Volume 64 - Number 3 - Fall 1998

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications. Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations, as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

64:30605 China National Committee on Aging (Beijing, China). China population today: a special issue on aging. China Population Today, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, Apr 1998. 40 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
This special issue investigates various aspects of aging, with a focus on Asia and the Pacific. Sections are included on China's aging program; global trends in aging; population dynamics and aging; changing population structures; socioeconomic implications of aging; and current issues of aging.
Correspondence: China Population Today, 12 Dahuisi Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30606 Estienne, Jean-François. Aging and retirement in Japan: an economic and social adaptation? [Vieillissement et retraites au Japon: une adaptation économique et sociale?] Notes et Etudes Documentaires, No. 5031, 1996. 140 pp. Documentation Française: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study of Japan's population aging and retirement policies is written with a view to the lessons that might be applied to France. In the first section, the author examines the realities and causes of the demographic aging occurring in Japan; in the second, he reviews the course of Japan's demographic transition during the twentieth century. He then examines the philosophy and realities of Japan's retirement policies. In the fourth section, he discusses the reforms implemented by the Japanese government in 1994, and in the fifth, Japan's active population and employment structures are examined with an eye toward the future. The scope of the study extends to 2025.
Correspondence: Documentation Française, 29 quai Voltaire, 75340 Paris Cedex 07, France. Location: New York University, Elmer Holmes Bobst Library, New York, NY.

64:30607 Hamilton, Lawrence C.; Otterstad, Oddmund. Sex ratio and community size: notes from the northern Atlantic. Population and Environment, Vol. 20, No. 1, Sep 1998. 11-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper briefly examines plots of sex ratio versus community size in four northern Atlantic regions (Maine, Newfoundland, Iceland and Norway). We then look more closely at Norway, where the correlation between sex ratio and community size is strongest. Multiple regression suggests that economic factors, rather than community size as such, best explain this pattern. Specifically, the percent female among young adults tends to be lower in communities experiencing longterm population declines, dominated by fishing and other primary-industry employment, and having in consequence relatively few jobs for women."
Correspondence: L. C. Hamilton, University of New Hampshire, Department of Sociology, Durham, NH 02824. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30608 Hernández Castellón, Raúl. Demographic aging in Cuba. [El envejecimiento de la población en Cuba.] ISBN 959-7005-04-2. 1997. 105 pp. Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demográficos [CEDEM]: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
This is a general analysis of demographic aging in Cuba. There are chapters on trends in demographic aging; the major determinants of aging; the spatial distribution and migration of the aged; family, household, and housing issues; the socioeconomic characteristics of the aged; and health issues.
Correspondence: Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demográficos, Avenida 41 No. 2003, Playa 13, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30609 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (Paris, France). Ageing in OECD countries: a critical policy challenge. Social Policy Studies, No. 20, ISBN 92-64-15318-7. 1997. 111 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"This report reviews the effects of ageing on pensions, health and long-term care, and the labour market, as well as its broader fiscal effects and its effects on the capital market [in OECD countries]. Three types of ageing are reviewed: individual ageing (people are living longer); population ageing (there are more people in older age groups as a consequence of the baby boom and baby bust); and active ageing (there are changes in patterns of activity within age groups--changes such as staying in school longer or retiring earlier). It is the combined effect of these three types of ageing which is of particular relevance to public policy. Analysis of individual ageing and population ageing is useful in identifying the challenges that demography poses for policy. The addition of active ageing considerably enriches that analysis and also points to possible solutions."
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30610 Poston, Dudley L.; Gu, Boachang; Liu, Peihang P.; McDaniel, Terra. Son preference and the sex ratio at birth in China: a provincial level analysis. Social Biology, Vol. 44, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1997. 55-76 pp. Port Angeles, Washington. In Eng.
"In this paper we use data from the 1 Per Cent Sample of the 1990 Census of China to calculate sex ratios for the Chinese provinces that are specific not only to parity, but also to the sex composition of previously-born children. We analyze the degree of relationship among and between the SRB's [sex ratios at birth] and then consider the phenomenon of son preference. We find the variation in sex ratios at birth among the Chinese provinces is related in an important way to variation among the provinces in the degree of son preference. Our analysis shows abnormally high SRB's in most of the provinces of China, especially at parities 2 and higher when the prior births were daughters."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. L. Poston, Texas A & M University, Department of Sociology, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30611 Radhakrishna, Aruna; Gringle, Robert E.; Greenslade, Forrest C. Identifying the intersection: adolescent unwanted pregnancy, HIV/AIDS and unsafe abortion. Issues in Abortion Care, No. 4, ISBN 1-882220-12-9. LC 97-36830. 1997. ii, 20 pp. Ipas: Carrboro, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Improving the reproductive health of women has been highlighted as a priority in several global United Nations conferences.... While many countries have begun translating this broad and commendable goal into specific programmatic objectives, less attention has been paid to the inter-relationship of several key reproductive health issues and how their cumulative impact affects women's lives. This publication explores the intersection of three critically important issues that have a significant impact on women's reproductive health: adolescent sexuality, HIV/AIDS, and abortion--specifically unsafe and/or coercive abortion."
