Volume 64 - Number 2 - Summer 1998

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration.

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

64:20458 Boyle, Paul J.; Flowerdew, Robin. Improving distance estimates between areal units in migration models. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 29, No. 2, Apr 1997. 93-107 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"There are many methods of modeling migrant flows within a set of areal units, but it is common in most to incorporate some measure of distance as an explanatory variable. These distances are effectively meant to represent the typical distance between pairs of areas that would be traveled by potential migrants. They are usually calculated between population-weighted centroids derived for each zone. It is argued here that this method of calculating distance is biased and that the zonal system used will influence the final model parameters that are intended to describe the underlying migration process.... This paper describes an alternative method of calculating these distances which reduces this bias."
Correspondence: P. J. Boyle, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

64:20459 Hugo, Graeme. Indonesia's migration transition. Journal für Entwicklungspolitik, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1995. 285-309 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
The author investigates the increase of population mobility in Indonesia during the past two decades. "There is no attempt here to provide a comprehensive review of all population movement in Indonesia but to focus on two types of movement which have increased greatly in significance in recent years--rural to urban mobility and international labour migration. Recent developments in these types of population movement in Indonesia are discussed and some of their causes and consequences addressed in the context of the rapid economic and social change occurring in Indonesia."
Correspondence: G. Hugo, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Location: Harvard University Library, Cambridge, MA.

64:20460 Kenya. Central Bureau of Statistics (Nairobi, Kenya). Kenya population census 1989: Analytical report. Volume VI: migration and urbanization. [1997?]. [84] pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
This report contains an analysis of the data from the 1989 census of Kenya on migration and urbanization. There are chapters on levels and patterns of migration; the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of lifetime migrants; the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of recent migrants; trends, patterns, and levels of urbanization; the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the urban population; and major findings and recommendations.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Planning and National Development, P.O. Box 30266, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Northwestern University Library, Evanston, IL.

64:20461 Krasinets, E. Population migration. [Migratsiya naseleniya.] Ekonomist, No. 8, 1997. 48-59 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
This article is concerned with migration in the Russian Federation, the focus being on migration to Russia from the newly independent countries that were formerly part of the Soviet Union. Consideration is also given to migration within Russia resulting from the major socioeconomic changes following the collapse of the USSR. The author notes that the volume of migration in 1996, though still high, was less than that recorded for 1995.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20462 Molnar, Iren G. The sociology of migration from the former Yugoslavia. New Community, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan 1997. 109-22 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
This is a general review of migration, including both international and internal migration, in the former Yugoslavia before its division into constituent countries in the early 1990s. The author examines such topics as labor migration, the distribution of migrants from Yugoslavia in host countries, the characteristics of migrants from Serbia, the assimilation of immigrants, the economic effects of emigration on places of origin, and return migration.
Correspondence: I. G. Molnar, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Economics, Veljka Vlahovica 3, Post. fah 7, 21000 Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20463 Newbold, K. Bruce. Primary, return and onward migration in the U.S. and Canada: is there a difference? Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 76, No. 2, Apr 1997. 175-98 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"Using microdata sources available from the U.S. Census Bureau and Statistics Canada, this paper contrasts primary, return and onward migration in the two countries. These classifications are based on information on the region (state or province) of birth and region of residence at the start and end of the census period. To study the propensities to make a primary, return or onward migration, rates are calculated...and compared with previous census periods. Analysis reveals that both countries have experienced similar temporal patterns, and that primary, return and onward migration patterns tend to be similar. Analysis using a nested logit model further reveals that return and onward migration in both countries can be similarly explained." Data are from the Public Use Micro Sample (PUMS) for the United States and the Public Use Micro File (PUMF) for Canada.
Correspondence: K. B. Newbold, University of Illinois, Department of Geography, 607 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61821. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20464 Plane, David A.; Bitter, Christopher. The role of migration research in regional science. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 76, No. 2, Apr 1997. 133-53 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this paper we try to provide an assessment of the role that migration research has played over the course of the more than 40 years in which regional science has existed as a recognizable, multidisciplinary academic enterprise.... To carry out our analyses we developed a data base of papers published in five leading regional science journals." The authors "attempt to set the regional science contributions in the context of migration research more generally, comparing the results of the journal analysis to a broader sample of migration abstracts published in the Population Index."
Correspondence: D. A. Plane, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Harvill Building, Box 2, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20465 Skeldon, Ronald. Migration and development: a global perspective. ISBN 0-582-23960-5. 1997. x, 253 pp. Longman: Harlow, England. In Eng.
This study attempts to link both international and internal migration with development at a global level. "The world is divided into a series of functionally integrated development zones which are identified, not simply on the basis of their level of development, but also through their spatial patterns and historical experience of migration. [The author]...stresses the importance of migration in discussing regional, rather than simply country, differences. These variations in mobility are placed within the context of a global hierarchy, although regional, national and local cultural and social conditions are certainly not ignored...."
Correspondence: Addison Wesley Longman, Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20466 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Report of the migration survey, 1994. ISBN 974-236-620-9. 1997. 52, 133 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
These are the results of the 1994 survey of migration in Thailand. "Data [are presented on] pattern, rate, flow and direction of migration during [the] 2 years preceding the survey. Included were data on demographic and socio-economic characteristics of migrants together with reasons for migration."
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

64:20467 Abellán García, Antonio. Differences in welfare and population policy in the Mediterranean Basin. [Diferencias de bienestar y política demográfica en el Mediterráneo.] Estudios Geográficos, Vol. 57, No. 224, Jul-Sep 1996. 407-35 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Factors contributing to the growing potential for large-scale migration to Europe from the Mediterranean countries in Northern Africa and Western Asia are analyzed. These include a high rate of population growth, a growth in the potential labor force, low levels of development, and perceptions of the differences in wealth between the two regions. Added to this, the author suggests that the uncertain political situation in many of the countries of origin and the weakening demographic trends in the countries of destination increase the pressures for migration. The author concludes that a new approach to these problems, integrating population policies and development strategies, is required.
Correspondence: A. Abellán García, Instituto de Economía y Geografía, C.S.I.C., Madrid, Spain. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

