Volume 64 - Number 1 - Spring 1998

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce. Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

64:10373 Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; de Rose, Alessandra; Hoem, Jan M.; Rohwer, Götz. Education, modernization, and the risk of marriage disruption in Sweden, West Germany, and Italy. In: Gender and family change in industrialized countries, edited by Karen O. Mason and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 200-22 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The impact of the increase in women's educational attainment on the risk of marital disruption in Sweden, West Germany, and Italy is analyzed using event history data. The results show that the risk of marital disruption increases when a woman's educational attainment improves. "This is true both for the total effect of the educational level on the disruption risk (when we only control for birth-cohort membership) and for the direct (or partial) effect that remains when we also include a number of further individual-level factors that are closely connected with educational level (age at marriage, pregnancy status at marriage formation, and childbearing parity). The greater disruption risks of better-educated women may be explained by their greater willingness to violate social norms by dissolving unhappy marriages and their greater ability to cope with the consequences of disruption."
Correspondence: H.-P. Blossfeld, Universität Bremen, Institut für Empirische und Angewandte Soziologie, Fachbereich 8--Geographie, Bibliotheksstraße, 2800 Bremen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10374 Buckle, Leslie; Gallup, Gordon G.; Rodd, Zachary A. Marriage as a reproductive contract: patterns of marriage, divorce, and remarriage. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 17, No. 6, Nov 1996. 363-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Patterns of marriage, divorce, remarriage, and redivorce were examined in several representative Western cultures through survey questions and archival data to test the hypothesis that marriage and divorce can be understood as expressions of underlying gender-specific, fitness maximization strategies. Differences between males and females were found for the relationship between age and patterns of both marriage and divorce, with females being far more likely at almost all ages to initiate divorce proceedings than males....Consistent with our view of marriage as a reproductive contract, the absence of children was not only conducive to divorce and remarriage, but appeared to increase the likelihood of redivorce as well."
Correspondence: G. G. Gallup, State University of New York, Department of Psychology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10375 Carmichael, Gordon A. Consensual partnering in New Zealand: evidence from three censuses. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 22, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1996. 1-44 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
The author analyzes trends in cohabitation in New Zealand, using data from the 1981, 1986, and 1991 censuses. Aspects considered include trends by age and sex, ethnic group, urban or rural residence, differentials by marital status, religion, labor force status, and educational level.
Correspondence: G. A. Carmichael, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10376 Cready, Cynthia M.; Saenz, Rogelio. The nonmetro/metro context of racial/ethnic outmarriage: some differences between African Americans and Mexican Americans. Rural Sociology, Vol. 62, No. 3, Fall 1997. 335-62 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"Data from the 1990 U.S. Census are used to examine nonmetro-metro distinctions in the outmarriage patterns of the nation's two largest minority groups--African Americans and Mexican Americans....Consistent with notions suggesting that persons in metro areas are less traditional and, perhaps, more tolerant of those different from them we find that African Americans living in metro areas are more likely to be married to someone from another racial/ethnic group than their peers in nonmetro areas, even after residential differences in individual and community characteristics are taken into account. On the other hand, controlling for other factors, Mexican Americans living in metro areas are not any more likely than those living in nonmetro settings to be exogamous. One possible explanation for this divergent pattern is the relatively recent urbanization of the Mexican American population."
Correspondence: C. M. Cready, Texas A & M University, Department of Sociology, College Station, TX 77843-4351. E-mail: ccready@unix.tamu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10377 De Silva, W. Indralal. The Ireland of Asia: trends in marriage timing in Sri Lanka. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1997. 3-24 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Using data primarily from the 1987 and 1993 Sri Lanka Demographic and Health Surveys, this study analyses trends in nuptiality and identifies the determinants of late marriage. It concludes that, apart from a marriage squeeze, increasing emphasis on individual attributes, especially education and a suitable occupation, has pushed up the age at marriage to a level unique in South Asia. It concludes that the national family planning programme should consider including services for the unmarried portion of the adolescent and young adult population. If not, the most likely outcome will be reliance on induced abortion to terminate unwanted pregnancies."
The full text is of this article is available electronically through www.undp.org/popin.
Correspondence: W. I. De Silva, University of Colombo, Demographic Training and Research Unit, P.O. Box 1490, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10378 Ermisch, John; Francesconi, Marco. Partnership formation and dissolution in Great Britain. Working Papers of the ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, No. 96-10, Aug 1996. 20, [16] pp. University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change: Colchester, England. In Eng.
"Data on complete histories of all spells of marriage and cohabitation from the second wave of [the] British Household Panel Study (1992) are used to explore the changing nature of partnership formation and dissolution in Great Britain....The paper documents the dramatic increase in cohabitation before marriage, and the stability of such unions. Partnership stability has declined for more recent cohorts, regardless of whether a partnership started as cohabitation or marriage. Cohabitations last a short time before being converted into marriage or dissolving....About 60 percent of first cohabitations turn into marriage and 30 percent dissolve within 10 years. Repartnering after dissolution of the first marriage is faster and more common for men than for women, but there is little gender differential in repartnering after dissolution of a cohabitation. Second cohabitations are much less stable than the first ones. Multivariate analysis reveals that, while partnership is being postponed in young people's lives, the odds of cohabitation relative to marriage are still rising among recent cohorts."
