Volume 63 - Number 4 - Winter 1997

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications. Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations, as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

63:40555 Atkins, P. J.; Townsend, J. G.; Raju, S.; Kumar, N. A geography of the sex ratio in India. Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1997. 161-71 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The 1991 Census of India found that for every 1,000 males there were only 927 females. This sex ratio shows that the country has one of the lowest proportions of girls and women in its population in the world. The paper seeks to explain why and also broadens the discussion by investigating the male/female balance in different regions, between the city and the countryside, and among scheduled castes and tribes."
Correspondence: P. J. Atkins, University of Durham, Department of Geography, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40556 Bourcier de Carbon, Philippe. The weight of the population over age 50 in France. [Le poids des plus de 50 ans en France.] Population et Avenir, No. 633, May-Jun 1997. 9-13 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This article examines some aspects of demographic aging, with reference to the situation in France. In particular, the author discusses implications of the fact that an increasing percentage of economic, social, financial, and political power is concentrated in the hands of the population over age 50. He suggests that this aspect of demographic aging is not given sufficient consideration in most studies on this topic.
Correspondence: P. Bourcier de Carbon, Population et Avenir, 35 rue Marbeuf, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40557 Butler, Robert N. Population aging and health. British Medical Journal, Vol. 315, No. 7115, Oct 25, 1997. 1,082-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Global trends in demographic aging are first reviewed. Next, the author analyzes both the impact of health on population aging and the impact of population aging on health. He concludes by considering the issue of taking responsibility for population aging.
Correspondence: R. N. Butler, Mount Sinai Medical Center, International Longevity Center, New York, NY 10029. E-mail: robert.butler@smtplink.mssm.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40558 Greengross, Sally; Murphy, Elaine; Quam, Lois; Rochon, Paula; Smith, Richard. Aging issue. British Medical Journal, Vol. 315, No. 7115, Oct 25, 1997. 1,029-104 pp. BMJ Publishing: London, England. In Eng.
This special issue is devoted to the topic of aging. It is part of a campaign by some 100 medical journals to alert readers, the general public, and governments to the radical changes being created across the world by the aging of populations and to contribute a substantial body of research and information on all aspects of aging. The primary focus is on health matters and aging.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: BMJ Publishing Group, BMA House, Tavistock Square, London WC1H 9TD, England. E-mail: bmjsubs@dial.pipex.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40559 James, William H. Weinberg's rule and facultative sex ratios. Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 4, Summer 1997. 437-41 pp. Washington, D. C. In Eng.
"The author refers to a paper by Coney and Mackey entitled `Weinberg's Rule versus facultative sex ratio,'...and argues that the number of mechanisms underlying variations in mammalian sex ratio at birth (e.g. steroid hormone levels) is presumably much smaller than the number of variables by which it varies. He suggests that research strategy would dictate investigating whether these underlying mechanisms (rather than the ad hoc variables) operate in conformity with facultative theory."
For the study by Nancy S. Coney and Wade C. Mackey, published in 1996, see 63:20333.
Correspondence: W. H. James, University of London, Galton Laboratory, London, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40560 Kim, Young J.; Schoen, Robert. Population momentum expresses population aging. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 3, Aug 1997. 421-7 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Population momentum and population aging occur when an initially growing population experiences a reduction in fertility to replacement level....We consider three measures of aging over the transition to stationarity: the increase in mean population age, the decrease in the proportion under age 30, and the increase in the proportion over age 65. The three measures of aging are highly correlated, though the relationship to momentum is weakest for the increase in the proportion over age 65. We find that momentum is linearly related to aging. In both model and actual populations, a one-year increase in mean age translates into about 4.5% more population growth. The population below age 30 does not grow over the transition to stationarity, and the ratio of initial to ultimate proportions under age 30 is virtually identical to momentum."
Correspondence: Y. J. Kim, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population Dynamics, Baltimore, MD 21205. E-mail: Kim@hpcsun01.sph.jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40561 Kinsella, Kevin; Ferreira, Monica. Aging trends: South Africa. International Brief, No. IB/97-2, Aug 1997. 6 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report summarizes the major demographic aspects affecting the aging of the South African population and highlights several socioeconomic characteristics that affect the wellbeing of older persons."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center, Washington, D.C. 20233-8860. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40562 Kumm, Jochen; Feldman, Marcus W. Gene-culture coevolution and sex ratios: II. Sex-chromosomal distorters and cultural preferences for offspring sex. Theoretical Population Biology, Vol. 52, No. 1, Aug 1997. 1-15 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
Models are developed in order to examine the evolution of sex ratios in a population whose members exhibit cultural preferences for the sex of their offspring. Such preferences may produce behavior such as female infanticide, sex-selective abortion, and sex-selective parental investment. The focus is on models that can distinguish between cultural and genetic components contributing to the sex ratio. "Evolutionary equilibria and trajectories of gene-culture interactions involving sex-chromosomal distorter alleles may produce severely male- or female-biased primary sex ratios and adult sex ratios in populations. Adult sex ratios, primary sex ratios, allele frequencies and the prevalence of cultural preferences in the population are sensitive to initial conditions and cultural transmission parameters. During the coevolutionary process phenoallelic association is observed in many cases and is associated with unusual dynamics."
