Volume 64 - Number 1 - Spring 1998

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration. Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects.

64:10043 Chalmers, Lex; Joseph, Alun. Population dynamics and settlement systems: a case study in the Waikato. New Zealand Geographer, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1997. 14-21 pp. Hamilton, New Zealand. In Eng.
"The paper uses five broad classes of settlement in the Waikato [New Zealand] as a base for exploring age and gender specific changes to population distributions. The trends are assessed over the period 1981 to 1991, an era of significant change to the economic and social fabric of the region. Links between this change and the inferred patterns of movement are suggested. Notable patterns include migration deficits in the youthful and elderly age classes in sparsely settled rural areas, and more substantial numbers of elderly in other non metropolitan settlements than expected. The policy implications of these distributions are considered in the concluding section of the paper."
Correspondence: L. Chalmers, University of Waikato, Department of Geography, Private Bag, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

64:10044 Czyz, Teresa. Application of the population potential model in the structural regionalisation of Poland. Geographia Polonica, Vol. 66, 1995. 13-31 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The application of population potential in the research procedure employed to arrive at Poland's structural regionalisation allows three main tasks to be solved: (1) determining the interaction in the urban system, (2) establishing macroregional nodes, and (3) delimiting peripheral zones of macroregions. The configuration of the potential surface and membership functions indicates the spatial structuring of socio-economic reality at the level of population interaction."
Correspondence: T. Czyz, Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Planning, ul. Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10045 Dendrinos, Dimitrios S.; Zhang, Jiang; Qian, Zhen-Chao. Topography and spatial population dualism in the People's Republic of China (1933-1990). Review of Urban and Regional Development Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1994. 78-99 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"Looking at half a century of available data, a sharp spatial dualism is observed in the regional population distribution of the People's Republic of China. The vast share of the PRC's population is located in the Eastern and South-Eastern regions. Two topographical variables related to accessibility, distance from the eastern seaboard and elevation, seem to be at the core of this dualism. Their isolated and combined effects upon the spatial distribution of the PRC's population are examined for the period 1933-1990. It is documented that the population concentration in certain regions of the PRC is not so much because of their proximity to the seaboard, but because of their low elevation, especially in the eastern part of the nation. Also documented is a result indicating that in time the combined effects of these impedances on the regional population distribution in the PRC is linearly declining."
Correspondence: D. S. Dendrinos, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045. Location: Rutgers University Library, New Brunswick, NJ.

64:10046 Lemmi, Enrica. The national settlement system of Italy at the beginning of the 1990s. Geographia Polonica, Vol. 66, 1995. 51-64 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The paper presents recent changes in the Italian settlement system and variations in urban hierarchical relations. Functional classification of towns and their new position compared with the situation at the beginning of [the] 1980s is...proposed in terms of three categories of cities, medium-sized towns and small towns. The analysis and verification attempted in this study have revealed a marked reduction in the number of small towns as well as shifts in functional characteristics within urban areas in Italy."
Correspondence: E. Lemmi, University of Pisa, Department of Environmental and Spatial Sciences, Via S. Giuseppe 22, 56100 Pisa, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10047 Nagle, Garrett. Population dynamics in Ciskei. Geography Review, Vol. 8, No. 4, Mar 1995. 25-30 pp. Deddington, England. In Eng.
"Population density is one of the most widely-used statistics in human geography. Maps showing areas of high and low density illustrate stark contrasts which result from the interplay of numerous forces. In South Africa political developments during the apartheid era have left a long-lasting impression upon population distribution and density. Conditions in one former homeland, Ciskei, are examined."
Correspondence: G. Nagle, St. Edward's School, Department of Geography, Oxford, England. Location: Indiana University Library, Bloomington, IN.

64:10048 Schröder, Peter. The representation of population density in school atlases: a critical examination of population maps. [Zur Darstellung der Bevölkerungsdichte in Schulatlanten: Bevölkerungskarten kritisch untersucht.] Zeitschrift für den Erdkundeunterricht, Vol. 49, No. 2, 1997. 42-8 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
The author critiques the way population density is represented in school atlases, focusing on those used in German-speaking countries. After a discussion of the methodological problems underlying such representations, he selects examples from several German atlases to illustrate the transmission of contradictory, misleading, or out-of-date information. He also suggests ways to improve this situation, including better teaching of underlying cartographical issues and the use of a dot system to illustrate population density.
Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

64:10049 Tobler, Waldo; Deichmann, Uwe; Gottsegen, Jon; Maloy, Kelly. World population in a grid of spherical quadrilaterals. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 3, Sep 1997. 203-25 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"We report on a project that converted subnational population data to a raster of cells on the earth. We note that studies using satellites as collection devices yield results indexed by latitude and longitude. Thus it makes sense to assemble the terrestrial arrangement of people in a compatible manner. This alternative is explored here, using latitude/longitude quadrilaterals as bins for population information....The results to date of putting world boundary coordinates together with estimates of the number of people are described. The estimated 1994 population of 219 countries, subdivided into 19,032 polygons, has been assigned to over six million five minute by five minute quadrilaterals covering the world."
Correspondence: W. Tobler. University of California, Department of Geography, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4060. E-mail: tobler@geog.ucsb.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration.

