Volume 63 - Number 4 - Winter 1997

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce. Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

63:40381 Brien, Michael J. Racial differences in marriage and the role of marriage markets. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 32, No. 4, Fall 1997. 741-78 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper examines the role of marriage markets in explaining racial differences in the timing of marriage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972, evidence is presented on the magnitude and significance of differences in the timing of first marriage between whites and blacks in the United States....This paper examines marriage markets defined at various levels of geographic aggregation, alternative definitions of what males are considered `marriageable', market variables that control for the education level of the participants, and changes over time in marriage markets. One of the primary results...is that, relative to the local level, the variables defined at the state level are able to account for more of the racial differences in the timing of marriage. The paper concludes with an examination of this issue and reveals evidence that suggests that measurement error in the variables defined at the local level may be underlying this result."
Correspondence: M. J. Brien, University of Virginia, Department of Economics, Charlottesville, VA 22903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:40382 Buckley, Cynthia J. Gender, age and the marriage market: evidence on marriage in late adulthood in Russia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, Vol. 11, 1996. 255-67 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper I explore one specific type of informal support, marital unions, and the ways in which patterns suggest differential access to this support mechanism based on age and sex. Through an examination of marriage patterns in the Russian Federation I show that women may be disadvantaged by low levels of access to marital unions past the age of 50 due to high differential mortality and age differentials at marriage. For both sexes, the probability of marital entrance is negatively related to age, but the negative influence of age follows different paths for men and women. In spite of high sex differentials in mortality, findings indicate that men, over 50 and outside of marital unions, are far more likely to marry than their female counterparts regardless of residence or age."
Correspondence: C. J. Buckley, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Austin, TX 78712. E-mail: buckley@prc.utexas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40383 Hoem, Jan M. The impact of the first child on family stability. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 119, ISBN 91-7820-109-8. May 1997. 13 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The author analyzes the impact of the birth of the first child on marital status and satisfaction, using data from the 1992-1993 Swedish Family Survey. "We find that disruption risks are the lowest during a woman's pregnancy, that they are low also during the first few months of a child's life, but that they subsequently rise as the child grows older, largely to re-attain the levels of a childless woman already when the child has become one-and-a-half to two years old."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Author's E-mail: Jan.Hoem@SUDA.SU.SE. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40384 Hwang, Sean-Shong; Saenz, Rogelio; Aguirre, Benigno E. Structural and assimilationist explanations of Asian American intermarriage. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 3, Aug 1997. 758-72 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study represents our efforts to synthesize two intermarriage perspectives--one explaining intermarriage at the micro level using individual attributes, the other explaining it at the macro level using aggregated community characteristics. The 5% Public Use Microdata Samples from the 1980 U.S. Census were used to link individual and community data. The empirical assessment of the linked model showed great promise, indicating that the explanatory power of our model was significantly improved when one set of factors was supplemented by the other. Our findings supported the cultural assimilation hypothesis but contradicted the structural assimilation arguments. Contextual factors such as group size and sex ratio also exerted strong structural constraints on marital choices."
Correspondence: S.-S. Hwang, University of Alabama, Department of Sociology, Birmingham, AL 35294. E-mail: shwang@uab.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40385 Kim, Jinsoo. The relationship between sex-ratio and marital behavior. Health and Social Welfare Review, Vol. 17, No. 1, Summer 1997. 99-120 pp. Seoul, Republic of Korea. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
"This paper considers the practical issue of the effect of sex-ratio on family structure [in Korea]. Specifically, how will the surplus of men affect the marriage market as well as marriage behavior and marital instability? With the weighted sex-ratio method, this paper suggests that not only is there...a positive relationship between the proportion of female marriages and the sex-ratio, but there is also a significant positive relationship for the younger (20-24) and older (35-39) female age groups."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40386 Klomegah, Roger. Socio-economic characteristics of Ghanaian women in polygynous marriages. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 28, No. 1, Spring 1997. 73-88 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper tests hypotheses regarding the association of socio-economic factors with type of marriage (monogamy and polygyny) in Ghana using a sample of 1,797 wives from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) data (1988). It is shown that the sample is characterized by general polygyny. The prevalence of polygyny is also estimated in terms of its incidence, intensity and general index. The data reveal a significant association between education and type of marriage. Education is positively related to monogamy and negatively to polygyny. No significant association is found between women's occupation and the type of marriage in which they are. Place of residence and type of marriage are also significantly related. More rural women than urban women are found in polygynous marriages, and more urban women than rural women are found in monogamous marriages. Religion is significantly related to type of marriage. Orthodox Western religion is positively related to monogamy but negatively related to polygyny. Moslems, and traditional religion practitioners seem to be highly represented in polygyny."