Correspondence: Ipas, 303 East Main Street, P.O. Box 999, Carrboro, NC 27510. E-mail: ipas@ipas.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30612 Rogerson, P. A.; Plane, D. A. The dynamics of neighborhood age composition. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 30, No. 8, Aug 1998. 1,461-72 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we investigate the changing demography of [U.S.] neighborhoods. We focus upon the dynamics of the age structure of neighborhoods, paying particular attention to the roles of (a) the magnitude of mobility and (b) the age composition of in-migrants and out-migrants. A model for studying the changing age composition of neighborhoods is developed, and alternative scenarios characterized by the nature of in-movement and out-movement are examined to make statements about the age of householders in neighborhoods. We find that high rates of mobility may serve to bring about a relatively youthful equilibrium age structure quite rapidly, whereas low rates lead to a higher mean age and to damped harmonic fluctuations both in the mean age of householders and in the magnitude of the age heterogeneity of the neighborhood. In addition, we compare the evolutions of age structure in neighborhoods with age patterns of in-movement and out-movement that could typify areas of renters and areas of homeowners."
Correspondence: P. A. Rogerson, State University of New York, Department of Geography, Wilkeson Hall, Buffalo, NY 14261. E-mail: rogerson@acsu.buffalo.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

64:30613 Rowland, D. T. The demography of ageing and families in Australia. Australian Journal on Ageing, Vol. 16, No. 3, Aug 1997. 99-104 pp. Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper discusses Australian research on the demography of ageing and the family and identifies frontiers for further inquiry. Beginning with the topics of demographic ageing and demographic theory, the paper then outlines studies concerned with population projections, living arrangements and the ethnic minority aged. Later sections provide an overview of the changing characteristics of cohorts reaching later life and of avenues for further advancement of the field."
Correspondence: D. T. Rowland, Australian National University, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Program, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30614 Serow, William J.; Cowart, Marie E.; Camezon, Joan. Epidemiologic transition theory and aging: Hispanic populations of North America and the Caribbean. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, Vol. 20, No. 3, Winter 1998. 333-47 pp. Middletown, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"In this article, the authors examine three theoretical models of epidemiological transition and offer historical (1950-1995) and projection (1995-2050) data for the development patterns in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. They contrast trends in fertility, life expectancy ratios, and gender differences in these countries with the Hispanic population of the United States. Central to this study are the cause of death statistics presented to identify the model occurring in each country."
Correspondence: W. J. Serow, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, 659-C Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2240. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30615 Simoens, Peter. The political economy of old age as a basis for research on older employees. [De politieke economie van de ouderdom als basis voor onderzoek omtrent oudere werknemers.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1997. 19-48 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Using a theory of political economy, the author discusses the position of older employees. He first reviews the literature on the topic, and then focuses "on the way in which the problems of elderly and older workers are formulated. As the political economy of old age is mainly based on Anglo-Saxon experiences, we try to provide data from the Low Countries. Finally we complement the theory with elements from...life cycle sociology and ageism."
Correspondence: P. Simoens, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Hoger Instituut voor de Arbeid, 3001 Heverle, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30616 Valkovics, Emil. An attempt at quantifying the role of demographic factors in determining dependency ratios (I). [Az eltartási arányokat meghatározó demográfiai tényezok kvantifikálása (I).] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 74, No. 10, Oct 1996. 805-28 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
This is the first part of a two-part article on the role of demographic factors in determining dependency ratios. "The contribution presents, evaluates and compares four recently elaborated quantitative procedures for estimating the immediate determinants of changing age structures. Two of them are used for evaluating the immediate determinants of changing proportions of populations of different age-groups and two of them are used for showing the immediate determinants of changing (or different) mean ages of populations studied....[The author uses] data for the Hungarian male population at the beginning, at the end and in the middle of 1990."
The second part of this article was cited in Population Index 63:20338.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30617 Westley, Sidney B. Asia's next challenge: caring for the elderly. Asia-Pacific Population and Policy, No. 45, Apr 1998. 4 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The author "discusses recent demographic, economic, and social trends in Asia that will affect care for the elderly over the next few decades." Aspects considered include aging populations, fewer people in the workforce, less support from children, high savings rates, and the challenge for policymakers.
