Volume 63 - Number 3 - Fall 1997

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

63:30732 Rosenberg, Allison A.; Limber, Susan P. The contributions of social science to family policy. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1996. 1-9 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The article examines the legal context of U.S. family policy as well as the political history of U.S. family policy from 1965 to 1996. The contributions that social scientists have to make in policy formulation are noted. This article ends by previewing the accompanying articles, which collectively constitute a Journal of Social Issues treatment of family policy. Those articles are grouped into three broad areas of family policy (family structure, work, and health) representing the range of policies that affect the formation and dissolution of families and the health and economic well-being of family members."
Correspondence: A. A. Rosenberg, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418. E-mail: arosenbe@nas.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

63:30733 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Population policies and development strategies: post-ICPD perspectives. UNFPA Technical Report, No. 27, ISBN 0-89714-331-0. 1995. 91 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This technical report presents the proceedings of the ILO/UNFPA Workshop on Population Policies and Development Strategies, which was held at ILO Headquarters in Geneva from 26 October-2 November 1994....The Workshop was organized around five basic themes: population policy formulation and implementation; emerging approaches in development planning and strategies; women, population and development; new issues and fresh debates from the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); and new directions in policy formulation." The report also includes general conclusions and recommendations as well as the opening addresses from the workshop.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

63:30734 Calot, Gérard. Pronatalist policies in developed countries. [Les politiques natalistes dans les pays industrialisés.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 3. Apr 1997. 221-36 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Università degli Studi di Siena, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza: Siena, Italy. In Fre.
This study is concerned with the effectiveness of non-coercive policies in developed countries designed either explicitly or implicitly to increase the birth rate. The author notes that most policies in modern European countries, with the exception of France, aim to support the family in general, and not primarily to affect fertility. The difficulties inherent in identifying the cause and effect of fertility changes are acknowledged. The experiences of several European countries, including Austria, France, Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland, are then considered. The author suggests that the impact of state policies on fertility, while it can be positive, is almost universally modest, and therefore that such policies do not affect general fertility trends. He concludes that replacement fertility levels are a reasonable policy objective in contemporary Europe, if interference by the state in such matters is acceptable to society.
Correspondence: G. Calot, Le Blois Fleuri, 3 rue Martin, 78380 Bougival, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30735 Hesketh, Therese; Zhu, Wei Xing. Health in China: the one child family policy: the good, the bad, and the ugly. British Medical Journal, Vol. 314, No. 7095, Jun 7, 1997. 1,685-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Rapid population growth in China during the 1950s and `60s led to the `late, long, few' policy of the 1970s and a dramatic reduction in the total fertility rate. However, population growth remained too high for the economic targets of Deng Xiao Ping's reforms, so the one child family policy was introduced in 1979 and has remained in force ever since. The strategy is different in urban and rural areas, and implementation varies from place to place depending on local conditions. The policy has been beneficial in terms of curbing population growth, aiding economic growth, and improving the health and welfare of women and children. On the negative side there are concerns about demographic and sex imbalance and the psychological effects for a generation of only children in the cities. The atrocities often associated with the policy, such as female infanticide, occur rarely now. China may relax the policy in the near future, probably allowing two children for everyone."
Correspondence: T. Hesketh, Centre for International Child Health, London WC1 N1EH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30736 Ma, Jisen. 1.2 billion--retrospect and prospect of population in China. International Social Science Journal, Vol. 48, No. 2, Jun 1996. 261-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author reviews the history of population control in China. China's current population and development policies are described, and the demographic effectiveness of these policies is assessed.
Correspondence: J. Ma, Cuiwei Beili 7-403, Beijing 100036, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30737 MacKellar, F. Landis. Population and fairness. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 2, Jun 1997. 359-76, 464, 466 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"One of the least-challenged sacred cows of international policy is that public resources should be expended to accelerate fertility decline in the third world. But why? This essay considers three arguments. The first is an efficiency argument associated with individualism: the second is a prudence argument associated with hierarchy. Neither argument is accepted by the third view, which advances egalitarian arguments. Each of these arguments reflects a view of fairness; thus, the policy debate over population is a fundamentally normative one. While superficially egalitarian, the population policy orthodoxy that emerged from the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development is fundamentally individualistic. The true loser at Cairo was hierarchy, more specifically the ecological view that rapid population growth is a problem in and of itself."