Correspondence: M. W. Feldman, Stanford University, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40563 Kytir, Josef. The demographic aging of the Austrian population: on the long-term changes in the age structure in Austria. [Das demographische Altern der österreichischen Bevölkerung: zum langfristigen Wandel der Altersstruktur in Österreich.] Demographische Informationen, 1995-1996. 107-19, 163 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The Austrian population is presently in the middle of its age structure transition which started with World War I and will continue until the 40s of the next century. Within this time period the number of people aged 60 years or over will increase from about half a million to 2.8 million (1995: 1.6 million) and the share of the elderly will mount from about 9 percent to more than 35 percent (1995: 20 percent). The present article points out the demographic causes for population aging asking whether high fertility and/or high numbers of migrants can stop the aging process. Different measurements of demographic aging in Austria (share of various age groups, mean age and median age, dependency ratios, several aging indices) are calculated for the time period 1869 to 2050. Special attention is paid to regional differences within Austria and to changes of the sex ratio at older ages over time."
Correspondence: J. Kytir, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut für Demographie, Hintere Zollamtsstraße 2b, 1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40564 Panapasa, Sela; McNally, James W. From cradle to grave: health expectancy and family support among the elderly in Fiji. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 97-10, Aug 1997. 12, [9] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the issue of aging in Fiji. As this remains a relatively unexplored area, we present baseline information on the size, health and resources of the elderly in Fiji as well as some prevalence estimates of the risk of impairment over time."
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Author's E-mail: sela_panapasa@brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40565 Peru. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Dirección Técnica de Demografía y Estudios Sociales (Lima, Peru). Women in Peru: demographic, social, and economic characteristics according to the national censuses of population and housing. [La mujer en el Peru: características demográficas, sociales y económicas, según los censos nacionales de población y vivienda.] Pub. Order No. 707-95 SG-INEI. Aug 1995. 174 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa.
This report presents data based on census information about the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of women in Peru; the latest census was conducted in 1993. There are seven chapters in this report: The status of women in Peru in the 1990s; The characteristics of the female population; Reproductive health; Women's education; Women's labor force participation; Female heads of households; and Women's participation in politics.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Avenida General Garzón, No. 658 Jesús María, Lima 11, Peru. E-mail: postmast@INEI.GOB.PE. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40566 Qian, Zhenchao. Progression to second birth in China: a study of four rural counties. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 2, Jul 1997. 221-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Using a survey from four rural counties [in China], this paper examines the progression to a second birth and the sex ratio at second birth. Women whose first-born is a boy are less likely to have a second child and the sex ratio at second birth is normal, while women whose first-born is a girl are much more likely to have a second child and the sex ratio at second birth is very high....The author speculates that the high sex ratio at second birth is more likely to be achieved through sex selective abortion for women with higher educational attainment, and for women with lower educational attainment by such other means as under-reporting of female births and giving up female babies for adoption....The paper suggests that local family planning offices benefit financially by receiving fines and fees from couples who violate the family planning policy, and use the money to enforce the policy among those who cannot afford the fines."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Z. Qian, Arizona State University, Department of Sociology, Tempe, AZ 85287-2101. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40567 Zonta, L. A.; Ulizzi, L. Changes of sex composition with a changing environment: an analysis of the Italian population. Collegium Antropologicum, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jun 1996. 29-36 pp. Zagreb, Croatia. In Eng.
"In order to investigate the effects of the improved environmental conditions on the population sex composition, the authors have chosen two Italian regions with different socio-economic levels. As previously seen in populations representative of the major ethnic groups, the authors have found that the progressive reduction of early male extra-mortality has lead the sex [ratio] at birth to be maintained almost unchanged at least to the first year of life. Since the decreased sex-specific mortality may have allowed other mechanisms to assume greater relevance on the determination of the population sex [ratio], the authors have also analysed the present-day sex composition of newborns with respect to indicators of biological, cultural and socio-economic conditions."
Correspondence: L. A. Zonta, Università di Pavia, Department of Genetics and Microbiology, via Abbiategrasso 207, 27000 Pavia, Italy. Location: Stanford University Library, Stanford, CA.

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

63:40568 Chompootaweep, S.; Tankeyoon, M.; Poomsuwan, P.; Yamarat, K.; Dusitsin, N. Age at menarche in Thai girls. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 24, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 427-33 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"Age at menarche and menstrual symptoms were recorded in a sample of Thai schoolgirls in Bangkok. Using a random sampling proportional to size from this target population, structured questionnaires were offered to a sample of 15,998 girls of grades 4-12. Fifty-six per cent of the study population was menarcheal during the time of the study. Average mean ages by recalling age at menarche and by probit analysis were 12.51 [plus or minus] 1.17 and 12.35 [plus or minus] 1.41 years, respectively. The onset of menstruation occurred most frequently in April and October."
Correspondence: S. Chompootaweep, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40569 Hahn, Robert A.; Eaker, Elaine; Rolka, Henry. Reliability of reported age at menopause. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 146, No. 9, Nov 1, 1997. 771-5 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors examined four hypotheses about the reliability of reported age at menopause in the United States: (1) women with hysterectomy-induced menopause more reliably report their age at menopause than women who have undergone natural menopause; (2) reliability declines with time since menopause; (3) reliability declines with age; and (4) women with higher educational levels report their age at menopause more reliably than women with less education. The authors used linear regression models among 2,545 women in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and Followup Study (1971-1984) and compared responses at first and follow-up interviews. Among women who had undergone a natural menopause, 44% reported their age at menopause within one year from the first to second interviews; among women who had undergone a hysterectomy-induced menopause, 59% reported their age at menopause within one year from first to follow-up interviews. Only hysterectomy status and years from menopause to follow-up interview were significantly associated with the absolute difference between age at menopause reported at first and follow-up interviews. The authors conclude that caution in studies involving age at menopause may enhance our understanding of this critical event in the lives of women."
