Volume 64 - Number 1 - Spring 1998

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

64:10730 Kojima, Hiroshi. Determinants of attitudes toward population aging in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 52, No. 2, Jul 1996. 1-16 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"This study...[explores] the changing determinants of attitudes toward projected population aging and possible acceptance of alternative population policies to slow it down in Japan." Differences in attitudes between 1990 and 1995 are analyzed, with a focus on support for immigration policy and pronatalist policy. Determinants considered include age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, and place of residence.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10731 Murthy, Nirmala. Implementing population and reproductive health programme: how can NGOs help? In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 305-15 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"While India's FW [family welfare] programme has many strengths such as its size and number of services provided, its main weakness has been the poor quality of services....The Government of India decided to change this strategy...and to focus instead on improving health status of women....Since many Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have experience of delivering reproductive health services, they will be expected to help to implement this programme. What help can the NGOs realistically give? Can they transfer some of their skills to the government set-up? If so, in what way?"
Correspondence: N. Murthy, Foundation for Research in Health Systems, 6 Gurukrupa, 183 Azad Society, Ahmedabad 380 015, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10732 Sahay, K. B. Need for a sound population policy. In: Population policy and reproductive health, edited by K. Srinivasan. 1996. 316-28 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author evaluates population policy in India and critiques the work of an expert committee established in 1993 to formulate and draft a national policy. Aspects considered include literacy and population control, authoritarianism versus cooperation, and gender inequity.
Correspondence: K. B. Sahay, Indian Institute of Technology, Centre for Biomedical Engineering, New Delhi 110 016, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

64:10733 Czarnowski, Gabriele. Hereditary and racial welfare (Erb- und Rassenpflege): the politics of sexuality and reproduction in Nazi Germany. Social Politics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring 1997. 114-35 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Political control of sexuality and reproduction was crucial in National Socialism for producing a homogeneous society of same-race, genetically and physically healthy citizens. As a result, Nazi racial policies were directed not only at undesired minorities but, as the main argument of this paper, at the entire society--albeit with extremely diverging consequences for the men and women affected, depending on the different racial political aims. The consequences arising from bureaucratic classification and medical assessment are examined more closely in the cases of prohibitions on marriage and sexual relations, as well as with respect to abortion policies."
Correspondence: G. Czarnowski, Free University of Berlin, 1000 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10734 Gauthier, Anne H.; Hatzius, Jan. Family benefits and fertility: an econometric analysis. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 3, Nov 1997. 295-306 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the question of whether higher governmental support for families has a positive effect on fertility by encouraging parents to have more children. The analysis is based on data for 22 industrialized countries and covers the period 1970 to 1990. Data are analysed using a fixed-effect econometric model with the sum of age-specific fertility rates as the dependent variable. The results show that family allowances have a positive and significant effect on fertility, while maternity leave benefits have no significant effect. Increasing the value of family allowances by 25 per cent would result in an 0.6 per cent increase in fertility level in the short run. In the long run this effect would be of the order of 4 per cent, or about 0.07 children per woman on average."
Correspondence: A. H. Gauthier, Oxford University, Department of Applied Social Studies and Social Research, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10735 Hoem, Britta; Hoem, Jan M. Sweden's family policies and roller-coaster fertility. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 52, No. 3-4, Nov 1996. 1-22 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"Sweden has experienced dramatic waves in its fertility level over the last three decades. The Swedish TFR dropped from almost 2.5 in the mid-1960s to about 1.7 around 1980 and then increased again to above the replacement level in 1990, after which it fell back to below 1.7 over the subsequent six years. In this paper, we describe the various birth-order components of these waves in some detail and relate them to correspondingly dramatic economic trends and to progressive family-policy reforms."
Correspondence: B. Hoem, Statistics Sweden, Program on Demography, Children and the Family, 115 81 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10736 King, Leslie; Meyer, Madonna H. The politics of reproductive benefits: U.S. insurance coverage of contraceptive and infertility treatments. Gender and Society, Vol. 11, No. 1, Feb 1997. 8-30 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Recent changes in access to contraceptive and infertility treatments in the state of Illinois, and across the United States more generally, have heightened class cleavages in access to reproductive health care benefits in the United States. Using data gleaned from government testimonies, public documents, and telephone interviews, the authors found that poor women have broad access to contraceptive coverage but very little access to infertility treatments, while working- and middle-class women have increasingly broad coverage of infertility treatments but spare coverage of contraceptives. These findings suggest that while the extreme measures of the eugenics movement are less frequently in evidence, class differences in access to reproductive services lead to an equally dualistic, albeit unstated, fertility policy in the United States: encouraging births among working- and middle-class families and discouraging births along the poor, particularly those on Medicaid."
