Volume 64 - Number 2 - Summer 1998

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration. Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects.

64:20048 Ben-Artzi, Yossi. Normalization under conflict? Spatial and demographic changes of Arabs in Haifa, 1948-92. Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 32, No. 4, Oct 1996. 281-95 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to examine...changes and indicate the emerging trends among the Arab population [in Haifa, Israel,] and within its residential areas. The first section will explain the development of the residential spatial pattern of Haifa's Arabs as it took shape until the 1970s.... The changes themselves will be described separately, from both the demographic and spatial point of view, in the second part of the article."
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

64:20049 Bernier, Jacques. Canada. Pluralism mapped. [Canada. Pluralisme sur fond de carte.] Cahiers de Géographie du Québec, Vol. 40, No. 110, Sep 1996. 173-83 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This article provides maps of the geographical distribution and the ethnic and linguistic characteristics of the Canadian population. The author concludes that "the Canadian population is characterised by a pluralism which clearly has a territorial basis and constitutes a key fact of Canadian geography. This situation lies at the heart of the Canadian identity/unity crisis."
Correspondence: J. Bernier, Université Laval, Département de Géographie, Cité Universitaire, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: University of Toronto, East Asian Library, Toronto, Canada.

64:20050 Egan, Karla L.; Anderton, Douglas L.; Weber, Eleanor. Relative spatial concentration among minorities: addressing errors in measurement. Social Forces, Vol. 76, No. 3, Mar 1998. 1,115-33 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This article identifies several mathematical and conceptual problems with Massey and Denton's [1998] Relative Concentration index (RCO). Massey and Denton proposed this index to measure the spatial concentration of minority groups, a dimension of segregation they identify as relevant to their `hypersegregation' hypothesis. This index has also influenced segregation research and has been replicated in U.S. Census Bureau analyses by Harrison and Weinberg (1992)." A reply by Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton is included (pp. 1,123-33).
Correspondence: D. L. Anderton, University of Massachusetts, Social and Demographic Research Institute, Machmer Hall, Box 34830, Amherst, MA 01003-4830. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20051 Mauritius. Central Statistical Office (Port Louis, Mauritius). 1990 housing and population census of Mauritius. Analysis report. Volume IV--population distribution and migration. [1997?]. 74 pp. Port Louis, Mauritius. In Eng.
This is one in a series of reports presenting analyses of data from the 1990 census of Mauritius. This report has chapters on population distribution, international migration, and internal migration and urbanization.
Correspondence: Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Economic Planning and Development, Port Louis, Mauritius. Location: University of California Library, Berkeley, CA. Source: APLIC Census Network List, No. 171, May-Jun 1997.

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration.

64:20052 Clark, David. Interdependent urbanization in an urban world: an historical overview. Geographical Journal, Vol. 164, No. 1, Mar 1998. 85-95 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The distribution of the world's population is now more urban than rural. Contemporary and historical urban patterns are identified and their causes are evaluated. Urban development was largely confined to developed countries before mid-century but has spread to developing countries since. Both outcomes are seen as interdependent consequences of the growth and geographical extension of capitalism. The merits of the interdependency theory are assessed. Recent urbanization in Africa and Asia is a locational response to the new global economic order. Cities have grown because of the influx of manufacturing and service jobs from the developed economies, and the in-migration of workers displaced by agricultural adjustment. The prospects for further urbanization are considered."
Correspondence: D. Clark, Coventry University, Geographical Subject Area, Priory Street, Coventry CV1 5FB, England. E-mail: d.clark@coventry.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20053 Donets, E.; Moiseenko, V.; Chudinovskikh, O. Moscow population: territorial aspect. [Naselenie Moskvy: territorial'nyi aspekt.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 10, 1997. 81-8 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The population dynamics of the Moscow region are analyzed for the period 1994-1995. Information is included on population totals and density by district and movements into and out of each district, as well as on economic activity by age and sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20054 Drobek, Wieslaw; Heffner, Krystian. Development of urban centres on the western and northern territories of Poland--an attempt of recapitulation by means of the settlement system of Poland. Polish Population Review, No. 10, 1997. 281-98 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
The authors discuss the development of urban areas in western and northern Poland since the 1930s. Sections are included on the development of towns under the German settlement system; changes during military operations between 1939 and 1945; inclusion of towns into the Polish urban system; and prospects of future development.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20055 Jean, Yves; Calenge, Christian. Peri-urban spaces: neither city nor country? (Issues taken from examples of France's Center-West). [Espaces périurbains: au-delà de la ville et de la campagne? (Problématique à partir d'exemples pris dans le Centre-Ouest).] Annales de Géographie, Vol. 106, No. 596, Jul-Aug 1997. 389-413 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The phenomenon of peripheral urbanisation is [generalized to] all types of towns and agglomerations.... Starting with some examples from several average sized towns in the Centre-West [of France], it appeared useful to attempt to construct a problem examining these spaces, avoiding the habitual and manifestly infective urban/rural dichotomy. It appears that these spaces cannot be treated in isolation for they form a complex socio-spatial system with the other elements of these agglomerations."
Correspondence: Y. Jean, Université François-Rabelais, Département de Géographie, 3 rue des Tanneurs, 37041 Tours Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:20056 Lo, Fu-Chen; Yeung, Yue-man. Emerging world cities in Pacific Asia. ISBN 92-808-0907-5. 1996. xxiv, 528 pp. United Nations University Press: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This volume is part of the United Nations University's Programme on Mega-Cities and Urban Development, initiated in 1990. The editors have compiled studies by various authors that focus on "the functional characteristics and linkage effects of Pacific Asia's world cities against the background of global economic restructuring since the 1980s. These cities are examined as individual entities, in their regional setting, and in the context of subregional cooperative development environments. Emphasis is placed on the functional importance and complexity of world cities in the global and regional economies." The regions covered include Tokyo and the Japanese urban system; Seoul; Taiwan; China's urban system; urbanization trends in the Philippines; Bangkok and Thailand; Malaysia; the Djakarta area (Jabotabek); the extended Singapore region; and the Hong Kong region.
Correspondence: United Nations University Press, United Nations University, 53-70 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan. Location: Rowan College of New Jersey, Glassboro, NJ.

