Volume 63 - Number 4 - Winter 1997

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population.

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

63:40677 Balk, Deborah. Defying gender norms in rural Bangladesh: a social demographic analysis. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 2, Jul 1997. 153-72 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study explores the social and demographic determinants of a woman's decision-making authority within the home and mobility outside of the home in staunchly patriarchal rural Bangladesh, in an attempt to understand better which women defy existing gender norms and why they do so. Although the characteristics of individual women matter, institutional determinants--operating at several levels--are the most salient features in determining who defies gender norms in rural Bangladesh. I find that about 25 per cent of the explainable variance in mobility and authority can be explained by individual level attributes--age, education, residing with her in-laws--and that 75 per cent comes from a variety of broad-ranging aspects of gender norms at the household, village, and regional level."
This paper was originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. Balk, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40678 Bronner, Michael E. The mother of battles: confronting the implications of automobile dependence in the United States. Population and Environment, Vol. 18, No. 5, May 1997. 489-507 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In refusing to recognize the malignant effects of our automobile dependence, which requires a straightforward acceptance and direct treatment, we allow its ill-effects to grow beyond control. Each day that our automobile dependence grows, our capacity to affect the character of this change slips a notch. The objective of this paper is to characterize the true cost of automobile dependence on our society, not in a dollar estimate, but in human terms." The author discusses the impact on human health.
Correspondence: M. E. Bronner, 531 West End Avenue, 3-A, New York, NY 10024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40679 Coelen, Stephen P. Beyond 2000: demographic change, education and the work force; existing relationships and the prognosis in New England. LC 94-211817. 1993. ii, 51 pp. University of Massachusetts, Massachusetts Institute for Social and Economic Research: Amherst, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Demographic change in New England has been particularly fast with regard to changing the racial and ethnic composition as well as to shifting the age distribution of the population. Part I of this study evaluates the effect of such demographic changes first on the educational attainment of the region's population and then on the ultimate preparedness of the region's labor force....Part II of this study [presents] recommendations for educational change. These are aimed at improving the performance of low income and minority students."
Correspondence: Massachusetts Institute for Social and Economic Research, 128 Thompson Hall, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40680 De Santis, Gustavo. Welfare and ageing: how to achieve equity between and within the generations. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 185-201 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
Some basic issues concerning the intergenerational transfer of wealth to pay for social welfare systems are explored. In particular, the author examines "how to finance the expenses of a welfare system in such a way that the system be both balanced (revenues equalling expenses) and equitable (in at least three different senses: cross-sectionally, longitudinally and between subgroups...)." The system proposed is a pay-as-you-go system.
Correspondence: G. De Santis, University of Messina, Faculty of Political Science, 9 VT Cannizzaro, Messina, Italy. E-mail: desantis@stat.ds.unifi.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40681 Rürup, B. Demands on the German social pension system against the background of demographic change. [Anforderungen an das gesetzliche Alterssicherungssystem vor dem Hintergrund des demographischen Wandels.] Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1996. 42-5 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper deals with the German public pension system which is affected by changing demographics. It examines whether the problems can be solved more efficiently by either a fundamental change towards a tax-financed basic allowance augmented by a private capital accumulation scheme, or by adjustments within the present system of wage-determined contributions. The analysis shows that basic allowance and capital accumulation systems are inadequate, essentially for macroeconomic reasons and adverse effects on redistribution, to [solve] the demographically induced problems of the public pension system."
Correspondence: B. Rürup, Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Fachbereich I (Finanzwissenschaft), Residenzschloß, 64283 Darmstadt, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40682 Sathar, Zeba A.; Kazi, Shahnaz. Women's autonomy, livelihood and fertility: a study of rural Punjab. 1997. v, 100 pp. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics [PIDE]: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
This report analyzes the factors associated with women's greater or lesser autonomy and power in both economic and personal spheres in Pakistan. Attention is also given to the relation between levels of female autonomy and reproductive behavior. The data were collected in the rural areas of Punjab, where about 100 currently married women in each of 10 communities, as well as 473 of their husbands, were interviewed. The report has chapters on women's employment patterns; gender relations; and marriage, fertility, and contraception. The study is part of a project on the status of women and fertility being carried out in five Asian countries.