Correspondence: L. King, University of Illinois, Department of Sociology, 326 Lincoln Hall, 702 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10737 Ladd-Taylor, Molly. Saving babies and sterilizing mothers: eugenics and welfare politics in the interwar United States. Social Politics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring 1997. 136-53 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article compares government-funded maternal and child health services with compulsory sterilization, two `eugenic' policies that rationalized reproduction in the United States from the 1910s to the 1930s. As Progressive Era reforms...both were based on the optimistic belief that society could be improved through science and `expert' intervention. Yet they rested on very different ideas about the state's responsibility for social welfare. A comparison of the `baby-saving' and sterilization movements highlights the welfare, as opposed to racial (or even eugenic), function of compulsory sterilization in the United States. The association between sterilization and reducing welfare costs was undoubtedly one reason that sterilization programs achieved more lasting success in the United States than government-funded public health services."
Correspondence: M. Ladd-Taylor, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 2R7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10738 Petersen, William. Parents vs. state. American Scholar, Vol. 66, No. 1, Winter 1997. 121-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author reviews the history of birth control and state attempts to control fertility throughout the world. "For the past century there has been a war between prospective parents and state bureaucracies over who shall decide on the size of families. First in Europe, then in the Third World, fierce battles have been fought, and the state won rather few of them."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10739 Scharping, Thomas; Heuser, Robert. Family planning in China. Analyses, data, documents. [Geburtenplanung in China. Analysen, Daten, Dokumente.] Mitteilungen des Instituts für Asienkunde Hamburg, No. 250, ISBN 3-88910-151-8. 1995. 388 pp. Institut für Asienkunde: Hamburg, Germany. In Ger.
This volume contains four essays by various authors on aspects of family planning in China. The first is on China's assumption of legislative responsibility for family planning. The second is on China's one-child policy from 1978 to 1994 and covers the policy's goals, its development, and its changing applications, as well as enforcement problems, evaluation, public reactions, and demographic impact. The third is a detailed study of the one-child policy as implemented in the province of Heilongjiang and its capital, Harbin. The fourth essay discusses the relatively small role played by the one-child policy in the literature by Chinese female writers. An appendix containing 13 documents is included; they are translated texts of the one-child laws as implemented in various administrative entities in China.
Correspondence: Institut für Asienkunde, Rothenbaumchaussee 32, 20148 Hamburg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10740 Tian, Xueyuan. Population control, the "three combinations", and sustainable development. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1997. 141-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The swift implementation of the `three combinations' policy as part of the population control program in China's rural areas in recent years has opened up a new avenue to population control and sustainable development, warranting theoretical study based on the ample experience obtained so that the future of the `three combinations' policy and population control can be predicated on solid ground....The theory advocates the combination of family planning with rural economic development, improvement of farmers' livelihoods, and promotion of family values."
Correspondence: X. Tian, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Demographics, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10741 Usborne, Cornelie. Rhetoric and resistance: rationalization of reproduction in Weimar Germany. Social Politics, Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring 1997. 65-89 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper deals with rationalization of reproduction as a subject of public discourse and a basis of policy-making in Weimar Germany. Rhetoric and policy-making consisted of a three-pronged attempt to `rationalize' reproduction: firstly by regulating fertility according to the `scientific' principles of eugenics, secondly by the diffusion of modern and scientifically tested contraceptive technology under strict medical supervision, and thirdly by outlawing lay medical practitioners from birth control decisions. In practice there was considerable resistance to these strategies. Older forms of fertility control continued, and lay abortionists remained popular. This seemed to undermine the utopia of medical-scientific progress and rationalized reproduction."
