Volume 64 - Number 1 - Spring 1998

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration.

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

64:10431 Hansen, Kristin A. Geographical mobility: March 1995 to March 1996. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 497, Nov 1997. 6 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Between March 1995 and March 1996, 42.5 million Americans moved. Most of them, 26.7 million, moved from one residence to another within the same county; another 8 million moved between counties within the same state; and 6.5 million changed states. Additionally, during that one-year period, about 1.4 million persons moved into the United States from abroad." Detailed tables are available online at http://www.census.gov.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Author's E-mail: kahansen@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10432 Holmes, Colin. Migration in European history. International Library of Studies on Migration, No. 4, ISBN 1-85898-421-1. LC 96-18569. 1996. xxi, 644; 593 pp. Edward Elgar Publishing: Brookfield, Vermont/Cheltenham, England. In Eng.
This two-volume work is a collection of previously published studies on aspects of migration in European history. In Volume 1, the papers are grouped under the following headings: General studies; Historical overview; Neglected groups; and Hostility. In Volume 2, the headings are: New lives in new environments; Comparative perspectives; Links with the past and the road home; and The future history of migration.
Correspondence: Edward Elgar Publishing, 8 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire GL50 2HU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10433 Moisyeenko, V. Migration issues as reflected in the population censuses of Russia and the Soviet Union. [Migratsiya naseleniya v perepisyakh Rossii i SSSR.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 3, 1997. 30-7 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The author describes how migration has been handled in the various censuses carried out in Russia and the Soviet Union over the past 100 years. Both internal and international migration are included. The author also describes how the censuses provided information on the age of migrants.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

64:10434 Abusharaf, Rogaia M. Sudanese migration to the new world: socio-economic characteristics. International Migration, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1997. 513-36 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Sudanese migration is one of the most recent waves from the developing world to the U.S. and Canada....This article...focuses on the period since the advent of the current Islamic military government of Lieutenant General Umar al Bashir in1989, the Gulf War of 1991 and the renewal of the civil war in the Sudan. The article demonstrates that an earlier, small, temporary migration from the Sudan to the New World, based principally (but not exclusively) on seeking higher education, has been replaced by a larger migration stemming from political unrest, economic stringency and a perceived lack of choice in migration. The article also provides basic descriptive data on this phenomenon."
Correspondence: R. M. Abusharaf, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10435 Alba, Richard; Nee, Victor. Rethinking assimilation theory for a new era of immigration. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Winter 1997. 826-74 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"We argue that assimilation theory has not lost its utility for the study of contemporary immigration to the United States. In making our case, we review critically the canonical account of assimilation provided by Milton Gordon and others; we refer to Shibutani and Kwan's theory of ethnic stratification to suggest some directions to take in reformulating assimilation theory. We also examine some of the arguments frequently made to distinguish between the earlier mass immigration of Europeans and the immigration of the contemporary era and find them to be inconclusive. Finally, we sift through some of the evidence about the socioeconomic and residential assimilation of recent immigrant groups. Though the record is clearly mixed, we find evidence consistent with the view that assimilation is taking place, albeit unevenly."
Correspondence: R. Alba, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10436 Bodega Fernández, Isabel; Cebrián de Miguel, Juan A.; Franchini Alonso, Teresa; Lora-Tamayo D'Ocon, Gloria; Martin Lou, Asunción. South-North migration. The case of Spain. Geographia Polonica, Vol. 66, 1995. 125-45 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"International migrations caused by socio-economic and demographic reasons, especially from underdeveloped countries to the rich and prosperous areas of the globe are discussed with the focus on Western Europe and particularly on Maghrebi immigration to Spain. Emigration of the people from a backward region even increases the deterioration of [the] local economy, provoking stagnation and inflation. Therefore emigration only can not be seen as an economic take-off for sustained economic development over the frontier areas between developed and depressed territories. Related social questions as well as economic, religious and political may add factors affecting the structural balance of the societies concerned."
Correspondence: I. Bodega Fernández, Instituto de Economía y Geografía, CSIC, Calle Pinar 25, 28006 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10437 Bredeloup, Sylvie. Bibliography: Senegalese emigration and immigration to Senegal (publications 1990-1995). [Guide bibliographique: émigration sénégalaise et immigration au Sénégal (publications 1990-1995).] Mondes en Développement, Vol. 23, No. 91, 1995. 123-9 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an unannotated bibliography on migration affecting Senegal. It is organized alphabetically by author under the following subjects: West African migration systems; History of Senegalese migrations; Senegalese migration in France, Italy, Spain, and the United States; Return migration and remittances; and Migration from elsewhere in Africa to Senegal.
Correspondence: S. Bredeloup, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, B.P. 1386, Dakar, Senegal. Location: University of Iowa Library, Ames, IA.

64:10438 Bustamante, Jorge A. Mexico-United States labor migration flows. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Winter 1997. 1,112-21 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"International migration from Mexico to the United States is viewed very differently depending on from which side of the border this phenomenon is observed and evaluated....[It is] imperative to begin a process of `demythifying' migration as a necessary and sufficient condition that would allow both countries to come together within the context of bilateral relations and find ways to act jointly to address the impacts of the issue. Such a demythifying effort must begin with scientific research which can help develop a diagnosis of the costs and benefits that labor migration from Mexico to the United States brings to the two countries."
Correspondence: J. A. Bustamante, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Tijuana, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10439 Butcher, Kristin F.; Piehl, Anne M. Recent immigrants: unexpected implications for crime and incarceration. NBER Working Paper, No. 6067, Jun 1997. 34, [21] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Among 18-40 year old men in the United States, immigrants are less likely to be institutionalized than the native-born, and much less likely to be institutionalized than native-born men with similar demographic characteristics. Furthermore, earlier immigrants are more likely to be institutionalized than more recent immigrants....These results are the opposite of what one would predict from the literature on immigrant earnings, where earlier immigrants are typically found to have better permanent labor market characteristics."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: kristin.butcher@bc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10440 Camilleri, Reno. South-North migration policies. Recent international achievements. Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 34, No. 126, Jun 1997. 195-223 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article aims at assessing migration policies pursued recently by countries surrounding the Mediterranean basin and other European states as they affect and influence South to North migratory movements. It concentrates on South/North migration, limiting the discussion mainly to the Maghreb group of countries. Without disregarding or in any way minimising the intensity of existing problems whose solution may not be in sight, the intention is to trace the positive developments in the debate on such issues through the individual and collective efforts of scholars, planners, politicians, governmental and non-governmental organisations, the Churches, and international organisations."
Correspondence: R. Camilleri, Ministry for Economic Services, Auberge d'Aragon, Valletta, Malta. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10441 Card, David. Immigrant inflows, native outflows, and the local labor market impacts of higher immigration. NBER Working Paper, No. 5927, Feb 1997. 43, [12] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper uses 1990 [U.S.] Census data to study the effects of immigrant inflows on the labor market opportunities of natives and older immigrants. I divide new immigrants, older immigrants, and natives into distinct skill groups and focus on skill-group-specific outcomes within cities....Even after accounting for endogenous mobility decisions I find that inter-city migration flows of natives and older immigrants are largely unaffected by new immigrant inflows. Inflows of new immigrants are associated with lower employment rates among natives and earlier immigrants, but with relatively small effects on the relative wage structure. The estimates imply that immigrant arrivals between 1985 and 1990 depressed the employment rate of low-skilled natives in major U.S. cities by 1-2 percentage points on average, and by substantially more in high-immigrant cities."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Author's E-mail: decard@princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10442 Carter, F. W. Poland's migration problems: a post-communist legacy. Geografski Vestnik, No. 67, 1995. 141-61 pp. Ljubljana, Slovenia. In Eng. with sum. in Slo.
"Poland's geographical location and the fall of communism has turned the country into a significant area for would-be migrants. This has changed the once predominant character of Poland as a `sending' migrant country into a `sending' and `receiving' one. The extra burden of additional temporary or permanent migrants from neighboring East and Central European states is, together with the expanding number of asylum seekers, placing further strains on the country's economy. It also has changed the demographic structure of the nation-state as well as the social and economic (trade) structure and traffic patterns."
Correspondence: F. W. Carter, London University, London SW7 2BB, England. Location: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI.