64:20057 Martín Frechilla, Juan J. Urban construction, professions, and immigration at the origin of urban studies in Venezuela, 1870-1957. [Construcción urbana, profesiones e inmigración en el origen de los estudios de urbanismo en Venezuela: 1870-1957.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1996. 477-519, 659-60 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The author wants to establish the relationship between the agents and circumstances involved in the implementation of the first graduate studies on urbanism in Venezuela.... The accelerated urbanization process that began with the oil impact on the country's economy clearly revealed the lack of human resources to face the increasing urban problems; therefore, possible solutions to them were sought first in Europe and later in the United States."
Correspondence: J. J. Martín Frechilla, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Ciudad Universitaria, Los Chaguaramos, Zona Postal 104, Caracas 1051, Venezuela. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20058 Mears, Ronald; Levin, Michiel. Demographic characteristics of the population of Greater Soweto, 1993. Development Southern Africa, Vol. 13, No. 4, Aug 1996. 625-46 pp. Halfway House, South Africa. In Eng.
"This research note provides information and findings on some aspects of urbanisation in Greater Soweto. It outlines the demographic characteristics of the population, namely the characteristics of households; household preferences for services; perceptions on accommodation; age and gender profiles; education levels; the origin of the inhabitants and mobility in and migration to Greater Soweto. Some findings are particularly important for future planning of services and low-income or subsidised housing."
Correspondence: R. Mears, Vista University, Department of Economics, Central Campus, Private Bag X634, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20059 Mérenne-Schoumaker, B.; Van der Haegen, H.; Van Hecke, E. General census of population and housing, March 1, 1991: urbanization. [Recensement général de la population et des logements au 1er mars 1991: urbanisation.] Monographie, No. 11A, 1998. 194 pp. Institut National de Statistique: Brussels, Belgium; Services Fédéraux des Affaires Scientifiques, Techniques et Culturelles: Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is one in a series of 11 monographs in which data from the 1991 Belgian census are analyzed. In this report, an analysis of trends in urbanization is presented. There are chapters on the populated localities in Belgium in 1991 and changes since 1970, urban regions, and the typology of communes according to level of urbanization.
Correspondence: Institut National de Statistique, 44 rue de Louvain, Centre Albert, 8e étage, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20060 Nagpaul, Hans. Modernization and urbanization in India: problems and issues. 1996. 271 pp. Rawat Publications: Jaipur, India. In Eng.
This is a selection of essays that the author has written over the years on aspects of urbanization in India. There are chapters on the following subjects: problems and issues in the transition to modernity; toward urbanization and metropolitanism; the framework of dominant urban problems; structure and change in giant cities; the rural-urban divide and conflicts; a case study of Delhi as an exploding metropolis; community organization for preventing social disorganization; social welfare strategies for coping with urban problems; and the need for the wider distribution of modern benefits.
Correspondence: Rawat Publications, 3-Na-20 Jawahar Nagar, Jaipur 302 004, India. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