Correspondence: East-West Center, Program on Population, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848-1601. E-mail: poppubs@ewc.hawaii.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

64:30618 Gómez Redondo, Rosa. Prolonged old age and diminished youth. Trends in the evolution of life expectancy in the Spanish population, 1970-1990. [Vejez prolongada y juventud menguada. Tendencias en la evolución de la esperanza de vida de la población española, 1970-1990.] Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, No. 71-72, Jul-Dec 1995. 79-108 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Within the theoretical context of the health transition, this paper analyses the recent increase in the life-expectancy of the Spanish population in order to ascertain which groups have made the most progress in terms of the struggle against death--mainly the case of the elderly and, more particularly, women. Two major conclusions are drawn: the ageing and feminization of the population.... [The] analysis makes it clear that the observed rise in sex differences in human mortality transcends biological factors inasmuch as it can be linked to inequalities in the social construction of health, life and death."
Correspondence: R. Gómez Redondo, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Departamento de Sociología II, C/Obispo Trejo, s/n 28040 Madrid, Spain. E-mail: rgomezr@sr.uned.es. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30619 Hahn, Robert A.; Eberhardt, Steven. Life expectancy in four U.S. racial/ethnic populations: 1990. Epidemiology, Vol. 6, No. 4, Jul 1995. 350-5 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"We used information on population undercounts by race/ethnicity in the census and on misclassification of race/ethnicity on death certificates to calculate life expectancy for black, white, American Indian, and Asian men and women in the United States in 1990. Correction for undercount and misclassification had little effect on life expectancy estimates for whites, but it substantially decreased estimates for American Indians and Asians. Asian men had life expectancies of 82.0 years and Asian women 85.8 years--the highest life expectancies reported for any population in the world and beyond the limit predicted by some current theories."
Correspondence: R. A. Hahn, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Epidemiology Program Office, Mailstop C-08, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30620 Harris, Bernard. Growing taller, living longer? Anthropometric history and the future of old age. Ageing and Society, Vol. 17, No. 5, Sep 1997. 491-512 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In recent years, economic and social historians have made increasing use of anthropometric records (principally, records of human height and weight) to investigate changes in human health and well-being. This paper summarises some of the main findings of this research and demonstrates the remarkable increases in human height which have occurred during the course of the present century. The paper also examines the relationship between changes in average height and changes in life expectancy.... The concluding section examines the relevance of this work to current debates on the decline of mortality, the `compression of morbidity' and the future of social policy."
Correspondence: B. Harris, University of Southampton, Department of Sociology and Social Policy, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, England. E-mail: bjh2@soton.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30621 Pope, Clayne L.; Wimmer, Larry T. Aging in the early 20th century. American Economic Review, Vol. 88, No. 2, May 1998. 217-21 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The authors discuss changes in U.S. morbidity and mortality in the early twentieth century, with a focus on data from the Union Army recruit sample. "This sample consists of approximately 36,000 men born between 1820 and 1843.... This paper examines the work of five scholars who have been among those principally involved over the past six years, not only in the construction of the data set, but in using the Union Army data to examine an interesting range of problems associated with aging."
Correspondence: C. L. Pope, Brigham Young University, Department of Economics, Provo, UT 84602. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:30622 Rose, Michael R.; Mueller, Laurence D. Evolution of human lifespan: past, future, and present. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1998. 409-20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Several...common misunderstandings and a precis of present understanding of the evolution of aging are...discussed. Then, an attempt is made to apply the evolutionary biology of aging to the evolution of the human lifespan, focusing on three distinct epochs: (1) the prehistoric evolution of the human lifespan, (2) the long-term future evolution of aging in the human species, and (3) the prospects for change in contemporary human aging patterns."
Correspondence: M. R. Rose, University of California, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30623 Vaupel, James W.; Carey, James R.; Christensen, Kaare; Johnson, Thomas E.; Yashin, Anatoli I.; Holm, Niels V.; Iachine, Ivan A.; Kannisto, Väinö; Khazaeli, Aziz A.; Liedo, Pablo; Longo, Valter D.; Zeng, Yi; Manton, Kenneth G.; Curtsinger, James W. Biodemographic trajectories of longevity. Science, Vol. 280, No. 5365, May 8, 1998. 855-60 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Old-age survival has increased substantially since 1950.... Three biodemographic insights--concerning the correlation of death rates across age, individual differences in survival chances, and induced alterations in age patterns of fertility and mortality--offer clues and suggest research on the failure of complicated systems, on new demographic equations for evolutionary theory, and on fertility-longevity interactions."