Correspondence: Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40683 Senanayake, Pramilla. Women: the neglected factor in sustainable development. In: Population and the environment: the Linacre Lectures 1993-4, edited by Bryan Cartledge. 1995. 99-135 pp. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"It is the basic argument of this paper that sustainable development can only be ensured when women and gender issues are treated with the highest priority. Improving women's conditions can result in major economic, social, and environmental gains, probably at a very low cost in terms of resource allocation. This paper deals with four main areas: the gender issue as a development variable; the current involvement of women in important productive areas; health, and family planning, and education; and some feasible ways ahead. Because they are so crucial, the chapter concentrates on health, family planning, and education, the areas where women have particularly suffered neglect."
Correspondence: P. Senanayake, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40684 Zhang, Kaimin; Zuo, Xuejin; Zhou, Haiwang. Population aging and reform of the pension system in Shanghai. In: Research papers on interrelationship between population growth in developing countries and global environment, Volume II. Mar 3, 1997. 237-53 pp. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The growing demand for social security programs derived from population aging [in Shanghai, China] has necessitated more efforts on studying the issues concerned, and to devise [counter-measures to deal] with these problems." Past and future trends in aging are first discussed. The impact of population aging on socioeconomic development is analyzed. A historical perspective of the pension system is provided, and recent reforms of the system are assessed.
Correspondence: K. Zhang, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population and Development Studies, Shanghai Demography Society, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

63:40685 Courbage, Youssef. Demography and politics in Northern Ireland. [Démographie et politique en Irlande du Nord.] In: Old and new minorities/Anciennes et nouvelles minorités, edited by Jean-Louis Rallu, Youssef Courbage, and Victor Piché. 1997. 335-61 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author analyzes the demography of Northern Ireland and examines the political implications of the differences between the demography of the Protestant and the Catholic populations. He shows that some of the demographic assumptions made at the time of partition in 1921 have proved incorrect, and describes the process whereby the Catholic population is growing larger in comparison to the Protestant population. Reasons for the higher fertility of the Catholic population are analyzed, and migration trends affecting the two populations are described. The importance of future demographic trends to the prospect of finding a political solution to the province's current problems is noted.
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. E-mail: courbage@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40686 de la Garza, Rodolfo O.; Szekely, Gabriel. Policy, politics and emigration: reexamining the Mexican experience. In: At the crossroads: Mexican migration and U.S. policy, edited by Frank D. Bean et al. 1997. 201-25 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
"While numerous studies have examined the origin and impact of U.S. immigration policies, few have examined how Mexican politics and the policies of the Mexican state affect emigration. The objective of this chapter is to begin to fill this void. The chapter is divided into four sections. The first examines why the literature on emigration has been so inattentive to the effects of Mexican policy and politics. Part two offers a framework illustrating the relationship between domestic politics, state policy and emigration from 1910 through today. The third section uses that framework to describe variations in Mexican emigration in three periods....The chapter concludes by suggesting the kinds of political and policy reforms that the Mexican state should enact...."
Correspondence: R. O. de la Garza, University of Texas, Department of Government, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40687 Hodgson, Dennis; Watkins, Susan C. Feminists and neo-Malthusians: past and present alliances. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Sep 1997. 469-523, 688-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines a century of interactions between American feminists and American social movements seeking to influence population trends. The historical analysis focuses on relations between feminists and neo-Malthusians and attempts to determine when they are likely to enter into alliances. The two movements are found to be neither natural allies nor natural enemies. Sturdy alliances arise when both movements agree on certain ideological premises, share a common demographic goal, and perceive mutual benefit in an alliance. The origin of the `common ground' alliance between American feminists and American neo-Malthusians that was so prominently displayed at the International Conference on Population and Development at Cairo is examined. Since the two movements currently are found to possess no clear common goals, to share no basic ideological beliefs, and to have entered a relationship of questionable mutual benefit, the alliance is considered to be fragile."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. Hodgson, Fairfield University, Department of Sociology, Fairfield, CT 06430-7524. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40688 Hugo, Graeme. Australia and international treaties: population. Australian Geographer, Vol. 26, No. 1, May 1995. 53-60 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"The separation of environmental and population issues globally is reflected in the fact that the setting of international agendas to tackle them was for all intents and purposes undertaken at separate international meetings--the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the International Population Conference in Cairo in 1994. This paper presents an overview of Australia's international involvement in population issues and suggests that until recently Australia had played a minor political role in international population initiatives primarily, and perhaps ironically, because it has been a world leader in demographic research and teaching for several decades."