Correspondence: R. Klomegah, South Dakota State University, Department of Sociology, Brookings, SD 57006. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40387 Lazo, Aída C. G. V. Contemporary studies on nuptiality: a critical review. [Os estudos contemporâneos sobre nupcialidade: uma revisão crítica.] Textos NEPO, No. 32, May 1996. 77 pp. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Núcleo de Estudos de População [NEPO]: São Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
This is a critical review of studies on nuptiality. The first section looks at the studies concerning nuptiality in more developed countries; the second section examines developing countries, particularly Latin America and the Caribbean; and the third section concentrates on studies concerning Brazil.
Correspondence: Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Núcleo de Estudos de População, Caixa Postal 6166, CEP 13081-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40388 Lefebvre, Pierre; Merrigan, Philip. Social assistance and conjugal union dissolution in Canada: a dynamic analysis. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d'Economique, Vol. 30, No. 1, Feb 1997. 112-34 pp. Downsview, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Using Statistics Canada's General Social Survey on Family and Friends, carried out in 1990, we piece together the matrimonial and conjugal life history of a large sample of Canadian men and women. We then estimate duration models (Cox's proportional hazard models) describing the evolutionary laws of marriages and unions, which depend on various economic or socio-demographic explanatory variables. The empirical modelling focuses primarily on estimating the impact of couples' earned incomes and of provincial welfare programs on the dissolution rate of first marriages and unions....We...find that welfare benefits do not have an impact on the hazard of union dissolution and that earned incomes have a positive effect on conjugal stability."
Correspondence: P. Lefebvre, Université du Québec, C.P. 8888, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:40389 Malhotra, Anju. Gender and the timing of marriage: rural-urban differences in Java. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 2, May 1997. 434-50 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"I address the need to look at marriage behavior by both males and females in developing societies. Using event history analysis, I focus on gender differences in rural, as opposed to urban, Central Java [Indonesia] and argue that modern social contexts are not necessarily more egalitarian with regard to the marriage process and gender roles than are traditional social contexts. The findings support the conclusion that, in Java, modern urban settings may be responsible for increased gender role differentiation. Although urbanization has meant better educational access and later, more self-choice marriages for women, it has also meant lower rates of participation in the labor force and the adoption of conjugal norms supportive of women's economic dependence on men. Thus, in rural areas there are the greatest similarity in the determinants of marriage timing for Javanese men and women, particularly with regard to their economic roles...."
Correspondence: A. Malhotra, University of Maryland, Center on Population, Gender, and Social Inequality, 3114 Art-Sociology Building, College Park, MD 20742. E-mail: anju@bss1.umd.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40390 Matthiessen, Poul C. Family formation and fertility in the Danish population since the mid-1960s. [Den danske befolknings familiedannelse og fertilitet siden midten af 1960'erne.] In: Fra Egtvedpigen til Folketinget, edited by Poul L. Hjorth, Erik Dal, and David Favrholdt. ISBN 87-7304-283-8. 1997. 151-60 pp. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan.
The author describes changes in the patterns of family formation and fertility in Denmark from 1966 to 1994. The changes include fewer marriages, an increase in the number of nonmarital relationships during the period, and fewer and later births. These changes in marriage and fertility are explained as reflections of social developments. In particular, a marked increase--from 50 to more than 90 percent from 1966 to 1994--in married women's labor force participation is seen as an important determinant of these trends.
Correspondence: P. C. Matthiessen, Carlsberg Foundation, 35 H. C. Andersens Boulevard, 1553 Copenhagen V, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40391 McLaughlin, Diane K.; Lichter, Daniel T. Poverty and the marital behavior of young women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 3, Aug 1997. 582-94 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine first marriage transitions for poor young women and young women who are not poor [in the United States]. We find that the latter are more likely to marry than poor women, but poor women who have jobs are more likely to marry than those who do not have jobs. Poor Black women have the same probability of marriage as poor White women, after controlling for differences in economic independence, mate availability, and family culture and living arrangements. The receipt of welfare was not associated with marriage propensity for either poor women or women who are not poor."