Correspondence: C. Usborne, Roehampton Institute, London, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10742 Wang, Gabe T. China's population control policy. China Report, Vol. 32, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1996. 141-58 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"China's population policy and its implementation have often been criticised and condemned but seldom fully understood. Many scholars who study China's population policy and its implementation have often ignored the unique social and historical factors which have made it possible for the Chinese government not only to adopt but also to implement such a unique policy. This paper attempts to study these factors in the country." Aspects considered include overpopulation and economic development, support for population control, religion, women's status, China's tightly organized society, strong peer pressure, and established policy-implementing organizations.
Correspondence: G. T. Wang, Morehead State University, Department of Sociology, Morehead, KY 40351. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

64:10743 Angenendt, Steffen. German migration policy in the new Europe. [Deutsche Migrationspolitik im neuen Europa.] ISBN 3-8100-1909-7. 1997. 157 pp. Leske und Budrich: Opladen, Germany. In Ger.
The author analyzes the challenges and opportunities that immigration poses for Germany. He first describes past and future migration trends into Germany, discussing their causes and the issues they raise; next, the 1992 legislation on refugees (the "asylum compromise") is examined. Finally, a framework for future German migration policy is articulated, taking into account the issues of integration, domestic security, foreign policy, institutional aspects, and the realities of managing immigration. The author suggests that any future German immigration policy should include quotas as well as a right to asylum, measures to integrate and naturalize immigrants, and efforts to increase public acceptance. Recent immigration from the former Yugoslavia is used as an example.
Correspondence: Leske und Budrich, Gerhart-Hauptmann-Straße 27, Postfach 300406, 5090 Leverkusen 3, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10744 Birrell, Bob; Healy, Ernest. Globalisation and temporary entry. People and Place, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1997. 43-52 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Beginning on 1 August 1996 the Australian Government implemented a radical deregulation of temporary entry provisions governing foreign persons working in Australia on contracts of three months to four years. The result has been a significant increase in the numbers visaed, particularly on-shore, plus evidence that the program is being exploited in ways inconsistent with the Government's objectives."
Correspondence: B. Birrell, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10745 Blaise, Pierre; Coenen, Marie-Thérèse; Dresse, Renée; de Coorebyter, Vincent; Kesteloot, Christian; Leunda, Javier; Lewin, Rosine; Mangot, Thérèse; Martiniello, Marco; Ouali, Nouria; Peleman, Kathleen; Rea, Andrea; Roesems, Truus; Vandemeulebroucke, Martine. Belgium and its immigrants: missing policies. [La Belgique et ses immigrés: les politiques manquées.] ISBN 2-8041-2553-X. 1997. 263 pp. De Boeck Université: Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
This book examines Belgian policy toward immigrants since 1974, when the recruitment of foreign workers to fill Belgian labor force needs came to an end. The authors investigate whether Belgium has had a recognizable immigration policy, or even a clear policy on the integration and assimilation of resident foreign workers in the country. The problems posed by the inability of foreigners to obtain Belgian citizenship, the inequalities of opportunity for foreigners in the workplace, and the absence of social policies designed to help immigrants in the areas of culture, religion, or education are discussed. The authors suggest that the first step toward solving immigrant-related problems is to encourage and simplify the process whereby resident foreigners can obtain Belgian citizenship.
Correspondence: De Boeck Université, 203 avenue Louise, Boîte 1, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10746 Leliveld, André. The effects of restrictive South African migrant labor policy on the survival of rural households in southern Africa: a case study from rural Swaziland. World Development, Vol. 25, No. 11, Nov 1997. 1,839-49 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using survey data from Swaziland, this article investigates how a possible restrictive South African migrant labor policy might affect the survival of rural households in Swaziland. The main finding is that in the short run relatively `young' households, with few working members and a weak economic position in the local rural economy, are among the most vulnerable. In the long run the survival of most Swazi households with migrants in South Africa will be at stake given the meager prospects for returning migrants to find employment in Swaziland."
Correspondence: A. Leliveld, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1083, 1105 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10747 Liu, Xiao-Feng; Norcliffe, Glen. Closed windows, open doors: geopolitics and post-1949 Mainland Chinese immigration to Canada. Canadian Geographer/Géographe Canadien, Vol. 40, No. 4, Winter 1996. 306-19 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Since 1949 there have been dramatic changes in the flow of migrants from Mainland China to Canada, which existing structural models of migration, emphasizing factors in the destination country, do not fully capture. Conditions in the country of origin, and geopolitical relationships between China and Canada, played a decisive role in this migration....Changing geopolitical circumstances led China to develop an open-door policy between 1973 and 1989, leading to increasing flows of migrants to Canada. The political response in Canada to the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 was to allow all Chinese students and workers in Canada to stay, if they so wished....The result was a large inflow making MCIS the third-largest group of immigrants to Canada in the early 1990s."