Correspondence: R. A. Hahn, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Epidemiology Program Office, Mailstop D-01, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40570 James, W. H. Sex ratio, coital rate, hormones and time of fertilization within the cycle. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 24, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1997. 403-9 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"In this paper I shall consider the relationships between coital rates, timing of fertilization within the cycle, and sex ratios of the resulting offspring. It will be suggested that there is: (1) Analytic (mathematical) evidence for a correlation between coital rate and time of fertilization. (2) Empirical evidence for a correlation between time of fertilization and sex ratio of offspring. Whence there arises: (3) A correlation between coital rate and sex ratio secondary to correlations of both with time of fertilization....It will be noted that the data on these two variables cohere not only with that on timing of insemination, but with the overall hypothesis that parental hormone levels at conception are causally associated with sex ratios at birth."
Correspondence: W. H. James, University College London, Galton Laboratory, Wolfson House, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40571 Lancet (New York, New York). Ageing today and tomorrow. Lancet, Vol. 350, No. 9085, Oct 18, 1997. 1,156-67 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a special section on aging, and its contents are as follows: The omnipresent still syndrome, by Richard Horton. How should clinical care of the aged differ? by Neil M. Resnick and Edward R. Marcantonio. Dying, not old age, to blame for costs of health care, by Chris van Weel and Joop Michels. Myths of ageing, by Graham P. Mulley. Access to advances in cardiology, by Michael Lyle. Living a little more dangerously, by C. Patterson and C. Rosenthal. Is the best yet to be? by Michael Gordon. Added years, onus or bonus? by Ruth Bonita.
Correspondence: Lancet, 245 West 17th Street, New York, NY 10011. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:40572 van Noord, Paulus A. H.; Dubas, Judith S.; Dorland, Martinus; Boersma, Hilda; te Velde, Egbert. Age at natural menopause in a population-based screening cohort: the role of menarche, fecundity, and lifestyle factors. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 68, No. 1, Jul 1997. 95-102 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The aim of this study was "to verify whether a population-based hypothesis (age at menarche and age at natural menopause have an inverse relationship) also applies at the level of the individual and to investigate what other factors predict age at natural menopause...[using data for] a cohort of 3,756 Dutch women, born between 1911 and 1925, participating in a population-based breast cancer screening program, who experienced a natural menopause....No relation was found between age at menarche and age at natural menopause. The total percentage of variance in age at natural menopause explained by multiple regression including all factors was minimal...."
Correspondence: P. A. H. van Noord, University of Utrecht, Julius Center for Patient Oriented Research, P.O. Box 80046/80035, 3508 TA Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population, and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation.

63:40573 Altonji, Joseph G.; Hayashi, Fumio; Kotlikoff, Laurence J. Parental altruism and inter vivos transfers: theory and evidence. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 105, No. 6, Dec 1997. 1,121-66 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper uses PSID data [Panel Study of Income Dynamics] on the extended family to test whether inter vivos transfers from parents to children [in the United States] are motivated by altruism. Specifically, the paper tests whether an increase by one dollar in the income of parents actively making transfers to a child coupled with a one-dollar reduction in that child's income results in the parents' increasing their transfer to the child by one dollar....The findings strongly reject the altruism hypothesis. Redistributing one dollar from a recipient child to donor parents leads to less than a 13-cent increase in the parents' transfer to the child, far less than the one-dollar increase implied by altruism."
Correspondence: J. G. Altonji, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:40574 Birrell, Bob; Rapson, Virginia. Poor families, poor children: who cares for the next generation? People and Place, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1997. 44-53 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Despite the recovery in the Australian economy since 1991, the number of poor families in Australia has continued to increase. By September 1996, 43 per cent of Australian families could be regarded as poor. Some four out [of] every ten of these were headed by lone parents. These findings highlight major questions about the resources available to poor families in a context where families are increasingly expected to invest heavily in their children's education."
Correspondence: B. Birrell, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40575 Duleep, Harriet O.; Regets, Mark C. Are lower immigrant earnings at entry associated with faster growth? A review. Program for Research on Immigration Policy Discussion Paper, No. PRIP-UI-44, May 1997. 31 pp. Urban Institute, Program for Research on Immigration Policy: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper summarizes our research on the relationship between immigrant entry earnings and earnings growth as well as the effect on earnings growth of two factors associated with low entry earnings: kinship admissions and country of origin. Using 1960-1990 [U.S.] decennial census data, we find that for cohorts from the same country of origin, education group, and age group, there is a systematic inverse relationship between initial earnings and subsequent earnings growth....We find that declines in admissions on the basis of occupational skills and corresponding increases in admissions on the basis of family are associated with both a decrease in initial earnings and an increase in earnings growth."
Correspondence: H. O. Duleep, 4417 Yuma Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40576 Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Kassis, Mary M.; Moore, Robert E. Running hard and falling behind: a welfare analysis of two-earner families. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1997. 237-50 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the commonly asserted proposition that long term economic changes have put the family in a financial bind. Structural parameters of a family utility model are obtained by estimating simultaneous labor supply functions for a two-earner household. We find evidence indicating that the average 1990s two-earner family would prefer to receive the 1980s real wage package (were it available) instead of the real wage package it actually faces. The degree to which the 1990s family is worse off (in terms of the changes in the real wage package) is roughly equivalent to an hour of leisure per week." The data are from the 1993 Current Population Survey and concern the United States.