Correspondence: D. K. McLaughlin, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: mclaughl@pop.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40392 McNally, James W.; Sassler, Sharon; Schoen, Robert. "Misplaced affection": the use of multiple imputation to reconstruct missing cohabiting partner information in the NSFH. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 97-09, Aug 1997. 17, [9] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper presents a method for overcoming item nonresponse and sample attrition across the two waves of the [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households through the use of multiple imputation. The study looks at the impact of attrition on the analysis of marriage intentions among cohabitation partners across time resulting in a loss of over 40 percent of the original sample. Our results suggest that using multiple imputation methods to reconstruct a hypothetical population yields a more realistic representation of the population of cohabiting couples in the United States than the current unrepaired data set."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. E-mail: Population_Studies@brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40393 Moffitt, Robert A.; Reville, Robert; Winkler, Anne E. Beyond single mothers: cohabitation, marriage, and the U.S. welfare system. Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 97-05, Jul 1995. 30, [14] pp. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"We investigate the extent and implications of cohabitation and marriage among U.S. welfare recipients....We also report the results of a telephone survey of state AFDC agencies conducted to determine state rules governing cohabitation and marriage....Finally, we conduct an analysis of the impact of AFDC rules on cohabitation, marriage, and single motherhood...."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179 Author's E-mail: moffitt@jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40394 Moffitt, Robert A. The effect of welfare on marriage and fertility: what do we know and what do we need to know? Hopkins Population Center Papers on Population, No. 97-06, Aug 1997. 33, [29] pp. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Population Center: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The research literature on the effects of welfare on marriage and fertility [in the United States] contains a large number of studies....This paper summarizes this literature and discusses...differences across studies....[It] discusses the methodological approach taken in the research literature...and contrasts the method of experimentation with the nonexperimental method of using natural program variation....[It then] reviews the multivariate research studies...compares and contrasts their approaches, and discusses possible reasons for the diversity of findings."
Correspondence: Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Population Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room 2300, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179 Author's E-mail: moffitt@jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40395 Morocco. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Marital status and family strategies. [Etat matrimonial et stratégies familiales.] Etudes Démographiques, 1997. 320 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This report contains a number of separate studies on marital status and nuptiality in Morocco. There are chapters on marriage, remarriage, and matrimonial strategies; a socioeconomic profile of divorced women and widows; the formation and dissolution of couples; nuptiality characteristics and their relations to migration, mortality, and fertility; and information on the moudawana (the Islamic marriage code in force in Morocco).
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques, B.P. 178, Avenue Maâ el Ainine, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40396 Novotnyné, Hedvig P. Marriages and divorces in Budapest. [A házasságkötések és a válások alakulása Budapesten.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 75, No. 6, Jun 1997. 474-92 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"The article provides detailed analysis of the development of marriages and divorces [in Hungary] connected with age structure and several demographic and socio-economic factors. In addition [the] social status of [the] marriageable population and those getting divorced is also discussed. Where it was possible international data on the frequency of marriages and divorces [in] some European cities are also shown."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40397 Ntozi, James P. M. Widowhood, remarriage and migration during the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Uganda. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, Suppl., 1997. 125-44 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Recently the levels of widowhood have increased in countries of sub-Saharan Africa that are afflicted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This paper reviews the cultures of several societies in Uganda in relation to the treatment of widows. Using a data set based on a sample of 1,797 households covering east, south and western Uganda, the study finds higher proportions of widows and widowers. Over half of widowers compared to one quarter of widows remarry. Reasons for remarriages of widowers and widows are discussed. While younger widows migrated from their late spouses' homes more than the older ones, the pattern of the widowers shows that those in ages 20-34 migrated most."