Correspondence: G. Hugo, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Location: Yale University Library, New Haven, CT.

63:40689 Magnette, Paul; Alaluf, M.; Delpérée, F.; Manzella, A.; Martiniello, M.; Nys, M.; Pierucci, A.; Quermonne, J.-L.; Rea, A.; Rossini, D.; Telò, M. From stranger to citizen: building a European citizenship. [De l'étranger au citoyen: construire la citoyenneté européenne.] L'Homme/L'Etranger, ISBN 2-8041-2487-8. 1997. 196 pp. De Boeck Université: Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
This collective work examines some of the concepts inherent in the development of the European Union, particularly the development of the concept of European citizenship. The first part examines how the free migration of labor within the European Union is giving rise to populations residing in other countries of the Union than the ones they were born in. The next part examines the process from a level of social integration to participation in political life by such migrants. The final part describes how this process is a contribution to the growth of the concept of European citizenship.
Correspondence: De Boeck, 203 Avenue Louise, Boite 1, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

63:40690 Berquó, Elza. The ICPD Programme of Action and reproductive health policy development in Brazil. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 341-55 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author first describes the contribution of Brazil to the Programme of Action, which focused on reproductive health, agreed upon at the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development in 1994. The Brazilian response to this new initiative is then outlined in the areas of new policies and programs, the empowerment of women, eliminating racial and ethnic discrimination, and mobilizing civil society.
Correspondence: E. Berquó, Centro Brasileiro de Analise e Planejamento, 615 rua Morgado de Mateus, CEP 04015, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40691 Bhatia, Jagdish C.; Cleland, John; Bhagavan, Leela; Rao, N. S. N. Levels and determinants of gynecological morbidity in a district of South India. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 2, Jun 1997. 95-103 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents the results of an assessment of gynecological morbidity among 385 women with young children residing in a district of Karnataka State, South India. All three main modes of assessment (clinical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reports) reveal a high burden of reproductive tract infections. The two most common conditions, identified by laboratory tests, were bacterial vaginosis and mucopurulent cervicitis. Approximately one-fourth of the women had clinical evidence of pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical ectopy, and fistula....[The] results indicate that radical improvements in women's health in India will require far more than the diagnosis and treatment of reproductive tract infections."
Correspondence: J. C. Bhatia, Indian Institute of Management, Bannerghatta Road, Bangalore 560 076, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40692 Castilla, Jesús; Pollán, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo. The AIDS epidemic among Spanish drug users: a birth cohort-associated phenomenon. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 5, May 1997. 770-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In Spain the number of new acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases among injection drug users continues to rise. The time trend up to 1994 has been analyzed, with special attention paid to the different generations....After adjustment for age and year of diagnosis, AIDS incidence related to injection drug use is associated with specific birth cohorts. Rising values are observed in the successive generations born during the 1950s, peaking in men born in 1962 and women born in 1964. In subsequent cohorts, there is a marked falloff in incidence for both sexes, but this decline is seen to halt in men from the 1972 birth cohort onwards. The overall period effect is upward, yet the trend flattens in the last years."
Correspondence: J. Castilla, Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, Sinesio Delgado 6, Madrid 28029, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40693 Crimmins, Eileen. Trends in mortality, morbidity, and disability: what should we expect for the future of our ageing population. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 317-25 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper examines theoretical and empirical results to indicate under what circumstances and how improving mortality and improving health will be linked. Using data from recent years in the U.S., trends in mortality, morbidity, and disability among the older population are examined. The paper concludes that expectations for constantly improving population health or for the compression of morbidity and disability into a limited part of the life cycle is unrealistic over the long run. Expectations are for continued improvement in mortality at the older ages but [it is likely] that this will be accompanied by periods of improving and deteriorating population health and by inconsistent life cycle changes in the length of disability free life relative to active life."
