can reasonably be assumed to have insufficient health care facilities are most likely to be denied entry into our countries, and access to our health care facilities. Medical professionals across the Western world are continuously involved in medical examinations designed to prevent the most vulnerable of potential immigrants from entering societies with fully functional medical systems.... The participation of medical professionals in immigration control measures is ethically problematic and deserves closer scrutiny by medical ethicists as well as national medical associations."
Correspondence: U. Schüklenk, Monash University, Centre for Human Bioethics, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. E-mail: udo.schuklenk@arts.monash.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30796 Weiner, Myron; Münz, Rainer. Migrants, refugees and foreign policy: prevention and intervention strategies. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 1, Mar 1997. 25-51 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
The authors discuss policy development options to deal with migrants and refugees to developed countries. "Our principal argument--perhaps to state the obvious--is that international migration and refugee movements are foreign policy, not simply domestic, issues. Nevertheless, citizens and policy makers are all too often unaware that if they want to secure their borders against unwanted population flows, this cannot be done simply by unilateral decisions to regulate entry." The focus is on Germany and the United States.
Correspondence: M. Weiner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Political Science, 30 Wadsworth Street, Cambridge, MA 02139. E-mail: mweiner@mit.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30797 Zincone, Giovanna. Immigration to Italy: data and policies. In: Migration policies: a comparative perspective, edited by Friedrich Heckmann and Wolfgang Bosswick. 1995. 137-56 pp. Ferdinand Enke: Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng.
"Italy is traditionally a country of emigration. Only in the last decade has the country become aware that it is becoming an immigration country.... Concepts and laws for an immigration and integration policy in Italy have been devised in the last years; as in other areas of Italian politics, migration problems are due not to poor laws but to their non-implementation."
Correspondence: G. Zincone, Università degli Studi di Torino, Department of Political Sociology, Via Verdi 8, 10124 Turin, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.