Volume 64 - Number 2 - Summer 1998

I. Historical Demography and Demographic History

Studies dealing with the demographic events of any given period from the early historical up to World War I.

I.1. General Historical Demography

Comprehensive surveys, notes of sources, and items on the state of research. Particularly concerned with the period before modern vital registration was introduced and censuses were taken. Historical items that primarily pertain to one specific demographic variable are classified first under the specific heading and then cross-referenced to this heading.

64:20549 Gorskaya, N. A. The historical demography of Russia in the era of feudalism. [Istoricheskaya demografiya Rossii epokhi feodalizma.] ISBN 5-02-009750-0. LC 96-180903. 1994. 212 pp. Nauka: Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The author first describes the development of the study of historical demography in the Soviet Union, which began in the 1950s. She then presents a summary of the demographic history of the Russian population in three chapters, which cover the period from the ninth to the fifteenth century, the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and the eighteenth century.
Correspondence: Nauka, Profsoyuznaya ul. 90, 117864 GSP-7, Moscow B-485, Russia. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:20550 Guinnane, Timothy W. The vanishing Irish: households, migration, and the rural economy of Ireland, 1850-1914. Princeton Economic History of the Western World, ISBN 0-691-04307-8. LC 97-5383. 1997. xvii, 335 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The population decline that occurred in Ireland over the six decades following the Great Famine in the middle of the nineteenth century is analyzed in this study. "First, the focus throughout is on rural Ireland. The rural focus reflects the fact that Ireland was a very rural country even as late as 1914, and that depopulation was a primarily rural phenomenon.... Second, the focus is on the period between the Great Famine and the First World War, roughly 1850-1914.... Third, this study aims at once to describe and explain Ireland's population history and to use that history to illuminate more general population-related phenomena both in European history and in today's world." Topics covered include marriage and nonmarriage, migration and emigration, household structure and economic objectives, and the aged and relations between generations. Data are from a variety of sources, including the manuscript censuses of 1901 and 1911.
Correspondence: Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20551 Levine, David. Sampling history: the English population. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 28, No. 4, Spring 1998. 605-32 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This is a critique of the book "English Population History from Family Reconstitution 1580-1837", by E. A. Wrigley, R. S. Davies, J. E. Oeppen, and R. S. Schofield. The reviewer criticizes the purely demographic approach taken by its authors. "The present work is subject to five main criticisms: First, it abstracts demographic experience from its social and historical context; second, the social context itself--and, in particular, the nature of early industrialization--is misconceived; third, their new demographic measurements do not dramatically advance our understanding of the subject the broad outlines of which have been known for twenty years; fourth, their discussion of fertility strategies is not convincing; and, fifth, their fastidious concern for accuracy has meant that the potential analytical benefits of family reconstitution have not been realized--indeed, they have not even been attempted."
Correspondence: D. Levine, University of Toronto, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M52 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

64:20552 Macfarlane, Alan. The savage wars of peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian trap. ISBN 0-631-18117-2. LC 96-28823. 1997. xvii, 427 pp. Blackwell: Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study attempts to answer one of the basic questions of historical demography: How were some nations able to break out of the Malthusian trap of war, famine, and disease? In particular, the author examines how the two island nations of England and Japan were able to achieve this feat. The factors affecting mortality are first discussed, with the emphasis on disease. Three major branches of infectious disease are described, and the environmental and cultural changes associated with lowering mortality in the two countries are analyzed. The author then turns to the factors that kept fertility under control and prevented a too-rapid rate of population growth. These include patterns of marriage and sexual relations, factors affecting conception, including contraception, and the handling of unwanted conceptions through abortion or infanticide.
Correspondence: Blackwell Publishers, 108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20553 Richter, Jeffrey S. Infanticide, child abandonment, and abortion in Imperial Germany. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 28, No. 4, Spring 1998. 511-51 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This article notes strong regional variation in reproductive-crime convictions [in Germany from 1882 to 1914], and weighs the importance of illegitimacy and other factors in this regional variation.... Imperial Germany's regions with particularly high rates of illegitimacy did not overlap well with the regions that showed high rates of reproductive crime. Statistical analysis demonstrates that the regional variation of reproductive crime had no significant correlation with the regional variation of illegitimacy--even in the case of infanticide, which was defined to apply only to illegitimate births." The author concludes that various cultural, social, and economic factors influenced the rates of these crimes.
Correspondence: J. S. Richter, Harvard University, Department of History, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