Correspondence: J. P. M. Ntozi, Makerere University, Department of Population Studies, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40398 Oppenheimer, Valerie K.; Kalmijn, Matthijs; Lim, Nelson. Men's career development and marriage timing during a period of rising inequality. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 3, Aug 1997. 311-30 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Based on data from 1979-1990 NLSY interviews, we investigate the implications of rising economic inequality for young [U.S.] men's marriage timing. Our approach is to relate marriage formation to the ease or difficulty of the career-entry process and to show that large race/schooling differences in career development lead to substantial variations in marriage timing. We develop measures of current career `maturity' and of long-term labor-market position. Employing discrete-time event history methods. We show that these variables have a substantial impact on marriage formation for both blacks and whites. Applying our regression results to models based on observed race/schooling patterns of career development, we then estimate cumulative proportions ever married in a difficult versus an easy career-entry process. We find major differences in the pace of marriage formation, depending on the difficulty of the career transition. We also find considerable differences in these marriage timing patterns across race/schooling groups corresponding to the large observed differences in the speed and difficulty of career transitions between and within these groups."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: V. K. Oppenheimer, University of California, Department of Sociology, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095. E-mail: valko@ucla.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40399 Parrado, Emilio A.; Tienda, Marta. Women's roles and family formation in Venezuela: new forms of consensual unions? Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 96-3, May 1996. 44 pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper assesses the effects of change in women's education and labor force participation on nuptiality patterns and their implications for fertility decline in Venezuela. Results show that together with delays in union formation, changes in women's education and labor force participation produced a different, more `modern' type of consensual unions, which coexists with `traditional' consensual unions. `Traditional' consensual unions remain a substitute to formal marriage among women from rural origins, with low levels of education, and higher levels of work experience. `Modern' consensual unions appear to be an option for well-educated women of urban origins."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40400 Schullström, Ylva. Money and love: the impact of income on Swedish women's inclination to enter a first relationship--1968-1992. [Pengar och kärlek: arbetsinkomstens effekt på svenska kvinnors benägenhet att ingå sitt första parförhållande 1968-1992.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 105, ISBN 91-7820-130-6. Jun 1996. 30 pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
The aim of this paper is to study how employment and income influence young Swedish women's inclinations to enter their first long-term relationship, in the form of either marriage or cohabitation. The analysis controls for such factors as educational level, employment form, social background, and religious activity. The data, taken from official sources, involve 2,219 women aged 19-26 years. The author finds that the more years a woman has worked, the higher is her likelihood of entering a first relationship. Moreover, education is found to have a positive impact on women's inclination to enter a relationship, contradicting the previous findings of Gary Becker.
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40401 Smock, Pamela J.; Manning, Wendy D. Cohabiting partners' economic circumstances and marriage. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 3, Aug 1997. 331-41 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Drawing on data from the two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), we examine the effects of economic circumstances of both partners in cohabiting unions on the transition to marriage. Focusing on both partners in a relationship affords a more direct test of the relative importance of men's versus women's economic circumstances. Our findings suggest that only the male partner's economic resources affect the transition to marriage, with positive economic situations accelerating marriage and deterring separation. Our results imply that despite trends toward egalitarian gender-role attitudes and increasing income provision among women, cohabiting men's economic circumstances carry far more weight than women's in marriage formation." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: P. J. Smock, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. E-mail: pjsmock@UMich.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40402 Weiss, Yoram; Willis, Robert J. Match quality, new information, and marital dissolution. Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 15, No. 1, Part 2, Jan 1997. [37] pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article investigates the role of surprises in marital dissolution [in the United States]. Surprises consists of changes in the predicted earning capacity of either spouse. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 is used. We find that an unexpected increase in the husband's earning capacity reduces the divorce hazard, while an unexpected increase in the wife's earning capacity raises the divorce hazard. Couples sort into marriage according to characteristics that are likely to enhance the stability of the marriage. The divorce hazard is initially increasing with the duration of marriage, and the presence of children and high levels of property stabilizes the marriage."
Correspondence: Y. Weiss, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69 978 Tel Aviv, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control.

63:40403 Appleton, Simon. Women-headed households and household welfare: an empirical deconstruction for Uganda. World Development, Vol. 24, No. 12, Dec 1996. 1,811-27 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Analysis of the first nationally representative household survey of Uganda shows that women-headed households are not poorer when assessed by consumption or income. Nor do they appear consistently disadvantaged on social indicators. Some subgroups of women-headed households do have lower economic welfare, including those headed by widows and those in urban areas. Gender inequalities in educational attainment appears to be the major source of what economic disadvantage such women-headed households do face. High remittances receipts play a key role in maintaining economic parity between women and men-headed households."
Correspondence: S. Appleton, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3BJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:40404 Axinn, William G.; Barber, Jennifer S. Living arrangements and family formation attitudes in early adulthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 3, Aug 1997. 595-611 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This article examines the impact of nonfamily living arrangements and cohabitation on changes in family formation attitudes at the individual level [in the United States]. The theoretical framework focuses on the role of learning processes and cognitive consistency. This framework also draws similarities and differences between the likely impact of cohabitation and that of other living arrangements. Empirical analyses demonstrate that both the experience and duration of cohabiting arrangements have significant effects on family formation attitudes but fail to show significant consequences of premarital, nonfamily living arrangements."