Correspondence: F. L. MacKellar, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30738 Nowicka, Wanda. The effects of the 1993 anti-abortion law in Poland. Entre Nous, No. 34-35, Dec 1996. 13-5 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"The law on family planning, human embryo protection and conditions of legal abortion, commonly known as `anti-abortion' law, has been in force in Poland since March 1993." The author discusses the impact of the law, including underground abortion services; travel to other countries for abortions; social consequences, such as infanticide and abandonment; changes in the birth rate; mental health; family planning; and sex education.
Correspondence: W. Nowicka, Federation for Women and Family Planning, ul. Franciszkanska 18/20, 00-205 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30739 Prinz, Christopher. Changing family structure and an emancipatory pension policy: the case of Austria. In: Social security, household, and family dynamics in ageing societies, edited by Jean-Pierre Gonnot, Nico Keilman, and Christopher Prinz. 1995. 149-79 pp. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author "investigates the consequences of a pension scheme in which entitlements for an individual woman also depend on the number of children she gave birth to, and not only on her labour market history....Assuming five years of insurance for each additional child, Prinz concludes on the basis of his simulations that there is a strong incentive for a mother to have one or more additional children, but a much more modest one for a nulliparous woman to have a first child. A further conclusion is that the performance of this pronatalist/emancipatory pension scheme improves (compared with the current Austrian scheme), provided that fertility increases."
Correspondence: C. Prinz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30740 Rosenberg, B. G.; Jing, Qicheng. A revolution in family life: the political and social structural impact of China's one child policy. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1996. 51-69 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The present article examines the need for family policy, acknowledging its potentially invasive nature and emphasizing its profound impact on extended areas such as health, education, the status of women, and national economies. Using the enormous problem of overpopulation in China, the earth's most populous nation, we detail the problem, its development, and family policy as the Chinese government's response (the one-child mandate) to the problem. We then explore the policy's subsequent impact on families, socialization practices, cultural values, the status of women, and even its potential impact on the system of government. We caution that the problem is not simply an intellectual exercise, but has its counterpart in the marked trend to smaller families in the West. In addition, we examine preliminary evidence that the only child condition produces some personality similarities in China and the West."
Correspondence: B. G. Rosenberg, University of California, Institute of Human Development, Berkeley, CA 94720-1690. E-mail: bgrose@uclink.berkeley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

63:30741 Sen, Amartya. Population policy: authoritarianism versus cooperation. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1997. 3-22 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The people whose interests are most adversely affected by frequent bearing and rearing of children are young women. Social changes that expand the decisional power of young women (such as expansion of female literacy, or enhancement of female employment opportunity) can, thus, be major forces in the direction of reducing fertility rates. This `cooperative' route seems to act more securely--and often much faster--than the use of `coercion' in reducing family size and birth rates. This essay examines the comparative evidence from India and China on this subject as well as the interregional contrasts within India."
Correspondence: A. Sen, Harvard University, Department of Economics, Littauer Center, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30742 Wu, Cangping; Mu, Guangzong. Low-fertility rate, market economy, and population control in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1996. 349-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study simply asks the following: Why is it necessary to discuss low-fertility rate and market economy in conjunction with population control? Because it is an issue with a historical origin and realistic implications. China needs studies of practical value on the changes in the country. We attempt to conduct a comprehensive and in-depth study on the necessity of population control in order to ascertain the `true' answer."
Correspondence: C. Wu, People's University of China, Department of Demographics, 39 Haidian Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

63:30743 Borjas, George J. The new economics of immigration. Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 278, No. 5, Nov 1996. 72-80 pp. Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author argues that whereas U.S. immigration has beneficial economic effects for affluent Americans and the U.S. economy as a whole, poorer Americans suffer a reduction in wages due to competition for low-paid jobs from immigrants. He makes the case for changing U.S. immigration policy based on the fluctuating needs of the nation's economy over time, and he suggests encouraging the immigration of skilled workers.