Correspondence: University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex C04 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10379 Fu, Haishan; Goldman, Noreen. Are health-related behaviors associated with the risk of divorce? OPR Working Paper, No. 96-3, Dec 1996. 34, [3] pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This study investigates the link between health-related variables and risks of divorce [in the United States]. The findings indicate that physical characteristics associated with poor health--namely, obesity and short stature--are not significantly related to risks of marital dissolution for either men or women. On the other hand, risk-taking behaviors--such as smoking and drug use--are strongly related to higher risks of divorce for both sexes."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10380 Gariano, Antonio C.; Rutland, Suzanne D. Religious intermix: 1996 census update. People and Place, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1997. 10-9 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Intermarriage between partners of different religious identification is an important indicator of the extent of cultural maintenance. An analysis of the 1996 Census shows that religious intermix is significant and growing amongst Australia's major Catholic and Protestant faiths. The once strong divisions between Catholics and Protestants are fading. However, amongst minor religions, intermix is low. It is particularly low amongst Jews, Moslems, Hindus and Greek Orthodox adherents."
Correspondence: S. D. Rutland, University of New South Wales, Department of Semitic Studies, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10381 Gentleman, Jane F.; Park, Evelyn. Divorce in the 1990s. [Divorces des années 1990.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 9, No. 2, Autumn 1997. 53-8, 57-62 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This article presents divorce statistics [in Canada] from 1970 through 1995 and focuses on divorce rates in the 1990s....Divorce rates have not changed dramatically in the 1990s and are only slightly higher than in the early 1980s. Divorce rates peak among those who have been married for five years and then decrease as duration of marriage lengthens."
Correspondence: J. F. Gentleman, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10382 Glatzer, Wolfgang; Stuhler, Heidemarie; Mingels, Annette; Rösch, Martina. Consensual unions: marriage substitute or marriage alternative? State of research in Germany 1996-1997. [Nichteheliche Lebensgemeinschaften: eheähnlich oder eher alternativ? Stand der Forschung in Deutschland 1996/97.] Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft, No. 89, 1997. 87 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
This report summarizes German research after 1980 on consensual unions. Among the topics explored are socio-demographic aspects; motivation and decisionmaking; attitudes toward marriage; comparisons between marriages and consensual unions, including values, stability, and gender roles; the desire for children; legal aspects; social acceptance, including same-sex unions; and a summary of research areas and gaps. An extensive bibliography is included.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10383 Glenn, Norval D. A reconsideration of the effect of no-fault divorce on divorce rates. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 4, Nov 1997. 1,023-30 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
The author critically examines a 1995 article by Joseph L. Rodgers, Paul A. Nakonezny, and Robert D. Shull in which the authors "report on a [U.S.] study designed to assess the effects of the adoption of no-fault provisions by the 50 states." Glenn asserts that "the preponderance of the evidence from more appropriate analyses suggests that the adoption of no-fault divorce in itself had very little direct effect on divorce rates." A reply by the authors of the original article is included (pp. 1,026-30).
For the article by Nakonezny et al. see 61:30404.
Correspondence: N. D. Glenn, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Austin, TX 78712. E-mail: ndglenn@mail.la.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10384 Hammes, Winfried. Divorces, 1996. [Ehescheidungen 1996.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 12, Dec 1997. 826-35 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Divorce statistics for 1996 are presented separately for the former East and West Germany. Aspects considered include duration of marriage, partners' ages and age differences, and number of children.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10385 Hooghiemstra, E.; Manting, D. Marriage and immigrants from Turkey and Morocco. [Turkse en Marokkaanse huwelijksmigranten.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 10, Oct 1997. 25-34 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article marriage and immigration of Turkish and Moroccan persons residing in the Netherlands are analysed on the basis of data extracted from the municipal population registers....About 56 thousand married Turkish and Moroccan women of the first generation living in the Netherlands were marriage-related immigrants compared with 24 thousand married men....Most male marriage-related immigrants married women who were born in the Netherlands or immigrated there as a child. Many female marriage-related immigrants joined a spouse who was already 18 years or over at the moment of immigration."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10386 Jarvis, Sarah; Jenkins, Stephen P. Marital splits and income changes: evidence for Britain. Working Papers of the ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, No. 97-4, Apr 1997. 38 pp. University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change: Colchester, England. In Eng.
"We provide new evidence about what happens to people's incomes when their or their parents' marital union dissolves, using longitudinal data from waves 1-4 of the British Household Panel Survey....In addition we analyse the extent to which the welfare state mitigates the size of the income loss for women and children relative to men, and document the changes in social assistance benefit receipt and paid work, and maintenance income receipt and payment."
Correspondence: University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex C04 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10387 Lievens, John. Interethnic marriage: bringing in the context through multilevel modelling. IPD Working Paper, No. 1997-6, 1997. 33 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography: Brussels, Belgium; Universiteit Gent, Vakgroep Bevolkingswetenschappen: Gent, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper deals with the underlying causes of interethnic marriages of Turks and Moroccans living in Belgium. Predictions derived from assimilation theory (micro-perspective) and from the macrostructural perspective are combined in a single empirical model through multilevel modelling. It is found that individual- and higher-level determinants independently influence the propensity of being interethnically married. Higher odds are generally (except for Moroccan women) found for the second generation and at higher levels of age at marriage and educational attainment."