Correspondence: J. L. Hotchkiss, Georgia State University, Department of Economics, School of Policy Studies, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303. E-mail: jhotchkiss@gsu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40577 Iceland, John. Urban labor markets and individual transitions out of poverty. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 3, Aug 1997. 429-41 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the U.S. census, I examine the effect of four structural characteristics on individual poverty exits: (1) economic restructuring, (2) skills mismatches, (3) racial residential segregation, and (4) welfare benefit levels. Results show that these factors play a role in explaining African Americans' economic disadvantages, but they have a weaker and often contrary impact on whites' poverty exits. Overall, the differing impact of the contextual characteristics on African Americans and whites exacerbates social stratification and illustrates racial divisions that continue to pervade the labor market."
Correspondence: J. Iceland, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. E-mail: iceland@umich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40578 Kolmar, Martin. Intergenerational redistribution in a small open economy with endogenous fertility. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1997. 335-56 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"For pay-as-you-go financed pension systems, claims may be calculated according to individual contributions (income) or the number of children of a family. We analyse the optimal structure of these parameters in a model with endogenous fertility. It is shown that for both structural determinants there exists no interior solution of the problem of intragenerational utility maximization. Thus, pure systems are always welfare maximizing. Furthermore, children-related pension claims induce a fiscal externality that tends to be positive. The determination of the optimal contribution rate shows that the widely accepted Aaron-condition is in general a misleading indicator for the comparison of fully funded and pay-as-you-go financed pension systems."
Correspondence: M. Kolmar, University of Konstanz, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, P.O. Box 5560-136, 78434 Konstanz, Germany. E-mail: martin.kolmar@uni-konstanz.de. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40579 Krieg, Randall G. Occupational change, employer change, internal migration, and earnings. Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1997. 1-15 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper I use microdata from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics to measure the financial returns to intercounty and interstate migration for individuals in a temporal framework accounting for gains that accrue over time....To account for the indirect effects of migration on earnings, explanatory variables are created by interacting migration status with: (1) occupational change, (2) employer change and (3) changes in both occupation and employer. These interaction terms are then included in the earnings functions. Earnings are estimated for three years subsequent to the migration decision to account for the financial returns to migration accruing over time. Results indicate that, when estimating earnings, the use of a simple migration dummy variable will mask the indirect effects of migration on earnings."
Correspondence: R. G. Krieg, University of Northern Iowa, Department of Economics, Cedar Falls, IA 50614. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:40580 Robles, Marcos; Reyes, Jorge. Estimation of household income and percentage poor at the province and district level in Peru. [Determinación del ingreso y la proporción de hogares pobres a nivel provincial y distrital en el Perú.] Notas de Población, Vol. 24, No. 64, Dec 1996. 63-104 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Data from the National Population and Housing Censuses of 1993 and from the National Household Survey (ENAHO) of 1995 are used to generate household income and poverty indicators for provinces and districts by means of a statistical method that integrates both data sources, with the aim of providing information that can help to make a more efficient allocation of resources of social policies and programmes....First, a statistical relationship between income and a set of individual, household and locational characteristics is established with survey data also available in the censuses. Second, the census data are used in conjunction with the estimated model to estimate the percentage of households poor at the department and district level."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40581 Schoeni, Robert F. New evidence on the economic progress of foreign-born men in the 1970s and 1980s. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 32, No. 4, Fall 1997. 683-740 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This study examines the economic progress of foreign-born men in the United States. Europeans entered the United States with relatively high wages and earned wages comparable to natives over their life course. Japanese, Korean, and Chinese men entered with lower wages but quickly caught up with U.S.-born workers. Mexicans and Central Americans entered with low wages, and the wage gap between themselves and U.S.-born workers has not shrunk. Disparities in completed years of education and whether education was received in the United States can explain a large share of the differences in the level of wages. For immigrants from some countries, it is found that more highly educated men assimilate more quickly. The rate of economic progress has not improved for more recent arrivals from any country, but this is most problematic among Mexicans and Central Americans because of their relatively low rates of wage growth."
Correspondence: R. F. Schoeni, RAND Corporation, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:40582 Stecklov, Guy. Intergenerational resource flows in Côte d'Ivoire: empirical analysis of aggregate flows. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 3, Sep 1997. 525-53, 688, 690 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The theoretical importance of intergenerational resource flows has been recognized since Caldwell's 1976 article on the direction of wealth flows and fertility decline. Nevertheless, to date, there has been no formal measurement of the direction and magnitude of intergenerational wealth flows for any high-fertility country. The analytical framework in this article allows separate measurement and analysis of resource flows through various channels including the family, market, and public sector. High-quality data from Côte d'Ivoire are used to show that in contradiction to Caldwell's claim, wealth flows are downward from older to younger generations in this high-fertility setting. Families in Côte d'Ivoire on average make net transfers to their children, just as they do in developed societies. However, resource transfers through the public sector in Côte d'Ivoire also appear to flow from older to younger generations rather than from younger to older as is found in most developed societies."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: G. Stecklov, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Demography, Mount Scopus, 91905 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40583 Trejo, Stephen J. Why do Mexican Americans earn low wages? Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 105, No. 6, Dec 1997. 1,235-68 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"Using Current Population Survey data from November 1979 and 1989, I find that Mexican Americans earn low wages primarily because they possess less human capital than other workers, not because they receive smaller labor market rewards for their skills. Among third- and higher-generation men in 1989, Mexicans averaged 21 percent lower wages than non-Hispanic whites, which is roughly similar to the wage deficit for blacks. For Mexicans, more than three-quarters of the wage gap is attributable to their relative youth, English language deficiencies, and especially their lower educational attainment. By contrast, these variables explain less than a third of the black-white wage gap."