64:10443 Cesari, Jocelyne. Transnational networks between Europe and North Africa: the international without boundaries. [Les réseaux transnationaux entre l'Europe et le Maghreb: l'international sans territoire.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1997. 81-94 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Despite the process of settlement of migrants from North Africa in Europe, the relationships with the countries of origin are continuing by different ways: remittances, marriages, Islamic activities, ethnic business. All these activities are possible because of the development and extension of transnational networks between the two banks of the Mediterranean sea. These networks enlighten new forms of migration which cannot be defined...by the classical framework of immigration/emigration....In this perspective, the power of the Nation-States is more and more questioned as well as the supremacy of territory in...political and cultural regulation."
Correspondence: J. Cesari, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Recherche et d'Etude sur le Monde Arabe et Musulman, 3-5-7 Avenue Pasteur, 13617 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 1, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10444 Charbit, Yves; Hily, Marie-Antoinette; Poinard, Michel. The coming and going of identity: Portuguese migrants and their villages of origin. [Le va-et-vient identitaire: migrants portugais et villages d'origine.] INED Travaux et Documents, No. 140, ISBN 2-7332-0140-9. 1997. viii, 144 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This analysis of migration between Portugal and France is based on data from official sources and from three surveys carried out in the Portuguese villages of Foios, Freixianda, and Caldas das Taïpas, which involved a total of 454 household heads and 1,754 individuals. The authors note that the population of Portuguese origin currently resident in France now totals about one million. Although the Portuguese immigrant community in France is considered to be a model of successful assimilation, the authors note that most Portuguese maintain ongoing and regular contacts with their villages of origin, traveling frequently back to Portugal and investing in those villages, particularly by constructing new houses.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10445 Chen, Chaonan; Liu, Su-Fen. Migration into and out of Taiwan, 1895-1944. Journal of Population Studies, No. 18, Jun 1997. 39-66 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"This paper reviews Japanese and Chinese migration to Taiwan in the pre-war period [1895-1944] from the perspective of push-pull theory....We have found that migration by Japanese was much greater than that by Chinese, mainly the result of severe restriction on Chinese immigrants. We have also found that migration efficiency for Japanese and Chinese was low. Finally, the selectivity of the sex and age compositions of the migrants led to differential population growth for Japanese and Chinese."
Correspondence: C. Chen, Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10446 Conway, Dennis; Cohen, Jeffrey H. Consequences of migration and remittances for Mexican transnational communities. Economic Geography, Vol. 74, No. 1, Jan 1998. 26-44 pp. Worcester, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Our aims in this paper are to broaden explanation of remittance expenditures and to evaluate the positive contributions of remittances, return migrants, or circulating sojourners. Specifically focusing on the situation in `home' communities, we illustrate the multifaceted consequences of remittances and migration, emphasizing positive nonmonetary and social impacts." Data are from ethnographic research carried out in 1992-1993 in Santa Ana del Valle, Oaxaca, Mexico.
Correspondence: D. Conway, Indiana University, Department of Geography, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10447 DeWind, Josh; Kasinitz, Philip. Everything old is new again? Processes and theories of immigrant incorporation. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Winter 1997. 1,096-111 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"After three decades of renewed, large-scale immigration to the United States, social scientists are increasingly turning their attention to processes of immigrant incorporation and reexamining the perspectives of social scientists who studied similar processes in the past. This essay reviews the insights and questions raised by the foregoing articles in this special issue of the International Migration Review and assesses their theoretical contributions to understanding relations between immigrants and native-born Americans in contemporary processes of incorporation."
Correspondence: J. DeWind, Social Science Research Council, 810 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10448 DeWind, Josh; Hirschman, Charles; Kasinitz, Philip. Immigrant adaptation and native-born responses in the making of Americans. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Winter 1997. [399] pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The essays presented in this special issue...were originally prepared for a conference titled `Becoming Americans/America Becoming' that was held on Sanibel Island, Florida, in January of 1996....The conference was organized to provide an interdisciplinary overview and assessment of the dominant theories in the field of U.S. immigration studies. In framing the conference, the Committee began with the belief, as reflected in the conference title and the essays printed here, that the relations between immigrants and the native born are, in many respects, remaking America and what it means to be American. Here we present a selection of revised conference papers that are focused particularly on sociocultural and political aspects of immigrant incorporation and responses by native-born Americans."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1122. E-mail:cmslft@aol.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10449 Dupâquier, Jacques. Immigration statistics: myths and realities. [Les chiffres de l'immigration: mythes et réalités.] Revue des Sciences Morales et Politiques, No. 1, 1997. 71-99 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines some of the problems inherent in obtaining accurate statistics on the immigrant population of France. He notes that there is a clash between the official data on immigration, which indicate that there is no significant increase in the size of the immigrant population, and the general public's perception that the growth of the immigrant population is too large. He suggests that the acquisition of French nationality by immigrants creates problems in estimating the size of the immigrant population. He also describes recent efforts to improve the measurement of migration flows, and evaluates the contribution of immigration to the population of France since World War II. A section of comments on the paper and responses from the author is included (pp. 90-9).
Correspondence: J. Dupâquier, 197 rue St. Jacques, 60240 Delincourt, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10450 El-Saadani, Somaya M. International migration of females: case of Egypt. CDC Series on Population and Development, No. 6, 1994. 32 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
"The present paper is an analysis of the international migration of Egyptian females that took place in the time period 1974-1987. Published results of a nation-wide large scale survey, carried out by CAPMAS [the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics], have been employed. The principal aim of the paper is to show that although the volume of female emigration is very small relative to the volume of male emigration, it constitutes a significant percentage of female labor force. Most importantly, female emigration has striking features and quite different characteristics than those of male emigration....The paper demonstrates the importance of analyzing female emigration separately from male emigration in order to understand the different aspects of the Egyptian international labor migration process."
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Centre, 2 Lebanon Street, P.O. Box 73, Mohandiseen 12655, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10451 Fernandez, Edward W. Estimation of the annual emigration of U.S. born persons by using foreign censuses and selected administrative data: circa 1980. Population Division Working Paper Series, No. 10, Jan 1995. 30 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this study, the cohort survival method of analytical demography is supplemented by State Department U.S. citizen registration-data to estimate the annual rate of U.S. born emigration. The estimates generated, by age, sex, and race are not unreasonable reaching: 48,000 U.S. native born emigrants annually. This estimate is certainly no less credible than the current estimate of native-born emigration being used in our national estimation and projection programs."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10452 Findlay, A. M.; Li, F. L. N. An auto-biographical approach to understanding migration: the case of Hong Kong emigrants. Area, Vol. 29, No. 1, Mar 1997. 34-44 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to make a methodological contribution by evaluating the auto-biographical approach and its application to migration research. The migration act is seen as a manifestation of an individual's identity. This is moulded by many social influences over an individual's lifecourse. The paper explores the realm of practical consciousness...using a biographical approach in an attempt to identify the values underpinning the intentions of professional emigrants from Hong Kong."
Correspondence: A. M. Findlay, University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10453 Findlay, A. M.; Li, F. L. N. Economic restructuring, flexibility, and migration: Hong Kong's electronics industry in the global economy. CAPR Research Paper, No. 97-2, 1997. 34 pp. University of Dundee, Centre for Applied Population Research: Dundee, Scotland. In Eng.
By studying the strategies used by small- and medium-sized Hong Kong electronics companies to cope with the demands of the modern market, "this research paper examines the effect of economic restructuring on international labour migration. [It focuses] on the use of migrant labour by small companies with horizontal links to global production chains....The research reported here is part of a much larger inter-disciplinary survey of Pacific Asian migration systems based at the Universities of Dundee and Sheffield...." Twenty-five company managers were first interviewed, and 60 Hong Kong-based companies were then surveyed about their staffing and production strategies.
Correspondence: University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Centre for Applied Population Research, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10454 Findlay, A. M.; Li, F. L. N. Migration channels and the migration of professionals to and from Hong Kong. CAPR Research Paper, No. 96-4, 1996. 17 pp. University of Dundee, Centre for Applied Population Research: Dundee, Scotland. In Eng.
"Most international migrants depend on intermediaries to help them achieve employment and housing in another country. These intermediary agencies, by channelling information and resources, have an influence in moulding the process of international migration....This paper argues that research which compares the operation of different migration channels contributes to a better understanding of how migration systems operate....The empirical lens which will be used to re-assess the migration channels framework will be data drawn from a research project on skilled immigration to and emigration from Hong Kong in the 1990s."
Correspondence: University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Centre for Applied Population Research, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10455 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). Aliens and international migration, 1996. [Ulkomaalaiset ja siirtolaisuus, 1996.] Väestö/Befolkning/Population, No. 1997:14, ISBN 951-727-406-8. 1997. 56 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Fin. with sum. in Eng.
"This publication presents statistics on aliens living in Finland and on international migration in 1996. Most series in the publication were compiled from the period 1990-1996. The tables and figures are provided with English captions and the publication includes an English summary."
For an earlier publication concerning the situation in 1994, see 62:30460.
Correspondence: Statistics Finland, Sales Service, P.O. Box 3 B, 00022 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: myynti.tilastokeskus@stat.fi. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10456 Frejka, Tomas. International migration in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS. Economic Studies, No. 8, 1996. ix, 143 pp. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe: Geneva, Switzerland; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This volume examines the new patterns of migration emerging in Central and Eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union. "This publication contains previously unpublished data from a variety of sources, obtained and analysed by national experts. The first chapter provides an overview of the major migration flows and issues, covering all of central and eastern Europe and the CIS. The following country studies discuss the situation in 11 selected countries of central and eastern Europe. There is also a brief chapter discussing pertinent issues of international migration in the Commonwealth of Independent States." The countries are Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and the former USSR.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