Correspondence: Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interface Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: esvbalck@vnet3.vub.ac.be. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10388 Lundh, Christer. The world of Hajnal revisited: marriage patterns in Sweden 1650-1990. Lund Papers in Economic History, No. 60, 1997. 28 pp. University of Lund, Department of Economic History: Lund, Sweden. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to discuss the pattern of marriage in Sweden from the point of view of Hajnal's distinctions between different marriage patterns and their connection with various household systems. How far back can one trace the West European pattern of marriage in Sweden and how long did it persist? Are there any trend-like changes in the marriage pattern, and if so what is the relationship between economic change, institutional change and changes in the pattern of marriage?"
Correspondence: University of Lund, Department of Economic History, P.O. Box 7083, 220 07 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10389 Nault, François. Twenty years of marriages. [Vingt ans de mariages.] Health Reports/Rapports sur la Santé, Vol. 8, No. 2, Autumn 1996. 39-47; 41-50 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
"This article examines [Canadian] national and provincial trends over the past 20 years in the numbers and rates of marriage by the age and previous marital status of the partners...." Results indicate that "aside from a brief upturn in the late 1980s, Canada's marriage rate has fallen quite steadily since the early 1970s....Since 1974, the average ages of brides and grooms have risen about five years to 30.1 and 32.6, respectively. Nonetheless, the peak ages for marriage are the twenties....The marriage patterns of Quebec residents differ from those of other Canadians. Quebec residents are much more likely to remain single or live common-law, and if they do marry, they are slightly more likely to divorce. Once divorced or widowed, people in Quebec are less likely than those in the rest of Canada to remarry."
Correspondence: L. Gaudette, Statistics Canada, Division of Health Statistics, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10390 Nguyen, Huu Minh. Age at first marriage in Viet Nam: patterns and determinants. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1997. 49-74 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1991 Viet Nam Life History Survey, this article examines the patterns and determinants of age at first marriage. It shows that socio-economic and political changes during the last few decades are associated with a shift to older ages of first marriage. It identifies regional variations and discusses the significant impact of warfare on the country's age patterns of marriage. It concludes by bringing out the implications of the study for policy purposes."
The full text is of this article is available electronically through www.undp.org/popin.
Correspondence: H. M. Nguyen, University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195-3340. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10391 Oppenheimer, Valerie K.; Lew, Vivian. American marriage formation in the 1980s: how important was women's economic independence? In: Gender and family change in industrialized countries, edited by Karen O. Mason and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 105-38 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors use data from the National Survey of Labor Market Experience (NLSY) to identify the factors associated with the dramatic changes in the timing of marriages in the United States during the past 20 years. "Focusing on young white females, this study has searched in vain for evidence that an independence effect or other negative effects of women's growing labour market involvement were important factors discouraging first marriages during the 1980s."
Correspondence: V. K. Oppenheimer, University of California, Department of Sociology, Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10392 Oppenheimer, Valerie K. Women's employment and the gain to marriage: the specialization and trading model. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 23, 1997. 431-53 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"This chapter critically examines the hypothesis that women's rising employment levels have increased their economic independence and hence have greatly reduced the desirability of marriage. Little firm empirical support for this hypothesis is found. The apparent congruence in time-series data of women's rising employment with declining marriage rates and increasing marital instability is partly a result of using the historically atypical early postwar behavior of the baby boom era as the benchmark for comparisons and partly due to confounding trends in delayed marriage with those of nonmarriage."
Correspondence: V. K. Oppenheimer, 10345 Strathmore Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90024. E-mail: valko@ucla.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10393 Pollock, Gene E.; Stroup, Atlee L. Economic consequences of marital dissolution for blacks. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, Vol. 26, No. 1-2, 1996. 49-67 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
Paying particular attention to the economic impact of post-divorce on black survey respondents of both sexes, "this study analyzes Weitzman's suggestion that men and women lose economic well-being in the first year after divorce. Family incomes of divorced women and men are compared with [those of] their married counterparts for five SES [socioeconomic status] categories. Using t-tests, it was found that, for most categories, for both genders, incomes of divorced persons were lower than incomes of married persons. Family incomes were regressed against a set of four control variables and a marital status variable. The marital status variable was statistically significant for four of the five SES categories for females. This was not true for males. Policy implications are considered." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: G. E. Pollock, College of Wooster, Department of Economics, Wooster, OH 44691. Location: Temple University Library, Philadelphia, PA.

64:10394 Ruggles, Steven. The rise of divorce and separation in the United States, 1880-1990. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 4, Nov 1997. 455-79 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"I use the [U.S.] Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to assess the potential effects of local labor-market conditions on long-term trends and race differences in marital instability. The rise of female labor-force participation and the increase in nonfarm employment are closely associated with the growth of divorce and separation. Moreover, higher female labor-force participation among black women and lower economic opportunities for black men may account for race differences in marital instability before 1940, and for most of such differences in subsequent years. However, unmeasured intervening cultural factors are probably responsible for at least part of these effects." Comments by Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer (pp. 467-72) and Samuel H. Preston (pp. 473-4) and a reply by the author (pp. 475-9) are included.