Correspondence: E. Crimmins, University of Southern California, Andrus Gerontology Center, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0191. E-mail: crimmin@almaak.usc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40694 Crimmins, Eileen M.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Ingegneri, Dominique. Trends in disability-free life expectancy in the United States, 1970-90. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Sep 1997. 555-72, 689-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article provides estimates of active life expectancy, defined as disability-free life expectancy, for [U.S.] males and females for three dates: 1970, 1980, and 1990. Increases in life expectancy during the 1980s were concentrated in years without disability. This contrasts with the preceding decade during which almost all of the increase in life expectancy was in disabled years. Recent increases in both total life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy have been greater for males than for females. The primary reason for the increase in disability-free life during the 1980s is a decrease in the proportion of the population who are disabled among those in their late 50s and their 60s."
Correspondence: E. M. Crimmins, University of Southern California, Andrus Gerontology Center, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0035. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40695 Desgrees du Lou, Annabel. AIDS and reproductive health in Sub-Saharan Africa: a critical review of the literature. [SIDA et santé de la reproduction en Afrique sub-saharienne: une revue commentée de la littérature.] Notes et Projets, No. 4, Feb 1997. 25 pp. Equipe de Recherche Transition de la Fécondité et Santé de la Reproduction [ETS]: Marseilles, France; Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération [ORSTOM]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a review of the literature on the effect of AIDS on reproductive health in Sub-Saharan Africa. The author first describes the family and sexual context in which the epidemic has developed in Africa. Next, she examines the direct impact of AIDS on the sexual relations of couples and on fertility. Finally, she analyzes the relationship between AIDS prevention and reproductive health.
Correspondence: Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, Centre St. Charles, Case 10, 3 Place V. Hugo, 13331 Marseilles Cedex 3, France. Author's E-mail: annabel@abidjan.orstom.ci. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40696 Egidi, Viviana; Frova, Luisa. Morbidity, mortality and health-related quality of life in developed countries: concepts, methods and indicators. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 297-316 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
Some of the concepts, methods, and indicators relevant to the study of healthy life expectancy are examined in this paper. An integrated model for processing data from multiple sources in order to measure good health in the elderly is presented and illustrated using Italian data.
Correspondence: V. Egidi, Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, Via Cesare Balbo 11a, 00184 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40697 Eliot, Emmanuel. The spatial diffusion of HIV in Bombay. [La diffusion du VIH à Bombay.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1997. 253-64 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author reports on the prevalence and spatial diffusion of HIV infection in Bombay, India. "The data [studied] at different scales [reflect] disparities of HIV spread in the different areas of the metropolis. `Pathogenic' places for decades have...been infected. Moreover the intra-urban analysis of one of the red-light areas (Kamathipura) reveals a contamination of the population linked with accessibility as well as cultural factors. In view of this infection, the extremist Hindu government of the State has used segregative actions against infected people which might create important tensions in the future."
Correspondence: E. Eliot, Université de Rouen, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40698 Fickel, Norman. Effects of demographic trends in Germany on health care costs. [Auswirkungen der Bevölkerungsentwicklung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland auf die Ausgaben für Gesundheit.] Europäische Hochschulschriften, Reihe V: Volks- und Betriebswirtschaft, Vol. 1676, ISBN 3-631-47947-6. LC 95-220040. 1995. 170 pp. Peter Lang: Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In Ger.
Demographic trends in Germany are analyzed with the aim of predicting future health care costs. Topics covered include mortality; morbidity; population aging; age-specific health care costs; population projection, including fertility and migration components; and medical costs.
Correspondence: Peter Lang, Jupiterstrasse 15, 2000 Bern 15, Switzerland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:40699 Franco Agudelo, Saúl. Violence and health in Colombia. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 2, No. 3, Sep 1997. 170-80 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng. with sum. in Spa.
"Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country....This article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector."