Correspondence: S. J. Trejo, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

63:40584 Bouma, Gary D. Increasing diversity in religious identification in Australia: comparing 1947, 1991 and 1996 census reports. People and Place, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1997. 12-8 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"A comparison of [Australia's] 1996 census data on religion with that of 1991 reveals a number of trends: the proportion of Australians reporting that they have `no religion' continues to grow; mainstream Christianity, apart from the Catholics, continues to decline as a proportion of the population; and many small religious groups are flourishing. As well as 4.8 million Catholics, 500,000 Orthodox and 201,000 Muslims, Australia has 12,000 Sikhs, 3,000 Taoists, 8,000 Spiritualists and 2,000 Satanists."
Correspondence: G. D. Bouma, Monash University, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40585 Bovay, Claude; Rais, François. 1990 federal population census. Trends in religious and confessional affiliation in Switzerland. [Recensement fédéral de la population 1990. L'évolution de l'appartenance religieuse et confessionnelle en Suisse.] Statistique de la Suisse, ISBN 3-303-16042-2. 1997. 105 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Fre. with sum. in Ger.
This is an analysis of the data on religion from the 1990 census of Switzerland. The analysis covers the period from 1850 to the present, and examines the social characteristics, geographical distribution, and household characteristics of religious groups. Two trends are noted: first, the increasing diversification of religious communities, and second, the increasing individualization of religion and the growth of couples in which the partners profess different faiths.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40586 Broaded, C. Montgomery; Liu, Chongshun. Family background, gender and educational attainment in urban China. China Quarterly, No. 145, Mar 1996. 53-86 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The determinants of educational attainment at the senior high school level in China are analyzed, the objective being to examine the process of gender differentiation and stratification in urban areas. "This article reports the results of research on the transition of one student cohort from junior high school into senior high school or the labour force in the city of Wuhan. The primary concern is to identify the factors that have the greatest influence on the distribution of junior high graduates across the stratified range of alternatives available to them at the senior high school level. We focus on factors at three levels--individual, familial and organizational-institutional."
Correspondence: C. M. Broaded, University of Pittsburgh, Department of Chinese Studies, Pittsburgh, PA 15260. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40587 Dell'mour, René; Landler, Frank. Projections for postsecondary education to the year 2010. [Prognosen für den postsekundären Bildungssektor bis zum Jahr 2020.] Demographische Informationen, 1995-1996. 136-43, 164 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"Between 1985 and 1995, the number of university entrants [in Austria] reached 21,000 to 22,200 annually. The academic year of 1996/97 will mark a peak so far, ushering in a stage of slow but steady growth. For the year 2010, the number of entrants is estimated at 30,000. The number of students...depends on not only the number of entrants but also [on] the average length of time students remain enrolled...; a record high of over ten years was reached in 1990....On the supposition that students remain enrolled for an average 9 to 9.5 years, their number will have risen to 245,000 (half of them women) by 2010. The trend of constantly rising dropout rates, lasting for two decades, seems to be over. Since 1988, the year of an unprecedented dropout rate of 57%, the success spiral has been going up again. [By] 2004, the number of graduates is expected to be 10,000 to 11,000 per annum."
Correspondence: R. Dell'mour, Österreichische Nationalbank, Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40588 Goujon, Anne; Wils, Annababette. The importance of education in future population. Global trends and case studies on Cape Verde, Sudan, and Tunisia. IIASA Working Paper, No. 96-138, Nov 1996. vii, 33 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This paper...examines the role of education and reviews school enrollment patterns in the world during the last 30 years. We deduce from this review some general patterns of enrollment increase and gender differential. [We then present] multi-state population projections by educational level and the resulting adult educational attainment, fertility levels and population growth. This is done through three case studies on the countries of Cape Verde, Sudan and Tunisia."
Correspondence: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. E-mail: info@iiasa.ac.at. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40589 Korteweg, G. A. Forecasts of numbers of pupils and students. [Prognose van leerlingen- en studentenaantallen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 8, Aug 1997. 11-6 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses current and future trends in numbers of students in the Netherlands. "The changes in the numbers of students in post-compulsory education (e.g. higher education) are not only determined by demographic factors, but also (and even for the major part) by participation effects. These effects can be summarized as a general tendency towards higher educational levels, but this tendency has been weakened by a number of policy measures."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40590 Stephens, Torrance T.; Oriuwa, Chibuzo L. Child survival and baseline surveys: a description of literacy rates of women of child bearing age in Abia and Imo States, Nigeria. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1996-1997. 79-90 pp. Amityville, New York. In Eng.
"The results of a literacy need assessment conducted in eight autonomous communities, four from both Abia and Imo States [Nigeria are] presented and discussed. Data were obtained via survey interview [involving] 209 and 235 subjects respectively for Abia and Imo States....Results suggest both similar and varied trends regarding literacy abilities of participants and their attitudes regarding adult literacy instruction in the samples from both communities....It is anticipated that data obtained regarding baseline assessments and interviews may be used to examine the long-term effectiveness and impact of literacy for health care activities under the auspices of child survival projects."
Correspondence: T. T. Stephens, Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health, 1518 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

63:40591 Sudha, S. Family size, sex composition and children's education: ethnic differentials over development in Peninsular Malaysia. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 2, Jul 1997. 139-51 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the effect of family size and sex composition on educational attainment among children of three ethnic groups across two generations in Peninsular Malaysia, to demonstrate that extra-familial factors such as economic development and education policy will affect relationships hitherto conceptualized mainly at the family level. Specifically, it is argued that a negative family size-schooling relationship will emerge only at a development stage when education is an important qualification and costs of schooling are relatively high; and may not emerge at all among those subgroups whose schooling is subsidized by the state. Results of multivariate statistical analyses using 1976 and 1988 survey data show no relationship between family size and education among the older generation. The younger generation shows a negative relationship, but only among Chinese and Indians, for whom schooling was not state-subsidized."