Correspondence: S. Ruggles, University of Minnesota, Department of History, 267 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455. E-mail: ruggles@hist.umn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10395 Savitridina, Rini. Determinants and consequences of early marriage in Java, Indonesia. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1997. 25-48 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines the determinants of early marriage and also explores its consequences on work and occupational status, marital dissolution, the likelihood of contraceptive use and migration patterns. Based on the 1991 Indonesian Demographic Health Survey, the study reveals that 70 per cent of ever married women aged 25-49 in Java married early. It finds that education is the most influential variable in explaining the difference in marital dissolution among women in Java. It concludes with a set of recommendations for policy interventions aimed at improving the situation."
The full text is of this article is available electronically through www.undp.org/popin.
Correspondence: R. Savitridina, Central Bureau of Statistics, Demography and Manpower Bureau, Jl. Dr. Sutomo 8, Jakarta 10710, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10396 Smith, Ian. Explaining the growth of divorce in Great Britain. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 44, No. 5, Nov 1997. 519-44 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper tests whether the liberalisation of divorce law or economic factors can explain the post-war growth of divorce rates in Great Britain. Timing differences regarding the dates of legal innovations in England and Wales relative to Scotland are exploited to test for divorce law effects. No effect on marital dissolution of extending the grounds for the divorce can be detected, though other innovations in family law have had a powerful but generally temporary impact on divorce rates via their effect on transaction costs and settlement rules. Economic theory suggests that rising relative wages of women have reduced the gains from remaining married by inter alia diminishing the benefits of household specialisation and that rising real earnings of women have increased post divorce welfare by providing a measure of financial independence. The results are consistent with the real, but not the relative, wage hypothesis."
Correspondence: I. Smith, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9AJ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10397 Sureender, S.; Khan, A. G.; Radhakrishnan, S. The dowry system and education of female children: attitudes examined in Bihar, India. Demography India, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1997. 109-22 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The paper tries to examine the following two issues in the state of Bihar [India]: (1) To understand the attitude [of] women towards the dowry system and the plausible factors associated with it; and (2) To unearth the relationship between the attitudes of women towards the dowry system and education of their daughters."
Correspondence: S. Sureender, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10398 Sweezy, Kate; Tiefenthaler, Jill. Do state-level variables affect divorce rates? Review of Social Economy, Vol. 54, No. 1, Spring 1996. 47-65 pp. De Kalb, Illinois. In Eng.
"In this study, [U.S.] state-level variables including AFDC and food stamp payments, property distribution laws, waiting periods, and two measures of conservatism are merged with a micro data set in order to examine the effects of these variables as well as individual-level variables on the probability of divorce. Event history analysis indicates that the effects of the individual-level variables are consistent with previous work. Among the state-level variables, only the percentage of regular church-goers and the percentage of fundamentalists in the state have a significant impact on divorce. These results reject notions that liberal divorce laws and generous AFDC payments encourage the breakup of families but support the hypothesis that social norms do influence individual behavior."
Correspondence: J. Tiefenthaler, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

64:10399 Thapa, Shayam. Timing of family formation in ethnic mosaic Nepal: a district-level analysis. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1997. 75-87 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to extend...previous research in order to analyse the district-level variations in the timing of family formation in Nepal. The main hypothesis examined is that the district-level variations in the timing of family formation are determined principally by ethnicity, independent of socio-economic factors. It is surmised, therefore, that the district-level variations are not randomly distributed among sub-populations but are differentiated by ethnic characteristics in the districts."
The full text of this article is available electronically through http://www.undp.org/popin.
Correspondence: S. Thapa, Family Health International, One Triangle Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. E-mail: sthapa@fhi.wlink.com.np. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10400 Turcotte, Pierre; Bélanger, Alain. Moving in together: the formation of first common-law unions. Canadian Social Trends, No. 47, Winter 1997. 7-10 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"This study analyzes the influence of selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on the likelihood of establishing a common law union as the first union [in Canada]....The proliferation of common-law unions is thought to be associated with many recent social changes that have influenced trends in family behaviours and attitudes. Several factors appear to underlie these changes, including the massive entry of women into the labour market (with the resulting increase in women's autonomy); the dissociation between sexuality and marriage and between fertility and marriage; the decline in religious practice; and the redefinition of the roles and expectations of spouses."
Correspondence: P. Turcotte, Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, 7th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10401 van der Ploeg, Evelien. Shaping the partner career: the Dutch case. Nethur-Demography Paper, No. 40, Jul 1997. 15 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Faculteit der Ruimtelijke Wetenschappen: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper aims at providing some methods to get a quick insight into...changes in union formation and dissolution behaviour. To illustrate these methods the case of the Netherlands has been used....There is a clear shift from a monotonous `direct marriage' pattern to a pattern in which direct marriage is losing its leading position to a pathway starting with cohabitation followed by a second step."