Correspondence: S. Franco Agudelo, Corporación Salud y Desarrollo, Apartado Aéreo 57736, Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia. E-mail: sfranco@gaitana.interred.net.co. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40700 Görtler, Edmund. Quality assurance in public health through the use of cohort life tables. [Qualitätssicherung im Gesundheitswesen durch die Verwendung von Kohortensterbetafeln.] In: Sterblichkeitsentwicklung--unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Kohortenansatzes, edited by Reiner H. Dinkel, Charlotte Höhn, and Rembrandt D. Scholz. 1996. 129-37 pp. R. Oldenbourg Verlag: Munich, Germany; Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
This article explores the use and areas of applicability of cohort life tables for quality assurance in the German health sector. The author concludes that the concept of cohort life tables is hardly being used in most areas at present for this purpose.
Correspondence: E. Görtler, Modus, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschafts- und Sozialforschung, Methoden und Analysen, Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40701 Hradil, Stefan; Maschke, Wendy; Schertz, Christina. Life situation, environment, and health. [Lebenssituation, Umwelt und Gesundheit.] Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft, No. 88, 1997. 92 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
In preparation for a comprehensive study of the health and lifestyle factors influencing life expectancy, the German Demographic Institute (Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung) commissioned this survey of current research and literature on the subject. The first part discusses lifestyle factors such as socioeconomic and marital status, health behaviors such as nutrition, smoking, and alcohol use, social networks, and environmental pollution. The second part discusses effects of these factors on mortality, morbidity, and specific causes of death, especially chronic diseases like respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Only studies in English and German are covered; a bibliography and a summary of relevant databases are included.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40702 Khaw, Kay-Tee. Healthy aging. British Medical Journal, Vol. 315, No. 7115, Oct 25, 1997. 1,090-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Some general issues concerning healthy aging are reviewed. The author suggests that healthy life expectancy is influenced by a relatively limited number of chronically disabling conditions and that many of these can be prevented or postponed. Therefore a greater focus on prevention and health maintenance is indicated, particularly with regard to diet, physical activity, smoking, infection, pollution, and housing. The social framework and policies that enable individuals to fulfil their potential and attain optimal health are thus crucial.
Correspondence: K.-T. Khaw, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Clinical Gerontology Unit, Box 110, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, England. E-mail: cthl@medschl.cam.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40703 Khlat, Myriam. Health: old and new diseases. [La santé: anciennes et nouvelles maladies.] In: La population du monde: enjeux et problèmes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. 1997. 435-60 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This chapter begins with definitions and a discussion of the notions of demographic and epidemiological transitions. The author then presents an overview of the global health situation, including forecasts of how the situation regarding some of the major diseases is likely to evolve. The chapter ends with general reflections on the future of global health and on the relation between advances in medicine and improvements in health.
Correspondence: M. Khlat, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40704 Konings, Elke; Caraël, Michel. Marriage patterns, sexual networks and HIV in the developing world. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 401-33 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This article reviews the current situation concerning research into sexual networking in developing countries in the context of estimating the future course of the AIDS epidemic. The emphasis is on social relations relevant to sexual networking and on assessing the existing information on social, cultural, and economic factors that may affect risk behavior. The theoretical background to social science studies on sexual networks is first reviewed. The importance of marital status and migration is stressed. The authors conclude that "in general, high risk behaviour and high risk sexual networks tend to be found in urban settings, among male and female migrants, among single and divorced, among the young, and among population groups with less social control but more individual freedom."
Correspondence: E. Konings, Dartmouth Medical College, Department of Community and Family, Medical Section of Biology and Epidemiology, Hinman Box 7927, Strosenburg Hall, Hanover, NH 03755. E-mail: elke.ll.konings@dartmouth.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40705 Laourou, Martin H. Trends in marital behavior and exposure to HIV infection in Benin. [Evolution des comportements matrimoniaux et exposition à l'infection VIH au Bénin.] In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 435-51 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Fre.
Data from a variety of sources are used to analyze the major changes in marriage patterns that occurred in Benin between 1979 and 1992 and the impact these changes have had on the spread of HIV infections. These changes include a significant increase in the number of those who remain single, a rise in age at marriage, and changes in polygamy. A consequence of these trends has been an increase in sex outside of marriage and an increased risk of exposure to HIV.