Correspondence: X.-F. Liu, York University, Department of Geography, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10748 McDonald, John; Richards, Eric. The great emigration of 1841: recruitment for New South Wales in British emigration fields. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 3, Nov 1997. 337-55 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In 1841 the colony of New South Wales offered an unprecedented number of heavily subsidised passages to British emigrants. It sought specific categories, particularly single young women, domestic servants, and agricultural labourers. The colony preferred English and Scottish rural immigrants....While the influence of the selection criteria, as well as local factors, was pronounced, this paper argues that the recruitment also expressed the changing propensities to emigrate within the regions of the British Isles. In particular it demonstrated the willingness of young Irish women to emigrate where facilities were provided to overcome their poverty. The immigration of 1841 was a turning point for Australia: it was the largest recruitment before the gold rushes of the 1850s and already signaled some of the main characteristics of Australian immigration history."
Correspondence: J. McDonald, Flinders University of South Australia, Department of Economics, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10749 Oellers-Frahm, Karin; Zimmermann, Andreas. France's and Germany's constitutional changes and their impact on migration law: policy and practice. German Yearbook of International Law/Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, Vol. 38, 1995. 249-83 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"States such as France and Germany, which [in the past have] granted a nearly identically formulated fundamental right of asylum, were in times of a general restrictive immigration policy the destination of large numbers of refugees....In order to cope with [immigration] problems France and Germany adopted stricter legislation. Reform was even more urgently needed because with the creation of a common European internal market, controls at the interior borders between the Member States of the European Union were de facto abolished....These developments have...initiated a constitutional conflict in France and Germany due to their respective guarantee of the right of asylum as a fundamental right. The solution of this conflict in both States and the consequences resulting therefrom shall be treated in [this article]."
Correspondence: K. Oellers-Frahm, Max-Planck-Institut für Ausländisches Öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, Heidelberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10750 Papademetriou, Demetrios G.; Yale-Loehr, Stephen. Balancing interests: rethinking U.S. selection of skilled immigrants. International Migration Policy Program, No. 4, ISBN 0-87003-107-4. LC 96-8165. 1996. xv, 214 pp. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: Washington, D.C. Distributed by Brookings Institution, Department 029, Washington, D.C. 20041-0029. In Eng.
This study examines the selection of people admitted to the United States under the work-related categories of the U.S. immigration system. The contribution of both permanent and temporary economic-stream immigrants to the U.S. economy is first discussed. The authors outline the inadequacies of the present system in selecting the kind of foreign workers the country needs. Some alternative systems, such as the points systems used by Canada and Australia, are suggested as preferable to the current U.S. system; the details of a modified points system adapted to U.S. economic and labor-market realities are spelled out. The authors suggest that the proposed system will "help U.S. businesses to remain competitive in the global economy by facilitating access to the best foreign talent; (b) help U.S. workers by increasing opportunities for more and better jobs while protecting them from unfair competition; and (c) help immigrants to get a fair return on their investments in their own skills and expertise."
Correspondence: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2400 N Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. E-mail: ceip@igc.apc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10751 Papademetriou, Demetrios G.; Hamilton, Kimberly A. Converging paths to restriction: French, Italian, and British responses to immigration. International Migration Policy Program, No. 3, ISBN 0-87003-073-6. 1996. 89 pp. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: Washington, D.C. Distributed by Brookings Institution, Department 029, Washington, D.C. 20041-0029. In Eng.
"In this study, [the authors] focus on how France, Italy, and the United Kingdom are responding to the complex issues raised by immigration and asylum matters. They explore the often trial-and-error character of governmental responses to these issues, the absence of main stream political-party leadership, and the growing disjuncture between initiatives motivated by increasingly restrictionist impulses and practical efforts to further the immigrant integration at the local level."