64:10457 Gans, Herbert J. Toward a reconciliation of "assimilation" and "pluralism": the interplay of acculturation and ethnic retention. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Winter 1997. 875-92 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The reconciliation between `assimilation' and `pluralism' is sought to help prevent further polarization among immigration researchers and is based mainly on two arguments. First, if assimilation and acculturation are distinguished, acculturation has proceeded more quickly than assimilation in both `old' and `new' immigrations. This reconciles traditional assimilationist theory with current pluralist--or ethnic retention--theory, which admits that acculturation (and accommodation) are occurring but without assimilation. Second, the reconciliation can also be advanced by the recognition that the researchers of the old and new immigrations have studied different generations of newcomers and have approached their research with `outsider' and `insider' values, respectively." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: H. J. Gans, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10458 Giudici, Cristina. Women and migration plans. [Les femmes face au projet migratoire.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 34, No. 127, Sep 1997. 467-86 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"International migrations can be analysed from the family microeconomic point of view. Decisions connected with migration are in fact included in a well planned family `project' and the entire family is involved in defining such a project. Migrant women in particular represent, both in the country of origin and in the receiving country, a bridging factor between two societies, two countries, two cultures, not only on a personal or family level, but also through the numerous associations which have known, in the past few years, an unprecedented growth. On a macroeconomic level, integration policies are the right answer to the `migration project', both in their social, legal and cultural outlines."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10459 Gold, Steven J. Transnationalism and vocabularies of motive in international migration: the case of Israelis in the United States. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 40, No. 3, 1997. 409-27 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The great body of recent work on international migration has generally considered immigration as a permanent movement and explored the phenomenon from either a micro or macro perspective. Transnationalism offers a new model that integrates these dichotomized views. This paper uses the perspective of transnationalism to explore the motives of Israeli immigrants in the U.S. Integrating insights from both micro and world systems perspectives, findings emphasize the importance of personal and macro-level networks as well as Israelis' international culture and experience as both facilitating and giving meaning to their presence in the United States."
Correspondence: S. J. Gold, Michigan State University, Department of Sociology, 316 Berkey Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1111. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10460 Gulati, Leela. Asian women in international migration: with special reference to domestic work and entertainment. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 32, No. 47, Nov 22-28, 1997. 3,029-35 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
Recent trends in international migration in Asia are reviewed. The author notes that "in recent times, the gender composition of migration flows has undergone a significant change, with women making up increasing proportions of total migration. More significant is the skill composition of these migrants--the dominant groups are not qualified professionals, but domestic workers and entertainers."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10461 Halpin, Brendan. Who are the Irish in Britain? Evidence from large-scale surveys. Working Papers of the ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, No. 97-15, Aug 1997. 28 pp. University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change: Colchester, England. In Eng.
"This paper uses three large-scale surveys...to look at residents of Great Britain who were born in Ireland....Irish-born British residents tend to be older, relatively poorly educated, in lower-skill jobs and to have immigrated mainly in the period between the end of the war and the early 1960s....More recent [immigrants]...are better educated than British people of the same age-range and tend, especially in the case of women, to take skilled jobs....Immigrants from Northern Ireland...are disproportionately young, and even more highly educated than their contemporaries from the Republic."
Correspondence: University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex C04 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10462 Hercowitz, Zvi; Pines, David. Migration between home country and diaspora: an economic analysis. Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 65, No. 1, Jul 1997. 45-59 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the distribution of a population group between a home country and diaspora, given sequential decision-making regarding migration at the individual level. The home country is attractive to the members of the group, yet their presence there requires a fixed amount of public spending (e.g., on defense). The per-capita tax burden depends then on the size of the domestic population, reflecting a case of `fiscal externality'. This results in an inefficient distribution of the group between the home country and the diaspora. Encouraging immigration to the home country is an interest not only of those individuals who are currently in the home country but also of those residing in the diaspora. However, only when the burden of public spending in the home country is large enough do the latter volunteer to bear part of it. Even then, in general, this part is smaller than socially optimal."
Correspondence: D. Pines, Tel Aviv University, Eitam Berglas School of Economics, Ramat Aviv 69978, Tel Aviv, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10463 Huber, Gregory A.; Espenshade, Thomas J. Neo-isolationism, balanced-budget conservatism, and the fiscal impacts of immigrants. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Winter 1997. 1,031-54 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"A rise in neo-isolationism in the United States has given encouragement to a new fiscal politics of immigration. Growing anti-immigrant sentiment has coalesced with forces of fiscal conservatism to make immigrants an easy target of budget cuts. Limits on legal alien access to social welfare programs that are contained in the 1996 welfare and immigration reform acts seem motivated not so much by a guiding philosophy of what it means to be a member of American society as by a desire to shrink the size of the federal government and to produce a balanced budget. Even more than in the past, the consequence of a shrinking welfare state is to metamorphose legal immigrants from public charges to windfall gains for the federal treasury."
Correspondence: G. A. Huber, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10464 Jacobson, David. The immigration reader: America in a multidisciplinary perspective. ISBN 0-631-20776-7. LC 97-20376. 1998. xiii, 448 pp. Blackwell: Malden, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of previously published studies on aspects of immigration in the United States. "With sections on the history of immigration to the United States, ethnicity, the economy, comparative cross-national perspectives and political debates, this collection introduces immigration as a process which has shaped and continues to shape life in the United States and American identity. Contributions from scholars in the disciplines of sociology, political science, history, geography, law, and public policy provide a uniquely multidisciplinary perspective which will appeal to students, scholars, general readers, and policy makers."
Correspondence: Blackwell Publishers, 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10465 Johnson, James H.; Farrell, Walter C.; Guinn, Chandra. Immigration reform and the browning of America: tensions, conflicts and community instability in metropolitan Los Angeles. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Winter 1997. 1,055-95 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Tensions, conflicts, and community instability associated with heightened immigration--especially of nonwhite immigrant groups--threaten to balkanize America. This article highlights the root causes of the growing opposition to both immigrants and U.S. immigration policy--the nativist backlash, presents a typology of the community-level conflicts that have arisen as a consequence of heightened immigration--legal and illegal--to the United States over the last 30 years, and outlines the conditions under which diversity can be brought to the forefront as one of society's strengths....The 1992 Los Angeles County Social Survey (LACSS)...provides insights into the nature and magnitude of intergroup stereotyping and prejudice in a community in which large numbers of immigrants have settled."
Correspondence: J. H. Johnson, University of North Carolina, University Square 300A, CB No. 8120, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10466 Jones, Gavin W. "Australian identity", racism and recent responses to Asian immigration to Australia. Working Papers in Demography, No. 71, 1997. [19] pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
In the context of the recent increase in nonwhite immigration to Australia, particularly from Asia, Australian attitudes toward immigration are examined in the light of Australia's search for a national identity. The author notes that there has always been an element of racism in Australian nationalism and that public opinion is against Asian immigration, as well as against immigration in general, although immigration is not seen as an issue of major concern. The need for responsible political leadership to avoid an increase in anti-Asian attitudes, particularly among working-class Australians, is stressed.
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10467 Kulu, Hill. Estonian return migration 1940-1989: a case of West-Siberian Estonians. [Eestlaste tagasiränne 1940-1989: Lääne-Siberist pärit eestlaste näitel.] Pub. Order No. 128. ISBN 951-45-7726-4. 1997. 278 pp. University of Helsinki, Department of Geography: Helsinki, Finland. In Est. with sum. in Eng.
This study examines the return migration after World War II of the descendants of Estonians who had migrated to Russia at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries. The specific example analyzed is the return of migrants from West Siberia to Estonia. The author also evaluates different migration theories and models in human geography, as well as developments in research methodology concerning the study of return migration.
Correspondence: University of Helsinki, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 4, Yliopistonkatu 3, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Author's E-mail: hill@math.ut.ee. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10468 Kwon, Tai-Hwan. International migration of Koreans and the Korean community in China. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jul 1997. 1-18 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper examines the background and trends of the overseas migration of Koreans, which started in the late 19th century because of economic, political, and social conditions in the Korean peninsula. Major characteristics and problems of Korean communities overseas are also discussed using China as an example."
Correspondence: T.-H. Kwon, Seoul National University, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10469 Lack, John; Templeton, Jacqueline. Bold experiment: a documentary history of Australian immigration since 1945. ISBN 0-19-553548-0. 1995. xvi, 312 pp. Oxford University Press: South Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
This book examines the central paradox concerning immigration to Australia since 1945: although migration policies and programs were aimed at preserving Australia's identity as a British outpost, Australia has been transformed into an ethnically diverse and culturally pluralist society over the last 50 years. "It considers issues such as the development of policy, the decline and collapse of `White Australia' and the immigration debate of the mid-1980s. It examines the impact of immigration on individuals, documenting the settlement experiences of migrants and refugees from Britain, Europe and South-East Asia, and their perspectives on themselves, their communities and their place in Australian society."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 253 Normanby Road, South Melbourne, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10470 Lebon, André. Migration and nationality in France in 1996. [Migrations et nationalité en France en 1996.] ISBN 2-11-090714-2. Nov 1997. 103 pp. Ministère de l'Emploi et de la Solidarité, Direction de la Population et des Migrations: Paris, France. Distributed by La Documentation Française, Paris, France. In Fre.
This report, a summary version of the official annual report on immigration and the resident foreign population in France, concerns the situation in 1996. The report focuses on three main topics: the number of new immigrants and whether they are from countries that are members of the European Union; emigrants, including both those required to leave and those who are helped to leave; and acquisitions of French nationality through the procedures set up in the legislation of July 22, 1993. There are two appendixes: the first presents data on the characteristics of the economically active foreign population, and the second, which focuses on the situation in the European Union, describes the major administrative changes affecting immigration at the international level.
Correspondence: La Documentation Française, 29-31 quai Voltaire, 75344 Paris Cedex 07, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10471 Li, F. L. N.; Findlay, A. M. Your move or mine? An investigation of gender and migration amongst Hong Kong professional couples. CAPR Research Paper, No. 96-5, 1996. 18 pp. University of Dundee, Centre for Applied Population Research: Dundee, Scotland. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the role of women in the international migration of professional couples from Hong Kong to Canada and Britain. Our aim is to consider the role of gender in international migration in the context of the changing nature of patriarchy." The data are from studies conducted in 1993-1994 and 1995 among professional immigrants to and from Hong Kong. In-depth interviews with 20 couples are included.
Correspondence: University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Centre for Applied Population Research, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10472 Lievens, J. The third wave of immigration from Turkey and Morocco: determinants and characteristics. IPD Working Paper, No. 1997-2, 1997. 24 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography: Brussels, Belgium; Universiteit Gent, Vakgroep Bevolkingswetenschappen: Gent, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the question of which factors are responsible for the continuing immigration flow from Turkey and Morocco to Belgium, despite a restrictive immigration policy introduced in the 1970s specifically aimed at prohibiting further immigration from these countries. We demonstrate that the root causes of this unanticipated phenomenon are to be sought in the partner selection of the children of immigrants."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: esvbalck@vnet3.vub.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10473 Mac Laughlin, Jim. Location and dislocation in contemporary Irish society: emigration and Irish identities. ISBN 0-268-01317-9. LC 97-27245. 1997. ix, 354 pp. University of Notre Dame Press: Notre Dame, Indiana; Cork University Press, University College: Cork, Ireland. In Eng.
This is a collection of essays on aspects of emigration from Ireland. "By addressing the issues from a world perspective the contributors suggest that emigration is not simply a cultural tradition or behavioural trait of the Irish but a social-class and gendered response to structures operating in Irish society and the global economy generally. The geographical focus ranges across Britain, the United States and Europe. Several contributions testify to the emergence of an `emigrant aristocracy' and a `new wave' in recent Irish emigration. Others, while recognising the significance of these developments, caution against the over-voluntarization and gentrification of the recent exodus. Among the most innovative chapters in the volume are those which discuss the racialization of the Irish diaspora, the position of the New Irish Americans in the U.S. economic and social system, and Irish graduates in the new international division of labour. Other topics that receive detailed treatment include the gendered identities of Irish emigrants in Britain, the devaluation of nation and nationalism in political discourse in contemporary Ireland, the physical and mental health of the Irish in Britain, and representations of emigrants and emigration in recent Irish literature and in contemporary Irish music."
Correspondence: University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN 46556. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10474 Machado, Fernando L. Patterns and specific features of immigration in Portugal. [Contornos e especificidades da imigração em Portugal.] Sociologia--Problemas e Práticas, No. 24, Jun 1997. 9-44; 251 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"With...present international migration trends as its scenario, this article analyses the growth of immigration in Portugal, emphasising four main aspects: the balance between immigration and the recent resumption of emigration; the factors which have favoured the entry of immigrants; the composition of these immigrants in terms of country of origin; and the specific characteristics of Portuguese immigration in the context of the European Union."
Correspondence: F. L. Machado, Institut Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa, Departamento de Sociologia, Avenida das Forças Armadas, 1600 Lisbon, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10475 Mak, Anita S. Skilled Hong Kong immigrants' intention to repatriate. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1997. 169-84 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"An emphasis on skills in Australian immigration policy in the past decade has led to the increase of highly skilled Hong Kong immigrants. However, Australia has not been able to retain all of them....This paper reports the results of an in-depth study on intention to repatriate and work in Hong Kong, conducted in Australia with 111 professional and managerial Hong Kong immigrants. Correlational and loglinear analyses on prediction of such an intention are presented. Research findings on the career-family dilemma experienced by a number of immigrants are likewise discussed."
Correspondence: A. S. Mak, University of Canberra, P.O. Box 1, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10476 Monticelli, Giuseppe L.; Pittau, Franco. Regional tables on immigration in Italy. [Schede regionali sull'immigrazione in Italia.] Critica Sociologica, No. 114-115, 1995-1996. 123-45 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
A summary of immigration into the various regions of Italy is presented by the organization Caritas of Rome; most of the data, taken from official sources, are from 1994. The data, presented in separate tables by region, include the immigrants' continent of origin, sex distribution, age distribution, family situation, religious affiliation, and labor force status.
Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