Correspondence: M. H. Laourou, Institut National de Statistique et de l'Analyse Economique, B.P. 323, Cotonou, Benin. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40706 London, Andrew S.; VanLandingham, Mark J.; Grandjean, Nancy. Socio-demographic correlates, HIV/AIDS-related cofactors, and measures of same-sex sexual behaviour among northern Thai male soldiers. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, Apr 1997. 33-60 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"We use data from an anonymous self-administered 1991 survey of military personnel in northern Thailand to estimate overall levels of and socio-demographic differentials in same-sex sexual behaviour in this population. Additionally, we examine the relationship between sexual experience with another male and a variety of outcomes relevant to HIV prevention and policy. Overall, 16.3 per cent of the sexually active soldiers report ever having had anal or oral sex with other males. Same-sex sexual behaviour in this sample is positively associated with several indicators of higher socio-economic status. All of the men who report having had sex with other men report having had vaginal intercourse with females as well. Comparison of our estimate of same-sex sexual behaviour with those obtained from two similar samples drawn in 1991 suggests that the lower estimates observed in the other two studies are largely due to differences in data collection methods."
Correspondence: A. S. London, Kent State University, Department of Sociology, Kent, OH 44242-0001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40707 Low-Beer, D.; Stoneburner, R. L. An age- and sex-structured HIV epidemiological model: features and applications. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, Vol. 75, No. 3, 1997. 213-21 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Presented is a novel model for forecasting HIV incidence by age and sex and among sentinel groups for which data are available. This approach permits a closer relationship between forecasting and surveillance activities, and more accurate estimates validated to data. As inputs the model uses an estimate of the HIV prevalence, country demographic data, and a profile of the sexual risk of HIV infection by age, to project HIV incidence, prevalence, number of AIDS cases and population. The following examples of the use of the model are given: forecasting HIV incidence in East Africa, by age, sex, and among pregnant women; 3-5-year forecasts of HIV incidence; modelling mixed risk behaviour HIV epidemics in South-east Asia; demographic indicators; and targeting a preventive vaccine by age group."
Correspondence: R. L. Stoneburner, International Centre for Migration and Health, 24 Avenue de Beau-Séjour, 1206 Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40708 Löytönen, Markku. The effects of the HIV epidemic on the population of Europe. In: Europe's population: towards the next century, edited by Ray Hall and Paul White. 1995. 83-98 pp. UCL Press: London, England. In Eng.
The author first presents a general introduction to the HIV and AIDS epidemic from a global perspective, and then focuses on its present and likely future impact on Europe. Attention is also given to the extent to which the effects of the HIV epidemic can be reliably predicted.
Correspondence: M. Löytönen, University of Turku, Department of Geography, 20014 Turku, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40709 Malawi. National Statistical Office (Zomba, Malawi); Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton, Maryland). Malawi Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Health Survey, 1996. Sep 1997. xvi, 194 pp. Zomba, Malawi. In Eng.
This report presents results from the 1996 Malawi Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Health Survey. This was a nationally representative survey of 2,683 women aged 15-49, 2,658 men aged 15-54, and 2,418 children aged 0-59 months. The survey was designed to provide information on malaria prevention, immunization, the management of childhood illnesses, fertility regulation, marriage and partner relations, and sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. E-mail: reports@macroint.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40710 Mati, J. K. G. Family planning, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. African Journal of Fertility, Sexuality and Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec 1996. 101-8 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the magnitude of the problem of STDs and HIV infection and AIDS, and the relationship with reproductive health in sub-Saharan Africa; and shows that although the epidemic initially affected what were called `high risk groups', it has in time spread to involve individuals, especially women, who belong to the lower-risk groups....The paper has reviewed available evidence on the association between contraceptive practice and the risk of HIV infection, and concludes that among women in the lower risk groups such as a majority of family planning clinic users, the risk involved in the use of the oral contraceptive seems small, and does not merit change in policy to restrict its use."
Correspondence: J. K. G. Mati, Institute for Reproductive Health Training and Research, P.O. Box 21024 Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40711 Miller, Robert A.; Stein, Karen; Miller, Kate; Ndhlovu, Lewis; Maggwa, Ndugga; Sanogo, Dioruatie; Kondo, Emmy. Measuring reproductive health care after Cairo: findings from four situation analysis studies in Africa. African Journal of Fertility, Sexuality and Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec 1996. 92-100 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to begin a preliminary assessment of some reproductive health indicators within the context of family planning programs, using data from expanded Situation Analyses conducted in four recent African studies. The studies, conducted in 1994-1995, cover Senegal, Zanzibar (studied separately from Tanzania), Kenya, and Botswana...."