64:10050 Arn, Jack. Third World urbanization and the creation of a relative surplus population: a history of Accra, Ghana to 1980. Review: Fernand Braudel Center, Vol. 19, No. 4, Fall 1996. 413-44 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"The World Bank has established Third World urbanization and urban poverty as primary foci for Development studies in the 1990s. Yet little renewed attention has been paid to the theorization of the issue in the context of overall Third World development/underdevelopment. This article uses the case of Accra, Ghana to demonstrate the contribution a synthetic World Systems/Dependency approach can have in understanding the historical genesis of urban poverty and the spatial exclusion of the poor in areas such as Nima. In particular Marx's notion of the processes involved in the creation of a relative surplus population provides some conceptual insight."
Correspondence: J. Arn, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10051 Beer, Andrew. Regional cities in Australia's changing urban system. Geographia Polonica, Vol. 66, 1995. 33-49 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"There is evidence that Australia's urban system is changing. Since the mid-1970s there has been growth in the number and total population of regional cities. It is argued that this growth is a product of restructuring and the de-regulation of the Australian economy. Regional cities have become more prominent in the national economy as centres for manufacturing, as a consequence of the growth of tourism and recreation industries, through the decline in some areas of smaller urban settlements and as a result of new mining developments."
Correspondence: A. Beer, Flinders University of South Australia, Faculty of Social Sciences, Geography Discipline, G.P.O. Box 2100 Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10052 Bibby, Peter; Shepherd, John. Projecting rates of urbanisation in England, 1991-2016: method, policy application and results. Town Planning Review, Vol. 68, No. 1, Jan 1997. 93-124 pp. Liverpool, England. In Eng.
"The rate of conversion of land from rural to urban uses has been a central concern of the British planning system. Despite this interest, however, the factual basis of the debate on the pace of urban growth, its form and distribution has been extremely weak. The reason for this is lack of appropriate data. This paper reports research on two new data sources on land use--a digital database of the boundaries of tracts of urban land in 1981 and 1991 and the Land Use Change Statistics--to analyse recent urban growth in England and, in conjunction with current household projections, to estimate the likely extent of urbanisation in 2016. In addition to assessing the geographical distribution of this growth, the paper draws out some implications for policy analysis of the method of projecting the extent of land in urban use."
Correspondence: P. Bibby, University of Sheffield, Department of Town and Regional Planning, Sheffield S10 2TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

64:10053 Black, Duncan; Henderson, Vernon. Urban growth. NBER Working Paper, No. 6008, Apr 1997. 48 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper models and examines empirically the evolution of cities in an economy [like that of the United States]....Each type of city has a particular industrial composition and good(s) it specializes in and corresponding equilibrium size. This evolution is modeled in an economy with exogenous population growth and endogenous human capital accumulation....Different types of cities grow in parallel in size and human capital accumulation. However, per capita income and human capital levels differ across city types by production process and benefits of human investments and spillovers, so there is observed inequality across cities among otherwise identical individuals."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Second author's E-mail: j_henderson@brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