Correspondence: E. van der Ploeg, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam Study Centre for the Metropolitan Environment, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. E-mail: E.ploeg@frw.uva.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10402 van Poppel, Frans; Post, Wendy; Groenen, Patrick. Age preferences of spouses, the Netherlands 1850-1993; an application of correspondence analysis. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1996/1997: selected current issues, edited by Hans van den Brekel and Fred Deven. 1997. 191-218 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper we use Dutch data for the period 1850-1993 to study the evolution of age differences between spouses during the 19th and 20th century....Our analysis shows that during the 19th and 20th century large changes in age preferences of spouses [took] place in the Netherlands. During the period 1850-1910, a clear increase in the degree of age-homogamy took place. A new break in the structure of the age preferences started around 1955 and continued till 1971-1975."
Correspondence: F. van Poppel, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control.

64:10403 Ayad, Mohamed; Barrère, Bernard; Otto, James. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of households. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 26, Sep 1997. viii, 75 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
Information is provided in this report on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of households in 41 developing countries, using data from 25 DHS II surveys and 16 DHS III surveys. The demographic characteristics examined include age reporting and heaping, age and sex structure, household size, household headship, and orphanhood and fostering. The socioeconomic characteristics examined are educational status, housing characteristics, household possessions, and standard of living.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10404 Baud, Michiel; Engelen, Theo. Structure or strategy? Essays on family, demography, and labor from the Dutch N. W. Posthumus Institute. History of the Family, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1997. 347-552 pp. JAI Press: Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The concept of `family strategies' has yielded much valuable research when used in the classic `quantitative' and `anthropological' approaches to the history of family life. Its continued use as a research concept requires, however, that significantly more attention be paid to the relationships between families as social units and their individual members, to the great variety of families and households, and to the different motives that guided families in charting strategies. These questions are brought to the forefront when the history of the family is investigated cross-culturally and comparatively, as the articles of this Special Issue, written by researchers of the Dutch N. W. Posthumus Institute, seek to do."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: JAI Press, 55 Old Post Road No. 2, P.O. Box 1678, Greenwich, CT 06836-1678. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10405 Casper, Lynne M. My daddy takes care of me! Fathers as care providers. Current Population Reports, Series P70: Household Economic Studies, No. P70-59, Sep 1997. 9 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Over the past 5 years, there has been increasing interest in the roles [U.S.] fathers play in shaping their children's lives....In this report, we look at one aspect of fathers' involvement--fathers caring for their children during mothers' working hours--and examine which types of fathers are the most likely to take care of their children." Aspects considered include fathers' employment status, economic status, occupation, veteran status, geographic region, and family size.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. E-mail: pop@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10406 Chafetz, Janet S. Chicken or egg? A theory of the relationship between feminist movements and family change. In: Gender and family change in industrialized countries, edited by Karen O. Mason and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 63-81 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter I will explicate a theory of the relationship among increased labour force participation by women, the re-emergence of feminist activism, and certain kinds of family changes, specifically as they occurred during the 1960s and 1970s....The theoretical question addressed in this chapter is one of process: what is the causal sequence of interrelated changes that, to varying degrees, resulted in similar familial changes throughout the industrialized world? These cross-national similarities include rising divorce rates; increasing numbers of single-parent, typically female-headed, families; declining birth rates; rising age at first marriage and at first birth among women; rising rates of non-marital cohabitation; and increasing labour force participation among married women, including mothers of young children."
Correspondence: J. S. Chafetz, University of Houston, Department of Sociology, Houston, TX 77204. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10407 Cravey, Altha J. The politics of reproduction: households in the Mexican industrial transition. Economic Geography, Vol. 73, No. 2, Apr 1997. 166-86 pp. Worcester, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"A household-level analysis helps to reveal the dynamics of a transition in Mexican industrial strategy from the state-led import substitution strategy dominant from 1930 to 1976 to the neoliberal one dominant today. The results suggest that gender restructuring was a crucial element of industrial restructuring. The new industrial strategy, which relies on substantial foreign investment and adopts many of the norms of maquiladora production, has reshaped the industrial household into a multitude of forms. In the case study presented, these range from huge company-run single-sex dormitories to a variety of extended family households. In these new households the gender division of domestic labor has been renegotiated. In-depth interviews reveal that such micro-scale struggles result from, and influence, the new factory regime."
Correspondence: A. J. Cravey, University of North Carolina, Department of Geography, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3220. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10408 de Jong, A. H. National Household Forecasts 1996: postponement of family formation. [Nationale Huishoudensprognose 1996: uitstel van gezinsvorming.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 9, Sep 1997. 6-12 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"According to the National Household Forecasts 1996 for the Netherlands the number of families (couples living together with or without children, and single parents) will increase from 4.4 to 4.6 million between 1995 and 2020. Decreasing fertility causes the percentage of childless families to increase from 45 to 50. Due to postponement of having children fewer women under the age of 30 will have young children. This may have a positive effect on the labour participation of women, given the fact that labour participation of childless women is much higher than that of mothers."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10409 Dumont, Gérard-François. Socio-demographic aspects of the family around the world. [Les aspects socio-démographiques de la famille dans le monde.] Anthropotes, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jun 1996. 119-32 pp. Vatican City. In Fre.
Trends affecting the family around the world are reviewed. The author examines such issues as changing attitudes toward marriage, the decline in marriage rates and its consequences, changes in age at marriage, increases in life expectancy, divorce, and household size. He also discusses geographical differences in family patterns as well as features that are common to families everywhere.