Correspondence: R. A. Miller, Population Council, Programs Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40712 Mundigo, Axel I. Reproductive health: the challenges of a new field. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 329-40 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author examines the challenges involved in implementing the new approach to population issues adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in 1994. The new approach revolves around the concept of reproductive health. Separate consideration is given to the challenges posed to public policy, service providers, society as a whole, and those engaged in research.
Correspondence: A. I. Mundigo, Center for Health and Social Policy, P.O. Box 994, Manchester, VT 05254. E-mail: 102724.2417@compuserve.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40713 Ntozi, James P. M.; Anarfi, John K.; Caldwell, John C.; Jain, Shail K. Vulnerability to HIV infection and effects of AIDS in Africa and Asia/India. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, Suppl., 1997. 486 pp. Australian National University, Health Transition Centre: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The present supplement consists mostly of selected papers presented at workshops held in Mbarara, Uganda and Accra, Ghana." Papers are grouped into five sections: factors of vulnerability, behavioral change, and sexual networking in Uganda; HIV transmission, AIDS care and management in Ghana; effects of AIDS in Nigeria; policy in other African countries; and AIDS issues in Asia and India.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Australian National University, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40714 Pickering, Helen; Nunn, A. J. A three-year follow-up survey of demographic changes in a Ugandan town on the trans-African highway with high HIV-1 seroprevalence. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, Suppl., 1997. 41-7 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"A 1991 serosurvey in a Ugandan trading town on the trans-African highway reported a 40 per cent HIV-1 prevalence in adults. Three years later in a repeat survey of the 531 adults resident in 1991, 279 (53%) were still present, 196 (37%) had left and 56 (11%) had died. There were 138 new residents and 46 children had become adults, making a total of 463 adults in 1994, 13 per cent less than 1991. Most immigrants (91%) came from the surrounding rural district whereas 38 per cent of emigrants went to an urban area. A significant inverse association between wealth and seropositivity was found for women but not men. Of the original residents 157 were known to be HIV-1 positive in 1991; 31 (20%) had died compared to 10 (4%) of the 232 known to be seronegative, representing an HIV-1 attributable mortality fraction of 60 per cent."
Correspondence: H. Pickering, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Medical Research Council, Entebbe, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40715 Robine, Jean M.; Romieu, Isabelle; Cambois, Emmanuelle. The estimation of years lived in disability: a global initiative. [La estimación de los años vividos con discapacidad: una iniciativa universal.] Notas de Población, Vol. 24, No. 64, Dec 1996. 7-32 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper [translated from the original French] sets out the main information brought by the calculations of health expectancies at a global level: sex differences, national geographical comparisons, socio-economic differences; causes of disability and handicap; time trends; and nature of the years lived with disabilities. The study illustrates the policy relevance of health expectancies to (i) appraise the quality of the years lived, (ii) supervise health inequalities, (iii) allocate resources to different programmes, or (iv) assess health policies. It also illustrates the large diversity of potential indicators of the quality of years lived."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40716 Robles, Arodys. Use of contraception and knowledge of health technologies. In: Demographic diversity and change in the Central American Isthmus, edited by Anne R. Pebley and Luis Rosero-Bixby. 1997. 367-402 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
This study analyzes the relationship between contraceptive knowledge and practice on the one hand and knowledge and use of medical technologies on the other. The data are from demographic and health surveys carried out in Bolivia and Guatemala in 1989 and 1987, respectively.
Correspondence: A. Robles, Universidad de Costa Rica, Programa Centroamericano de Población, Apartado 833-2050, San José, Costa Rica. E-mail: arodysr@cariari.ucr.ac.cr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40717 Satia, Jay. Managing quality reproductive health programs: issues and challenges. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 357-80 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author examines some issues and challenges inherent in the adoption of the reproductive health (RH) approach to population programs agreed upon at the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in 1994. "After discussing the holistic perspective for RH in Section 2, this paper addresses the challenges in establishing institutional structures which will promote such a perspective (section 3). Then the concepts and program actions needed to provide gender-sensitive, quality care are presented in section 4. The paper concludes with a plea for co-creation of RH vision and operationalising framework among all stakeholders."