64:10477 Mountford, Andrew. Can a brain drain be good for growth in the source economy? Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 53, No. 2, Aug 1997. 287-303 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the interaction between income distribution, human capital accumulation and migration. It shows that when migration is not a certainty, a brain drain may increase average productivity and equality in the source economy even though average productivity is a positive function of past average levels of human capital in an economy. It is also shown how the temporary possibility of emigration may permanently increase the average level of productivity of an economy."
Correspondence: A. Mountford, Southampton University, Department of Economics, Southampton SO17 1BJ, England. E-mail: mount@soton.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

64:10478 Münz, Rainer. A continent of migration: European mass migration in the twentieth century. New Community, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1996. 201-26 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article gives an overview of the size and geography of migration to and within Europe. Changing causes, patterns and trends of international migration, as well as key periods, are discussed. It also analyses the composition of foreign resident populations in Europe. The article covers the second half of the twentieth century. Different types of mass migration as well as links between particular sending and receiving countries are analysed. The article also looks at public opinion concerning ethnocentric attitudes and the number of foreigners in Europe. Finally, policy options are discussed."
Correspondence: R. Münz, Humboldt-Universität, Universitätstraße 3b, 1080 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10479 Natale, Marcello; Strozza, Salvatore. Foreign immigrants to Italy. How many are there, who are they, how do they live? [Gli immigrati stranieri in Italia. Quanti sono, chi sono, come vivono?] 1997. 507 pp. Cacucci Editore: Bari, Italy. In Ita.
This is a comprehensive study of immigrants in Italy. The authors begin by placing immigration to Italy in the context of global demographic and economic developments. A second chapter addresses various interdisciplinary aspects of immigration. Subsequent chapters deal with the problems involved in defining and measuring immigration. Estimates of legal and clandestine immigration to Italy are presented, and the labor force participation of immigrants is discussed. There are several chapters on integration, and a final chapter on human and capital flows.
Correspondence: Cacucci Editore, Via Nicolai 17, 70122 Bari, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10480 Neveu, Catherine. Nations, borders, and immigration in Europe. [Nations, frontières et immigration en Europe.] Migrations et Changements, No. 40, ISBN 2-7384-3248-4. 1995. 249 pp. L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
This collective work is a product of several international, interdisciplinary seminars held at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy, during 1991 and 1992. The contributions included here are organized around two main themes: cultural pluralism and immigration; and nationality, citizenship, and borders. The focus of the contributions is on revising some accepted ideas on immigration in order to cope with the problems posed by recent trends in immigration to Europe, especially those problems related to assimilation and the growth of multicultural societies.
Correspondence: Editions l'Harmattan, 5-7 rue de l'Ecole-Polytechnique, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10481 Noiriel, Gérard. The French melting pot: immigration, citizenship, and national identity. Contradictions of Modernity, Vol. 5, ISBN 0-8166-2419-4. LC 95-52323. 1996. xxix, 325 pp. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
The author examines immigration in France in historical perspective, with emphasis on its role in the growth of the French population considering France's early fertility decline. He analyzes French discussions on immigration history, the legal history of immigration and naturalization, the characteristics of French immigrants, their social experience, and the place of immigration in French history as a whole since 1800. He also compares and contrasts the French and U.S. immigration experiences, particularly regarding assumptions about whether immigrants should be expected to assimilate into the general population as soon as possible or should continue to retain cultural, religious, and ethnic differences. The issues posed by recent large-scale immigration to France from North Africa are assessed in the light of past French and U.S. experience.
For the original French edition, published in 1988, see 54:30485.
Correspondence: University of Minnesota Press, 111 Third Avenue South, Suite 290, Minneapolis, MN 55401-2520. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10482 Perlmann, Joel; Waldinger, Roger. Second generation decline? Children of immigrants, past and present--a reconsideration. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Winter 1997. 893-922 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Is the contemporary second generation on the road to the upward mobility and assimilation that in retrospect characterized the second generation of earlier immigrations? Or are the American economic context and the racial origins of today's immigration likely to result in a much less favorable future for the contemporary second generation? While several recent papers have argued for the latter position, we suspect they are too pessimistic. We briefly review the second generation upward mobility in the past and then turn to the crucial comparisons between past and present."
Correspondence: J. Perlmann, Bard College, Jerome Levy Economics Institute, P.O. Box 5000, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504-5000. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10483 Pierre, Claudine. Borders, immigration, and international relations on the eve of World War II. [Frontière, immigration et relations internationales à la veille de la Seconde Guerre mondiale.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1997. 163-78 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author investigates international migratory movements in Europe between the two world wars, with a focus on the impact of economic and social changes brought about by World War I. "The economic crisis brought out new behavioral patterns. Although the number of foreign migrant workers was decreasing, there appeared xenophobic attitudes....The terrible events that led to the War questioned and upset the efforts towards stabilization made by most foreigners. They were soon considered as would-be enemies....[The] hard times further reinforced the precarious situation of foreigners living in border areas."
Correspondence: C. Pierre, Université de Reims, La Cresonnière, 08090 Aiglemont, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10484 Pittau, Franco; Alessandrelli, Carla; Bocchini, Paolo. The regularization of foreign workers under law 489/1995, in the context of migration in Italy. [La regolarizzazione dei lavoratori extracomunitari ex decreto-legge 489/1995 nel panorama delle migrazioni in Italia.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 34, No. 126, Jun 1997. 269-83 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Between November 1995 and March 1996, Italy enacted a new programme for the regularization of foreigners in an irregular situation....The programme had major consequences not only on foreign population size, since more than one million immigrants held residence permits at the end of 1996, but also on the labour market, by considerably reducing the illegal labour force....The first part [of the essay] deals with legal provisions under which regularization could be granted, the success in combating illegal situations..., a comparison with previous regularization programmes and the geographical distribution of regularized immigrants. The second part analyses the specific relationship between regularization and labour market taking into account foreigners registered as unemployed, those employed under new contracts, and relevant percentages according to sectors of activity and regions. A final section is dedicated to the study of similarities and differences between present and past employment of foreign workers."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10485 Portes, Alejandro. Immigration theory for a new century: some problems and opportunities. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Winter 1997. 799-825 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This essay examines some of the pitfalls in contemporary immigration theory and reviews some of the most promising developments in research in this field. As a data-driven field [of] study, immigration has not had to contend with grand generalizations for highly abstract theorizing. On the contrary, the bias has run in the opposite direction, that is toward ground-level studies of particular migrant groups or analysis of official migration policies. As the distillate of past research in the field and a source of guidance for future work, theory represents one of the most valuable products of our collective intellectual endeavor. Ways to foster it and problems presented by certain common misunderstandings about the meaning and scope of scientific theorizing are discussed." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: A. Portes, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10486 Reniers, Georges. On the selectivity and internal dynamics of labour migration processes: a cross-cultural analysis of Turkish and Moroccan migration to Belgium. IPD Working Paper, No. 1997-7, 1997. 25 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography: Brussels, Belgium; Universiteit Gent, Vakgroep Bevolkingswetenschappen: Gent, Belgium. In Eng.
"The data used here come from surveys on the Migration History and Social Mobility (MHSM) carried out among Turkish and Moroccan men living in Belgium....I shall focus on the socio-economic and politico-historical context in which labour migration from both countries developed. Special attention will be paid to the contribution of these contextualities for the composition and characteristics of the migrant group still living in Belgium. In a second part, a logit analysis will be presented in which the selectivity with respect to educational level is analysed."
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: esvbalck@vub.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10487 Robin, Nelly. Atlas of West African migration to Europe, 1985-1993. [Atlas des migrations ouest-africaines vers l'Europe, 1985-1993.] ISBN 2-7099-1347-X. 1996. 109 pp. Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération [ORSTOM]: Paris, France; European Communities, Statistical Office [EUROSTAT]: Luxembourg. In Fre.
A series of maps illustrating trends in migration from Western Africa to the countries of the European Union in the period 1985 to 1993 is presented, based primarily on EUROSTAT data. The maps are organized under three topics: The origins and uniqueness of the West African migration to the European Union; The demographic characteristics of the West African population now living in the European Union; and Migrations of crisis--or migration crises.