Correspondence: S. Sudha, Centre for Development Studies, Prasantanagar Road, Ulloor, Trivandrum 695 011, Kerala State, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40592 Thom, Linda H. Immigration's impact on teen pregnancy and juvenile crime. Population and Environment, Vol. 18, No. 5, May 1997. 473-81 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes the effect of international migration on adolescent pregnancy and juvenile crime in the United States. "While increased numbers of young people will always generate increased crime and pregnancy among teens, immigrant children's pregnancy and crime rates are disproportionally high because of increased incidence in their families of the social factors which result in poverty and its associated problems." Data are from California.
Correspondence: L. H. Thom, 1236 Camino Palomera, Santa Barbara, CA 93111. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

63:40593 Assayag, Jackie. Politics of number: the state, statistics, and minorities in India (Karnataka). [La politique du nombre: état, statistiques et minorités en Inde (Karnataka).] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2-3, 1997. 279-88 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses the objectives of India's "State Minority Commissions especially that of Karnataka which has dispatched a report on the minorities in 1995. The statistical modus operandi of this report is discussed in this article. What is of interest but also the weakness of this report is that it is based on religious categories inherited from colonial British classification, which is itself inspired by orientalism. Today, these conventions, i.e., the norms and measures derived from them, are the institutionalized result of transactions among all the social partners of the regional State and the Center."
Correspondence: J. Assayag, Institut Français de Pondichéry, Department of Social Sciences, 11 Saint Louis Street, B.P. 33, 605 001 Pondicherry, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40594 Balakrishnan, T. R.; Rao, Jianhua. Language maintenance among selected immigrant groups in Canada 1971-1991. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 97-5, ISBN 0-7714-1996-1. Jun 1997. 17 pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"Language Maintenance and Language Shift among some recent immigrant groups are examined using data from the Public Use sample tapes of [the] 1971, 1981 and 1991 Canadian censuses. [Similarity between] home language [and] mother tongue is found to be related to age, age at immigration, education, labour force participation and occupation. Language maintenance also seems to be related to ethnic origins. Implications for assimilation and policy are also examined."
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40595 Blum, Alain; Gousseff, Catherine. Nationality, ethnic groups, and peoples: how nationalities are represented in Russia. [Nationalité, groupes ethniques, peuples: la représentation des nationalités en Russie.] In: Old and new minorities/Anciennes et nouvelles minorités, edited by Jean-Louis Rallu, Youssef Courbage, and Victor Piché. 1997. 49-71 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This chapter examines the various concepts used to define races, ethnic groups, and nationalities in Russia and its previous incarnations, the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. The study explores the difficulties in obtaining compatible data over time, the fragility of the definitions used, and the dependence of the data on the notions of the regime under which they were collected.
Correspondence: A. Blum, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. E-mail: blum@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40596 Clyne, Michael; Kipp, Sandra. Linguistic diversity in Australia. People and Place, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1997. 6-11 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper explores the changing patterns of language diversity in Australia, Sydney and Melbourne between 1991 and 1996. It shows that there has been a great increasing linguistic diversity, accompanied by an overall decline in the use of `older' community languages in favour of `newer' languages from Asia and the Middle East."
Correspondence: M. Clyne, Monash University, Department of Linguistics, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40597 DellaPergola, Sergio. Sociodemographic aspects of the integration of minorities in Israel: convergence or divergence? [Aspects socio-démographiques de l'intégration des minorités en Israël: convergences ou divergences?] In: Old and new minorities/Anciennes et nouvelles minorités, edited by Jean-Louis Rallu, Youssef Courbage, and Victor Piché. 1997. 229-50 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The integration of minorities into Israel's population is examined from the creation of the country in 1947 to the present. The author notes a clear difference between minorities of Jewish origin, which have been assimilated, and non-Jewish minorities such as Arab groups, which have remained distinct. The author suggests that the demographic distinctiveness of the Arab population will persist as long as that population is excluded from political and socioeconomic participation in the state of Israel. Two alternative solutions are discussed: full integration, or complete separation of the Jewish and Arab populations.
Correspondence: S. DellaPergola, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40598 Díaz, Erwin R. The indigenous population of Guatemala according to the 1981 and 1994 censuses (preliminary figures). In: Demographic diversity and change in the Central American Isthmus, edited by Anne R. Pebley and Luis Rosero-Bixby. 1997. 133-44 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
Data from the Guatemalan censuses of 1981 and 1994 are used to describe the characteristics of the indigenous population, and to compare the demographic trends of this population to those of the population as a whole.
Correspondence: E. R. Díaz, Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Edificio América, 8a. calle 9-55, Zona 1, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40599 Goldmann, Gustave. Measuring ethnicity in Canada: history and current issues. [La mesure de l'ethnicité au Canada: évolution et débats actuels.] In: Old and new minorities/Anciennes et nouvelles minorités, edited by Jean-Louis Rallu, Youssef Courbage, and Victor Piché. 1997. 31-48 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study has two objectives. The first is to illustrate the difficulties inherent in defining ethnic groups in Canada for statistical purposes. The second is to summarize the current discussion in Canada on this topic and to show how the debate has affected the data in question. The focus is on the ethnic questions included in the census.