Correspondence: G. J. Borjas, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

63:30744 Clarke, Harry. Forward planning and stability of the Australian migration program. Australian Economic Review, No. 114, 1996. 155-70 pp. Parkville, Australia. In Eng.
"Should the Australian immigration intake be forward-planned and, if so, should the resulting intake be numerically stable through time? There are sound reasons for anticipating the effects of current intakes on future intakes and for basing current intakes on Australia's long-term national objectives. These policy requirements imply a case for forward planning but not the need for a stable intake. Appropriately designed numerically unstable intakes are preferable to stable intakes because instability, while introducing adjustment costs, avoids more significant losses due to reduced selectivity in the entry mix."
Correspondence: H. Clarke, La Trobe University, School of Economics, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30745 Deman, Liza; Jablonski, Dean. The future of the American mosaic: issues in immigration reform. Stanford Law and Policy Review, Vol. 7, No. 2, Summer 1996. 1-131 pp. Stanford, California. In Eng.
This symposium contains seven articles representing diverse viewpoints on the current debate over reforming U.S. immigration laws. The topics covered include due process and secret deportation proceedings; a proposal for moderate immigration reform; the role of immigrant entrepreneurs in urban economic development; Proposition 187, tuberculosis, and the immigration epidemic; race, immigration, and immigrants; and interpreting the 14th Amendment concerning automatic citizenship for children of illegal immigrants.
Correspondence: Stanford Law School, Stanford, CA 94305-8610. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30746 Fragomen, Austin T. The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996: an overview. International Migration Review, Vol. 31, No. 2, Summer 1997. 438-60 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"On September 30, 1996, President Clinton signed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (1996 Act), Pub. L. No. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009. After an intense lobbying effort by the business community, most provisions relating to legal immigration were omitted from the final bill. Instead, the 1996 Act focuses on illegal immigration reform and includes some of the toughest measures ever taken against illegal immigration." Aspects considered include border enforcement, penalities against alien smuggling and document fraud, deportation and exclusion proceedings, employer sanctions, welfare provisions, and changes to existing refugee and asylum procedures.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30747 Frideres, James S. Canada's changing immigration policy: implications for Asian immigrants. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1996. 449-70 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The present paper reviews Canadian immigration policy and assesses the current situation. An analysis of the 1994 immigration consultation process is presented which led to the new changes in immigration policy. Recent changes in the organizational structure of the Department of Citizenship and Immigration and its policy are evaluated. The implications of the new immigration policy are discussed, particularly as it relates to Asian immigration."
Correspondence: J. S. Frideres, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alta T2N 1N4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30748 Garvin, Glenn. No fruits, no shirts, no service: the real-world consequences of closed borders. Reason, Vol. 26, No. 11, Apr 1995. 18-26 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
The author discusses possible economic consequences of recent attempts to limit the number of legal and illegal immigrants in the United States, with a focus on the difficulty of replacing migrant workers in low-paying agricultural jobs.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30749 Harrison, Trevor. Class, citizenship, and global migration: the case of the Canadian Business Immigration Program, 1978-1992. Canadian Public Policy/Analyse de Politiques, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 7-23 pp. Downsview, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper deals with the circumstances leading to the enactment by several Western governments of business immigration programs. The case of Canada's Business Immigration Program is specifically profiled. It is suggested that such programs are a response implemented by the governments of core states to resolve their country's fiscal problems and, ultimately, their own declining legitimacy. At the same time, business immigration programs also are emblematic of the rise of an international capitalist class. The paper concludes that such programs are unlikely to resolve the fiscal problems for which they are intended. Instead, they may cause several unintended problems, including damaging the notion of inclusiveness imbedded in the modern concept of citizenship, thus further lessening the legitimacy of the state."