Correspondence: W. G. Axinn, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: axinn@pop.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40405 Boulanger, P.-M.; Lambert, A.; Deboosere, P.; Lesthaeghe, R.; Surkyn, J. General census of population and housing as of March 1, 1991: households and families. [Recensement général de la population et des logements au 1er mars 1991: ménages et familles.] Monographie, No. 4, 1997. 226 pp. Institut National de Statistique: Brussels, Belgium; Services Fédéraux des Affaires Scientifiques, Techniques et Culturelles: Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
This is one in a planned series of 11 monographs presenting analyses of data from the 1991 census of Belgium. "The present volume is an analysis of the 1991 census data on household size and composition in Belgium and of their socio-economic characteristics. Comparisons with the censuses of 1970 and 1981 are made and household projections till 2011 are equally incorporated. The following topics are...discussed in this summary: (i) the aspects of the census organization and their impact on measurement validity and coverage; (ii) changing household size and composition since 1970 as measured through the household typology of the Belgian National Institute of Statistics...; (iii) shifting individual positions in household types for the period 1980-2011...; (iv) the construction of a spatial typology of Belgian municipalities according to the dimensions of their household characteristics; [and] (v) an analysis of the link between household composition and three socio-economic characteristics, i.e. household income structure, the employment status of household members, and the housing characteristics during the period 1981-1991."
Correspondence: Institut National de Statistique, 44 rue de Louvain, 8e étage, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40406 Cherlin, Andrew J.; Scabini, Eugenia; Rossi, Giovanna. Delayed home leaving in Europe and the United States. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 18, No. 6, Nov 1997. 571-728 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
This special issue contains seven articles examining aspects of leaving home by young adults in Europe and the United States. The articles are as follows: Youth residential independence and autonomy: a comparative study, by Juan F. Fernández Cordón. Young adult families: an evolutionary slowdown or a breakdown in the generational transition? by Eugenia Scabini and Vittorio Cigoli. The nestlings: why young adults stay at home longer. The Italian case, by Giovanna Rossi. Leaving home and family relations in France, by Olivier Galland. Still in the nest: the family and young adults in Germany, by Rosemarie Nave-Herz. Youth inside or outside the parental home: the case of the Netherlands, by Suus M. J. van Hekken, Langha de Mey, and Hans-Joachim Schulze. Recent changes in U.S. young adult living arrangements in comparative perspective, by Frances Goldscheider.
Correspondence: Sage Publications, 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40407 Chung, Kyunghee. Family changes and policy issues in Korea. Health and Social Welfare Review, Vol. 17, No. 1, Summer 1997. 3-28 pp. Seoul, Republic of Korea. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
"This study attempted to identify the changes that Korean families have undergone and to consider the policies that are needed to adapt to such changes by examining 43 individual indicators of the family sphere suggested in Korea's Social Indicator Classification." Aspects considered include declining family size due to the increase in one-person households; delayed marriage and childbirth; improved economic status of families; increasing numbers of elderly-only, female-headed, and teen-headed households; and female labor force participation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40408 Darlu, Pierre; Degioanni, Anna; Ruffié, Jacques. Some statistics on the distribution of surnames in France. [Quelques statistiques sur la distribution des patronymes en France.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 3, May-Jun 1997. 607-34 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The list of French surnames has been compiled from the INSEE file of births registered during two periods: 1891-1915 and 1916-1940. Statistics on the total number of surnames, on the proportion that are represented by a single birth and on the number of surnames for 100 births, are given by department for the two periods considered and distinguish the communes where fewer than 800 births were registered over 25 years. These statistics by department are compared with immigration rates, consanguinity rates and the mean number of children per family. Lastly, a list of the most common surnames is given, distinguishing those present everywhere and those with marked regional variations. There were approximately 450,000 surnames in France at the end of the nineteenth century, and for 100 surnames that disappeared in the course of this period, almost 180 new surnames appeared in the first half of the twentieth century."
Correspondence: P. Darlu, Université Denis Diderot, INSERM, U155, Epidémiologie Génétique, Case 7041, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05, France. E-mail: darlu@ccr.jussieu.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40409 Donnan, Hastings; Selier, Frits. Family and gender in Pakistan: domestic organization in a Muslim society. ISBN 81-7075-036-9. 1997. xii, 250 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
A product of the annual colloquium held at the University of Manchester's field center in the Lake District of England, this is an interdisciplinary collection of papers by various authors on aspects of family life in Pakistan. "It documents the variation and similarities in domestic organization from the far mountainous north to the shores of the Arabian Sea and from Baluchistan's western reaches to the eastern border with India, as well as of Pakistanis overseas. The domestic and inter-domestic arrangements of the Kalasha, of Hindus in Sindh and of Ismailis in Gilgit are discussed, in addition to those of the Muslim majority. A consideration of these regional variations and of other differences--between, for example, rural and urban households, and between one class and another--which overlap or cross-cut regional variations, reveals a picture which challenges many of the more misleading stereotypes of Pakistani domestic relationships."