Correspondence: J. Satia, International Council on Management of Population Programmes, 141 Jalan Dahlia, Taman Uda Jaya, 68000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. E-mail: popmgt@pop.jaring.my. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40718 Seligman, Barbara; Kress, Daniel; Winfrey, William; Feranil, Imelda; Agarwal, Kokila. Reproductive health and human capital: a framework for expanding policy dialogue. POLICY Occasional Paper, No. 1, Apr 1997. 27 pp. Futures Group International, POLICY Project: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper suggests ways in which policy analysis guided by human capital theory might inform national debates concerning the implementation of programs aimed at achieving the reproductive health priorities set forth in the ICPD Programme of Action. Linking reproductive health policies and programs to their likely human capital impacts shows policymakers that, in addition to helping meet individuals' basic human right to reproductive health, investment in reproductive health services benefits the public interest by increasing the productive potential of individuals and their immediate social unit--the family or household. Moreover, increases in productive potential at the individual, family or household level cumulate to increases in productive potential at the societal level."
Correspondence: Futures Group International, POLICY Project, 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: policyinfo@tfgi.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40719 Stein, Zena; Susser, Mervyn. AIDS--an update on the global dynamics. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 6, Jun 1997. 901-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Two figures based on WHO data are provided in this article; the figures "give readers a privileged view of a unique analysis that yields the estimated distribution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence across three continents. The rates and the rankings all refer to living adults, 15 to 59 years of age. The population base is a mid-1994 census for Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Prevalence is estimated for the end of 1994."
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40720 Utomo, Budi. Infant feeding and child health: lessons from Indramayu, West Java. Working Papers in Demography, No. 68, 1996. 37, [3] pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author reports on a study that was intended to "examine the effect of infant feeding on infant health in two rural subdistricts, Indramayu, West Java....The overall community malnutrition problem in these two study areas could be categorized as moderate to severe....The study concludes that efforts to improve the nutritional status of children should include not only programs to promote and protect breastfeeding, but, also equally important, programs to promote safe and healthy weaning food. Finally, the study also underlines the importance of promoting healthy mothers for healthy births and children."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40721 VanLandingham, Mark. The social context of formative sexual experiences for Thai men. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 453-72 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author explores the circumstances that lead to the initiation of sexual life and the social patterns of sexual expression among young males in Thailand. The data, which were collected in 1994, are from in-depth interviews with 21 young males. The author concludes that unprotected sex with commercial sex workers is common in Thailand among unmarried men, and that features frequently associated with first and subsequent commercial sex patronage are heavy drinking and infrequent condom use in a peer group context.
Correspondence: M. VanLandingham, University of Texas Medical Branch, Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Galveston, TX 77555-1153. E-mail: mark.vanlandingham@utmb.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40722 Wynder, Ernst L. Tobacco as a cause of lung cancer: some reflections. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 146, No. 9, Nov 1, 1997. 687-94 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This is a historical review of the long effort to establish the link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. The author discusses why it was so difficult to attract attention to the vital scientific and public health issues inherent in this linkage, focusing on the apathy of the health professionals concerned and their reasons for not accepting or promoting the evidence relating lung cancer to smoking.
Correspondence: E. L. Wynder, American Health Foundation, 320 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40723 Zurayk, Huda. Reproductive health in population policy: a review and look ahead. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 381-98 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author discusses some aspects of implementing the reproductive-health-oriented approach to population programs adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo in 1994. "In section two, the paper will summarise and anlayse the dynamics of the situation that has led to the incorporation of the reproductive health approach so centrally in the ICPD Programme of Action. In section three, the paper will examine the responses that have emerged to this policy, and in section four the barriers that stand in the way of its implementation. Based on the realities revealed by these reviews, section five will argue for instituting mechanisms that could develop the reproductive health approach into a realistic, dynamic and sustainable process of change having the well-being of women and their families, within the larger context of their lives, at its core."
Correspondence: H. Zurayk, Population Council, P.O. Box 115, Giza, Egypt. E-mail: pccairo3@frcu.eun.eg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

No citations in this issue.

Copyright © 1997-1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.