64:20061 Obudho, R. A.; Aduwo, G. O. The nature of the urbanization process and urbanism in the city of Nairobi, Kenya. African Urban Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 1-2, Feb-May 1992. 50-62 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
The characteristics of urbanization in the Kenyan capital, Nairobi, are analyzed. "The current profile of the city has in turn been shaped by geographical and historical and contemporary forces.... This paper analyses the role of these forces with a view to showing how the city's population growth and distribution patterns [have changed, how] the demographic dynamics and spatial structure have been influenced, [and what are the] shelter and services deficiencies which the city faces today...."
Correspondence: R. A. Obudho, University of Nairobi, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20062 Portes, Alejandro; Dore-Cabral, Carlos; Landolt, Patricia. The urban Caribbean: transition to the new global economy. ISBN 0-8018-5517-9. LC 96-35184. 1997. xvii, 260 pp. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This collaborative work examines the features of urbanization in some small nation-states in the Caribbean Basin, and also presents five specific case studies of urbanization in Costa Rica, Haiti, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, and Jamaica. The study shows how the different histories of these five countries, particularly as they affect social and political rights, have affected the social and spatial distribution of the urban populations. The shared experiences of economic instability and rising unemployment in recent years and their impact on the cities are also discussed. In addition, consideration is given to the contribution of remittances from migrants overseas.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2715 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4319. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:20063 Rakodi, Carole. The urban challenge in Africa: growth and management of its large cities. ISBN 92-808-0952-0. LC 97-4603. 1997. xiv, 628 pp. United Nations University Press: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This is a collection of studies by various authors from different countries and disciplines on the growth of the largest cities in Africa, including their characteristics, their dynamism despite economic difficulties, and the outcome of efforts to manage them. "The introductory chapters consider the effects of global forces on Africa and its major cities, revealing that the new phase of globalization has reinforced the continent's marginalization, impoverishment, indebtedness, and lack of policy autonomy, rather than leading to economic growth and diversification. Case-studies of selected cities (Cairo, Lagos, Johannesburg, Kinshasa, Abidjan, and Nairobi) reflect the experience of the largest urban agglomerations; northern, southern, western, and eastern Africa; anglophone and francophone Africa; cities with an essentially domestic role and those with wider regional or continental roles; and cities on a continuum from relatively tight management to virtual collapse of public sector institutions. Each examines economic and demographic trends; political, social, and physical characteristics; and arrangements for planning and management. The experiences of these and other cities are drawn upon in thematic chapters dealing with the characteristics of city economies; property markets; politics, governance, and social organization; and the lives of urban people, including migration patterns and the effects of impoverishment."
Correspondence: United Nations University Press, United Nations University, 53-70 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:20064 Razin, Eran. Policies to control urban sprawl: planning regulations or changes in the "rules of the game"? Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 2, Feb 1998. 321-40 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Urban sprawl, fuelled by powerful market forces, is unlikely to be controlled by macro-scale regional plans or by comprehensive reforms of the local government map. This paper emphasises two mechanisms that determine the `rules of the game' of local development and public regulation of urban sprawl: local government finance and the transfer of land from rural to urban local authorities. Sharing local taxes paid by new non-residential property is discussed, in the Israeli context, as a means to reduce overdevelopment of industrial areas in the metropolitan fringes as well as pressures on open space. Complementary regulative measures, where rural local government is separated from urban local government, are based on improved co-ordination between land-use planning and decisions on municipal boundary changes."
Correspondence: E. Razin, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Geography, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. E-mail: msrazin@mscc.huji.ac.il. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

64:20065 Tang, Wing-Shing. Urbanisation in China: a review of its causal mechanisms and spatial relations. Progress in Planning, Vol. 48, No. 1, 1997. 1-65 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
This article reviews "the forces underpinning Chinese urbanization.... This paper is divided into two main parts. The first addresses the (non-spatial) causal mechanisms between 1949 and 1977. Neither the ideological, the class, nor the economic formulation has touched on the more systemic mechanisms related to the socialist state and the shortage economy. This paper attempts to redress the imbalance by examining the advantages of combining Kornai's shortage model with Foucault's concept of governmentality. By drawing on concepts of spatial contingency, spatial boundary and locality effects, the second part of the paper argues that spatial relations do play significant roles in revealing Chinese urbanisation policies and patterns."
Correspondence: W.-S. Tang, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Geography, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China. Location: University of Illinois Library, Urbana, IL.

64:20066 Todaro, Michael P. Urbanization, unemployment, and migration in Africa: theory and policy. Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 104, 1997. 50 pp. Population Council, Policy Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This essay focuses on the conceptual, empirical, and policy-relevant linkages among urbanization, rural-urban migration, and economic development [in Africa]. First, recent trends and future scenarios for urban population growth are reviewed, with special emphasis on African urbanization. Then, the growth and significance of the urban informal economy and the role of women in informal economic activities are examined."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

64:20067 Buckley, Cynthia. Rural/urban differentials in demographic processes: the Central Asian states. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 17, No. 1, Feb 1998. 71-89 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"While the populations of the Central Asian successor states are extremely heterogeneous on many indicators, the issue of rural or urban residence is consistently important in terms of differentials in population growth, socio-economic status and public health. In this paper I focus on rural population trends in Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. I explore the relatively disadvantaged position of rural inhabitants as well as regional variations within the rural population. The differentials in fertility and mortality rates and the large projected population increases indicate that future policy interventions and data collection efforts should incorporate a specific focus on rural areas."
Correspondence: C. Buckley, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, 1343 Burdine Hall, Austin, TX 78712. E-mail: buckley@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.