Correspondence: Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, 209-213 rue La Fayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10488 Rumbaut, Rubén G. Assimilation and its discontents: between rhetoric and reality. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Winter 1997. 923-60 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"It is in [the] conceptual interstices between theory, rhetoric, and reality that paradoxes (or at least what may appear as paradoxes) emerge. By focusing on paradoxes--on evidence that contradicts orthodox expectations and points instead to assimilation's discontents--the aim of this article is to test empirically the conception of assimilation as a linear process leading to improvements in immigrant outcomes over time and generation in the United States, to unmask underlying pre-theoretical ethnocentric pretensions, and to identify areas in need of conceptual, analytical and theoretical refinement. It is precisely through the examination of paradoxical cases--in effect, deviant case analyses--that fruitful reformulations can be stimulated, considered, and advanced."
Correspondence: R. G. Rumbaut, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10489 Rybakovskii, Leonid L. The migration potential of the Russian population in the countries of the near-abroad. [Migratsionnyi potentsial Russkogo naseleniya v stranakh novogo zarubezh'ya.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 11, 1996. 31-42 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The author describes how migration flows between Russia and the countries of the near-abroad have intensified during the 1990s. In particular, he considers the extensive return to Russia of the Russian-speaking population from Central Asia and Caucasus. Some legislative consequences of the mass migration to Russia from countries outside Russia that were part of the former Soviet Union are outlined, including the issue of Russian citizenship for those of Russian origin and the need to develop support systems for returning migrants.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10490 Salt, John; Stein, Jeremy. Migration as a business: the case of trafficking. International Migration, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1997. 467-94 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A case is made for treating international migration as a global business which has both legitimate and illegitimate sides....The article focuses on migrant trafficking, the core of the illegitimate business....Our model conceives of trafficking as an intermediary part of the global migration business facilitating movement of people between origin and destination countries....The model also suggests how through the existence of common routes and networks of contacts, traffickers increasingly channel migrants, thus determining the geography of movement. We also demonstrate the model with available evidence on trafficking mainly in and across Europe and attempt thereby to show how trafficking operates both theoretically and in practice."
Correspondence: J. Salt, University College London, Department of Geography, Migration Research Unit, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10491 Schiff, Maurice. South-North migration and trade: a survey. Policy Research Working Paper, No. 1696, Dec 1996. 55 pp. World Bank, International Economics Department: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study examines the extent to which trade policies might be used to decrease the pressures affecting migration from poor to rich countries. The relationship between trade and migration is first examined, and the relevant theories and data are reviewed. Next, the welfare implications for sending and receiving countries of migration and of alternative trade and migration policies are considered. Relevant analyses are then carried out using both one-sector and two-sector models. Assuming that migration generates externalities, the author concludes that "the South should liberalize trade, while the North should impose an (optimal) immigration tax."
Correspondence: World Bank, Room N5-047, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Author's E-mail: mpatena@worldbank.org. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10492 Skeldon, Ronald. Emigration from Hong Kong: tendencies and impacts. ISBN 962-201-684-7. 1995. xiv, 304 pp. Chinese University Press: Hong Kong. In Eng.
This book presents nine studies by various authors examining the potential for emigration from Hong Kong before its reversion to China in 1997. The focus is on issues of social class, income differences, and migration tendencies. The studies suggest that only a small minority would emigrate and that these emigrants would be drawn from particular strata of Hong Kong society. Attention is also given to those who attempted to emigrate from Hong Kong but failed, and to those who had no intention of emigrating.
Correspondence: Chinese University Press, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. E-mail: cup@cuhk.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10493 Smith, James P.; Edmonston, Barry. The new Americans: economic, demographic, and fiscal effects of immigration. ISBN 0-309-06356-6. LC 97-21182. 1997. xi, 434 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report was prepared by the National Research Council's Panel on the Demographic and Economic Impacts of Immigration and concerns the economic, demographic, and fiscal effects of immigration to the United States. "Three key questions are explored: What is the influence of immigration on the overall economy, especially national and regional labor markets? What are the overall effects of immigration on federal, state, and local government budgets? [and] What effects will immigration have on the future size and makeup of the nation's population over the next 50 years? The study examines what immigrants gain by coming to the United States and what they contribute to the country, the skills of immigrants and those of native-born Americans, the experiences of immigrant women and other groups, and much more. It offers examples of how to measure the impact of immigration on government revenues and expenditures--estimating one year's fiscal impact in California, New Jersey, and the United States and projecting the long-run fiscal effects on government revenues and expenditures. Also included is background information on immigration policies and practices and data on where immigrants come from, what they do in America, and how they will change the nation's social fabric in the decades to come."
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10494 Stern, Aaron. Quantitative international migration data for Thailand: an overview. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1997. 229-54 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the main characteristics of migration data for movements into and out of Thailand. It considers only international migration and it covers the following areas: (1) who collects and disseminates international migration data for Thailand; (2) what sorts of data are available; and (3) what are the major characteristics of these data. It is designed as a guide for persons using Thai migration data to help them interpret these data more clearly....The paper concludes with some brief suggestions about how to improve migration data collection and dissemination in Thailand."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10495 Tanton, John; McCormack, Denis; Smith, Joseph W. Immigration and the social contract: the implosion of Western societies. ISBN 1-85972-429-9. LC 96-85236. 1996. xviii, 237 pp. Avebury: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
This book contains a selection of articles on aspects of current immigration to the United States. The focus of the collection is on whether the United States can continue as a viable and humane society in the face of large-scale and relatively uncontrolled immigration, particularly of those who are poor, uneducated, and unskilled. Specifically, the editors put forward the concept of the "social contract" and suggest that contemporary U.S. governments have failed to uphold Article IV, Section 4 of the Constitution, which guarantees to individual states protection against invasion and domestic violence. The contributions are organized under four headings: Understanding the United States' immigration problem; The costs of immigration to the United States; Immigration, multiculturalism, and the breakdown of nations; and Changing places, changing faces--demographic warfare?
Correspondence: Avebury Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hampshire GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10496 Thom, Linda H. The cuckoo's egg: how the U.S. Department of Education is misleading America about immigration's impact on our nation's schools. Population and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 2, Nov 1997. 119-27 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author critically examines U.S. Department of Education data that attempt to account for the country's rising school enrollment. The focus in on the extent to which immigration has contributed to that increase. The author asserts that "the Federal Government is...slipping other people's children into our nests and telling us that we should take responsibility for them. It is gravely harming American children with overcrowded classrooms."
Correspondence: L. H. Thom, 1236 Camino Palomera, Santa Barbara, CA 93111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10497 Wang, Gungwu. Global history and migrations. Global History, ISBN 0-8133-3123-4. LC 96-34282. 1997. 309 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This book contains a selection of 10 papers examining the relationship between globalization and international migration. The focus is on how the study of migration history can contribute to our understanding of the globalization process. The geographical focus is worldwide, but individual papers deal with the situation at the regional level in Europe, Africa, and Asia. Topics covered include labor migration, urbanization, refugees, and migration policies.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10498 Yoon, In-Jin. A cohort analysis of Korean immigrants' class backgrounds and socioeconomic status in the United States. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jul 1997. 61-81 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"In this article, I first survey briefly the history of Korean immigration to the United States from 1903 to the present. Second, I explain the motivations and entry mechanisms that brought Korean immigrants into the United States. Third, I document and explain the changes in the class backgrounds of Korean immigrants during the last three decades. Finally, I examine how such changes have affected the patterns of social and economic adaptation among the different waves of immigrants."
Correspondence: I.-J. Yoon, Korea University, Department of Sociology, 1, 5-ga, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10499 Zhou, Min. Segmented assimilation: issues, controversies, and recent research on the new second generation. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Winter 1997. 975-1,008 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The segmented assimilation theory offers a theoretical framework for understanding the process by which the new second generation--the children of contemporary immigrants--becomes incorporated into the system of stratification in the host society and the different outcomes of this process. This article examines the issues and controversies surrounding the development of the segmented assimilation theory and reviews the state of recent empirical research relevant to this theoretical approach. It also highlights main conclusions from recent research that bear on this theory and their implications for future studies." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: M. Zhou, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