Correspondence: T. Harrison, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

63:30750 Kateb, Kamel. Administrative management of Algerian emigration to Muslim countries following the conquest of Algeria (1830-1914). [La gestion administrative de l'émigration algérienne vers les pays musulmans au lendemain de la conquête de l'Algérie (1830-1914).] Population, Vol. 52, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1997. 399-428 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Many studies have been devoted to the Algerian emigration to France in the present century, but researchers and historians have paid little attention to the emigration which followed the conquest of Algeria. Yet as the archives of the period make clear, this was a question of considerable concern to the French authorities responsible for the new colony. They were prepared to encourage a migratory movement which was consistent with plans to replace the native population by a European population. At the same time, however, this emigration conflicted with French geopolitical objectives in the Middle East where many migrants settled. As a result the attitude of the authorities was contradictory, favouring emigration by small groups yet opposing such movements when they exceeded a certain size."
Correspondence: K. Kateb, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30751 Kulluk, Fahrünnisa E. The political discourse on quota immigration in Germany. New Community, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1996. 301-20 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Since the late 1980s many professional politicians and social interest associations/organisations have been arguing for the creation of an immigration law which would allow and organise limited and legal new immigration to Germany on the basis of annual or two-three year quotas. This political discourse on immigration policy contains proposals which go beyond pure self-interest and aim to contribute to the stated goals of `citizenship in Europe' and `open, transnational citizenship'. This position is so far only held by a minority. More dominant are the proponents of quota immigration policy and of political asylum and civil refugee policies, directly or indirectly exclusionist in relation to `old' and/or `new' immigrants and refugees. This article presents the argument for rethinking and restructuring the notion of quota immigration rather than rejecting it altogether."
Correspondence: F. E. Kulluk, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30752 Lazaridis, Gabriella. Immigration to Greece: a critical evaluation of Greek policy. New Community, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1996. 335-48 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"In the light of the EU's interest in the movement of labour within the Union, the first part of this article looks at the character of Greek migrant labour with the aim of providing an overview of changes in the flow of migrant labour into Greece and of the policies adopted in relation to immigrant labour. It discusses the failure of the Greek government to formulate strategic measures to combat illegal immigration...and the limited (if any) efforts being made to aid the integration of Albanians. The second part of the article concentrates on [the experiences of] Albanian migrant labourers in Greece....[It] also assesses the similarities and differences in the employment positions of Albanian men and women in Greece and the way in which mechanisms of marginalisation differently affect these two categories."
Correspondence: G. Lazaridis, University of Dundee, Department of Political Science and Social Policy, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30753 Novick, Susana. Migration policies in Argentina. [Políticas migratorias en la Argentina.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 34, No. 125, Mar 1997. 83-122 pp. Rome, Italy. In Spa.
This is a general review of policy concerning international migration to Argentina, focusing on the period 1976-1994. The author first discusses some conceptual issues and reviews the development of migration policies in Argentina from 1870 to 1976. She then describes the various strategies that different governments adopted concerning migration after 1976. She concludes that a common theme during this period was developing a selective immigration policy that would limit immigration to those best able to contribute to the country's economic development.
Correspondence: S. Novick, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto Gino Germani, Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: novick@polpob.fsoc.uba.ar. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30754 O'Keeffe, David. The emergence of a European immigration policy. European Law Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1995. 20-36 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the emergence of an immigration policy for the European Union as a whole, the need for which is demonstrated by the high number of individuals desiring to migrate to its constituent countries. He notes that the Union has been slow to develop such a policy, and suggests that the price of abolishing internal controls might be the establishment of external controls. He suggests that the Schengen Convention may serve as a model for the development of a suitable policy, which will have to take into account human rights issues. It will also need to be coordinated with other international bodies concerned with migration issues in Europe.
Correspondence: D. O'Keeffe, University College London, Centre for the Law of the European Union, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: New York University Law Library, New York, NY.