64:20468 Bade, Klaus J.; Weiner, Myron. Migration past, migration future: Germany and the United States. Migration and Refugees: Politics and Policies in the United States and Germany, Vol. 1, ISBN 1-57181-125-7. LC 97-7505. 1997. xvii, 158 pp. Berghahn Books: Providence, Rhode Island/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Essays by leading German and American historians and demographers describe how [the United States and Germany] have come to have the largest number of immigrants among the advanced industrial countries, how their conceptions of citizenship and nationality differ, and how their ethnic compositions are likely to be transformed in the next century as a consequence of migration, fertility trends, citizenship and naturalization laws, and public attitudes."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Berghahn Books, 165 Taber Avenue, Providence, RI 02906. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20469 Bean, Frank D.; Cushing, Robert G.; Haynes, Charles W. The changing demography of U.S. immigration flows: patterns, projections, and contexts. In: Migration past, migration future: Germany and the United States, edited by Klaus J. Bade and Myron Weiner. Migration and Refugees: Politics and Policies in the United States and Germany, Vol. 1, 1997. 121-52 pp. Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"The paper is divided into four sections. The first describes the major flows of people coming into the United States during the twentieth century, especially since the end of World War II.... The second examines the implications of these flows for the current and future racial/ethnic composition of the U.S. population.... The third assesses the demographic and economic contexts within which these flows have occurred. The fourth argues that a combined view of trends in migration flows, racial/ethnic composition, interracial and interethnic marriage patterns, and economic and labor market outcomes makes it possible to discern not only why recent immigration patterns have come to be negatively perceived but also why they may have come to be seen as violating the prevailing sense of social contract in the United States."
Correspondence: F. D. Bean, University of Texas, Population Research Center, 1800 Main, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20470 Chapin, Wesley D. Germany for the Germans? The political effects of international migration. No. 381, ISBN 0-313-30258-8. LC 96-32977. 1997. xvii, 171 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This is a study of recent immigration to Germany, with the focus on the extent to which immigration has served as a catalyst for political change. Chapter 1 traces the history of immigration to Germany and discusses the number and characteristics of immigrants. Chapter 2 examines the political effects of German return migration to Germany following World War II. Chapter 3 uses opinion polls and survey data to show how questions about non-German immigrants have become more politically relevant over time. Chapter 4 examines the impact of immigration on the German political system. Chapter 5 looks at the reaction of established parties both to the violence directed against foreigners and to the electoral success of the New Right, and Chapter 6 shows that, despite the decline in New Right support, the established parties still have not solved the political difficulties associated with immigration.
Correspondence: Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20471 Cohen, Robin; Layton-Henry, Zig. The politics of migration. International Library of Studies on Migration, ISBN 1-85898-014-3. LC 97-22599. 1997. xvi, 341 pp. Edward Elgar Publishing: Northampton, Massachusetts/Cheltenham, England. In Eng.
This is a selection of previously published studies on the politics of international migration. The editors emphasize the widening gap between what the experts think about the costs and benefits of immigration and the attitudes of the general public toward immigration. The geographical scope is global.
Correspondence: Edward Elgar Publishing, 8 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire GL50 2HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20472 Collinson, Sarah. Shore to shore: the politics of migration in Euro-Maghreb relations. ISBN 1-86203-010-3. 1996. [ix], 117 pp. Royal Institute of International Affairs: London, England. In Eng.
This study examines migration from Northern Africa to the European Union in the context of the growing concern in Europe about the potential for rising levels of such migration, and the need for policies in response to those concerns. The author examines trans-Mediterranean migration in its political context, and makes clear that there are no easy ways to manage and control such international movements. She does, however, suggest that current policies in receiving countries are inadequate in that they are limited to attempts to impose controls on immigration and to provide financial aid to developing countries as a measure of compensation for such controls. The need for better policies that involve both sending and receiving countries is stressed.
Correspondence: Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House, 10 St. James's Square, London SW 1Y 4LE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20473 Costa-Lascoux, Jacqueline; Costes, André. Thinking about immigration in a different way. [Penser autrement l'immigration.] Etudes, No. 3874, Oct 1997. 315-26 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors argue for a new approach to the issue of immigration, with particular reference to the situation in Europe. They note that, for more than 20 years, the primary concern of European governments has been to control and limit immigration. They suggest that, in an era of increasing globalization, a new approach both to the analysis of migration and to the development of policies concerning migration is called for.
Correspondence: J. Costa-Lascoux, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEVIPOF, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20474 Courade, Georges. France and its African migrants. [La France et les migrants africains.] Politique Africaine, No. 67, Oct 1997. 3-66 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a selection of six articles by different authors on aspects of immigration from Africa to France. The emphasis is on the process of assimilation, and on the impact of French policies and regulations designed to slow immigration. There is one paper on migration to South Africa from elsewhere in Africa, which focuses on the impact of recent political changes on this migration.
Correspondence: G. Courade, CECOD-IEDES, Université de Paris I, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20475 Devoto, Fernando J. Spanish migration to Argentina as seen through "Partes Consulares" 1910. An exercise in regional typology. [Las migraciones españolas a la Argentina desde la perspectiva de los Partes Consulares (1910). Un ejercicio de tipología regional.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 11, No. 34, Dec 1996. 479-506 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"By using the shipping lists contained in Argentine immigration files, it is possible to analyze Spanish immigration in Argentina [in the early twentieth century] by province of origin. In this case, the provinces of Pontevedra, Salamanca and Vizcaya are considered, and three different typologies are presented, showing differences in age structure, family status, occupation and previous migratory experience. The implications for the formulation of European typologies are suggested."
Correspondence: F. J. Devoto, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto Ravignani, Calle Viamonte 430/444, 1053 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20476 Di Liegro, Luigi; Pittau, Franco. Immigration: a point of view. [Immigrazione: un punto di vista.] Ospiti, No. 2, ISBN 88-86323-60-3. LC 97-154772. 1997. 94 pp. Sensibili alle Foglie: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This is a general study on the phenomenon of large-scale immigration and its implications in the modern world. The authors describe the global situation concerning immigration, the immigration statistics relevant to Italy, the requirements of a multicultural society, the general guidelines for a policy to make immigrants welcome, and the prospects for realizing such policies. The principal theme of the study is that immigration presents an opportunity rather than a threat, provided that migrations can be controlled and exploited to the mutual benefit of both the migrants and the receiving country.
Correspondence: Sensibili alle Foglie, Via Empolitana Km. 2,3, 00019 Tivoli, Rome, Italy. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

64:20477 Ellis, Mark; Wright, Richard. When immigrants are not migrants: counting arrivals of the foreign born using the U.S. census. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, Spring 1998. 127-44 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This paper compares characteristics of recent immigrant arrivals in the United States using two measures from the decennial U.S. census: the came-to-stay question and the migration question.... Among recent arrivals, defined as those who reported they came to stay in the quinquennium preceding the census, a large number were resident in the United States five years before the census date. Furthermore, the proportion of recent arrivals present in the United States five years before the census increased between 1975-1980 and 1985-1990.... Generally, in both the 1975-1980 and 1985-1990 cohorts, those resident in the United States five years before the census have significantly less schooling and lower incomes than those who were abroad."
Correspondence: M. Ellis, University of California, Department of Geography, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1524. E-mail: ellis@geog.sscnet.ucla.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20478 Engerman, Stanley L.; Neves, João C. das. The bricks of an empire 1415-1999: 585 years of Portuguese emigration. Journal of European Economic History, Vol. 26, No. 3, Winter 1997. 471-510 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"In this paper we take an initial foray, on the basis of available secondary sources, into the examination of Portuguese emigration and its demographic implications for Portugal and its overseas empire [in the period 1415-1999]. We wish to obtain some understanding of the magnitude of the population outflow, and of the areas to which the emigrants went, and in subsequent work use these to better determine the causes and consequences of such movements and their impact on economic growth in different parts of the world."
Correspondence: S. L. Engerman, University of Rochester, Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20479 Forte, Riccardo. Immigration and political marginality in Argentina. [Inmigración y marginalidad política en Argentina.] Análisis Político, No. 29, Sep-Dec 1996. 20-33 pp. Bogotá, Colombia. In Spa.
The author analyzes immigration in Argentina, with a focus on the extent to which the political system has contributed to the social and economic marginalization of migrants since the mid-nineteenth century. Sociocultural characteristics of migrants are examined. Patterns of land distribution and ownership are discussed, and the impact on movements of migrants within the country and on urban marginality is investigated.
Correspondence: R. Forte, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Históricos, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20480 Fortuijn, Joos D.; Musterd, Sako; Ostendorf, Wim. International migration and ethnic segregation: impacts on urban areas. Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 3, Mar 1998. 367-602 pp. Carfax Publishing: Abingdon, England. In Eng.
This special issue contains a selection of papers by various authors on aspects of international migration and ethnic segregation in urban areas. The papers are revised versions of those presented at a session held during the World Congress of the International Geographical Union, which took place in The Hague, the Netherlands, in August 1996. The cities examined in the papers are located around the world, the preponderance being in Europe.
Correspondence: Carfax Publishing, P.O. Box 25, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3UE, England. E-mail: sales@carfax.co.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