Correspondence: J. W. Vaupel, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Doberaner Straße 114, 18057 Rostock, Germany. E-mail: jwv@demogr.mpg.de. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30624 Vaupel, James W. Demographic analysis of aging and longevity. American Economic Review, Vol. 88, No. 2, May 1998. 242-7 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"The populations of most of the world's countries are growing older.... The rapidly growing populations of the elderly are putting unprecedented stresses on societies, because new systems of financial support, social support, and health care have to be developed and implemented. I will focus on a particular research thrust, namely, demographic analyses of survival and longevity."
Correspondence: J. W. Vaupel, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Doberaner Straße 114, 18057 Rostock, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population, and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation.

64:30625 Chiswick, Barry R. Hebrew language usage: determinants and effects on earnings among immigrants in Israel. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1998. 253-71 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper uses the 1983 Census of Israel to analyze Hebrew speaking skills and the effects of Hebrew fluency on the earnings of adult male immigrants. Hebrew fluency increases with a longer duration in Israel, the presence of children in the household, marrying after immigration, living in an area in which a smaller proportion speak one's mother tongue, a younger age at migration, a higher level of schooling and varies by country of birth. Earnings increase monotonically with the use of Hebrew. Speaking English as a second language is associated with higher earnings, even when country of origin is held constant."
Correspondence: B. R. Chiswick, University of Illinois, Department of Economics (M/C 144), 601 South Morgan Street, Room 2103 UH, Chicago, IL 60607-7121. E-mail: brchis@uic.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30626 Domanski, Henryk. Distribution of incomes in Eastern Europe. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 38, No. 3-4, Dec 1997. 249-70 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The data from national surveys carried out in six East European countries are employed to reveal patterns of distribution of incomes. The underlying assumption is that rules of distribution represent different stages of an exit from the command economy as well as advancement on their way to the market systems. Using the OLS regression models of incomes I attempt to determine which countries are where on the scale of the systemic transition.... In order to cast some light on the direction of this transition, I will pay special attention to the remnants of institutional structures, originating under communist rule."
Correspondence: H. Domanski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Nowy Swiat 72, 00330 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30627 Friedman, Samantha; Lichter, Daniel T. Spatial inequality and poverty among American children. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, Apr 1998. 91-109 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"National-level statistics often mask extreme spatial differentiation in child poverty. Using county-level data from the 1990 U.S. decennial census summary tape file, we show that child poverty is distributed unevenly over geographic space. Child poverty is concentrated in counties in Appalachia, the Mississippi Delta, and the southern `black belt'. Child poverty rates are strongly influenced by the local industrial composition (e.g., agriculture and manufacturing), but the effects are largely indirect, operating primarily through reduced employment opportunities among adult workers. High county unemployment and underemployment rates contribute directly to children's economic deprivation, as well as indirectly by undermining the formation and stability of the two-parent families. Our results highlight existing spatial differentiation and inequality in children's economic well-being, and provide a point of departure for additional research on the geography of child poverty."
Correspondence: S. Friedman, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. E-mail: friedman@pop.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30628 Lee, Ronald D.; Miller, Timothy W. The current fiscal impact of immigrants and their descendants: beyond the immigrant household. In: The immigration debate: studies on the economic, demographic, and fiscal effects of immigration, edited by James P. Smith and Barry Edmonston. 1998. 183-205 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Does immigration lead to higher taxes for state, local, and federal taxpayers?... The possible experiments and scenarios [used to answer the question] differ along many dimensions, but in this chapter we focus on the demographic dimension: How is the immigrant study population defined?... Although we believe that [a] longitudinal formulation is most informative...cross-sectional formulations have dominated the policy debate. Within this class, we argue that the concurrent descendant formulation is strongly preferable to the immigrant-only or the immigrant household formulations. In this chapter we focus on the concurrent descendant analysis, which we report in some detail. We also report comparative results for the other approaches."
Correspondence: R. D. Lee, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30629 Marcoux, Alain. The feminization of poverty: claims, facts, and data needs. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 1, Mar 1998. 131-9, 198-201 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"It is frequently asserted, without supporting evidence, that 70 percent of the world's poor are female. This study notes the implausibility of that percentage, which would imply some 500 million female poor in excess of male numbers, almost entirely among adults. It examines whether there are likely assumptions that could warrant the claim."
Correspondence: A. Marcoux, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Population Programme Service, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30630 Neels, Karel; Stoop, Reinhard. Social mobility and equal opportunities: the case of Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Belgium. IPD Working Paper, No. 1998-3, 1998. 20 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"The main purpose of this article is to document educational attainment and occupational status for the [Turkish and Moroccan] communities in Belgium.... The analyses on educational attainment demonstrate that second generation Turkish and Moroccan men who were raised and socialized in Belgium, attain a higher educational level than both the early first generation and their age-mates who arrived at older ages. When comparing the occupational status of young Turkish, Moroccan and Belgian men in the age bracket between 18 and 29...job opportunities...turn out to be much less favorable for Turkish and Moroccan men than they are for the Belgian population."