63:30755 Overbeek, Henk. Europe in search of a migration policy: the constraints imposed by the globalization and restructuring of labor markets. [L'Europe en quête d'une politique en matière de migration: les contraintes de la mondalisation et de la restructuration des marchés du travail.] Etudes Internationales, Vol. 27, No. 1, Mar 1996. 53-116 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper argues that the development towards a common migration policy in the European Union reflects the emergence of a new form of regionalism resulting from the recent structural transformations in the global political economy. The European governments are caught in a web of contradictory interests and tendencies. On one side, the logic of global economic restructuring dictates continued deregulation and flexibilisation of the labour market, implying increased high levels of immigration. On the other hand, the political backlash against globalization pushes towards a closure of the external borders. The result is the construction of a Fortress Europe, with a set of specific cooperation agreements with the regions surrounding the European Union in order to regulate the inflow of migrants."
Correspondence: H. Overbeek, University of Amsterdam, Department of Political Science, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30756 Quiminal, Catherine. The changes in the French migratory policy and their consequences upon West Africa. Journal of Social Studies, Vol. 66, Oct 1994. 59-74 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The author discusses French immigration policy, with a focus on migrant streams from Western Africa. "The purpose is first to highlight convergent and opposed interests between the migratory policy elaborated from 1945 to 1975, during `the glorious [thirty years]', and the African migrants' strategies as well as the consequences upon the countries [of origin]. Then, the paper will question the effects of those changes both on the immigrants' behaviours and on the countries [of origin]...."
Correspondence: C. Quiminal, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre d'Etudes Africaines, 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30757 Rosenberg, Göran. Sweden and its immigrants: policies versus opinions. Daedalus, Vol. 124, No. 3, Summer 1995. 209-18 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"`Refugees' has long been the only category of immigrants for which Sweden has had any policies. Traditional immigration, in which men and women enter a foreign country in search of jobs or other social or economic goods, has for all practical purposes ceased to exist in Sweden. The clash between policies and opinions--in this instance between political myth and social realities--has become a matter of great importance."
Correspondence: G. Rosenberg, Foerlag AB, Box 12880, 112 98 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30758 Rudolph, Hedwig. The new gastarbeiter system in Germany. New Community, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1996. 287-300 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Germany's new gastarbeiter policy is evaluated in the context of a long tradition of labour recruitment, particularly the last period of active recruitment abroad (1955-1973). The policy's characteristic features (of permission to stay being dependent on a work permit; this being limited to a certain period and linked to the requirements of a specific employer) [imply] that the gastarbeiter regime is a low cost means of increasing flexibility in cases of regional and/or sectoral bottlenecks in the employment system as well as a way of `exporting' problems....The mounting employment crisis in Germany has prompted the German government repeatedly to take advantage of provisions to restrict the conventions on labour movement."
Correspondence: H. Rudolph, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 1000 Berlin 12, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30759 Schuck, Peter H. The message of 187: facing up to illegal immigration. American Prospect, No. 21, Spring 1995. 85-92 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author makes the case that the adoption of Proposition 187, the anti-illegal immigrant initiative, in California in 1994 was "an expression of public frustration with a government and civil society that seem out of touch and out of control, and with external convulsions that our borders can no longer contain." He suggests that the general public is increasingly concerned about the services provided to illegal aliens and their costs, and that responsible leadership should admit that illegal immigration, even at current levels, is not an unmitigated evil, and be prepared to set and enforce immigration limits.
Correspondence: P. H. Schuck, Yale University, School of Law, Box 208269, Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:30760 Shea, K.-L.; Woodfield, A. E. Optimal immigration, education and growth in the long run. Journal of International Economics, Vol. 40, 1996. 495-506 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The paper extends Manning's model on education and balanced growth to include labour immigration. Each immigration unit is assumed to consist of one skilled worker and some unskilled members. The optimal immigration policy which maximizes the per capita steady-state consumption of the host country is derived. We show that optimal immigration policy can reduce the steady-state skilled labour ratio. More interesting still, contrary to the widespread belief that immigration of skilled workers hurts local skilled workers, it is the unskilled local workers whose interests are threatened by optimal immigration policy."