64:20481 Frid de Silberstein, Carina L. Migration and professions: deducing Italian immigration to Argentina from nominative sources. [Migración y profesiones: una lectura del movimiento inmigratorio italiano a la Argentina desde las fuentes nominativas.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 11, No. 34, Dec 1996. 507-40 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The article examines the possibilities of systematically exploiting nominative document corpuses related to immigration in Buenos Aires [Argentina] in the period of mass migration [1885-1910], and proposes to focus on the occupations declared by the Italian immigrants. After reviewing the formal aspects of the documental series used (missing information, polysemy of professional aggregates) the immigration of masons is analyzed, taking into account demographic characteristics, annual rhythms of arrival, [and] migration typologies."
Correspondence: C. L. Frid de Silberstein, Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Independencia 20, 1099 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20482 Gao, Mobo C. F.; Liu, Xi'an. From student to citizen: a survey of students from the People's Republic of China (PRC) in Australia. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1998. 27-48 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article is a survey of students from the People's Republic of China (PRC) who arrived in Australia after 1986 and were still there in 1992.... The article provides statistics and analysis on the motivation of these students, their education and family backgrounds and their present conditions and aspirations. The article also addresses issues such as Australia's education export and immigration policies, the dilemma between political and economic refugees in terms of human rights and the impact of the 1989 Tiananmem Square massacre on PRC students in Australia at the time."
Correspondence: M. C. F. Gao, University of Tasmania, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Tasmania 7001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20483 Glazier, I. A.; Kleiner, R. J.; Okeke, B. Migration from Europe to America: Germany 1852-1885. [Migración desde Europa a América: Alemania 1852-1885.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 11, No. 34, Dec 1996. 425-77 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"By using mainly U.S. passenger lists, the authors provide a detailed analysis of German immigration to the United States for selected years in the second half of the nineteenth century. The combined analysis of different variables such as province of origin, family status, occupation, port of shipment, age structure, etc., shows different regional demographic, social and occupational patterns which may contribute to our understanding of the migration process. Rate variability is analyzed in relation to the economic, social and political regional developments."
Correspondence: I. A. Glazier, Temple University, Balch Institute, Center for Immigration Research, Philadelphia, PA 19140. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20484 International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP] (Liège, Belgium). Conference on international migration at century's end: trends and issues. Barcelona, Spain, May 7-10, 1997. Papers. 1997. iii, [736] pp. Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This publication contains papers presented at a conference on international migration, organized by the IUSSP Committee on South-North Migration and the Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset. The 27 papers, several of which are in draft form or works in progress, are organized under nine topics: Emerging trends in selected world regions; The process of entry; Labor markets and immigration; Social integration of immigrants; Migration and development (two sessions); Networks and recruitment organizations; Economic integration across nations; and Gender, fertility, and population growth. All the papers are in English save one, which is in French. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20485 Johnson, Hans. Undocumented immigration to California: 1980-1993. ISBN 0-9653184-1-9. Sep 1996. xvi, 133 pp. Public Policy Institute of California: San Francisco, California. In Eng.
An attempt is made to provide estimates of net annual undocumented immigration to California for the period 1980-1993. The author uses a residual method based on analysis of the annual components of population change to prepare the estimates. The results indicate that there were considerable fluctuations in the flow of migrants over time, and that these changes were related to changes in the state's economy and to policy interventions, such as the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. They suggest that, in the 1980s alone, the state gained over 6 million new residents, and that between 22 and 31 percent of these newcomers were illegal immigrants.
Correspondence: Public Policy Institute of California, 500 Washington Street, Suite 800, San Francisco, CA 94111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20486 Knowles, Valerie. Strangers at our gates: Canadian immigration and immigration policy, 1540-1997. Rev. ed. ISBN 1-55002-158-3. LC 97-166478. 1992. [ix], 220 pp. Dundurn Press: Toronto, Canada/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This book presents a history of immigration to Canada from the sixteenth century to the present day. Its purpose is "to describe briefly the different kinds of immigrants who have settled in this country over the centuries and the immigration policies that have helped to define the character of immigration in various periods. Special attention will be paid to some of the key policy-makers and moulders of public opinion who have helped to shape these policies. And, because racism frequently plays a role in the Canadian immigration story, it will also be discussed, as will the effectiveness of various policies in achieving Canada's immigration goals. The last part of the book will touch on some of the realities of the 1990s that influence the framing of immigration policy and try to make some sense of the current debate about this country's immigration and multiculturalism policies."
Correspondence: Dundurn Press, 2181 Queen Street East, Suite 301, Toronto, Ontario M4E 1E5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20487 Koray, Sedef. Dynamics of demography and development in Turkey: implications to the potential for migration to Europe. Turkish Journal of Population Studies/Nüfusbilim Dergisi, Vol. 19, 1997. 37-55 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
The author explores the possible impact of demographic and economic developments in Turkey on migration to Europe. "Employment continues to be a problem...thereby raising the emigration potential. More significantly, welfare gap and perceived income differences between Turkey and Europe as well as family links already established abroad, social and political pressures and perceptions of comparative advantage determine the migration potential."
Correspondence: S. Koray, Zentrum für Türkeistudien, Essen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20488 Koser, Khalid; Salt, John. The geography of highly skilled international migration. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec 1997. 285-303 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"The present paper provides a research review of recent literature on international migration by the highly skilled. Its principal aim is to identify the themes which are being discussed, and suggest where research into the subject might best proceed.... [The authors outline] the two most important perspectives in extant research, economic and socio-cultural, [and review] what is known about the geography of migration by the highly skilled.... The paper proposes...a reconceptualisation of migration by the highly skilled as one element in the international movement of expertise."
Correspondence: J. Salt, University College London, Department of Geography, Migration Research Unit, 26 Bedford Way, London WC1H 0AP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20489 Kuagbenou, Victor K. Black African immigration to France: toward an ethnic approach. [L'immigration noire africaine en France: pour une approche ethnique.] Migrations Société, Vol. 9, No. 49, Jan-Feb 1997. 5-25 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
An analysis of immigrants to France from Sub-Saharan Africa is presented using data from the 1992 survey Mobilité Géographique et Insertion Sociale, which included interviews with 875 immigrants. The focus is on the ethnic characteristics of these immigrants and on the differences in socioeconomic characteristics among the various ethnic groups. The effect of these characteristics on the process of assimilation is also discussed.
Correspondence: V. K. Kuagbenou, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 133 boulevard Davout, 75020 Paris, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: University of Wisconsin Library, Madison, WI.