This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: esvbalck@vub.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30631 Parkkinen, Pekka. Real income and population prospects in the Baltic Sea area. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 34, 1997. 127-32 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The nine nations bordering on the Baltic Sea differ greatly in regard to both their population and their economic situation. Russia has one hundred times the population of Estonia and in Denmark the real income per capita is six times that of Latvia. When measured by real income per inhabitant, the poor Baltic countries are about half a century behind their rich neighbors, so that there is marked economic pressure to emigrate to these rich neighboring countries. In these poor transition economies the birth rate has plummeted during the last few years and the difference in life expectancy compared to the rich neighboring countries has increased. Even in a situation of rapid economic growth, it is not at all certain that the fertility rate will return to its earlier level."
Correspondence: P. Parkkinen, Government Institute for Economic Research, Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30632 Pearson, Ruth. Renegotiating the reproductive bargain: gender analysis of economic transition in Cuba in the 1990s. Development and Change, Vol. 28, No. 4, Oct 1997. 671-705 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article argues that Cuba's economic demise following the collapse of the former Soviet Union should be seen as a crisis in reproduction as well as a crisis in consumption and production. Using qualitative field research carried out in 1994 and 1995 in Havana and in the province of Matanzas, the author shows that the commodities and services required for reproduction could no longer be guaranteed through the distribution system of the Cuban state. Consequently, people began to devise a range of survival strategies in order to ensure the reproduction of their households, including trading in unofficial markets, leaving formal employment and engaging in a portfolio of income-generating activities in the informal sector. Such strategies were patterned by the existing sexual division of labour and show a reinforcement of traditional gender roles. The article argues that these changes will have important political as well as economic consequences for Cuba's future."
Correspondence: R. Pearson, Institute of Social Studies, P.O. Box 29776, 2502 LT The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30633 Trefler, Daniel. Immigrants and natives in general equilibrium trade models. In: The immigration debate: studies on the economic, demographic, and fiscal effects of immigration, edited by James P. Smith and Barry Edmonston. 1998. 206-38 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter is divided into two parts. The first two sections outline the incentives to migrate [to the United States] and the impact of immigration on native welfare and income distribution.... In the third section I offer new empirical results about trends in earnings convergence across 75 countries and hence about the supply of immigrants to the United States. In the final section I present a new factor content study whose results significantly differ from those of previous research and point to a large negative impact of changing trade flows on America's least skilled workers. I then offer some caveats about how the lack of a well-defined policy experiment underlying the existing trade-and-wages empirical work has often led to the misinterpretation of that work."
Correspondence: D. Trefler, University of Toronto, Institute for Policy Analysis, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M52 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30634 White, Steve; Murdock, Steve H. The importance of demographic analyses in state- and local-level policy evaluations: a case study analysis of property taxes in Texas, USA. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, Apr 1998. 167-96 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article uses standard demographic projection, standardization and rate decomposition techniques to examine the implications of changing population composition for the property tax revenue base of Texas. The authors find that if current socioeconomic differentials persist into the future, projected compositional changes in the household population of Texas will significantly impact property tax revenues.... The results indicate that the continuing focus of state and local policy-makers on changes in population size alone may be ill-advised and demonstrate the increasing importance of local- and state-level demographic analysis in a period of increasing Federal devolution of service provision."
Correspondence: S. H. Murdock, Texas A&M University, Department of Rural Sociology, College Station, TX 77843-2125. E-mail: smurdock@rsocsun.tamu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

64:30635 Avlund, Kirsten; Damsgaard, Mogens T.; Holstein, Bjørn E. Social relations and mortality. An eleven year follow-up study of 70-year-old men and women in Denmark. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 5, Sep 1998. 635-43 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The purpose of this study was "to identify which aspects of social relations among 70-year-old men and women are predictive of mortality 11 years later.... The baseline study in 1984 included 734 70-year-old men and women in Glostrup (county of Copenhagen). The variables comprised the structure and the function of the social network, education, income and functional ability. Eleven years later, in November 1995, information about deaths was obtained from the Central National Register.... The study showed an independent association between social relations and mortality. Men who did not help others with repairs and who lived alone and women with no social support to other tasks had increased risk of dying during the follow-up period."