64:10500 Böltken, Ferdinand; Bucher, Hansjörg; Janich, Helmut. Migration links and the background of spatial mobility in Germany since 1990. [Wanderungsverflechtungen und Hintergründe räumlicher Mobilität in der Bundesrepublik seit 1990.] Informationen zur Raumentwicklung, No. 1/2, 1997. 35-50 pp. Bonn, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"On the basis of the migration link matrix developed by the Federal Research Institute for Regional Geography and Regional Planning, the migration links between the counties of the Federal Republic of Germany are analysed for the period 1990 to 1994. An increasing [balance] of east-west and west-east migration flows can be observed....On a small scale, the suburbanization process from the central cities into their urbanized surrounding areas, which has been going on for many years, is continuing, while the beginning suburbanization in the east is characterized more by net in-migration from the little urbanized urban hinterland....Based on surveys conducted by the Federal Research Institute for Regional Geography and Regional Planning from 1990 to 1996, it is investigated how far these tendencies for [balancing out] can also be corroborated with respect to the subjective background of moving and migration plans. One finds a far-reaching correspondence between the extent and the motives of spatial mobility as well as [an] interrelationship between observed deficits and moving intentions."
Correspondence: F. Böltken, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landeskunde und Raumordnung, Am Michaelshof 8, 53177 Bonn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10501 Boyle, Paul; Shen, Jianfa. Public housing and migration: a multi-level modelling approach. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 3, Sep 1997. 227-42 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper...[analyzes] the distance moved by one-year migrants using a multi-level modelling approach. Controlling for a range of socio-economic variables, derived from the 1991 British Census Sample of Anonymised Records (SAR), at both the individual and area level, the distance moved by household heads in public, privately rented and owner-occupied housing within Britain is assessed....It is confirmed that migrants in public housing are less likely to migrate long distances than owner-occupiers and that the proportion of public housing in a SAR area, and the absolute reduction in public housing in a SAR area between 1981 and 1991, does not have a significant effect on the distance that in-migrants have moved."
Correspondence: P. Boyle, University of Canterbury, Department of Geography, Christchurch, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10502 Burnley, Ian. Migration, well-being and development in coastal New South Wales 1976-91. Australian Geographer, Vol. 27, No. 1, May 1996. 53-75 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"The study seeks first to ascertain whether the age profile of net migration [in coastal New South Wales, Australia] varied during the period 1976-91....The second aim is to determine whether or not the impact of net migration on population growth remained constant throughout the period 1976-91. Thirdly, the study seeks to ascertain whether or not socio-economic change during the period can be shown to be indicative of areal variations in advantage and disadvantage. Fourthly, it seeks to determine whether there is any association between age-specific net migration and family composition and, if so, to determine whether this association may be indicative of areal variation in development. Fifthly, classifications of the socio-economic characteristics of the population are undertaken...."
Correspondence: I. Burnley, University of New South Wales, School of Geography, P.O. Box 1, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI.

64:10503 Chudinovskikh, O. The study of the long-term impact of migration in a region according to the 1979 and 1989 population censuses. [Izuchenie dolgovremennykh posledstvii migratsii v regione po materialam perepisei naseleniya 1979 i 1989 godov.] Voprosy Statistiki, No. 3, 1997. 37-45 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The long-term implications of migration trends in the Russian Federation at the regional level are analyzed using data from the 1979 and 1989 censuses. Consideration is given to the sources of migration data in general as well as to the quality of the available data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10504 Feletar, Dragutin. A comparison of population characteristics in the 1948 and 1991 Croatian censuses, based on new territorial divisions. [Neke znacajke usporedbe broja stanovnika u Hrvatskoj 1948. i 1991. godine na bazi novoga teritorijalnog ustroja.] Acta Geographica Croatica, Vol. 30, 1995. 61-77 pp. Zagreb, Croatia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The first part of [the] article [explains] the need for analysis of changes in [the] spatial disposition of population, introduced in the new territorial division of Croatia....The second part...[analyzes] changes introduced in [the] spatial disposition of population, with special attention paid to 2 main characteristics: demographic loss of population in rural areas...and polarization into regional urban centers....Finally, the article [points] out that these unfavourable processes must be stopped by well-planned economic polycentric growth, as well as by new demographic policy stimulating natural population growth, and finally by stimulating re-settlement of population into these areas, especially [of] the numerous Croats living abroad."
Location: Harvard University Library, Cambridge, MA.

64:10505 Frey, William H.; Liaw, Kao-Lee. Immigrant concentration and domestic migrant dispersal: is movement to non-metro areas "white flight"? Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 97-394, Jun 1997. 9 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper examines linkages between recent domestic out-migration from immigrant gateway metropolitan areas and non-metropolitan migration gains [in the United States]. A compilation of recent census estimates for the 1990-96 period shows that the nation's ten high immigration metropolitan areas collectively lost 3.6 million domestic migrants over the first six years of the 1990s, at the same time that non-metropolitan areas gained 1.5 million. Our analyses of these data suggest that there is a `mirror image' of migration patterns between high immigration metro area losses and non-metropolitan area gains."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI.

64:10506 Goria, Alessandra; Ichino, Andrea. Migration and convergence among Italian regions. Nota di Lavoro, No. 51.94, 1994. 36 pp. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei: Milan, Italy. In Eng.
"This paper provides some preliminary evidence on the relation between migration and per capita income convergence among Italian regions taking into account the human capital content of migration flows. Migration appears to favour the process of regional convergence observed in Italy between 1962 and 1975: in this period population movements seem to be mainly characterised by flows of unskilled labour from southern and north-eastern regions towards north-western and central regions. After 1975 the intensity of migration flows decreases and also the nature of these flows seems to change: the previous movements of unskilled labour are substituted by less intense flows of more skilled labour in particular out of the north and towards the south."
Correspondence: A. Goria, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Via S. Sofia 27, 20122 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10507 Harris, David R. The flight of whites: a multilevel analysis of why whites move. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 97-386, Apr 1997. 15 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper considers the question, `Why do whites move?' Geocoded data from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics [1980-85] is used to examine the effects of neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood socioeconomic status, household traits, dwelling characteristics, and geographic setting on white mobility incidence. Findings indicate that individual-level characteristics are consistently strong predictors of whether whites will move. In contrast, racial and class composition are rarely reliable predictors of mobility incidence. A notable exception is the case of white families with children approaching school age."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI.

64:10508 Herting, Jerald R.; Grusky, David B.; Van Rompaey, Stephen E. The social geography of interstate mobility and persistence. American Sociological Review, Vol. 62, No. 2, Apr 1997. 267-87 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We introduce a new model of geographic mobility that maps the underlying contours of sociocultural space [in the United States] after purging the confounding effects of distance, inertia, contiguity, and population size....We argue that known features of the social landscape should be entered explicitly into mobility specifications. This approach yields new insights into (1) the net holding power of regions, subregions, and states; (2) the effects of macro-level variables on propensities for immobility and exchange; and (3) influence of seemingly minor variations in the shape of regions on gross patterns of immobility and exchange."
Correspondence: J. R. Herting, Battelle Centers for Public Health Research and Evaluation, 4000 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. E-mail: herting@battelle.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10509 Kalule-Sabiti, I.; Kahimbaara, J. A. Analysis of life-time migration in the former Transkei, Eastern Cape. South African Journal of Sociology/Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Sosiologie, Vol. 27, No. 3, Aug 1996. 81-9 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng. with sum. in Afr.
The authors analyze internal migration in Transkei, South Africa. They "attempt to provide answers and explanations to the following issues: trends and patterns of internal migration, including migration fields of the sample urban places at varying stages (moves) in the migration cycle; characteristics of the migration process, including information sources or destinations (and whether destinations were visited before migration occurred), and reasons for migrating; individual characteristics of migrants including age-sex composition, education, marital status, economic activity, and time spent looking for a job; migration differentials, including household incomes, tenure of housing, household size, household composition, and fertility."
Correspondence: I. Kalule-Sabiti, University North West, Institute of Development Research, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10510 Kasarda, John D.; Appold, Stephen J.; Sweeney, Stuart H.; Sieff, Elaine. Central-city and suburban migration patterns: is a turnaround on the horizon? Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1997. 307-58 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The huge population losses that characterized many older, larger U.S. cities during the 1960s and 1970s slowed and in some cases ceased during the 1980s and early 1990s....Analysis of metropolitan household migration patterns based on the U.S. Census Bureau's 1980 and 1990 Public Use Microdata Samples and more recent Current Population Surveys shows that the dominant trend in residential movement among most population subgroups is still toward the suburbs. While not discounting reports of central-city neighborhood turnarounds and selective demographic revitalization, our findings imply that those improvements are limited and that a widespread back-to-the-city movement is not likely in the foreseeable future."
Correspondence: J. D. Kasarda, University of North Carolina, Department of City and Regional Planning, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10511 Leinbach, Thomas R.; Watkins, John F. Remittances and circulation behavior in the livelihood process: transmigrant families in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Economic Geography, Vol. 74, No. 1, Jan 1998. 45-63 pp. Worcester, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The impact of migrant remittances in Indonesia is examined using data gathered in interviews undertaken in 21 households and with village leaders participating in the transmigration program in Cinta Karya, Sumatra, Indonesia. "Our findings illustrate that remittance behavior is spatially controlled and temporally variable, as families balance their labor and capital resources among farm production, local industry and investments, and the often unpredictable nature of circulation employment and remittances. We emphasize the linked and recursive nature of elements in the livelihood process and the related importance of temporal family dynamics in decision-making strategies."
Correspondence: T. R. Leinbach, University of Kentucky, Department of Geography, Lexington, KY 40506-0027. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10512 Lundh, Christer. Youth migration in a life-cycle perspective. Lund Papers in Economic History, No. 52, 1996. 27 pp. University of Lund, Department of Economic History: Lund, Sweden. In Eng.
"In this article the migratory movements of young people in the Swedish countryside in the early nineteenth century will be studied from a life-cycle perspective....If a life-cycle perspective is adopted, it becomes apparent that young people's migration in the preindustrial countryside was part of an institutional pattern in which the majority of young people moved about between different employers before settling down and getting married."
Correspondence: University of Lund, Department of Economic History, P.O. Box 7083, 220 07 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10513 Paasi, Anssi. Regional identity and regional migration: birth places and present dwelling places of the Finns. [Alueellinen identiteetti ja alueellinen liikkuvuus: suomalaisten syntymäpaikat ja nykyiset asuinalueet.] Terra, Vol. 108, No. 4, 1996. 210-23 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Fin. with sum. in Eng.
"Regional identity has become a popular theme in public debates in Finland, mainly due to the aim of the present government to replace the current division of 12 administrative provinces with 5 or 7 new, larger ones....An empirical analysis of the present day Finns is then carried out...to compare where people living in various provinces were born and where they lived at the end of 1994....Less than a half of the present day Finns live in the commune where they were born, although the differences between communes are large, being less than 25 percent in the Helsinki area whereas elsewhere in Finland it is often greater than 70 percent."
Correspondence: A. Paasi, University of Oulu, Department of Geography, Linnanmaa, 90570 Oulu, Finland. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