Correspondence: G.-F. Dumont, Université de Paris-Sorbonne, Institut de Démographie Politique, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10410 Ermisch, John. Analysis of leaving the parental home and returning to it using panel data. Working Papers of the ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, No. 96-1, Jan 1996. 36, [8] pp. University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change: Colchester, England. In Eng.
"Analysis of the first three waves of the British Household Panel Study (1991-93) indicates substantial changes in the pattern of departure from the parental home among recent cohorts compared with the 1958 cohort. While there appears to have been only a small fall in the median age of leaving home, movements directly from the parental home into partnerships (marriage or cohabitation) are much less important than they used to be. Departures as a student have increased in importance as more recent cohorts remain in education longer. Econometric analyses indicate that parental income and unemployment experiences influence the patterns of departure and return. Evidence is presented that ignoring attrition from the panel biases leaving rates downward and return rates upward, although not dramatically."
Correspondence: University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex C04 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10411 Ermisch, John. Pre-marital cohabitation, childbearing and the creation of one parent families. Working Papers of the ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, No. 95-17, Jun 1995. 20, [6] pp. University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change: Colchester, England. In Eng.
"The life histories collected in the second wave of the BHPS [British Household Panel Study] are used to study the changing importance of cohabitation without legal marriage and childbearing within such unions in Britain, comparing the experiences of two broad cohorts of women: those born during 1950-62 and those born after 1962. The analysis indicates that the main reason for the observed growth in childbearing within cohabitation is the dramatic increase in cohabitation before marriage. Indeed, it is now the most popular form of first partnership, and the odds of cohabitation relative to marriage are still rising among recent cohorts reaching young adulthood. In addition, childbearing is also more common among more recent cohorts of cohabiting women. About one-half of these fertile cohabitational unions dissolve, producing a never-married lone mother. Estimates in the paper suggest that among recent cohorts of women, about two-fifths of one parent families headed by never-married mothers are created through childbearing within cohabitation followed by dissolution of the cohabitational union."
Correspondence: University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex C04 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10412 Ermisch, John. Prices, parents and young people's household formation. Working Papers of the ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, No. 97-18, Aug 1997. 38 pp. University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change: Colchester, England. In Eng.
"An economic theory of young people's decision to live apart from parents is presented and used to structure econometric analyses of the processes of leaving the parental home and returning to it, which employ data from the British Household Panel Survey for the first half of the 1990s. The econometric estimates support the predictions of the theory. In particular, tighter housing markets, as indicated by higher regional relative house prices, significantly retard home leaving, especially the formation of partnerships, and encourage returns to the parental home. Young people with larger current income are more likely to leave, but less likely to return to, the parental home."
Correspondence: University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex C04 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10413 Foner, Nancy. The immigrant family: cultural legacies and cultural changes. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 4, Winter 1997. 961-74 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the way family and kinship patterns change in the process of immigration--and why. Offering an interpretative synthesis, it emphasizes the way first generation immigrants to the United States fuse together the old and new to create a new kind of family life. The family is seen as a place where there is a dynamic interplay between structure, culture, and agency. New immigrant family patterns are shaped by cultural meanings and social practices immigrants bring with them from their home countries as well as social, economic and cultural forces in the United States."
Correspondence: N. Foner, State University of New York, Purchase, NY 10577. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10414 Furstenberg, Frank F. Family change and the welfare of children: what do we know and what can we do about it? In: Gender and family change in industrialized countries, edited by Karen O. Mason and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 245-57 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author first identifies some unanswered questions concerning the link between changing gender roles and children's well-being. He then raises some of the difficult policy issues facing countries that have experienced large changes affecting the family as well as those that are only beginning to confront the revolution in family patterns. The author argues that, in view of the inevitability of changes affecting the family, a sensible public policy should be predicated on the principle of serving the needs of children rather than on preserving the traditional nuclear family. The primary geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: F. F. Furstenberg, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Sociology, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10415 Goldani, Ana M.; Fougeyrollas-Schwebel, Dominique. Family or families? The individualization of women and the evolution of the family as an institution. [Família ou famílias? Individuação das mulheres e evolução da família como instituição.] Estudos Feministas, Vol. 2, Oct 1994. 301-46 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
This special issue contains two articles on the family in Brazil. The first, by Ana M. Goldani, examines how family characteristics in Brazil have changed since 1981 in response to the economic crises that have affected the country. The author uses census and survey data to analyze the relations between demographic trends and family characteristics. Particular attention is given to the growth of non-nuclear families, such as one-parent families. The second article, by Dominique Fougeyrollas-Schwebel, also looks at changes in the family in Brazil, with particular reference to changes in women's work both within the family and in the work force.