Correspondence: K. Avlund, University of Copenhagen, Institute of Public Health, Department of Social Medicine and Psychosocial Health, Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30636 Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat; Caldwell, Bruce K.; Pieris, Indrani. The construction of adolescence in a changing world: implications for sexuality, reproduction, and marriage. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 29, No. 2, Jun 1998. 137-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article aims to show how the period now known as adolescence came into being and how it was shaped by international economic, institutional, and social influences. It considers premodern societies and argues that traditional culture has shaped contemporary adolescence even more than has global society. Explanations are offered for the enormous differences across the world in adolescent sexuality, reproduction, and marriage. The data are drawn mainly from research programs in Nigeria, Sri Lanka, India, and Bangladesh, and comparisons are made with other countries."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30637 Davies Withers, Suzanne. Demographic polarization of housing affordability in six major United States metropolitan areas. Urban Geography, Vol. 18, No. 4, May-Jun 1997. 296-323 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
"I conduct an empirical analysis of housing affordability for six metropolitan areas within the United States to explore the differential experience of households on the basis of income level, household type, minority group, and housing-tenure status. Using the Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS) Database...I consider six cities that have experienced considerable gains in immigration and interstate migration during the 1980s.... Specifically, the research addresses the following questions: (1) What are the demographic variants of America's housing-cost burden across metropolitan areas? (2) Is the housing-affordability issue simply a derivative of a more general issue of poverty in metropolitan areas? (3) Is housing affordability contributing to an increased polarization of housing status in metropolitan areas?"
Correspondence: S. Davies Withers, University of Washington, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 353550, Seattle, WA 98195. E-mail: swithers@u.washington.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30638 Fang, Jing; Madhavan, Shantha; Bosworth, William; Alderman, Michael H. Residential segregation and mortality in New York City. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 4, Aug 1998. 469-76 pp. Exeter, England. In Eng.
"The objective of this research was to determine the effect of residential racial segregation on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in New York City. A cross-sectional study of residents in New York City was conducted linking mortality records from 1988 through 1994 to the 1990 United States Census data stratified by zip code. All-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality rates for non-Hispanic blacks and whites were estimated by zipcode. Zipcodes were aggregated according to the degree of residential segregation...and mortality rates were compared.... In New York City, although overall mortality rates of blacks exceed whites, these rates varied substantially by locality according to the pattern of racial segregation. Whites living in the higher (mainly white) socioeconomic areas had lower mortality rates than whites living in predominantly black areas.... This was true for all age groups.... Racial segregation in residence is independently associated with mortality. Within racially segregated areas, members of the dominant group, for all ages, among whites and elderly blacks, enjoy outcomes superior both to members of the minority racial group of their community, and to members of the same race residing in other areas, where they are in the minority, independent of socio-economic status."
Correspondence: J. Fang, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:30639 Iredale, Robyn. The impact of immigration policies on school education in New South Wales. Australian Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 32, No. 3, Aug 1997. 239-55 pp. Darlinghurst, Australia. In Eng.
"Australia's immigration policies have had a dramatic effect on school populations, especially in the state of New South Wales which receives about 40 per cent of the intake. This paper is based on a study that was carried out for the Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research and the NSW Ministry of Education. The study revealed that many non-English speaking background pupils miss out on English as a second language..., community languages are allowed to lapse and aspects of the school environment, such as relations between different groups, are not given the attention that they deserve."
Correspondence: R. Iredale, University of Wollongong, Department of Geosciences, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. E-mail: CRP@uow.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30640 Juby, Heather; Le Bourdais, Céline. The changing context of fatherhood in Canada: a life course analysis. Population Studies, Vol. 52, No. 2, Jul 1998. 163-75 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Current sociological research acknowledges the growing complexity of fatherhood and the widening divide observed between men's conjugal and parental careers. Little is known, however, of the importance of these changes in the population at large. What proportion of men, for example, continue to experience fatherhood within a single, durable relationship? How many have to reassess their role at its collapse? To what extent do men have to juggle different paternal roles simultaneously or live through a series of episodes as a father, and how is this diversity of experience evolving from one generation to another? In this paper we attempt to answer some of these questions, using multiple-decrement life table techniques to analyse retrospective data concerning the conjugal and parental histories of Canadian men. Our analysis reveals the extent and speed of the paternal life course transformation, and suggests that this will continue at least in the mid-term."
Correspondence: H. Juby, Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. E-mail: jubyh@ere.umontreal.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30641 Wils, Annababette; Goujon, Anne. Diffusion of education in six world regions, 1960-90. Population and Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jun 1998. 357-68, 424, 426 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This note analyzes trends in school enrollment and adult education achievement for six world regions, 1960-90. There has been an enormous global increase in both measures of education. Gaps between male and female enrollment remain, and the gap is larger at lower levels of education. As enrollment rates increase and the average level of adult education rises, the gender gap narrows considerably."
Correspondence: A. Wils, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for International Studies, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

64:30642 Allensworth, Elaine M.; Rochín, Refugio I. Ethnic transformation in rural California: looking beyond the immigrant farmworker. Rural Sociology, Vol. 63, No. 1, Mar 1998. 26-50 pp. Bellingham, Washington. In Eng.