Correspondence: G. Goldmann, Statistics Canada, Division de Projets Analytiques du Recensement, Edifice Principal, Salle 1710, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OE6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40600 Heleniak, Tim. The changing nationality composition of the Central Asian and Transcaucasian states. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, Vol. 38, No. 6, Jun 1997. 357-78 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
Patterns and levels of migration in eight states located in the southern region of the former Soviet Union are analyzed for the period from 1989 to the beginning of 1996. "The focus of the paper is on the composition of migration streams by nationality and the impact that migration has had on the changing population of the newly independent states formed after the dissolution of the former Soviet Union. Recent data are tabulated and estimates discussed in detail disclosing the exodus of Russians and movement of other nationalities in each of the Transcaucasian (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) and Central Asian (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) countries."
Correspondence: T. Heleniak, World Bank, Development Economics, Development Data Group, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40601 Jones, Gavin W. Demographic trends, ethnic policies and the economic integration of ethnic groups in Malaysia. In: Old and new minorities/Anciennes et nouvelles minorités, edited by Jean-Louis Rallu, Youssef Courbage, and Victor Piché. 1997. 363-78 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
The author analyzes how political stability and rapid economic growth have been achieved in Malaysia, a country where three distinct ethnic groups have learned to coexist rather than intermingle. Malaysia's demographic background is described, and the demographic characteristics of the three main ethnic groups are delineated. The economic and social policies that favor Malays are also outlined. The author notes the persistent fertility differentials between the majority Malay population and the other main ethnic groups, and suggests that current trends and future projections predict a continuing increase in the percentage of Malays in the total population.
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Australian National University, Demography Program, RSSS, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia. E-mail: Milisa.Haberschusz@anu.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40602 Katus, Kalev; Puur, Allan; Sakkeus, Luule. Development of national minorities: Estonian Republic up to 1944. Rahvastiku-Uuringud/Population Studies Series B, No. 34, ISBN 9985-820-34-7. 1997. 34 pp. Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre: Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng.
This paper "focuses [on] the formation and fate of five national minorities...in the Republic of Estonia until 1944. National minorities are compared from the viewpoint of their demographic development, concerning mainly their fertility, mortality and nuptiality patterns. The trends of the demographic processes are followed until 1944, [when] four out of five minorities present in the Estonian Republic practically disappeared." The minorities' population structure, spatial distribution, and economic situation are also discussed. The minorities in question are Russians, Germans, Swedes, Latvians, and Jews. Today, only the Russian population constitutes a significant minority, though it has been reduced to one-fourth its former size.
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 0090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40603 Kazmina, Olga E.; Puchkov, Pavel I. Ethnodemographic processes in the Russian Federation. Anthropology and Archeology of Eurasia, Vol. 34, No. 1, Summer 1995. 13-41 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze ethnodemographic trends in Russia in recent years. They discuss demographic, migration, and ethnic processes, and assess the relative roles of these trends in the ethnic composition of the population.
Correspondence: O. E. Kazmina, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Leninsky prospect 32-A, 117334 Moscow, Russia. E-mail: ANTHPUB@IEA.MSK.SU. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40604 Labbé, Morgane. Counting minorities: the political stakes and definition games in Greek censuses. [Dénombrer les minorités: enjeux politiques et jeux des catégories dans les recensements grecs.] In: Old and new minorities/Anciennes et nouvelles minorités, edited by Jean-Louis Rallu, Youssef Courbage, and Victor Piché. 1997. 73-86 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study examines how ethnic groups are defined in the Balkan countries, and explores the political significance of these definitions; the linguistic classifications used in Greek censuses are used to illustrate the issue. The focus is on the categories used to collect data on language and religion, and on how these have changed over time.
Correspondence: M. Labbé, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40605 Lora-Tamayo d'Ocon, Gloria. Foreigners in Spain in 1991. [Estranjeros en España en 1991.] Estudios Geográficos, Vol. 57, No. 222, Jan-Mar 1996. 67-92 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
An analysis of the characteristics of the foreign population living in Spain in 1991 is presented using data from two sources, the 1991 census and the system for regularization of the status of foreign workers, which was brought up to date the same year. The characteristics analyzed include country of origin, current province of residence, and occupation. The differences between the data obtained from the two sources are discussed.
Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

63:40606 Paillé, Michel. The English-speaking community in Quebec and the French-speaking minorities in English-speaking Canada: a demographic comparison. [La communauté anglophone du Québec et les minorités francophones du Canada anglais: une comparaison démographique.] Bulletin d'Histoire Politique, Vol. 5, No. 2, Winter 1997. 66-79 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
Data from the 1991 Canadian census are used to compare the English-speaking community in the province of Quebec with French-speaking communities living in the various English-speaking provinces. The characteristics of the two linguistic groups are first analyzed by ethnic origin, maternal language, language spoken at home, and knowledge of French and English. The effects of internal migration and changes in language usage on these linguistic groups are then assessed. The author concludes that both minority language-groups are declining in size, but whereas the English-speaking population in Quebec is moving to English-speaking provinces elsewhere in the country, the French-speaking population outside of Quebec is being assimilated into the English-speaking majority.
Correspondence: M. Paillé, Gouvernement du Québec, Conseil de la Langue Française, 800 place d'Youville, Quebec, Quebec G1R 3P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40607 Paillé, Michel. The future of the French-speaking population in Quebec and in the other provinces of Canada. [L'avenir de la population francophone au Québec et dans les autres provinces canadiennes.] Grenzgänge, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1995. 42-59 pp. Leipzig, Germany. In Fre.
This article examines ethnic and linguistic trends in Canada, focusing on the differences between the language and education policies of the Canadian government and those of the province of Quebec. In particular, the author examines the issue of education in the city of Montreal and shows that, despite the measures that have been taken to promote the French language, the future of this language in the city is not assured.