64:20554 Sonnino, Eugenio. Italian historical demography, 1940-1980, with 1981-1993 included: a bibliographic essay. [La demografia storica italiana 1940-1980 con integrazione 1981-1993: saggio bibliografico.] Bollettino di Demografia Storica, No. 26-27, 1997. xxv, 317 pp. Società Italiana di Demografia Storica [SIDES]: Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
This bibliography of studies on the demographic history of Italy has been updated to include studies published between 1981 and 1993, as well as those published from 1940 to 1980. There are no abstracts, but keywords are given to describe the content of the studies cited. Indexes are provided of authors, time periods and subjects, years of publication, and regions.
Correspondence: Società Italiana di Demografia Storica, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, Via Belle Arti 41, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

I.2. Methods of Historical Demography

Applications of demographic methodology to the records of the past. Relevant items are coded here and, if of more general interest than to historical demography alone, are cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models.

64:20555 Banens, Maks. Demographic reconstitution of the French departments for the nineteenth century. [Reconstituer la démographie départementale française du XIXe siècle.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1997. 1,329-59 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper describes the methods used in the reconstitution of past populations for French départements during the nineteenth century, developed mainly by Etienne van de Walle and Noël Bonneuil. It begins by outlining two different approaches on which reconstitution methods are based and suggests some methodological hypotheses. It continues with an explanation of how these methods were applied to a selected département, Hérault.... In the second part of this article a reconstitution method which takes account of criticisms is presented."
Correspondence: M. Banens, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Campus-Rue Solomon Mahlangu, 80025 Amiens Cedex, France. E-mail: banens@danaid.univ-montp3.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20556 Denevan, William M. Carl Sauer and Native American population size. Geographical Review, Vol. 86, No. 3, Jul 1996. 385-97 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Geographers have played an important role in the great debate over the size of Indian populations in the Americas at the time of European arrival. Carl Sauer was a major influence on his graduate students, on historical demographers at the University of California, Berkeley, and on a younger generation of historical geographers. Even in the face of more conservative estimates by other scholars, Sauer and his students and other associates have consistently argued for large numbers of Indians.... Here I will examine Sauer's research on Indian demography and his influence on other scholars working on the question of Indian numbers."
Correspondence: W. M. Denevan, University of Wisconsin, Department of Geography, Madison, WI 53706-1491. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20557 Lynch, Katherine A.; Greenhouse, Joel B.; Brändström, Anders. Biometric modeling in the study of infant mortality: evidence from nineteenth-century Sweden. Historical Methods, Vol. 31, No. 2, Spring 1998. 53-64 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this study, we investigate a well-known biometric model of infant mortality that has been used both to distinguish major causes of mortality before 1 year of age and to examine historical data to identify possible underregistration of infant mortality, particularly that which occurred shortly after birth. We show that arguments for the under-registration of infant deaths based solely on the biometric model cannot be supported empirically and are likely due to mis-specifications of the model as well as inappropriate methods for estimating the parameters of interest." The study uses data for 21 parishes in nineteenth-century Sweden.
Correspondence: K. A. Lynch, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of History, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20558 Paine, Richard R.; Harpending, Henry C. Effect of sample bias on paleodemographic fertility estimates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 105, No. 2, Feb 1998. 231-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper will examine how two specific forms of bias, infant underenumeration caused by differential preservation or incomplete archaeological recovery and misidentification of individuals over age 45 related to methodological bias, can affect paleodemographic reconstructions. Specifically, we will describe how the two forms of bias may affect estimates made using the model life table fitting procedure developed by the authors...." The geographical focus is on the United States. It is found that "overestimation of fertility and birth rates increases both absolutely and as a percentage of the true rate as population growth increases. This bias is very consistent."
Correspondence: R. R. Paine, University of Utah, Department of Anthropology, 102 Stewart Building, Salt Lake City, UT 84113. E-mail: paine@anthro.utah.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.