"Communities in rural California are becoming increasingly Latino. Using a quantitative database of 288 rural communities, together with qualitative data collected in the San Joaquin Valley, we examine the processes through which this ethnic transformation is occurring. Most studies have focused on Latino immigration as the cause of changing ethnic composition. We find that non-Latino population growth, as well as Latino population growth, accounts for the relative differences in changing community ethnicity. Most important for explaining migration among Latinos are housing costs and year-round job availability. Among white non-Latinos, ethnic conflict and perceptions of community deterioration better explain migration decisions. As a result of these changes, places in rural California are becoming increasingly economically and ethnically differentiated."
Correspondence: E. M. Allensworth, Michigan State University, Julian Samora Research Institute, East Lansing, MI 48824-1111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30643 Berquó, Elza. The demography of inequality: considerations on black people in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Population Studies, 1997-1998. 165-77 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Eng.
The author examines the demographic characteristics of the self-declared black population in Brazil. "A...general conclusion is that there are three demographic profiles: that of Whites, of Blacks, and of mixed blood.... The analysis has shown that [blacks and mixed bloods] are subjected to changes in mortality, marriage, and fertility, though at differing times. Mixed bloods are increasingly coming closer to whites, certainly as a result of the different rhythms of social, economic and cultural changes."
Correspondence: E. Berquó, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de População, Caixa Postal 6166, CEP 13081 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30644 Bhopal, Raj; Donaldson, Liam. White, European, Western, Caucasian, or what? Inappropriate labeling in research on race, ethnicity, and health. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 9, Sep 1998. 1,303-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The appropriateness of some of the terms used in research on race, ethnicity, and health is questioned, with the focus on the concept of the term "white". The authors argue that this term and others such as Caucasian, European, and Western are rarely defined, and are not suitable for use in epidemiological studies on the health of minority ethnic and racial groups in Europe and the United States, since such populations are heterogeneous, the labels are nonspecific, and the comparisons misleading. They suggest that concepts such as the "reference", "control", or "comparison" population should be used instead. The need for discussion among the international research community concerning the definition of such terms is suggested.
Correspondence: R. Bhopal, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, England. E-mail: r.s.bhopal@ncl.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

64:30645 Castonguay, Charles. Language assimilation trends in Montreal's West Island and the western part of the Outaouais region between 1971 and 1991. [Tendances de l'assimilation linguistique dans l'ouest de l'île de Montréal et l'ouest de l'Outaouais de 1971 à 1991.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 26, No. 2, Autumn 1997. 307-22; 341 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Changes in the census questionnaire since 1971 and high differential out-migration according to language characteristics have undermined the comparability of successive census data on language shift between English and French in the greater part of Quebec [Canada]. In the two regions least sensitive to these factors, notwithstanding language policies in support of French, the dynamics of language shift between English and French in 1991 seem to work to the benefit of English at least as strongly as in 1971."
Correspondence: C. Castonguay, Université d'Ottawa, Département de Mathématiques, C.P. 450, Succ. A, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30646 Fong, Eric. Residential proximity with the Charter groups in Canada. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1997. 103-23 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the patterns of residential proximity between the Charter groups and various racial/ethnic groups in Canada. This research analyzes special 1986 census data requested from Statistics Canada.... While little variation in the levels of residential proximity was found between the Charter groups and racial/ethnic groups in Canada, substantial variation was found across cities and regions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the social capital hypothesis in conjunction with urban structural factors in explaining the residential proximity among racial/ethnic groups in Canada."
Correspondence: E. Fong, University of Toronto, Department of Sociology, 203 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5T 1P9, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30647 Guibernau, Montserrat; Rex, John. The ethnicity reader: nationalism, multiculturalism and migration. ISBN 0-7456-1922-3. LC 97-23201. 1997. x, 336 pp. Polity Press: Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This book, intended for students of sociology, politics, international relations, and race relations, presents a selection of readings on various aspects of ethnicity. "Drawing on a wide range of examples, the selections included examine theories of nationalism and consider issues of ethnic integration and conflict in the USA, Canada, Quebec, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Catalonia among other countries and regions." Part 1 includes essays on the relation between ethnicity and the concepts of the nation-state. In Part 2, the essays deal with transnational migrant communities and the constitutions of multicultural societies. There is a section entitled Migration theory, ethnic mobilization and globalization, which has three essays: The causes of migration, by Douglas S. Massey et al.; The nature of ethnicity in the project of migration, by John Rex; and Diasporas, by James Clifford.