64:10514 Scharping, Thomas. Floating population and migration in China. The impact of economic reforms. Mitteilungen des Instituts für Asienkunde Hamburg, No. 284, ISBN 3-88910-190-9. 1997. 376 pp. Institut für Asienkunde: Hamburg, Germany. In Eng.
"This is a collection of [16] essays [by various authors] hailing from an international conference on migration and floating population in China, held at Cologne University, Germany, in May 1996. It contains assessments of large-scale trends in Chinese migration dynamics, contributions on changes in labour policies, structural segmentation in the evolving labour market and transformations of the household registration system. Case studies of migrant behaviour, income and employment developments in the Pearl River Delta, Shanghai, Shandong and Sichuan as well as work on two samples of towns and villages in different provinces discuss crucial aspects of migration. Further contributions concentrate on gender-issues and attitudinal questions involved, on migration in Taiwan and population movement across the Taiwan Strait. An introductory essay focuses on theories, methods and sources for the study of migration in China. The various contributions are based on analysis of Chinese materials, investigations and census figures from the 1982-95 period."
Correspondence: Institut für Asienkunde, Rothenbaumchaussee 32, 20148 Hamburg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10515 Scharping, Thomas; Sun, Huaiyang; Schulze, Walter; Jia, Tongjin; Chen, Runtian. Migration in China's Guangdong Province: major results of a 1993 sample survey on migrants and floating population in Shenzhen and Foshan. Mitteilungen des Instituts für Asienkunde Hamburg, No. 273, ISBN 3-88910-179-8. 1997. 163 pp. Institut für Asienkunde: Hamburg, Germany. In Eng.
"This volume offers the results of an in-depth migration survey which was conducted in the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone and in Foshan City of Guangdong Province of Southern China in July 1993. It focuses on issues little studied before such as subjective migration reasons as opposed to official migration channels, job searching avenues and information flows, economic behavior and performance of migrants, their social characteristics, subjective appraisals and adaptability in places of destination. The main emphasis is on employment and income developments. Non-migrants are covered to provide a framework for reference. The findings are contained in a first analysis of major relationships as well as 118 tables and figures...."
Correspondence: Institut für Asienkunde, Rothenbaumchaussee 32, 20148 Hamburg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10516 Takenaka, Katsuyuki. Time-space analysis of internal migration in Spain (1962-1993): with special attention to the changes in migration pattern in the 1970s. Journal of Geography, Vol. 105, No. 1, 1996. 31-52 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"In this study, the internal migration in Spain from 1962 to 1993 is analyzed from the viewpoint of migration flows, with special emphasis on the spatial scale and direction of migration as well as the migration fields....The evolution of the spatial scale and direction of migration shows a radical change in the middle 1970s: migrations from 1962 to 1975 (first period) were unidirectional movements at great distance (interprovincial and interregional), whereas those from 1976 to 1993 (second period) are characterized by the weight of intraprovincial movements and the bidirectionality of interprovincial movements. Through the two periods, the major sector in which migrants are employed has shifted from the industry to the service sector."
Correspondence: K. Takenaka, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan. Location: Academy of National Science Library, Philadelphia, PA.

64:10517 Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhigang, Wu; Chen, Liangbioa. Age difference among the rural labor force in interregional migration. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1997. 193-201 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The impact of age upon social and economic activities cannot be ignored. The extent of such impact upon the rural labor force in interregional migration, in terms of mode, choice of new occupation, choice of job, stability, level of income, and their feelings about the new workplaces, is an important subject that deserves adequate attention in the formulation of the policy on regulating the migrating labor force....This study is an introductory analysis of the aforementioned issues based on the data obtained in [a] survey on the interregional migration of rural labor force, conducted between December 1994 and April 1995 by the [Chinese] Office of Permanent Rural Observation Posts."
Correspondence: X. Zhang, Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Economy Research Center, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10518 Zhang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Qian. The push-pull theory of migration and its application. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1997. 255-63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Since the beginning of the 1980s, a migration project involving 550,000 people in Gansu and Ningxia provinces has been underway as part of the program to explore the natural resources, eliminate poverty, and improve the environment....The tremendous achievement of the migration project...is accompanied by some social and ecological problems. In order for the migration projects to have scientific basis and to follow a standard procedure, it is imperative to establish a theoretical model that fits the conditions in China concerning the mechanism, magnitude, settlement planning, impact evaluation, and management system of migration. This study is such an attempt based on empirical research."
Correspondence: Z. Zhang, Lanzhou University, Institute of Social Development, 78 Tianshui Road, 730000 Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

64:10519 Ahmad, Aijazuddin. Tibetan immigrants in India. Population Geography, Vol. 17, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1995. 7-14 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"This paper documents the current evidence of the state of the Tibetan society in India with special reference to the trends in social transformation, livelihood patterns and cultural adaptation to a geographically alien environment....Three-and-a-half decades of living in India [have] demonstrated how a culture group can survive by carving out ecological niches in ethnically segregated social space and yet adapt to a new cultural environment without losing its identity."
Correspondence: A. Ahmad, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Centre for the Study of Regional Development, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10520 Darques, Régis. The new migration of the Pontic Greeks toward Salonika: geographical origin and settlement process. [La nouvelle migration des Grecs du Pont vers Salonique: origine géographique et processus d'installation.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1997. 141-61 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"From 1988 to 1994, 20,000 to 25,000 Pontic Greeks coming from the ex-USSR went to settle in Salonika. Although this exodus presents all the characteristics of an economic migratory movement, the conflicts and tensions which affect the Russian peripheral territories, and an undoubted cultural connivance, make the `Rossopondi' the direct heirs of the Asia Minor refugees. The files compiled by a Pontic association of the Macedonian metropolis allow us to analyse the geographical origin and the settlement conditions of the migrants."
Correspondence: R. Darques, Université de Provence, Institut de Géographie, 29 avenue Robert Schuman, 13621 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 1, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10521 Fratczak, Ewa; Strzelecki, Zbigniew. The demography and society of West and North Poland 1945-1995: a balance sheet. [Demografia i spoleczenstwo Ziem Zachodnich i Pólnocnych 1945-1995: próba bilansu.] ISBN 83-901912-4-5. 1996. 639 pp. Polskie Towarzystwo Demograficzne: Warsaw, Poland; Friedrich Ebert Stiftung: Warsaw, Poland. In Pol.
This is a collective work with 38 papers by various authors on aspects of the demographic changes that occurred in four voivodships (provinces) of Silesia, in the north and west of Poland, between 1950 and 1994. Topics covered include the forced migrations that occurred after World War II, demographic trends in the newly acquired territories, the efforts to settle the newly acquired Polish lands in the period 1945-1950, the question of whether the remaining German ethnic population in North Silesia should be expelled or absorbed, natural increase, the health of the population, and mortality, including trends in causes of death. Comparisons are made with the rest of Poland.
Correspondence: Polish Demographic Society, Warsaw School of Economics, Al. Niepodleglosci 164, Room 3, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10522 Myers, Norman. Environmental refugees. Population and Environment, Vol. 19, No. 2, Nov 1997. 167-82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"There are fast-growing numbers of people who can no longer gain a secure livelihood in their homelands because of drought, soil erosion, desertification, deforestation and other environmental problems. In their desperation, these `environmental refugees'--as they are increasingly coming to be known and as they are termed in this paper--feel they have no alternative but to seek sanctuary elsewhere, however hazardous the attempt....[The author discusses the question] how many environmental refugees can we realistically anticipate in the future--or rather, how many people are likely to become vulnerable to environmental problems causing them to migrate?"
Correspondence: N. Myers, Upper Meadow, Old Road, Headington, Oxford OX3 8SZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10523 Pasaric, Branko. Some factors affecting the distribution of the population of Dalmatia between 1971 and 1991. [Neki cimbenici prostorne preraspodjele pucanstva Dalmacije izmedu 1971. i 1991. Godine.] Radovi: Razdio Filozofije, Psihologije, Sociologije i Pedagogije, Vol. 34, No. 11, 1994-1995. 109-22 pp. Split, Croatia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The author considers the processes that took place within the system of settlements in Dalmatia [Croatia] in the period between 1971 and 1991....The author's special concern is with the process of depopulation in the Dalmatian hinterland between 1991-1993 as a consequence of the war. His position is that the process of returning these people to their abandoned homes is not only a technical or an organisational question but a complex issue implicating the reasonable regional development of Dalmatia which would make possible the optimal use of its existing natural resources."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