64:20490 Kwong, Peter. Forbidden workers: illegal Chinese immigrants and American labor. 1997. xii, 273 pp. New Press: New York, New York. Distributed by W.W. Norton & Company, New York, NY. In Eng.
This is a study of contemporary illegal migration from China to the United States, with a focus on the recent increase in migration from Fujian province. The author suggests that the problem of illegal migration can only be understood in the context of the underlying supply-and-demand principle enshrined in the traditional U.S. economic system, and that the solution lies not in tightening immigration controls but in changing the economic conditions in the United States that give rise to the demand for cheap immigrant labor. The need to reduce the potential for conflict between new immigrants and the native labor force is stressed.
Correspondence: New Press, 450 West 41st Street, New York, NY 10036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20491 Latuch, Mikolaj. Demographic and economic aspects of international migration. [Demograficzno-ekonomiczny aspekt migracji miedzynarodowych.] Wiadomosci Statystyczne, Vol. 42, No. 11, 1997. 49-57 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author examines demographic and economic aspects of international migration in Poland. "Increase of absorption of employment is caused by emigration of [the] productive population and by emergence of [a] shortage of [available jobs]. Migration of [the] work force is seen as a profitable process: a part of earned money and goods was transferred to workers' families in their countries of origin."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20492 Martin, Philip. Labor migration in Asia. Asian Migrant, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1996. 5-14 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
The author analyzes labor migration trends in Asia. Differences between labor-importing and labor-exporting countries are discussed, and possible future trends are considered.
Correspondence: P. Martin, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. E-mail: martin@primal.ucdavis.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20493 Martínez Veiga, Ubaldo. The social integration of foreign immigrants in Spain. [La integración social de los inmigrantes extranjeros en España.] Colección Estructuras y Procesos, Serie 1o de Mayo, ISBN 84-8164-124-3. LC 97-206743. 1997. 299 pp. Editorial Trotta: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This work consists of a detailed study of four distinct immigrant groups in Spain: migrants from Gambia, the Dominican Republic, Cape Verde, and Morocco. The first chapter deals with the situation in the four countries of immigrant origin, examining the impact of migration on the sending communities. Next, the author studies the social organization of immigration and migration networks. The process of assimilation into the workforce in Spain is then analyzed, with separate consideration given to domestic service, travelling vendors, agriculture, and mining. A final chapter examines policy issues and some of the theories and ideologies relevant to the immigration debate.
Correspondence: Editorial Trotta, Sagasta 33, 28004 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20494 Massey, Douglas S.; Parrado, Emilio A. International migration and business formation in Mexico. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 79, No. 1, Mar 1998. 1-34 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The impact of international migration on economic development in the country of origin is examined with data on 30 Mexican communities and U.S. destination areas using event history analysis. The results indicate that the receipt of U.S. earnings by households and communities significantly increases the odds of business formation and productive investment. "The fact that migrant-owned businesses are generally small retail ventures that generate little employment reflects generalized conditions of opportunity in Mexico, not a debility resulting from the migration process itself. U.S. migration is an important factor promoting business formation by migrants and nonmigrants alike." Comments are included by Jorge A. Bustamante (pp. 21-2), John M. Hart (pp. 23-5), and Philip Martin (pp. 26-32), together with a response from the authors (pp. 33-4).
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. E-mail: dmassey@lexis.pop.upenn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20495 McCarthy, Kevin F.; Vernez, Georges. Immigration in a changing economy: California's experience. ISBN 0-8330-2496-5. LC 97-21656. [1997]. xxxii, 338 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
This study of immigration to California has two main purposes. "It goes back to 1960, before the current era of large-scale immigration began, and looks systematically at how immigration has interacted with other demographic and economic trends over the subsequent decades to affect the state. It also examines how immigrants from different countries of origin are faring in their pursuit of the American dream. Finally, it identifies the challenges that California faces in integrating its newcomers and their children and how federal and state policies might maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of immigration in the future."
Correspondence: RAND Corporation, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20496 McLaughlin, Colette M.; Jesilow, Paul. Conveying a sense of community along Bolsa Avenue: Little Saigon as a model of ethnic commercial belts. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1998. 49-65 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In the past, ethnic enclaves have functioned as homogeneous residential areas providing support and comfort to newly arrived immigrants. A new form of urban village is increasingly serving commuting immigrants who live in integrated residential neighbourhoods. Little Saigon, a Vietnamese commercial belt in Southern California, serves as a model of this emerging form. Participant observation and interviews with users of Little Saigon and other ethnic commercial belts in Southern California reveal that these areas provide users with places where they can experience the sense of community previously provided by ethnic ghettos."
Correspondence: C. M. McLaughlin, University of California, School of Social Ecology, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20497 Menjívar, Cecilia; DaVanzo, Julie; Greenwell, Lisa; Burciaga Valdez, R. Remittance behavior among Salvadoran and Filipino immigrants in Los Angeles. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, Spring 1998. 97-126 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article analyzes the factors that influence remittance behavior (the decision to remit and the amount sent) in the host country of Filipino and Salvadoran immigrants, two groups with high rates of U.S.-bound migration and of remittances. Data for this study come from a multipurpose survey fielded in Los Angeles in 1991.... No differences by country of origin in the proportion who send remittances were found, but there were significant differences in the amount remitted.... Filipinos' remittances are more affected by age, family income, having taken English classes in the United States, and living alone than are the remittances of Salvadorans."
Correspondence: C. Menjívar, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1804. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20498 Millman, Joel. The other Americans: how immigrants renew our country, our economy, and our values. ISBN 0-670-85844-7. LC 96-49265. 1997. x, 369 pp. Viking Penguin: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This book presents a portrait of the immigrant community in the United States, concentrating on immigrants from developing countries and their contributions to their country of destination. Rather than attempting to assess the costs and benefits of immigration from a macroeconomic perspective, the author looks at how immigration fosters certain business strategies and synergies. He examines how the twin promises of human freedom and market opportunities in the United States combine to attract talent from overseas, and how that talent is having a positive effect on the lives of Americans in general. The author suggests that the solution to the problem of immigration is to encourage the assimilation of immigrants into the American mainstream as quickly as possible rather than to build barriers against immigration.
Correspondence: Penguin Books USA, 375 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10014. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20499 Münz, Rainer; Ulrich, Ralf. Changing patterns of immigration to Germany, 1945-1995: ethnic origins, demographic structure, future prospects. In: Migration past, migration future: Germany and the United States, edited by Klaus J. Bade and Myron Weiner. Migration and Refugees: Politics and Policies in the United States and Germany, Vol. 1, 1997. 65-119 pp. Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
Immigration trends to Germany are analyzed over the period from 1945 to 1995. Separate consideration is given to the migration of ethnic Germans and German citizens, including migration between the two German states and return migration from the countries to the East; the immigration of foreigners, including labor migration and asylum seekers and refugees; the structure and status of the foreign population in Germany; and the political implications of immigration.
Correspondence: R. Münz, Humboldt-Universität, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20500 Naumova, Tat'iana V. Russia's "brain drain" Russian Social Science Review, Vol. 39, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1998. 49-56 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
Following a historical review of the emigration of intellectuals from Russia, the author analyzes factors associated with the current brain drain. These include the lack of government spending on fundamental science, research, and education, and the low salary levels of scientists. The seriousness of the present situation, particularly the emigration of younger scientists, is discussed.
Correspondence: T. V. Naumova, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Philosophy, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20501 Passaris, Constantine. The role of immigration in Canada's demographic outlook. International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1998. 93-105 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Canada's contemporary demographic profile has been profoundly influenced by the end of the baby boom, decline in the fertility rate, ageing of the population and prospects for an absolute decline in population shortly after the turn of the century. These demographic characteristics necessitate an enhanced role for immigration and the need for a more proactive immigration policy in order to correct and fine-tune demographic trends and to come to grips with the social and economic challenges and opportunities of the next few decades."
Correspondence: C. Passaris, University of New Brunswick, Department of Economics, P.O.B. 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20502 Portes, Alejandro; Rumbaut, Rubén G. Immigrant America: a portrait. 2nd ed. ISBN 0-520-20786-6. LC 96-16209. 1996. xxiii, 369 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
This book presents an analysis of the characteristics of the current immigrant population in the United States. Having briefly examined the origins of immigration, the authors identify four main types of immigrants, which are labor migrants, professional immigrants, entrepreneurial immigrants, and refugees and asylum seekers. They "delineate the basic contours of contemporary immigration by focusing on major aspects of the adaptation experience. The emphasis throughout is on diversity in both the immigrants' origins and their modes of incorporation into American society. The typology outlined...serves as the basic organizing framework as we follow immigrants through their location in space, their strategies for economic mobility, their efforts at learning a language and a new culture, their decision to embrace the country as naturalized citizens, and their struggle to raise their children in America and, inevitably, as Americans."
Correspondence: University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20503 Portes, Alejandro. The new second generation. ISBN 0-87154-683-3. LC 95-30639. 1996. x, 246 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors concerning the assimilation of the children of the most recent wave of immigrants to the United States. It was originally published as a special issue of the journal International Migration Review (Vol. 28, Winter 1994). The contents are as follows: Introduction--immigration and its aftermath, by Alejandro Portes; Language and the second generation--bilingualism yesterday and today, by Alejandro Portes and Richard Schauffler; Divided fates--immigrant children and the new assimilation, by M. Patricia Fernández Kelly and Richard Schauffler; Studying immigrant adaptation from the 1990 population census--from generational comparisons to the process of "Becoming American", by Charles Hirschman; Today's second generation--evidence from the 1990 census, by Leif Jensen and Yoshimi Chitose; The households of children of immigrants in South Florida--an exploratory study of extended family arrangements, by Lisandro Pérez; The crucible within--ethnic identity, self-esteem, and segmented assimilation among children of immigrants, by Rubén G. Rumbaut; Ethnic and racial identities of second generation black immigrants in New York City, by Mary C. Waters; Social capital and the adaptation of the second generation--the case of Vietnamese youth in New Orleans, by Min Zhou and Carl L. Bankston III.
Correspondence: Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20504 Quibria, M. G. Labour migration and labour market integration in Asia. World Economy, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 1997. 21-42 pp. Oxford, England/Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author discusses "the nature and magnitude of labour flows across Asian countries as well as their likely changes in the future. Section 3 addresses the implications of labour market integration for economic efficiency, long-term growth and unemployment. Section 4 discusses why, despite its putative beneficial economic effects, labour movement is restricted across countries, including those in Asia. Section 5 explores under what circumstances trade, aid and investments are substitutes for international migration. Section 6 is devoted to case studies of Hong Kong and Singapore and how labour migration has contributed to the economic success of these economies."
Correspondence: M. G. Quibria, Asian Development Bank, Economics and Development Resource Center, Manila, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20505 Rey, Annette. Immigration to France, 1981 to 1995. [Einwanderung in Frankreich 1981 bis 1995.] ISBN 3-8100-1944-5. 1997. 296 pp. Leske und Budrich: Opladen, Germany. In Ger.
Immigration to France in recent years is discussed in a political context. The recent history of immigration and the legal status of immigrants are first described. Next, the process of integration into French society is examined, and the political and social contexts are analyzed. Finally, the implications for French foreign policy and the rest of Europe are outlined.
Correspondence: Leske und Budrich, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Straße 27, Postfach 300406, 51379 Leverkusen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20506 Rigoni, Isabelle. Turkish migrants: a network or a diaspora? [Les migrants de Turquie: réseaux ou diaspora?] L'Homme et la Société, No. 123-124, Jan-Jun 1997. 39-57 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in emigration from Turkey are explored. The author notes that Turkish emigrants have developed substantial networks that are both political and religious in nature, and extend over a wide geographical area centering on Germany. The various ethnic and religious subgroups of Turkish emigrants are supported in their countries of residence by these interconnected networks. In the light of this complicated scenario, the author questions the relevance of the concept of a diaspora to the study of emigration from Turkey.
Correspondence: I. Rigoni, Université de Paris VIII, Département de Science Politique, 2 rue de la Liberté, 93526 St. Denis Cedex 02, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20507 Sánchez Alonso, Blanca. The causes of Spanish emigration, 1880-1930. [Las causas de la emigración española, 1880-1930.] ISBN 84-206-2806-9. 1995. 325 pp. Alianza Editorial: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is an analysis of emigration from Spain during the period 1880-1930. The author places this emigration in the context of migration trends in Europe as a whole, and then identifies and describes regional differences in emigration patterns within Spain itself. The development of migration chains and networks is identified as a critical factor affecting the regional characteristics of migration. Emigration is also shown to be an essential ingredient of family survival in regions where landholdings were generally small. The author also notes that the growth of large cities within Spain eventually provided an alternative to emigration.
Correspondence: Alianza Editorial, Calle Juan Ignacio Luca de Tena 15, 28027 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20508 Shafik, Nemat. Has labor migration promoted economic integration in the Middle East? In: Population and development transformations in the Arab world, edited by Ismail Sirageldin and Eqbal Al-Rahmani. 1996. 163-81 pp. JAI Press: Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The idea of an economically integrated Arab world has been part of the region's political discourse for decades. While the idea is compelling to many, the Middle East is, in some ways, one of the least integrated regions in the world, despite decades of attempts to give economic meaning to the notion of Arab unity. The major exception is labor mobility where intra-regional migration flows have been extensive in recent decades. Remittances from migrant labor now exceed the value of regional trade in goods as well as official capital flows. This paper explores the characteristics of economic integration in the Middle East and analyzes why labor flows have been the major channel through which intra-regional economic ties have been forged."
Correspondence: N. Shafik, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