Correspondence: Polity Press, 65 Bridge Street, Cambridge CB2 1UR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30648 Hama, Aldric. Demographic change and social breakdown in U.S. cities. Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 3, Spring 1998. 299-309 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The popular assumption that urban crime increases as the proportion of minority (black) residents increases has been condemned as `racist'. To ascertain the accuracy of this assumption, correlations of the racial composition (percent black or white of the total city population) of seventy-seven United States cities with crime and various other socioeconomic indexes were calculated.... Results indicate that higher rates of crime, poverty, unemployment and welfare, and lower rates of education are positively correlated with the percentage of black residents in the population. In contrast a negative correlation was observed between whites and indicators of social breakdown."
Correspondence: A. Hama, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30649 Harmsen, C. N. Chinese in the Netherlands, January 1, 1997. [Chinezen in Nederland, 1 januari 1997.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 46, No. 3, May 1998. 8-11 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Since 1995 Statistics Netherlands identifies persons with a foreign background in two ways. The method used here identifies a person as foreign if he or she is born abroad or if one of his parents is born abroad. According to [this] method a person is foreign if he or she and at least one parent is born abroad, or, if this person is born in the Netherlands, both parents are born abroad. Applying [this] method, the estimated number of Chinese living in the Netherlands on 1 January 1997 is 55 thousand."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30650 Houle, René. Factors influencing changes in the knowledge of Catalan in Spanish Catalonia. [Les facteurs d'évolution de la connaissance du catalan en Catalogne espagnole.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 26, No. 2, Autumn 1997. 277-305; 341 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper investigates changes in the knowledge of Catalan in Catalonia [Spain]. The author uses data from the four most recent censuses to monitor the evolution of this phenomenon from 1975 to 1991. After a brief look at the social, political and legal context of the Catalonian language in Catalonia, the paper considers the type of data used and overall changes in the population's knowledge of the language.... The paper first discusses the role of primary and secondary education, and then turns to the question of the linguistic integration of immigrants...."
Correspondence: R. Houle, Université Autonome de Barcelone, Centre d'Estudis Demogràfics, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: rhoule@cedserver.uab.es. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30651 Lee, Sharon M. Asian Americans: diverse and growing. Population Bulletin, Vol. 53, No. 2, Jun 1998. 40 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author "examines three major issues created by the rapid growth and diversification of the Asian American population: the social status and position of Asians in the United States; Asian Americans' search for an identity amidst increasing ethnic and socioeconomic diversity; and the demographic impact of Asian Americans on the U.S. population.... [She examines] the growth and demographic characteristics of Asian Americans, including their geographic concentration, age structure, fertility rates, household characteristics, and socioeconomic indicators such as education, employment, and income."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30652 Lee, Yean-Ju; Aytac, Isik A. Intergenerational financial support among whites, African Americans, and Latinos. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 60, No. 2, May 1998. 426-41 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study explores racial and ethnic differences in kin support and focuses on financial support that [U.S.] adult children receive from their parents. We decompose the observed group differences in the incidence of adult children's receiving assistance into those explained by behavioral patterns and those explained by resources. Contrary to earlier observations that financial support among poor, minority families is mostly to ease short-term crises, our results suggest that minority parents may be more concerned than White parents with the long-term effects of financial support for their children. When providing financial support, African American and Latino parents, more than White parents, favor adult children who acquire greater human capital resources (education and income)."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Y.-J. Lee, University of Hawaii, Department of Sociology, 2424 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI 96822. E-mail: yjlee@hawaii.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30653 Roloff, Juliane. The foreign and German populations in the Federal Republic of Germany--a comparison of population statistics. [Die ausländische und deutsche Bevölkerung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland--ein bevölkerungsstatistischer Vergleich.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1997. 73-98 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The discussion of the demographic ageing of the population in Germany rarely takes into account the fact that not all population groups are affected by the ageing process to the same degree. This study attempts to illustrate existing differences through a comparison of demographic developments and processes within the German and foreign population in the Federal Republic. The findings show that a more favourable development in fertility and a lower mortality rate among foreigners living in Germany result in a slower ageing process for this segment of the population in comparison to the German population."
Correspondence: J. Roloff, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:30654 Shinagawa, Larry H.; Jang, Michael. Atlas of American diversity. ISBN 0-7619-9127-1. LC 97-4827. 1998. 166 pp. AltaMira Press: Walnut Creek, California. In Eng.
This atlas describes the racial and ethnic diversity of the contemporary United States using over 200 maps and charts. "It examines...residential patterns in the United States,...family patterns, occupations, age distribution, income, immigration history, and housing preferences, among other topics. A final chapter compares [racial and ethnic] groups on many of these topics, highlighting the variability of the American experience for members of different ethnic groups."
Correspondence: AltaMira Press, 1630 North Main Street, Suite 367, Walnut Creek, CA 94596. E-mail: explore@altamira.sagepub.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.