Correspondence: Hindustan Publishing Corporation, 4805/24 Bharat Ram Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40410 Ge Rondi, Carla. Are the families recorded in the census de facto families? Singles and one-parent families in the 1991 census. [Le famiglie di censimento sono famiglie di fatto? Famiglie unipersonali e monogenitore al censimento del 1991.] Statistica, Vol. 56, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1996. 499-509 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to appraise the impact at the 1991 Italian Population Census of the households composed by married people who do not live together, assuming they represent an overevaluation of the households which have been registered as one parent families or as no-families (one person)."
Correspondence: C. Ge Rondi, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Corso Strada Nuova 65, 27100 Pavia, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40411 Gisser, Richard; Holzer, Werner; Münz, Rainer; Nebenführ, Eva. Desired family size, actual family size, and family policies in Austria. [Kinderwunsch, Kinderzahl und Familienpolitik in Österreich.] Demographische Informationen, 1995-1996. 9-24, 161 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The demographic trend of decreasing numbers of children and the rising share of elderly prevailing in most industrialized countries is considered a problem by a large part of the Austrian population. Marriage and family continue to be of central importance....These are results of the Austrian Population Policy Acceptance Survey (PPA) carried out in 1993. On the average, Austrians born between 1953 and 1972 want 1.99 children, which is clearly above the present (1995) total fertility rate of 1.40....[They] expect the government to assume the main responsibility for family and social matters. 40 percent of the Austrians consider the government fully responsible for helping women to manage child raising and jobs. Only one third of the population are fully content with family [policies], and some 40 percent consider social benefits for families not sufficiently generous....The effects family [policy] measures have on the desire to have children and its realization, however, [are] disputed."
Correspondence: R. Gisser, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut für Demographie, Hintere Zollamtsstraße 2b, 1033 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40412 Hall, Ray; Ogden, Philip E.; Hill, Catherine. The pattern and structure of one-person households in England and Wales and France. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 3, No. 2, Jun 1997. 161-81 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the increase of one-person households during the 1980s in England and Wales and France set within the broader context of household change in Europe as a whole....One-person households vary geographically by age, with younger one-person households found especially in larger urban areas; older one-person households have a more varied distribution, although rural and traditional retirement areas have particular concentrations. Increases in numbers are a result of both compositional changes in the population (increasing numbers of divorced and never-marrieds as well as increasing numbers of elderly) and also an increasing propensity to live alone, especially among younger age groups."
Correspondence: R. Hall, University of London, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Department of Geography, 327 Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, England. E-mail: R.Hall@qmw.ac.uk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40413 Hirschman, Charles; Vu, Manh Loi. Family and household structure in Viet Nam: some glimpses from a recent survey. Pacific Affairs, Vol. 69, No. 2, Summer 1996. 229-49 pp. Vancouver, Canada. In Eng.
"In this study, we examine several aspects of household structure in Vietnam--household composition, coresidence, and frequency of visits between parents and their grown children. These features provide an empirical portrait of contemporary Vietnamese family structure and some clues to a broader understanding of the social and cultural bases of modern Vietnamese society. The analysis is based on data from the 1991 Vietnam Life History Survey (VLHS)--a sample survey of 403 households in four areas....The survey results provide mixed evidence for the conventional characterization of Vietnam as primarily part of the East Asian cultural world....In contrast to Confucian cultural prescriptions, only a minority of the Vietnamese respondents report having lived with paternal grandparents or other paternal relatives when growing up. There is, however, strong evidence of the importance of extended family ties with most respondents seeing their parents who lived nearby on a weekly or daily basis."
Correspondence: C. Hirschman, University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

63:40414 Lüscher, Kurt; Thierbach, Rüdiger; Coenen-Huther, Josette; Goy, Marie-Françoise; Schlaepfer, Carl A. Households and families: a multitude of different formats. [Haushalte und Familien: die Vielfalt der Lebensformen/Ménages et familles: pluralité des formes de vie.] Statistik der Schweiz, ISBN 3-303-01078-1. 1996. 412 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Ger; Fre.
The authors use data from the 1990 census to examine characteristics and trends concerning households in Switzerland. The structure and distribution of households and families are analyzed. There are also chapters on consensual unions, one-parent families, individuals living on their own, and families and households seen from the child's point of view. Chapters in French look at the family situation of the elderly and of foreigners. Economic, cultural, and regional aspects are taken into account in the analyses.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40415 Lutz, Wolfgang. FAMSIM-Austria: feasibility study for a dynamic microsimulation model for projections and the evaluation of family policies based on the European Family and Fertility Survey. Schriftenreihe des Österreichischen Instituts für Familienforschung, No. 5, ISBN 3-901668-12-8. 1997. 116 pp. Österreichisches Institut für Familienforschung: Vienna, Austria. In Eng.