Correspondence: M. Paillé, Gouvernement du Québec, Conseil de la Langue Française, 800 place d'Youville, Quebec, Quebec G1R 3P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40608 Paillé, Michel. The language laws in their demographic context. [Les lois linguistiques dans leur contexte démographique.] In: Panorama de la littérature québécoise contemporaine, edited by Réginald Hamel. ISBN 2-7601-4606-5. 1997. 629-47 pp. Guérin: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The demographic trends in the 1960s and 1970s in Canada, and particularly in Quebec, that led to the adoption of laws designed to protect and promote the use of the French language are described. The demographic impact of these laws on the size and characteristics of linguistic groups in the province of Quebec is also assessed. Particular attention is given to the demography of language in Montreal.
Correspondence: M. Paillé, Gouvernement du Québec, Conseil de la Langue Française, 800 place d'Youville, Quebec, Quebec G1R 3P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40609 Pollard, Kelvin M.; De Vita, Carol J. A portrait of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 78, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1997. 2-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors present a statistical outline of the Asian and Pacific Islander population in the United States. Aspects considered include population growth, age distribution, geographic distribution, households and families, education, labor force and occupation, and income and poverty.
Correspondence: K. M. Pollard, Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40610 Rallu, Jean-Louis; Courbage, Youssef; Piché, Victor. Old and new minorities. [Anciennes et nouvelles minorités.] Congresses et Colloquia, No. 17, ISBN 2-7420-0172-7. 1997. viii, 397 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Eng; Fre.
This work contains papers presented at a conference on minority populations held in Lyons, France, December 6-8, 1995. The 18 papers, which are in English or French, are organized under the following topics: quantifying minorities, economic and social integration, multicultural coexistence in urban contexts, and the dynamics of intercommunity relations. The geographical focus is worldwide.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: John Libbey Eurotext, 127 avenue de la République, 92120 Montrouge, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40611 Rapawy, Stephen. Ethnic reidentification in Ukraine. IPC Staff Paper, No. 90, Aug 1997. viii, 27 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Recently published figures [for Ukraine] suggest that since independence...the share of Ukrainians is slowly increasing and Russians are proportionally decreasing. Two sets of data indicate this trend--published figures on births by nationality of the mother and surveys conducted by several western organizations. These figures will be presented and analyzed. The analysis will be supplemented by a discussion of migration and demographic characteristics of the two populations. Finally, the political implications of change will be examined."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, International Programs Center, Washington, D.C. 20233-8860. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40612 Sans, Mónica; Alvarez, Inés; Florines, Andrés; Kolski, Renée; Portas, Mónica; Rodríguez, Graciela; Rovitto, Yamila; Solla, Horacio; Sonnini, Gianna; Taks, Javier. Bases for the study of the Uruguayan population. [Bases para el estudio de la población uruguaya.] 1994. 122 pp. Universidad de la República, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, Departamento de Publicaciones: Montevideo, Uruguay. In Spa.
This book presents an analysis of the racial composition of the population of Uruguay. Following a general introduction and chapters on population genetics and biology, there are chapters on the indigenous American Indian population, the population descended from slaves coming originally from Africa, and the white population.
Correspondence: Universidad de la República, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, Departamento de Publicaciones, Avenida 18 de Julio 1968, 11200 Montevideo, Uruguay. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40613 Simon, Patrick. The statistical representation of immigration. Is it possible to measure ethnicity? [La représentation statistique de l'immigration. Peut-on comptabiliser l'ethnicité?] In: Old and new minorities/Anciennes et nouvelles minorités, edited by Jean-Louis Rallu, Youssef Courbage, and Victor Piché. 1997. 11-30 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines how ethnic distinctions are defined and measured in France in the context of estimating the country's immigrant population. Comparisons are made with definitions of ethnic groups in censuses and official statistics of the United States and the United Kingdom. The author notes that in the past, assimilation and the acquisition of French nationality led to France's immigrant population becoming indistinguishable from the native population over the course of a few generations. The current situation, with certain groups wishing to maintain a level of ethnic differentiation, brings this tradition into question and creates a need for official statistics on such ethnic minorities.
Correspondence: P. Simon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. E-mail: simon@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40614 Tolts, Mark. The Jewish population of Russia, 1989-1995. Jews in Eastern Europe, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1996. 5-19 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
"A mass emigration of the Jews from the former Soviet Union (FSU) [since 1989]--which has been named the `great exodus'--seriously exacerbated the already existing unfavorable population dynamics. However, the recent levels of assimilation and demographic erosion are not a simple consequence of this great exodus; they have deep roots in the Jewish population of contemporary Russia. Recent Russian demographic statistics contain the richest data available on the Jewish population in the FSU, and based on this source we can develop a rather detailed picture of Jewish emigration, assimilation and demographic erosion."
Correspondence: M. Tolts, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40615 Veenman, Justus. The socio-economic position of ethnic minorities in the Netherlands. In: Old and new minorities/Anciennes et nouvelles minorités, edited by Jean-Louis Rallu, Youssef Courbage, and Victor Piché. 1997. 211-28 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
The current socioeconomic status of ethnic minorities in the Netherlands is analyzed, focusing on their education, labor force participation, income, and housing. In light of the national policy objective to reduce social inequalities in the country, the author investigates whether the socioeconomic position of minorities has in fact improved compared with that of the native-born Dutch. He concludes that the socioeconomic position of ethnic minorities has improved in absolute but not in comparative terms.
Correspondence: J. Veenman, Erasmus University, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Kamer H 14-31 (Secr.), Burg, Oudlaan 50, 3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1997-1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.