64:20509 Shuval, Judith T. Migration to Israel: the mythology of "uniqueness" International Migration, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1998. 3-26 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The article explores the widespread assumption that immigration to Israel is a unique phenomenon which differs structurally from migration to other places. This assumption stems from the view that migrants to other destinations generally leave a place they consider home to find a new home. In terms of the Israeli construction, Jews have been `strangers' in their countries of origin and seek to find a new home by means of migration.... The article considers evidence that shows that in the 1980s and 1990s, Israel is becoming more like other Western countries which admit large numbers of refugees, asylum seekers, foreign workers, persons seeking family unification and diaspora migrants."
Correspondence: J. T. Shuval, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, 91120 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20510 Straubhaar, Thomas; Wolter, Achim. Current issues in European migration. Intereconomics, Vol. 31, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1996. 267-76 pp. Hamburg, Germany. In Eng.
The authors examine recent migration patterns into and within the European Union. Issues involving asylum and migration policy are discussed, and problems caused by differing naturalization practices in different countries are considered. Skill patterns of migrants and problems in labor markets are also investigated.
Correspondence: T. Straubhaar, Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Holstenhofweg 85, 22043 Hamburg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20511 Taylor, J. Edward; Martin, Philip L. The immigrant subsidy in U.S. agriculture: farm employment, poverty, and welfare. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec 1997. 855-74, 931, 933 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines relationships between immigration, farm employment, poverty, and welfare use in 65 towns and cities with populations ranging from 1,000 to 20,000 in 1990 in the major agricultural areas of California. It tests the hypothesis that expanding labor-intensive agriculture creates a negative externality by drawing large numbers of workers from Mexico, offering many of them poverty-level earnings, and increasing public assistance use in rural towns. Econometric findings reveal a circular relationship between farm employment and immigration. An additional 100 farm jobs are associated with 136 more immigrants, 139 more poor residents, and 79 more people receiving welfare benefits in rural towns. An additional 100 immigrants, in turn, are associated with 37 more farm jobs. Most of the impact of farm employment on poverty is indirect, through immigration."
Correspondence: J. E. Taylor, University of California, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20512 Todisco, Enrico. The foreign presence in Italy: the Abruzzo case. [La presenza straniera in Italia: il caso dell'Abruzzo.] ISBN 88-464-0063-1. 1997. 254 pp. FrancoAngeli: Milan, Italy. In Ita.
This compilation contains six studies on foreigners in the Abruzzo region of Italy. Enrico Todisco examines the official data sources on foreigners and links them, finding significant differences. Armando Caputo and Carlo Putignano examine criminality among foreigners and compare it to that of the native-born. Fabrizio Calore reports the results of a study measuring the perception and attitude of local authorities in Abruzzo toward foreigners. Enrico Todisco and Sabrina Somma analyze the foreign student population of Abruzzo from the 1950s onward. Roberto Lettere looks at the immigrant labor force and the support structures available. Finally, Antonio Pacinelli addresses the heterogeneity of the Abruzzo region and analyzes local differences in the labor market, particularly as they pertain to the immigrant work force.
Correspondence: FrancoAngeli, Viale Monza 106, 20127 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20513 Tomaszewski, Jerzy. International migrations connected with the national conflicts in East-Central Europe in the first half of the XXth century. Acta Slavica Iaponica, Vol. 9, 1991. 1-31 pp. Sapporo, Japan. In Eng.
The author reviews political changes and their impact on international migration in East-Central Europe in the first half of the twentieth century. Information is provided on movements associated with the two world wars, areas of migrant origin and destination, internal migration, economic conditions, ethnic groups, international agreements, and resettlements.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20514 Uçarer, Emek M.; Puchala, Donald J. Immigration into Western societies: problems and policies. ISBN 1-85567-451-3. LC 96-32673. 1997. xv, 350 pp. Pinter: Herndon, Virginia/London, England. In Eng.
This collective work is the result of a project developed by the European Community Studies Association on the problems associated with immigration into Western societies and the policies developed in response to such problems. The papers are as follows: The impacts of immigration on receiving countries, by Philip L. Martin; Immigration and integration in Western Europe--a comparative analysis, by James F. Hollifield; Migration and the democratic context of European political institutions, by Rey Koslowski; World society and the future of international migration--a theoretical perspective, by Hans-Joachim Hoffmann-Nowotny; Europe under migration pressure--some facts on immigration, by David A. Coleman; Magnitude, trends, and dynamics of immigration into North America. The need for a global perspective--the contextual framework, by Bimal Ghosh; The political uses of xenophobia in England, France, and Germany, by Dietrich Thränhardt; Testing tolerance--the impact of non-European migrants on Western European cultures, by Beverly Springer; Immigration and public finance--the case of the Netherlands, by Anton Kuijsten; Ethnic business, ethnic communities, and ethnopolitics among Turks in Europe, by Nermin Abadan-Unat; International migration and security--towards transatlantic convergence?, by Mark J. Miller; The European Union and the immigration problem--small steps and possible solutions, by Chris Bourdouvalis; Europe's search for policy--the harmonization of asylum policy and European integration, by Emek M. Uçarer; Immigration in the twentieth century--which framework for policy response?, by Reinhard Lohrmann; European immigration policies in the twenty-first century?, by Cornelis D. de Jong; Immigration into Western societies--implications and policy choices, by Donald J. Puchala.
Correspondence: Pinter, Wellington House, 125 Strand, London WC2R 0BB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20515 Ueda, Reed. An immigration country of assimilative pluralism: immigrant reception and absorption in American history. In: Migration past, migration future: Germany and the United States, edited by Klaus J. Bade and Myron Weiner. Migration and Refugees: Politics and Policies in the United States and Germany, Vol. 1, 1997. 39-63 pp. Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
The history of immigration to the United States is described, with the emphasis on the concept of assimilative pluralism, whereby immigrants from many different countries became absorbed into the U.S. population. The author "provides an informative case study of how German immigrants to the United States--seven million came from 1820 to 1990--contributed to U.S. agriculture, industry, artisanship, education, cuisine, and religion and also of how their distinctive communal identity was eventually eroded in large part as a consequence of the two world wars."
Correspondence: R. Ueda, Tufts University, Department of History, Medford, MA 02155. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20516 van der Erf, Rob; Heering, Liesbeth. Causes of international migration: proceedings of a workshop: Luxembourg, 14-16 December 1994. Theme 0, Miscellaneous: Series D, Studies and Research, ISBN 92-827-4011-0. 1995. ix, 274 pp. European Communities, Statistical Office [EUROSTAT]: Luxembourg. In Eng.
This volume contains a selection of the papers presented at a workshop on the causes of international migration, held December 14-16, 1994, in Luxembourg. The papers, which are in English unless otherwise stated, are: Determinants of international migration: theoretical approaches and implications for survey research, by Jeannette Schoorl; Determinants of international migration--an inventory of research, by Liesbeth Heering and Ingrid Esveldt; The systems approach and the measurement of the determinants of international migration, by Richard Bilsborrow and Hania Zlotnik; International migration--data availability, by John Salt and Ann Singleton; Modelling international migration--economic and econometric issues, by Thomas Bauer and Klaus Zimmermann; The determinants of international migration originating in the southern and eastern Mediterranean countries (in French), by Abdellatif Bencherifa; Migrations and development in the Mediterranean--transfers and participants (in French), by Etienne Butzbach; Migration networks--Turkish migration to Western Europe, by Anita Böcker; Development and immobility--why have not many more emigrants left the South? by Tomas Hammar; The dynamics of emigration--Sub-Saharan Africa, by Aderanti Adepoju; Analysing the causes of contemporary refugee flows, by Astri Suhrke; The UN/ECE international migration surveys in Lithuania, Poland, and Ukraine--methodological issues, by Brendan Mullan and Tomas Frejka; and The future of East-West migration, by Heinz Fassmann and Rainer Münz.
Correspondence: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20517 Woodrow-Lafield, Karen A. Undocumented residents in the United States in 1990: issues of uncertainty in quantification. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, Spring 1998. 145-73 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Uncertainties are abundant about the measurement of net undocumented migration [to the United States] and change over the past two decades. This analysis presents possible upper and lower boundaries on components for estimating legal migration in 1980-1989 and on the foreign-born population in 1990. Positing ranges for net undocumented immigration, between 2 million and 4 million undocumented residents may have been counted in the 1990 census. The total number of undocumented residents may have been as high as 6 million."
Correspondence: K. A. Woodrow-Lafield, Mississippi State University, P.O. Drawer DB, Mississippi State, MS 39762. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20518 Yang, Philip Q. The demand for immigration to the United States. Population and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 4, Mar 1998. 357-83 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines trends and cross-national variation in the active demand for immigration to the United States in the period of 1984-1993, using data from the Visa Office and various other sources. The analysis is restricted to legal immigration in numerically limited categories. The results show that the total number of active immigrant visa applicants steadily increased in the aggregate and in each of the preference categories. Moreover, the active demand for immigration was highly skewed, with the majority of applications coming from a dozen countries: Mexico, the Philippines, India, mainland China, South Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Jamaica, Hong Kong, and Pakistan. Most of these highly-backlogged countries displayed a significant increase in the growth rate of demand for immigration. The paper also shows a substantial cross-national variation in the active demand for immigration and explores its structural determinants. The regression results indicate that the level of economic development in sending countries and U.S. economic and cultural relations with sending countries play important roles in the determination process. Policy implications of the findings are also discussed."
Correspondence: P. Q. Yang, California Polytechnic State University, Department of Ethnic Studies, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20519 Zincone, Giovanna. The powerful consequences of being too weak. The impact of immigration on democratic regimes. European Journal of Sociology/Archives Européennes de Sociologie/Europäisches Archiv für Soziologie, Vol. 38, No. 1, 1997. 104-38 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author explores the potential negative effects of large-scale immigration on the democratic functioning of modern European countries, whose political systems were generally not set up to take such migration into account. These effects could include a disruption of the traditional balance between business and labor, the weakening of social welfare, and increased burdens on educational systems. The extent to which it is possible for a democratic state to control immigration flows is considered. In the author's opinion, the fear that immigrant communities will bring a new wave of fundamentalism into Europe, disrupting the secular character of European institutions and threatening the homogeneity of the political culture, is not justified. She argues that bringing immigrants into the political process as soon as possible will minimize the likelihood of serious problems.
Correspondence: G. Zincone, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Verdi 8, 10124 Turin, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