"This volume describes the results of a feasibility study for a microsimulation model of family dynamics (FAMSIM) that could be applied to a number of countries utilising the rich data source collected in the context of the Family and Fertility Survey (FFS) in more than 20 industrialised countries. This also involved the development of FAMSIM-Austria, a prototype model based on the Austrian FFS conducted in 1996 by the Austrian Institute for Family Studies." There are nine chapters by several authors on various aspects of this study.
Correspondence: Österreichisches Institut für Familienforschung, Gonzagagasse 19/8, 1010 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40416 Menchik, Paul L. Household and family economics. Recent Economic Thought, ISBN 0-7923-9654-5. LC 96-36207. 1996. viii, 260 pp. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This volume is a compilation of essays on topics related to household and family economics. It focuses on selected areas such as the role of the family in the formation of offsprings' earnings and income capacity; income determination and the intergenerational transmission of income; the changing role of women in the labor force; the economics of fertility; income tax treatment of the family; and early education of children in families and schools. Each of the six essays is followed by a discussion. The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:40417 Panapasa, Sela. Family structure and changes in headship rates in Fiji: 1966-1986. PSTC Working Paper Series, No. 97-06, Jul 1997. 15, [8] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center [PSTC]: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper will test commonly held beliefs about the breakdown of the traditional family in the developing world by examining changes in household headship in Fiji between 1966 and 1986. It is hypothesized that if modernization has had a significant impact on the family structure in Fiji it would be reflected in the pattern of headship rates during this period....Our findings suggests that headship rates among the young are negatively affected by the process of modernization while the elderly and post married rates of household headship reflect increases across time."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Author's E-mail: sela_panapasa@brown.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40418 Pilon, Marc; Locoh, Thérèse; Vignikin, Emilien; Vimard, Patrice. Households and families in Africa: The approaches of contemporary dynamics. [Ménages et familles en Afrique: approches des dynamiques contemporaines.] Les Etudes du CEPED, No. 15, ISBN 2-87762-105-7. 1997. x, 408 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This publication is the product of an interdisciplinary seminar held in Lomé, Togo, December 4-8, 1995, on the theme of the household and family in Sub-Saharan Africa, and contains 17 papers by various authors. "The evolution of households and domestic groups, the differentiation between family lifecycle and individual status (especially with regard to women heads of households and children who are entrusted [to them]), the multiplicity of residential arrangements and lifestyles, the changes affecting behaviors of mutual support under the effects of the crisis and the AIDS epidemics, the impact of legislations and urbanization are all among the subjects which are treated in this book in order to better understand the current complexity and dynamics of African families."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'école de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40419 Põldma, Asta. Population-related policies in Estonia in the context of Baltoscandia. Rahvastiku-Uuringud/Population Studies Series B, No. 36, ISBN 9985-820-39-8. 1997. 18 pp. Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre: Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng.
"Relying on the information gathered by the UN Questionnaire on Population Related Policies 1992, the present paper concentrates on changes in [marriage] and family, child care, family planning, abortion, taxation and housing policies [in Estonia]." Consensual unions, employment of women, and family policy are also discussed. Comparisons are made with the other Baltic states and the Scandinavian countries.
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 0090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40420 Pooley, Colin G.; Turnbull, Jean. Leaving home: the experience of migration from the parental home in Britain since c. 1770. Journal of Family History, Vol. 22, No. 4, Oct 1997. 390-424 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article uses high-quality longitudinal data on the lifetime residential history of individuals [in Great Britain] to investigate changes in the age at leaving home both over time and between different groups of the population. The age at which men and women left the parental home fell from the late eighteenth century to the twentieth century, with women usually leaving home earlier than men before the twentieth century....In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, it was quite common for the first move from the parental home to occur with a spouse and children after a period of coresidence with parents. The article sheds new light on an important life course transition and raises questions about the meaning of leaving home."