64:10054 Bonine, Michael E. Population, poverty, and politics in Middle East cities. ISBN 0-8130-1474-3. LC 96-21377. 1997. x, 361 pp. University Press of Florida: Gainesville, Florida. In Eng.
This collection of essays examines issues such as population, poverty, and politics related to rapid urbanization in the Middle East, and is the product of an international symposium held in Tucson, Arizona, in March 1993. The contributions are arranged in four main sections: Municipal government, urban planning, and conserving the urban past; Poverty and marginalization in the urban Middle East; Health and gender and the urban environment; and Islam and politics: war, revolution, and protest in the Middle Eastern city.
Correspondence: University Press of Florida, 15 Northwest 15th Street, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10055 Clark, David. Urban world/global city. ISBN 0-415-14436-1. LC 95-26472. 1996. xii, 211 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This book is concerned with contemporary global urbanization. "It analyses the distribution and growth of towns and cities and explores the social and behavioural characteristics of urban living. Individual chapters focus upon populations and places, urban growth and urbanisation, urban development as a global phenomenon, lifestyles in the city, global urban society, world cities, and the urban future. Emphasis throughout is placed upon the world scale, urban developments being linked to the emergence of a global economy and society. Attention is directed equally to urban patterns and processes in developing and developed areas which are seen as common consequences of the emergence of capitalism as the dominant economic system."
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10056 Drakakis-Smith, David; Dixon, Chris. Sustainable urbanization in Vietnam. Geoforum, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1997. 21-38 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the nature of [urban-based economic growth in Viet Nam] and contends that the present [sizes] of Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi are much greater than official figures suggest. It then goes on to review the situation with regard to urban poverty, basic needs and the environment to illustrate the extent to which this unacknowledged growth is not only threatening the sustained expansion of those cities, but also the sustainability of the economic growth on which the country is so reliant."
Correspondence: D. Drakakis-Smith, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, Roxby Building, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10057 Emmanuel, R. Urban vegetational change as an indicator of demographic trends in cities: the case of Detroit. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 24, No. 3, May 1997. 415-26 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this study the author seeks to find whether changes in urban vegetation can be linked to urban social changes by using Detroit [Michigan] as a case study. Demographic trends in Detroit are analyzed in light of the increasing greenness in the city detected by recent satellite images. Robust relationships between greenness change and demographic factors associated with urban decay (population decline, an increase in poverty level, and an increase in vacant units) are found....It is concluded that vegetation trends could be used as indicators of urban socioeconomic changes. A vegetation-based urban environmental quality index could therefore be developed to monitor physical and social changes in the cities."
Correspondence: R. Emmanuel, University of Moratuwa, Faculty of Architecture, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10058 Faibusovich, E. L. The demographic situation in the towns of Russia. [Demograficheskaya situatsiya v gorodakh Rossii.] Izvestiya Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva, Vol. 125, No. 1, 1993. 28-34 pp. St. Petersburg, Russia. In Rus.
This is a review of trends in urbanization in Russia using official data for 1989. The author suggests a system for the classification of cities with populations over 50,000. Using this system, the distribution of cities of various types by economic region is analyzed.
Location: Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

64:10059 Frankhauser, Pierre. The fractal approach: a new tool for the spatial analysis of urban agglomerations. [L'approche fractale: un nouvel outil de réflexion dans l'analyse spatiale des agglomérations urbaines.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1997. 1,005-40 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Fractal geometry is a new approach for the study of spatial distributions....The methods of fractal analysis can be used to study the spatial organization of human activities across scales. The regularities and the discontinuities in the distributions can then be identified. These discontinuities can be spatially situated. Applying this concept to urbanized areas has shown that districts can be defined and classified according to their scaling relations, thereby allowing development of a typology of locational patterns....An examination of time series shows that despite the apparent fragmentation of these urban tissues, urbanization is often accompanied by structured development."
Correspondence: P. Frankhauser, Université de Franche-Comté, 32 rue Mégevand, 25030 Besançon, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10060 Kant, Surya. Urbanisation in Himachal Pradesh during the present century. Population Geography, Vol. 17, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1995. 49-64 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"The paper examines urbanisation in Himachal Pradesh [India] in terms of size, growth, evolution, site and functional characteristics of urban centres for [the] 1901-91 period. In addition, the role played by the changing political and administrative geography has also been considered."
Correspondence: S. Kant, Panjab University, Department of Geography, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10061 Korcelli, Piotr. Urban restructuring in East-Central Europe: selected questions. Geographia Polonica, Vol. 66, 1995. 7-12 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"Several...arguments related to urban development in East-Central Europe are proposed in this article. Firstly, the concept of the socialist city is shown to be only partly relevant in the present context. Secondly, limited evidence is found in support of the often anticipated rapid population concentration in the national urban systems. Thirdly, major metropolitan centres in East-Central Europe are shown to be entering into competition with their counterparts in West-Central Europe."
Correspondence: P. Korcelli, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, ul. Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10062 Merlin, Pierre. Urban growth. [La croissance urbaine.] Que Sais-Je?, No. 1843, ISBN 2-13-046451-3. 1994. 128 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general study on the phenomenon of urbanization. Chapters are included on the causes, objectives, stages, types, importance, and consequences of urban growth. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Presses Universitaires de France, 108 Boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10063 Ouyyanont, Porphant. Bangkok's population and the ministry of the capital in early 20th century Thai history. Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 35, No. 2, Sep 1997. 240-60 pp. Kyoto, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper...focuses on two related themes which together enable us to put the emergence of Bangkok as a primate city in the 19th century in clearer perspective. First, we review population estimates for Bangkok. Here, the major point is this: Bangkok's population was much smaller than often suggested in the 19th century....As long as the area of Bangkok was confined, and the population small, city regulation could be maintained within the traditional Siamese social structures, with Bangkok being, in effect, a royal domain....The second part of our paper looks at the creation and the role of the Ministry of the Capital, formed in 1892....The linking [of] Bangkok administrative structure with royal interests produced both a physical and economic stamp on Bangkok which has had an enduring effect on Bangkok's development."
Correspondence: P. Ouyyanont, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, School of Economics, Pakkred, Nonthaburi 11120, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10064 Parysek, Jerzy J.; Kotus, Jacek. Development patterns of Polish towns in the years 1950-1990 (a synthesis of the postwar urbanisation process). Geographia Polonica, Vol. 66, 1995. 87-110 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The article presents the results of studies of the development of Polish towns by size categories. They allowed a synthetic evaluation of the process of urbanisation based on a multivariate analysis of the growth dynamics of 60 largest towns and an analysis of the development trajectories of the particular size groups of towns."
Correspondence: J. J. Parysek, Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Planning, ul. Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10065 Shukla, Vibhooti. Urbanization and economic growth. ISBN 0-19-563725-9. 1996. xv, 483 pp. Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This book brings together the main writings of the late Vibhooti Shukla on urbanization and economic development. The 19 papers are organized under the following topics: City size, productivity, and policy instruments; Agglomeration and migration; Rural migration to an Indian metropolis--examining the microfoundations of the Harris-Todaro paradigm; Sectoral versus spatial considerations; City structure and employment dynamics; Consequences of urban growth; and Research agenda.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road, New Delhi 110 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