64:10524 Borowski, Allan; Yanay, Uri. Temporary and illegal labour migration: the Israeli experience. International Migration, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1997. 495-511 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The purposes of this article are to describe Israel's experience of temporary labour migration and its concomitant, illegal labour migration; and also to explore what her policies on temporary labour migration indicate about the nature of the policy-making process in this policy domain in Israel. To these ends the article traces the evolution of temporary labour migration--legal and illegal--and recent policy initiatives of the Israeli government. It then considers some of the major conceptions of the policy-making process found in public policy literature. The article concludes by pointing to the uniqueness of Israel's experience of temporary labour migration and to the fact that her policies have been overwhelmingly reactive...."
Correspondence: A. Borowski, University of New South Wales, School of Social Work, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10525 Rallu, Jean L. Migration, work and projects of return migrants in Rarotonga (Cook Islands). New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 22, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1996. 45-68 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"A survey of return migrants was carried out in Rarotonga in May-June 1994....This paper presents the results of this survey....The relationship between migration and employment is...explored [and] satisfaction with return to the Cook Islands is discussed....This paper will also provide information on qualification of return migrants and on their participation in the labor force by sector, industry group and work status which are important factors of islands' development."
Correspondence: J. L. Rallu, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10526 Unbehaun, Horst. Turkish labor migration to the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia. [Türkische Arbeitsmigration in den Nahen Osten, nach Osteuropa und Mittelasien.] Orient, Vol. 37, No. 1, 1996. 87-109 pp. Leverkusen, Germany. In Ger.
The labor migration of Turks to countries outside the European Union is analyzed. There are sections on the quantitative aspects of this migration, its unique characteristics (such as the preponderance of males and the fact that most of them are construction workers hired on contract), the sponsorship system, the application process, working and living conditions, foreign policy effects, and the recent increase in Turkish contractors obtaining work in the states of the former Soviet Union.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

64:10527 Dahms, Fredric A. "Dying villages", "counterurbanization" and the urban field--a Canadian perspective. Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan 1995. 21-33 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper will review major theories on `rural-urban-turnaround' and the phenomenon of `dying villages'. It will then trace the evolution of one small settlement, Wroxeter, Ontario to describe and explain the factors that transformed it from the `most ghosted town in Ontario'...into a community experiencing both population growth and diversification in its economy. The Wroxeter experience will be evaluated against evidence from comparative case studies in the literature. Finally, conclusions from these studies will be weighted against those in contemporary studies of rural population turnaround, counterurbanization, rural renaissance, the urban field, and functional change in settlement systems. Idiographic findings at the local level will be compared with the conclusions of aggregate statistical studies and their nomothetic implications."
Correspondence: F. A. Dahms, University of Guelph, Department of Geography, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10528 de Haan, Arjan. Migration as family strategy: rural-urban labor migration in India during the twentieth century. History of the Family, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1997. 481-505 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"The article analyzes the role of families in processes of rural-urban migration in India in the twentieth century. It shows that the continuous circular form of this migration should be explained as a consequence of rural family strategies. Already established kinship relations or marriage opportunities in the future act as a centripetal force, drawing the labor migrants back to their communities time and again. In addition, the article shows how labor migration is informed by economic and cultural considerations which determine the socioeconomic behavior of men and women."
Correspondence: A. de Haan, University of Sussex, Poverty Research Unit, Falmer, Brighton, Sussex BN1 9RH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10529 Fulton, John A.; Fuguitt, Glenn V.; Gibson, Richard M. Recent changes in metropolitan-nonmetropolitan migration streams. Rural Sociology, Vol. 62, No. 3, Fall 1997. 363-84 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this paper, we examine the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of migration streams between [U.S.] metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas for four different years over the period 1975-1993....Through nonmetro net in-migration, the `nonmetropolitan turnaround' of the 1970s reversed historical patterns of nonmetro loss of human resources, with gains and increased retention of the young and better-educated. The 1980s, however, again saw net-migration loss, including large shifts from gain to loss, especially among the young and better-educated and for workers in white collar occupations. In the 1990s, the overall pattern is again one of nonmetro net-migration gain or reduced loss, with the greatest increases among those higher status groups which experienced the greatest declines during the 1980s."
Correspondence: J. A. Fulton, University of Wisconsin, Department of Rural Sociology, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10530 Jackson, James H. Migration and urbanization in the Ruhr Valley, 1821-1914. Studies in Central European Histories, ISBN 0-391-04033-2. LC 96-51147. 1997. xix, 452 pp. Humanities Press: Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author "analyzes the human consequences of urbanization and geographical mobility for residents of Duisburg in the Ruhr Valley of Germany during the century-long transition from an agrarian order to the industrial era. By documenting the dynamism of Duisburg's population before the arrival of heavy industry, the continued interdependence of urban and rural life into the industrial era, and the importance of households and social networks during the entire nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this study reshapes the conventional understanding of central European migration patterns. It also reveals social realities that were apparent neither to contemporaries nor to many historians--for instance that the highly visible movement of ethinc minorities and foreigners to Duisburg was actually dwarfed by the migrations of regional folk, that local migration had far more impact than either emigration to North America or the appearance of Poles in the Western regions, and that a powerful ideology of return impelled migrants to maintain rural contacts."
Correspondence: Humanities Press International, 165 First Avenue, Atlantic Highlands, NJ 07716. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10531 Joshi, S. C. Migration to a metropolis. ISBN 81-85813-39-6. 1994. viii, 227 pp. RBSA Publishers: Jaipur, India. In Eng.
This is a study on Kumaoni migrants to the Indian capital, Delhi. Kumaon consists of three hill districts in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The author focuses on the migrants' problems of adjustment and their maintenance of a separate social and cultural identity. The data are from a sample of 210 migrants living in Delhi. The study examines the motivation for migration, the problems of adjustment, and the socioeconomic characteristics of these migrants.
Correspondence: RBSA Publishers, SMS Highway, Jaipur, India. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

64:10532 McGranahan, David A.; Kassel, Kathleen. Rural-urban migration patterns shift. Rural Conditions and Trends, Vol. 6, Spring 1995. 10-3 pp. Herndon, Virginia. In Eng.
The authors analyze changes in rural-urban migration patterns in the United States. "Current Population Survey (CPS) migration data from 1990-94 indicate a dispersal of population out of urban areas into small towns and open country areas. The net rural gain has been small according to these data (0.1 percent), but it contrasts sharply with rural outflow of the late 1980s. Even more significantly, the rural `brain drain' of the 1980s has not carried over into the 1990s."
Correspondence: D. A. McGranahan, Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, ERSNASS, 341 Victory Drive, Herndon, VA 22070. Location: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, NH.

64:10533 Pandey, Himanshu. A probabilistic approach in rural out-migration system. Journal of Population Studies, No. 18, Jun 1997. 115-23 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"This paper presents a probability model for the rural out-migration system [in Uttar Pradesh, India] at a micro-level. The parameters involved in the model are estimated by the method of moments. The application of the model is discussed and it is fitted to observed data."
Correspondence: H. Pandey, Gorakhpur University, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Jamnagar, Gujarat 361 008, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10534 Rodgers, John L.; Rodgers, Joan R. The economic impact of rural-to-urban migration in the United States: evidence for male labor-force participants. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 78, No. 4, Dec 1997. 937-54 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The effect of rural-urban migration in the United States on the economic status of migrants is explored using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for the period 1968-1989. "We find that substantial benefits accrue to rural-to-urban migrants and that the benefits are permanent, not transitory. For example, six years after moving, the real annual earnings of migrants are about 30 percent higher (on average) than they would have been had the move not occurred. These benefits can be explained neither by personal characteristics of the migrants nor by attributes of the regions to and from which they migrate."
Correspondence: J. L. Rodgers, University of Wollongong, Department of Economics, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10535 Zhao, Yaohui; Liu, Qiming. A historical study of rural-to-urban migration in China: 1949-1985. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1997. 239-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"China is now faced with the enormous pressure of rural-to-urban labor migration....The current grave condition of the Chinese population is a direct result of a series of government policies adopted since 1949....Based on [a] sample survey conducted in 1986 in 74 urban areas in China, this study examines the rural-to-urban migration between 1949 and the mid-1980s, when a large number of farmers moved into cities."
Correspondence: Y. Zhao, George Washington University, Department of Economics, Washington, D.C. 20052. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.