Correspondence: C. G. Pooley, Lancaster University, Centre for Social History, Lancaster LA1 4YB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40421 Post, Wendy; van Imhoff, Evert; Dykstra, Pearl; van Poppel, Frans. Kinship networks in the Netherlands: past, present, and future. [Verwantschapsnetwerken in Nederland: verleden, heden, toekomst.] NIDI Rapport, No. 49, ISBN 90-70990-65-2. 1997. 160 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
This report attempts to quantify the impact of changes over time in kinship networks in the Netherlands and to project future developments. A microsimulation model of kinship networks, KINSIM, is developed in order to generate future trends. "After a historical sketch, based on the analysis of a large number of existing genealogies, the KINSIM model and its input parameters are described. Demographic scenarios are formulated and the corresponding kinship patterns are presented. For all age groups, the number of living kin will sharply decline during the period 1993-2050. This is the case for both so-called `horizontal' kin relationships (e.g. siblings and cousins) and `vertical' kin relationships (e.g. children, and nieces and nephews). The decline in the availability of kin is particularly true for the elderly, kinship patterns of whom are discussed in a separate chapter."
Correspondence: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. E-mail: Info@Nidi.NL. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40422 Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando; Burch, Thomas K. Early life transitions of Canadian women: a cohort analysis of timing, sequences, and variations. Population Studies Centre Discussion Paper, No. 97-3, ISBN 0-7714-1994-5. May 1997. 21, [15] pp. University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre: London, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper looks into the timing and sequences of early life transitions of Canadian women using data from the 1995 General Social Survey of Family and Friends. Six events occurring in early adulthood are examined: school completion, first job, home-leaving, first cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth."
This paper was originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40423 Ray, J. C. The role of demographic and economic characteristics of twelve member states of the European Union in the diversity of state support for families. Journal of European Social Policy, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb 1997. 5-16 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study is based upon an international dataset comparing state support for families in fifteen countries (of which twelve are member states of the European Union)....Using multiple regression analysis, the levels of state support are explained by the principal parameters used for setting the levels of benefit, and by the demographic and economic characteristics of the countries concerned....[Results suggest] that the economic convergence of the member states is likely to promote greater similarity in their systems of state welfare support for families."
Correspondence: J. C. Ray, Université de Nancy II, LASTES, 25 rue Baron Louis, B.P. 454, 54001 Nancy Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40424 Sell, Ralph R.; Kunitz, Stephen J. Trends in American family size diversity. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 5, Oct 1997. 415-34 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines completed family size diversity from 1940 to 2000 by race and across U.S. states. For all groups, regions and the USA as a whole, family size diversity decreased significantly, produced by a combination of fewer small and large families and a general decline in regionally-based differences. Both within and across states the diversity declined in two stages, but regional clusters of states followed different paths....A national and essentially homogeneous culture of childbearing, initiated during the baby boom years and now facilitated by birth control and abortion, has settled in at below-replacement levels. While the possibility always exists that childbearing pattern might change, there is no current evidence to suggest movement away from this low and homogeneous fertility."
Correspondence: R. R. Sell, Center for Governmental Research Inc., 37 South Washington Street, Rochester, NY 14608-2091. E-mail: rsell@cgr.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40425 Suzuki, Toru. A kinship model based on branching process. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 52, No. 2, Jul 1996. 17-29 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"The kinship model based on branching process developed by Pullum (1982) was examined and a few minor extensions were attempted. The basic branching process can produce the distribution of direct kin in one sex model of females....Pullum also discussed the extension to two sexes with binomial distribution. He showed that the two sex mean is always simply a multiple of the corresponding one sex mean. This article however, showed that such a simple relationship as Pullum suggested does not hold for the variance."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:40426 Townsend, Nicholas W. Men, migration, and households in Botswana: an exploration of connections over time and space. Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 23, No. 3, Sep 1997. 405-20 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Survey results indicate a very high proportion of `female-headed households' in Botswana. Field research in a village in Botswana, however, reveals that the residential household is an inadequate, and misleading, unit of analysis....Extending investigation beyond the residential household reveals links between men and children to whom they are related in a variety of ways....The patterns of men's connections to children...are described in tables showing men's connections to households, their marital status, and their place of residence by age in 1973 and in 1993. Individual case studies illustrate the complexity of the lived experience underlying these patterns."
Correspondence: N. W. Townsend, Brown University, Department of Anthropology, Box 1921, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:40427 Valero, Angeles. The relationship between demographic dynamics and family types in Spain. In: International Population Conference/Congrès International de la Population: Beijing, 1997, Volume 1. 1997. 203-16 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
Recent demographic trends in Spain are analyzed with particular reference to how demographic aging is affecting changes in family and household characteristics. The author concludes that, despite the many changes that have occurred, the family unit is continuing to adapt and has retained its primary role as the mediating social agent between the individual and society.
Correspondence: A. Valero, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociología, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1997-1998, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.