64:20520 Al-Hamad, A.; Flowerdew, R.; Hayes, L. Migration of elderly people to join existing households: some evidence from the 1991 Household Sample of Anonymised Records. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 29, No. 7, 1997. 1,243-55 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper the extent to which migration of the elderly is linked to changing family living situations [in Great Britain] is explored.... [The authors] estimate the number of older people making moves of this type, and...identify their age, sex, and marital status, and their relationship to the household they have joined. It is also possible to say something about the households which these people are joining, in terms of tenure and house type, and to describe the distribution of distances moved."
Correspondence: A. Al-Hamad, University of Lancaster, Centre for Applied Statistics, Lancaster LA1 4YB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20521 Boyle, Paul. Rural in-migration in England and Wales, 1980-1981. Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan 1995. 65-78 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A partially constrained Poisson regression model approach was used to examine 31,356 district-level flows into and between rural areas in England and Wales between 1980 and 1981.... The results suggest that military redeployment was of considerable importance in explaining the patterns of rural in-migration in England and Wales between 1980 and 1981. Little evidence of a major redistribution of population from the largest urban centres to the rural periphery was identified."
Correspondence: P. Boyle, University of Wales, Department of Geography, Migration Unit, Swansea, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20522 Boyle, Paul J.; Flowerdew, Robin; Shen, Jianfa. Modelling inter-ward migration in Hereford and Worcester: the importance of housing growth and tenure. Regional Studies, Vol. 32, No. 2, Apr 1998. 113-32 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, we use the 1991 Special Migration Statistics to analyse inter-ward flows in the British county of Hereford and Worcester. New modelling techniques...based on the Poisson distribution are used in this research which partially overcome the under-dispersion problem resulting from modelling zero and very small flows.... Analysis at this scale provides the potential for more detailed generalization about migration processes such as suburbanization, counterurbanization, intra-urban mobility, rural depopulation and the relationship between housing and demographic change at the local level. Unlike migration flows over long distances, which are often employment related, these flows are primarily motivated by residential requirements and housing type and growth are identified as key variables in the interpretation of these migration patterns."
Correspondence: P. J. Boyle, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

64:20523 Che-Alford, Janet; Stevenson, Kathryn. Older Canadians on the move. Canadian Social Trends, No. 48, Spring 1998. 15-8 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"In this article, the residential mobility patterns of Canadians aged 60 and over between 1990 and 1995 are described, with special emphasis on the reasons for moving.... Data on the extent of residential mobility were captured by the 1986 and 1991 censuses of population, while information on the reasons for moving was obtained from the 1995 General Social Survey (GSS) and the 1991 Survey on Ageing and Independence (SAI)."
Correspondence: J. Che-Alford, Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, 7th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20524 Frey, William H. Black migration to the South reaches record highs in 1990s. Population Today, Vol. 26, No. 2, Feb 1998. 1-3 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author briefly reviews trends in black migration to the southern United States in the 1990s. Aspects considered include the reversal of the black exodus from the South that occurred from 1910 through the late 1960s; migrant characteristics; and the regional concentration of racial and ethnic groups.
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20525 Garrocho, Carlos. A simulation model of Mexican internal migration flows: empirical application of a spatial interaction model. [Un modelo de simulación de los flujos de migración interna de México: aplicación empírica de un modelo de interacción espacial.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1996. 433-76, 659 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper spatial interaction theory is challenged in order to test if it is suitable to support the design and construction of an operative model of the Mexican internal migration flows. The main conceptual and operative aspects of the model are presented, the design and model building process is explained, the results of the calibration analysis are examined and a simulation exercise of migration policy evaluation is undertaken. The operative migration model presented in this paper seems useful to analyze and evaluate numerous migration policies, which suggest that spatial interaction theory offers a promising conceptual and operative foundation to analyze internal migration flows in Mexico."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20526 Hunter, Lori M. The association between environmental risk and internal migration flows. Population and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 3, Jan 1998. 247-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Over the past several decades, the environmental awareness and concern of the American public has greatly increased.... This study examines the possibility that such concern is...reflected by internal migration patterns. More specifically, this research considers the relationship between county-level environmental characteristics and in- and outmigration streams. The results suggest that counties with environmental hazards such as air and water pollution, hazardous waste and Superfund sites do not lose residents at greater rates than areas without such hazards. However, areas with such risks gain relatively fewer new residents."
Correspondence: L. M. Hunter, Utah State University, Population Research Laboratory, Logan, UT 84322-0730. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20527 Johnson, James H.; Grant, David M. Post-1980 black population redistribution trends in the United States. Southeastern Geographer, Vol. 37, No. 1, May 1997. 1-19 pp. Athens, Georgia. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1990 Public Use Microdata Samples (PUMS) and other U.S. census documents, this paper demonstrates how three rather dramatic shifts in the migration behavior of blacks, which took shape during the 1970s, continued to contribute to the geographical redistribution of the black population down the urban hierarchy during the 1980s. Analyses of black migration flows into six metropolitan areas suggest that liberal welfare benefits play, at best, a minor role in contemporary black population redistribution trends, kinship ties (i.e., location-specific capital), the search for affordable housing, and employment in the hospitality services industry appear to be the dominant forces influencing black migration into the case-study communities."
Correspondence: J. H. Johnson, University of North Carolina, Urban Investment Strategies Center, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3440. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