Correspondence: A. M. Goldani, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Departamento de Sociologia, Caixa Postal 6166, CEP 13081 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10416 Granström, Fredrik. Fertility and family surveys in countries of the ECE region: standard country report, Sweden. Economic Studies, No. 10B, Pub. Order No. GV.E.97.0.21. ISBN 92-1-100757-7. 1997. x, 90 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This is one in a series of comparable surveys on fertility and family change that are being carried out in ECE member countries. This report presents results from the Swedish Family Survey of 1992-1993, which included a sample of 4,984 women and men born between 1949 and 1969. The objective of the survey was to describe the modern family, including unmarried couples; analyze variations and trends in family formation and fertility; describe the interactions among family life, education, and employment; examine changes in labor force participation; illustrate differences by socioeconomic status in attitudes toward the family and family policies; and make possible some international comparisons.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10417 Holzer, Jerzy Z.; Kowalska, Irena. Fertility and family surveys in countries of the ECE region: standard country report, Poland. Economic Studies, No. 10D, Pub. Order No. GV.E.97-0-28. ISBN 92-1-100765-8. 1997. xii, 99 pp. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe: Geneva, Switzerland; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series of comparable surveys on fertility and family change being carried out in ECE member countries. This report presents results from the survey carried out in Poland in 1991. Following chapters on survey methodology, socioeconomic trends, and population trends in the country, there is a chapter presenting the main results of the survey. These include household composition, parental home, partnerships, children, fertility regulation, fertility preferences, values and beliefs, and female education and occupations.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, Room 439, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10418 Huinink, Johannes; Mayer, Karl U. Gender, social inequality, and family formation in West Germany. In: Gender and family change in industrialized countries, edited by Karen O. Mason and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 168-99 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this chapter we make a conceptual and empirical attempt to place union formation and childbearing within a framework that combines the perspective of life course dynamics...and social stratification, giving specific emphasis to differences between men and women. Comparing various birth cohorts, we focus on historical rearrangements of these dynamics. In particular, we examine how the socio-economic background of the parental family and the influences of participation in education and in the labour force have changed the process of family formation for men and women. The social and historical setting we have chosen for both our theory building and the empirical analysis is that of West Germany."
Correspondence: J. Huinink, Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung, Lentzeallee 94, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10419 Larson, Jan. The new face of homemakers. American Demographics, Vol. 19, No. 9, Sep 1997. 45-50 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses changes in the definition of "homemaker" in the United States, with a focus on the development of businesses aimed at providing various services to families. "Homemakers of the 1990s do not fit the traditional stereotype. They're more likely to be working outside of the home, to be men, to be ambivalent about their roles, and to be clueless about running a household....The change in labor force composition has transformed the way Americans live and altered their demands for goods and services."
Correspondence: J. Larson, University of Wisconsin, Department of Journalism, Eau Claire, WI 54702-4004. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10420 Latten, Jan; de Graaf, Arie. Fertility and family surveys in countries of the ECE region: standard country report, The Netherlands. Economic Studies, No. 10C, Pub. Order No. GV.E.97-0-22. ISBN 92-1-100758-5. 1997. xi, 94 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This is one in a series of comparable surveys on fertility and family change that are being carried out in ECE member countries. This report presents results from the fifth fertility survey undertaken in the Netherlands; it was carried out in 1993 and was extended to include the family. Following chapters on survey methodology, socioeconomic trends, and population trends in the country, there is a chapter presenting the main results of the survey. These include topics such as household composition, parental home, partnerships, partnership formation and dissolution, children, fertility regulation, fertility preferences, values and beliefs, and female education and occupations.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10421 Lesthaeghe, Ron. The second demographic transition in Western countries: an interpretation. In: Gender and family change in industrialized countries, edited by Karen O. Mason and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 17-62 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the demographic transitions affecting the family in Western societies since about 1960. "In this chapter I shall try to show that the motivations underlying the `second transition' are clearly different from those supporting the `first transition', with individual autonomy and female emancipation more central to the second than to the first. I shall also explore the cultural and economic factors operative at the national level that have generated the regional patterning of various characteristics of the `second transition'. The aim of the second section of the chapter is to show that the geographical patterning of the `second transition' is substantially different from the one underlying the `first transition'."
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Centrum voor Sociologie, Interuniversity Programme in Demography, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10422 Molnár, Edit S. Lone mothers bringing up their children. [Gyermeküket egyedül nevelo anyák.] Demográfia, Vol. 40, No. 2-3, 1997. 147-70 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
This study analyzes families in Hungary with single mothers bringing up children alone. The study examines such aspects as the financial problems of single mothers, housing, and life satisfaction. Comparisons are made with other European countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10423 Panda, Pradeep K. Female headship, poverty and child welfare: a study of rural Orissa. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 32, No. 43, Oct 25, 1997. 73-82 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"On the basis of primary data collected in a rural setting in the state of Orissa [India], an attempt has been made in this paper to compare the socio-economic status of male- and female-headed households. Subsequently the differences in the use of resources (time and money) between male-headed and female-headed households have been analysed. Finally, the paper explores the relative well-being of the children between the two groups, i.e., to what extent female headship influences children's access to social services, and children's actual welfare outcomes, measured in terms of health and education indicators. The results suggest that poverty and female headship are strongly linked in rural Orissa. The results further suggest that the use of resources are significantly different between the two types of households and the comparison of household expenditures indicates that, female-headed households spend relatively less on higher quality food items such as meat, vegetables, milk and other dairy products. Finally the findings show that children in female-headed households are disadvantaged both in terms of access to social services and actual welfare outcomes."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10424 Phipps, Shelley A. What is the income "cost of a child"? Exact equivalence scales for Canadian two-parent families. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 80, No. 1, Feb 1998. 157-64 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This note asks: `How much income does it take to preserve the prechild standard of living for all members of the postchild household?' Equivalence scales for Canadian two-parent families are estimated using a complete demand system approach and imposing the condition of equivalence scale exactness/independent of a base....This approach has several advantages: (1) It is formally grounded in economic theory. (2) The income required for children can be estimated without ignoring the well-being of the children themselves. (3) The estimates obtained appear reasonable relative to others currently available in the literature."