Correspondence: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2400 N Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. E-mail: ceip@igc.apc.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10752 Simcox, David. Major predictors of immigration restrictionism: operationalizing "nativism" Population and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 2, Nov 1997. 129-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study set out to identify, operationalize and assess the principal components of `nativism' as it shapes immigration restrictionism [in the United States]. Three major attitudinal clusters were defined as constituting nativism: (a) perceptions of immigration as a threat to the culture and prerogatives of the dominant group; (b) negative perceptions of racial minorities, foreign and domestic; and (c) attitudes of alienation and distrust in the population....The clearest message of this study is that people favor immigration reduction because they feel threatened and that much of their sense of threat involves very practical interests of jobs, taxes and security from crime."
Correspondence: D. Simcox, Migration Demographics, 9835 Timberwood Circle, Louisville, KY 40223. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10753 Stevens, Christine. Balancing obligations and self-interest: humanitarian program settlers in the Australian labor market. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1997. 185-212 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Technological and structural changes in the Australian economy have led to a decline in unskilled and semi-skilled employment and this has had a marked effect on labor market opportunities for immigrants....This paper reviews the labor market experience of humanitarian program arrivals and considers the policy implications of high levels of unemployment among this group. It is suggested that humanitarian obligations do not end with entry to Australia, and it is in the interests of the receiving society and humanitarian program arrivals for greater public investment in skills development to help improve labor market outcomes among this group."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10754 Thränhardt, Dietrich. Europe--a new immigration continent: policies and politics in comparative perspective. Studien zu Migration und Minderheiten/Studies in Migration and Minorities, 2nd ed. Vol. 1, ISBN 3-89473-362-4. 1996. 281 pp. Lit: Münster, Germany. In Eng.
This volume contains a selection of papers by various authors on the problems facing Western European nations as they struggle to come to terms with their new situation as countries of immigration. In particular, the models and policies of several European countries, including Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom, are examined in a comparative framework. Attention is given to the efforts to harmonize visa arrangements within the European Union, and to the debate over the Schengen agreement aimed at eliminating border controls within the Union.
Correspondence: Lit Verlag, Dieckstraße 73, 48145 Münster, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10755 Thränhardt, Dietrich. European migration from East to West: present patterns and future directions. New Community, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1996. 227-42 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Present-day migration control is largely a social and political construction, it cannot explain the patterns and processes of East-West migration. Western anxieties have been misleading, and are used as a substitute for the fears of the Cold War period. In reality, the rich countries of Western Europe have largely been able to control their borders and define the sort of immigration they want to accept....Compared to the USA, the regulated European economies provide more internal controls allowing a gradual opening of the borders to the East. Such a system is more sophisticated than a mere reliance on border controls. However, it is only feasible in a peaceful setting of emergent consensus."
Correspondence: D. Thränhardt, Westfälische Wilhelms Universität, Institute of Political Science, Schlossplatz 2, 48149 Münster, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10756 Winckler, Onn. The immigration policy of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states. Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 33, No. 3, Jul 1997. 480-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The main objectives of this article are to identify the government policies and their implications for the size and composition of the foreign populations in [Gulf Cooperation Council States]....Despite the economic recession in the Gulf countries following the sharp reduction in oil prices since 1986, and especially in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia after the Iraqi invasion, it seems that the need for large numbers of foreign workers in the GCC countries will remain, at least for the short term...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

64:10757 Wong, Diana. Transience and settlement: Singapore's foreign labor policy. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1997. 135-67 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Foreigners constitute 15 percent of the population and over 20 percent of the labor force in Singapore....This large foreign labor force is managed by a comprehensive and highly selective foreign labor policy, which is described in this paper. The strict enforcement of a guestworker policy of transience on the one hand, and the liberal encouragement of settlement on the other, are the twin pillars of this policy. Seen originally as a dispensable appendage to a labor-scarce economy, foreign labor has now become integral to the economic and increasingly, population policy of the country, as evidenced by the recent announcement of a national policy to `attract foreign talent'."
Correspondence: D. Wong, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Heng Mui Keng Terrace, Pasir Panjang, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10758 Zhang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Qian. A study on migration from impoverished mountainous areas as part of the help-the-poor program. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1997. 151-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors investigate the encouragement of migration from impoverished areas of China. Factors prompting migration are examined, including natural conditions, psychological factors, policies, occupations, and benefits to areas of origin and destination. A theoretical framework for migration as part of the country's poverty alleviation program is presented.
Correspondence: Z. Zhang, Lanzhou University, Academy of Social Development, 78 Tianshui Road, 730000 Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.