64:20528 Librová, Hana. The decentralization of settlements--vision and reality. Part two: decentralization and reality in the Czech Republic. [Decentralizace osídlení--vize a realita. Cást druhá: decentralizace v realite Ceské republiky.] Sociologický Casopis, Vol. 33, No. 1, Mar 1997. 27-40 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The author presents "a statistical portrait of contemporary migration flows in the Czech Republic.... Data confirm the general low migration [rates] of Czech people.... In the deconcentration shifts, regions with high landscape and ecological value are becoming the centre of migrants' interest. They are moving in particular to suburbs--suburban migration of people within the highest income categories."
Correspondence: H. Librová, Masarykovy Univerzity, Katedra Sociologie, Skola Sociálních Studí FF, Arne Nováka 1, 660 88 Brno, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20529 Lin, Ge. Elderly migration: household versus individual approaches. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 76, No. 3, 1997. 285-300 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper employs a household approach to elderly migration analyses and compares it with the traditional individual approach. The first part of the paper develops some concepts about household mobility and relates them to individual mobility. It then compares the two mobility measurements in a case study using the Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) from the 1990 [U.S.] Census. The results show that the mean household size for the elderly moving together tends to be smaller than that for elderly stayers. It also demonstrates the utility of the household approach on profiling elderly movers' living arrangement choices. The second part of the paper calibrates a set of discrete choice models based on the household and individual approaches."
Correspondence: G. Lin, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20530 Maynard, Leigh J.; Kelsey, Timothy W.; Thee, Robert J.; Fousekis, Panajiotis. Rural migration: what attracts new residents to non-metropolitan areas. Journal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1997. 131-41 pp. Omaha, Nebraska. In Eng.
"This study uses the experience of three non-metropolitan counties in Pennsylvania to explore which community characteristics have the greatest influence on people's decisions to move to rural areas. Personal characteristics affected how in-migrants evaluated prospective rural residential locations. Higher income in-migrants placed a high priority on job opportunities, housing quality, a short commute to work, quality of schools, and low local taxes. Lower income in-migrants were more likely to value a location near family and friends. Ability to own a home, housing costs, and local taxes were also important."
Correspondence: L. J. Maynard, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Agricultural Economics, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20531 Pandit, Kavita. Demographic cycle effects on migration timing and the delayed mobility phenomenon. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 29, No. 3, Jul 1997. 187-99 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effect of a [U.S.] cohort's size and position in the demographic cycle on the timing of migration during the young, labor force years.... This study...proposes a methodology that separates the examination of migration levels from that of migration timing. Analyses using Current Population Survey data show that members of small cohorts tend to move earlier on in their life cycle than members of large cohorts. Reconstructed age-schedules of migration for large and small cohorts support the existence of `delayed mobility' among baby boomers."
Correspondence: K. Pandit, University of Georgia, Department of Geography, Athens, GA 30602. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

64:20532 Rakhmaninova, M. Impact of migration developments on the geopolitical and economic position of the Far East region. [Vozdeistvie migratsionnykh protsessov na geopoliticheskoe i ekonomicheskoe polozhenie dal'nevostochnogo regiona.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 1, 1998. 69-71 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
Demographic trends in the Far Eastern region of the Russian Federation are analyzed. The author notes that population density in the region was only 1.2 persons per square kilometer in 1997 as compared with 8.6 for the country as a whole. The many incentives for people to move to this region that existed under the Soviet regime have been abolished, and this has led to out-migration. The region's rate of economic growth has also declined significantly in recent years. There has been a 10 percent decline in the size of the region's population since 1991.
Correspondence: M. Rakhmaninova, Goskomstat Rossii, Izmailovskoe Shosse 44, 105679 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20533 Rees, P. H.; Duke-Williams, O. Methods for estimating missing data on migrants in the 1991 British census. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec 1997. 323-68 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the use of suppression to protect data in the Special Migration Statistics, a dataset produced from the 1991 [British] Census, and argues that this procedure prevents accurate analysis of the data. A computer program is described that uses a series of methods to `recover' data which were suppressed, and to estimate those parts of the data which cannot be recovered.... The program has been used to recover and estimate data successfully, and results include sample tables of migrants between types of districts by ethnicity."
Correspondence: P. H. Rees, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20534 Rogers, Andrei; Rajbhandary, Sameer. Period and cohort age patterns of U.S. migration, 1948-1993: are American males migrating less? Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 6, Dec 1997. 513-30 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Has the national intercounty migration level of American males been experiencing a decline over the past half-century? What differences in age patterns have period and cohort migration schedules exhibited during this period? These fundamental questions are addressed in this paper. We find that both period and cohort levels of migration have indeed been declining, with the principal consequence for age patterns being a parallel decline in the levels of young-adult migration. American males are moving less, and their peak migration rate in the young-adult years has steadily moved to a younger age over time."
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Campus Box 484, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20535 Sharma, Hira L. Modelling the frequency of out-migration with special reference to rural areas at household level. Janasamkhya, Vol. 12, No. 1-2, 1994. 183-91 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"Under certain assumptions, the frequency of out-migration with special reference to rural areas at household level has been modelled. The model involves four parameters and these are estimated by [the] method of moments and proportion of zero'th cell. Application is made to two sets of demographic data [from India]."
Correspondence: H. L. Sharma, College of Agricultural Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Adhartal, Jabalpur 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20536 Shen, Jianfa. Internal migration and regional population dynamics in China. Progress in Planning, Vol. 45, No. 3, Jun 1996. 123-88 pp. Pergamon Press: Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
"This monograph will make a systematic analysis of...internal migration in China using recent population data. The regional population trends since the 1950s will also be analyzed to examine if there are major changes in the spatial patterns of population. Finally, a consistent regional population projection will be made for the period 1987-2087 using a multiregional population model.... The implications of regional population dynamics for socio-economic development and planning will be discussed in the concluding chapter."
Correspondence: Pergamon Press, Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10253. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

64:20537 Stimson, Robert J.; Minnery, John. Why people move to the "sun-belt": a case study of long-distance migration to the Gold Coast, Australia. Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 2, Feb 1998. 193-214 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports a study investigating long-distance migration to the Gold Coast in Australia's `sun-belt'. A survey of in-migrant households, derived through a random digit dialling sample and telephone interviewing, collected data on aspects of the migration decision process. The data show non-economic, mainly lifestyle factors to be predominant in migration decisions. The relationships amongst employment status, housing tenure and household/family structure were investigated and changes as a result of migration were identified. While the majority of migrants are satisfied with their relocation to the `sun-belt', 30 per cent of migrants were contemplating further long-distance migration, including return migration. The study also confirms the need for migration studies to look beyond the traditional form of push-pull factors as a theoretical framework."
Correspondence: R. J. Stimson, University of Queensland, Department of Geographical Sciences and Planning, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. E-mail: rstimson@mailbox.uq.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