Correspondence: S. A. Phipps, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10425 Quilodrán, Julieta. Trajectories of life: support for the interpretation of demographic phenomena. [Trayectorias de vida: un apoyo para la interpretación de los fenómenos demográficos.] Estudios Sociológicos, Vol. 14, No. 41, May-Aug 1996. 393-416 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author analyzes demographic phenomena of the life course in Mexico, with a focus on different generations and intergenerational relationships within the family since the 1930s. Aspects considered include education, occupations, marriage patterns, and reproduction.
Correspondence: J. Quilodrán, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10426 Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando. Stability and crisis in the family life course--findings from the 1990 General Social Survey, Canada. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1996. 165-84 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper examines the flow of family life course events between ages 30 and 54. The life course is viewed from three perspectives: chronological age, social time and historical time....This study finds some interesting differences in the life course patterns among birth cohorts of men and women spanning three quarters of the twentieth century....Some of these findings are interpreted against historical backgrounds."
Correspondence: Z. R. Ravanera, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10427 Reher, David S. Perspectives on the family in Spain, past and present. ISBN 0-19-823314-0. LC 96-34857. 1997. xv, 356 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
In this study, the author sketches the basic contours of family development in Spain from the seventeenth century to the present. "Throughout this study, the family will be considered in its dual role as the guarantor of social, economic, and demographic reproduction of society, and as an institution designed to defend, protect, and assure the survival and well-being of its own members as best as possible in often difficult and adverse circumstances." Data are from a variety of sources, including parish registers and all censuses since 1860. The chapter headings are as follows: The big picture and smaller perspectives; Patterns of co-residence in Spain; Family systems and their implications; The stages of life; Death and the family; Marriage, reproduction, and the family; Dimensions of the marriage market on the eve of modernization; Family economies; Changing dimensions of kinship networks during the twentieth century; and Present and future perspectives for the family in Spain.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10428 Sauvain-Dugerdil, Claudine; Kalmykova, Natalia; Gu, Hong G.; Ritschard, Gilbert; Olszak, Michael; Hagmann, Hermann-Michel. Living in old age in Switzerland. Changes in the residence characteristics of the elderly population. [Vivre sa vieillesse en Suisse. Les transformations des modes de résidence des personnes âgées.] European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1997. 169-212 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"We analyse here the household situation of the elderly in Switzerland....The situation at the beginning of the `90s is described in the different age groups of the second part of the lifecourse and in reference to individual profiles. In a second step, this information is considered in the light of the evolution which occurred during the last thirty years....The objective is to examine in what measure elderly people are also affected by the new lifestyles shown in particular in the diversification of the household arrangements. More broadly, the aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the current mutations of the elderly's position in the family and in the society."
Correspondence: C. Sauvain-Dugerdil, Université de Genève, Laboratoire de Démographie Economique et Sociale, 3 Place de l'Université, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10429 Stegmann, Daniele. Family formation and the desire for children in Germany: life courses of single parents in West and East Germany. [Familienbildung und Kinderwunsch in Deutschland: Lebensverläufe Alleinerziehender in West- und Ostdeutschland.] Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft, No. 82e, 1997. xx, 277 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Based on data from the 1992 Family and Fertility Survey for Germany, this study analyzes aspects of the life cycles of single parents in Germany. The author combines an expanded event history analysis approach with longitudinal reconstruction of event sequences to answer the following questions: Are there differences in significant life-cycle events and timing between one- and two-parent families? Are there such differences among different groups of single parents? Have there been changes over time in the life cycles of single parents, and are these changes separate from those affecting two-parent families? Are there significant differences between the life cycles of East and West German single parents? and What is the cause-effect relationship between single motherhood and women's labor force participation?
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Friedrich-Ebert-Allee 4, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10430 Todisco, Enrico. The immigrant family as a factor in integration. The case of Guidonia (Rome). [La famiglia immigrata come fattore di integrazione. Il caso di Guidonia (Roma).] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 34, No. 126, Jun 1997. 285-310 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The study compares the composition of `Italian' families resident in the Latium region with `foreign' families living in Guidonia, the second biggest borough in the Province of Rome....Guidonia is divided into a number of areas with different social characteristics and ethnic concentrations. The structure of immigrant families usually differs considerably from that of Italian families not only and not so much because of cultural elements, but also because of factors connected with migration time and entry laws. The dichotomy which defines the picture is quite remarkable, since the majority of immigrant families have settled very recently in Guidonia and have lived there for no more than five years. However, the research proves that, once the influence of the time factor has been overcome, immigrants' demographic behaviour resembles very much that of local families...."
Correspondence: E. Todisco, Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Studi Geoeconomici, Statistici e Storici per l'Analisi Regionale, Via Nomentana 41, Rome 00161, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.