Correspondence: A. E. Woodfield, University of Canterbury, Department of Economics, Christchurch, New Zealand. E-mail: a.woodfield@econ.canterbury.ac.nz. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30761 Thränhardt, Dietrich. European migration from East to West: present patterns and future directions. New Community, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1996. 227-42 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Present-day migration control is largely a social and political construction; it cannot explain the patterns and processes of East-West migration. Western anxieties have been misleading, and are used as a substitute for the fears of the Cold War period. In reality, the rich countries of Western Europe have largely been able to control their borders and define the sort of immigration they want to accept. Most of the migrants from Eastern Europe have come in an arranged form, particularly the ethnic migrants. Uncontrolled immigration is concentrated in those sectors of the economy where regulation is weak, and internal forces are operating in favour of unregistered immigration."
Correspondence: D. Thränhardt, Westfälische Wilhelms Universität Münster, Institute of Political Science, Schloßplatz 2, 48149 Münster, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30762 Tichenor, Daniel J. Two traditions of American reform: immigration regulation and the lessons of history. Current World Leaders, Vol. 38, No. 2, Apr 1995. 45-62 pp. Santa Barbara, California. In Eng.
"Immigration reform long has produced fierce conflict among U.S. policymakers over how to regulate racial and ethnic diversity, economic opportunity, and global involvement in American life. This essay attempts to provide an historical perspective on recent innovations in [U.S.] immigration policy, comparing them with restrictionist and expansionist traditions in U.S. political development. While recent reforms exemplify an unprecedented openness in keeping with a more inclusive democracy, their failure to address public anxieties about porous borders inadvertently breathed life into a new anti-immigrant politics that may threaten these policy achievements."
Correspondence: D. J. Tichenor, Brandeis University, Gordon Public Policy Center, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02254-9110. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30763 van Amersfoort, Hans. Migration: the limits of governmental control. New Community, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 1996. 243-57 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"The first issue addressed in the present article is why it is so difficult for governments to intervene successfully in migration processes. Within the analytical framework of the article, the point is made that the variables addressed by governmental measures form only a small part of the relevant variables. Addressing these variables effectively is further hampered by the conflicting interests of various economic sectors and by the conflicting roles various administrative institutions have defined for themselves. Finally the article addresses the question of whether a `root-cause' approach offers better prospects for the management of migration. This does not appear to be the case at the moment."
Correspondence: H. van Amersfoort, University of Amsterdam, Institute for Social Geography, 1011 NH Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30764 Weil, Patrick. Toward a new immigration policy. [Pour une nouvelle politique d'immigration.] Esprit, No. 220, Apr 1996. 136-54 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines current immigration policies in France in light of the growing success of the right-wing political party, the National Front, which proposes to send back to their countries of origin the 3 million or so non-European immigrants currently residing in France. He suggests that the concern of the French people with immigration issues is real and not just a symptom of concern about other social and political issues. He also notes that recent attempts to control immigration, such as the Pasqua legislation of 1993, have been largely ineffective. He concludes that realistic policies need to accept the fact that, although immigration can possibly be controlled, it cannot be stopped entirely.
Correspondence: P. Weil, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Pierre-Léon, Lyons, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30765 Wihtol de Wenden, Catherine. French immigration policy at a turning point? [La politique française d'immigration à un tournant?] Bulletin of Francophone Africa, Vol. 4, No. 7, 1995. 36-50 pp. London, England. In Fre.
The author examines the changes to French immigration law adopted in 1993 in the light of current trends and pressures affecting migration to France. The focus is on the changes in the rules concerning the acquisition of French nationality, and the assimilation of existing immigrants from developing countries. The difficulties of resolving such problems at the national level while migration regulations are being developed at the European Community level are noted. Problems involving the control of the nation's borders, illegal immigration, and the growing demand for political asylum are also discussed. The author raises the possibility that immigration could be better managed in light of current labor market conditions in France.
Correspondence: C. Wihtol de Wenden, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CERI I), 15 quai Anatole France, 75700 Paris, France. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.