64:20538 Tolnay, Stewart E. Migration experience and family patterns in the "promised land" Journal of Family History, Vol. 23, No. 1, Jan 1998. 68-89 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"The relationship between migration experience and family patterns among residents of the North and West [of the United States] is examined for three time periods--1940, 1970, and 1990. In general, an inverse association is observed between duration of residence in the North or West and family stability among African Americans. Although selective return migration to the South contributes to this association, it can account for only a minor part of the variation in family patterns by migration history. It is concluded that there is no evidence to support previous assumptions that southern migrants carried a dysfunctional family culture with them to the North and West, and thereby destabilized the nonsouthern African American family."
Correspondence: S. E. Tolnay, State University of New York, Center for Social and Demographic Analysis, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20539 Tunali, Insan. Migration and remigration as interdependent decisions: a bivariate probit formulation. Turkish Journal of Population Studies/Nüfusbilim Dergisi, Vol. 19, 1997. 101-26 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"The descriptive migration literature recognizes that entire move sequences may be planned at the time of the initial migration decision, a possibility which is not entertained by the existing statistical models of remigration. This paper formulates a Bivariate Probit Model of the migration/remigration decision which allows for interdependence between the initial and subsequent migration decisions. The joint model is tested on longitudinal internal migration data from Turkey."
Correspondence: I. Tunali, Koç University, Department of Economics, Çayir Cad. Istinye, 80860 Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20540 Velazquez, Guillermo A.; Morina, Jorge O. Interprovincial migration and regional imbalance. The Argentine case (1960-1991). [Las migraciones interprovinciales y el proceso de diferenciación regional. El caso argentino (1960-1991).] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 11, No. 34, 1996. 541-67 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article focuses on the role of geographic mobility in the process of uneven regional development in Argentina. From the analysis of gross geographic product and provincial migratory growth rate between censuses for 1960-70, 1970-80 and 1980-91, the authors conclude that provinces of destination tend to improve their position relative to the rest, while there is no general pattern for provinces [of origin].... There is a circular relation between migration patterns and the relative position of provinces, and emigration does not seem to help reduce the imbalance."
Correspondence: G. A. Velazquez, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, General Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

64:20541 Fassmann, Heinz; Münz, Rainer. East-West migration in Europe 1918-1992. [Migracije istok-zapad u Europi od 1918-92.] Migracijske Teme/Migration Themes, Vol. 11, No. 1, Mar 1995. 53-87 pp. Zagreb, Croatia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper [analyzes] available demographic data on international migration within and to Europe during the periods 1918-39 and 1945-92. The main focus is on the East-West dimension of this migration. In the inter-war period some 9.2 million people either left their countries as labour migrants or were displaced.... In the post-war period (1945-50) some 15.4 million people fled or were displaced within Europe. Most of them moved or were forced to move westwards.... In recent times the wars in Croatia and Bosnia as well as ethnic cleansing have led to the largest wave of refugees and displaced persons since 1945.... The paper argues that push and pull factors causing massive migration cannot...be contained by erecting new legislative barriers and deploying more armed guards against newcomers."
Correspondence: H. Fassmann, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1010 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20542 Long, Lynellyn D. Refugee women, violence, and HIV. In: Sexual cultures and migration in the era of AIDS: anthropological and demographic perspectives, edited by Gilbert Herdt. 1997. 87-103 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter, I examine the risk factors faced by refugee and displaced women in conflict situations. In the first section, I discuss the socioeconomic factors that heighten refugee and displaced women's risks, including health, nutritional, and economic status, and social relations. In the second section, I describe the specific physical protection issues faced by refugee and displaced women at various stages of the refugee experience. These stages include (1) conflict and uprooting; (2) flight and asylum; and (3) repatriation, local settlement, or immigration to a third country." In the third section, the author presents four histories of refugee women's sexual experiences.
Correspondence: L. D. Long, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of International Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20543 Münz, Rainer; Weiner, Myron. Migrants, refugees, and foreign policy: U.S. and German policies toward countries of origin. Migration and Refugees: Politics and Policies in the United States and Germany, Vol. 2, ISBN 1-57181-087-0. LC 97-2328. 1997. xvi, 368 pp. Berghahn Books: Providence, Rhode Island/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This book contains 10 essays by various authors on the relationships between foreign policies and international migration movements. "A number of essays in this volume show how the foreign policies of the United States and Germany have directly or inadvertently contributed to the influx from the former Yugoslavia, Mexico, the Caribbean, and the former Soviet Union. Now faced with growing resistance to admitting foreigners into their countries, both governments have once again been using foreign-policy instruments in an effort to change the conditions in the refugees' countries of origin that forced them to leave. This volume addresses questions such as which policies can influence governments to improve their human rights, protect minorities, end internal strife, reduce the level of violence, or improve economic conditions so that large numbers of people need not leave their homes."
Correspondence: Berghahn Books, 165 Taber Avenue, Providence, RI 02906. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20544 Weiner, Myron. Bad neighbors, bad neighborhoods: an inquiry into the causes of refugee flows. International Security, Vol. 21, No. 1, Summer 1996. 5-42 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This article provides an overview of the global refugee situation since the end of the Second World War, categorizes the conflicts that have generated refugee flows for three selected years since 1969, and identifies the principal determinants for the increase in the number of refugees. The major findings are, first, that the increases are largely the result of conflicts within states, primarily, though not exclusively, because of ethnic conflicts...; second, that the average number of refugees per conflict has been increasing more rapidly than the number of countries producing refugees; and finally, that there are `neighborhoods' or entire regions containing countries with high levels of violence and refugee flow."
Correspondence: M. Weiner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for International Studies, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

64:20545 Weyrauch, Thomas. Refugee destination Germany: migrants from the People's Republic of China. [Fluchtziel Deutschland: Migranten aus der Volksrepublik China.] Edition Cathay, Vol. 8, ISBN 3-928861-38-7. 1995. 232 pp. Projekt Verlag: Dortmund, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
In the first part of this book, the author describes the process that Chinese immigrants are required to undergo as they apply for political asylum in Germany. He also describes the expanding system of illegal immigration and work that has sprung up in Germany for Chinese refugees. The second and main part of the book is devoted to an analysis of the factors driving people to flee China. These include geographical and economic factors, as well as demographic pressures, political circumstances, and human rights violations.
Correspondence: Projekt Verlag, Potthöferei 9, 44388 Dortmund, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

64:20546 Schmidt, Christoph M. The country of origin, family structure and return migration of Germany's guest-workers. SELAPO Reprint, No. 13/94, 1994. 119-25 pp. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München: Munich, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper examines the return behavior of immigrants residing in Germany with a focus on differences in their country of origin, their position in the life-cycle and their family structure.... One cannot expect that immigrants from different countries of origin will display a uniform pattern of return migration, even controlling for observable individual differences. A major determinant of migration flows will be the development of the German economy itself. If the economic attractiveness of Germany in comparison to the migrants' sending countries is retained, migration will be of a more permanent nature. If it fades, large emigration streams can be expected." This article was originally published in Vierteljahreshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung, No. 1-2, 1994.
Correspondence: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, SELAPO, Ludwigstraße 28 RG, 8000 Munich 22, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

64:20547 Becker, Charles M.; Grewe, Christopher D. Cohort-specific rural-urban migration in Africa. Journal of African Economies, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jun 1996. 228-70 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Rural-urban migration has been modeled by both demographers and economists since the 1960s. Little regard has been given by either discipline for the other's models.... The purpose of this paper is to address this void in the African context. We examine three hypotheses: (1) that variables explaining the net urban in-migration rates vary with the age of the migrants; (2) that changes in the availability of services in urban areas [are] a factor in migration; and (3) that cohort structures (age pyramids) are also part of the explanation."
Correspondence: C. M. Becker, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Campus Box 484, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20548 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Migrant workers into Bangkok metropolis, its vicinity and specific areas. ISBN 974-236-594-6. 1997. [76], [45] pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
The aim of this study is to analyze migration volume and streams to Bangkok, Thailand, with a focus on labor migration. Social and economic characteristics of migrants are compared, and changes in migrant employment between the growing season and the off-season are examined. Income levels of migrants and nonmigrants are considered. Extensive statistical data are provided.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.