64:10066 van der Haegen, Herman; Juchtmans, Greet; Kesteloot, Christian. Multicultural Brussels: a sociodemographic approach. In: Population and family in the Low Countries 1996/1997: selected current issues, edited by Hans van den Brekel and Fred Deven. 1997. 73-99 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"This study starts with a short history of [Brussels, Belgium], its transition from Dutch-speaking capital of the Southern Netherlands to a bilingual city at the border of the Roman and Germanic culture areas, and most recently to the multicultural capital of Europe. The study also comprises an analysis of the concentrations of foreigners in Brussels. It focuses on where they choose to live, which is a function of their origin as well as of their present social status."
Correspondence: H. van der Haegen, Université Catholique de Louvain, van Evenstraat 2C, 3000 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

64:10067 Zheng, Xiao-Ping. Measuring optimal population distribution by agglomeration economies and diseconomies: a case study of Tokyo. Urban Studies, Vol. 35, No. 1, Jan 1998. 95-112 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents an empirical study on the optimality of population distribution within the Tokyo metropolitan area. By taking into account the effects of agglomeration economies and diseconomies on the urban business firms' and households' behaviour, a benefit function and a cost function are obtained that are dependent on the distribution of urban population. Using statistical data from the Tokyo metropolitan area, estimates are made of these agglomeration-related benefit and cost functions, and the related population density functions as well. A comparison between the estimated benefit and cost functions shows that the distribution of population is optimal around the central and peripheral cities but non-optimal in between them, and the global city size of the whole area is optimal."
Correspondence: X.-P. Zheng, University of Tsukuba, Institute of Policy and Planning Sciences, Tsukuba 305, Japan. E-mail: zheng@shako.sk.tsukuba.ac.jp. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

64:10068 Spencer, David. Counterurbanisation and rural depopulation revisited: landowners, planners and the rural development process. Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 13, No. 1, Jan 1997. 75-92 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper reopens the debate between Weekley (1988) and Rowsell (1989) over why pockets of depopulation have persisted within parts of rural Britain which have experienced net growth through counterurbanisation. It argues that Weekley has not fully appreciated the context for local population losses, namely the emergence of a new structural relationship between people, households, and dwellings, and the growing tension between production and consumption interests in rural locales. Moreover, the paper disputes claims that depopulation is triggered by the actions of either the landowner or the planner. Drawing on case study material informed by critical realism, it argues that planners and landowners have been drawn into an asymmetrical power relationship. This has tended to buttress landed interests and, in so doing, reproduce mechanisms which protect the less populous communities from growth and change."
Correspondence: D. Spencer, University of Reading, Department of Geography, Whiteknights, P.O. Box 227, Reading RG6 6AB, England. Department E-mail: Department@geog1.reading.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.