Volume 63 - Number 3 - Fall 1997

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population.

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

63:30683 Corijn, Martine. Transition into adulthood in Flanders: results from the Fertility and Family Survey 1991-92. NIDI CBGS Publications, No. 32, ISBN 90-403-0068-2. 1996. [xii], 216 pp. Vlaamse Gemeenschap: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The transition into adulthood in Flemish-speaking Belgium is analyzed using data from a survey of some 5,000 men and women born between 1951 and 1970. "The transition into adulthood is broken down into eight events as far as they happen for the first time: sexual intercourse, start of a steady partnership, leaving the parental home, cohabitation, marriage, birth of a child, end of schooling and entry into the labour force. The timing and sequence of these events are spelled out in detail. Over the cohorts most of these events no longer coincide and have become less age dependent. The core of the book consists of analyses (loglinear models) of the timing of the transition into adulthood using three kinds of determinants: the experiences in the parental home, the parallel careers and current characteristics. The transition into adulthood in Flanders is highlighted by comparisons with other Western European countries."
Correspondence: Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30684 Factor, Haim; Habib, Jack. A model of the impact of immigration on health and social service expenditures for the elderly. Public Finance/Finances Publiques, Vol. 48, Suppl., 1993. 147-77 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Immigration, primarily from the former Soviet Union, has swelled the population of Israel by 10% between 1990 and 1993 and total population growth by the end of the decade is expected to be over 30%. The research presented here represents part of a larger effort to project needs and costs for the entire population in order to assist health and social welfare services in planning and resource allocation. The paper presents an overview of the current demographic situation in Israel, a theoretical model for estimating the growth in needs, and estimates of needs and costs for services for the elderly population based upon this model."
Correspondence: H. Factor, JDC-Brookdale Institute of Gerontology and Human Development, P.O. Box 3478, Jerusalem, Israel. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30685 France. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE] (Paris, France). An annual review of the retired: results for 1995. [Suivi annuel des retraites: résultats 1995.] Statistique Publique, No. 9, ISBN 2-11-066557-2. Mar 1997. 210 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is the first in a planned series of annual reports which will provide information on levels and trends in pensions and in the retired population of France. This first report concentrates on five of the country's major pension systems, which are analyzed separately.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30686 Gauthier, Hervé; Duchesne, Louis; Jean, Sylvie; Laroche, Denis; Nobert, Yves. From one generation to another: changes in living conditions, Volume 1. [D'une génération à l'autre: évolution des conditions de vie, Volume 1.] ISBN 2-551-17785-5. Jul 1997. 257 pp. Bureau de la Statistique du Québec: Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
This study examines how life is changing in the Canadian province of Quebec by analyzing changing living conditions from one generation to the next. This first volume deals with the topics of age and sex distribution, families and households, education, the professions, income, social mobility, and interdependence between generations in the context of demographic aging and related social expenditures.
Correspondence: Bureau de la Statistique du Québec, 200 chemin Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Quebec G1R 5T4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30687 Morocco. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Social security and socioeconomic development. [Sécurité sociale et développement socio-économique.] Etudes Démographiques, 1997. 340 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This report examines the social security system in Morocco in the context of the country's current demographic and socioeconomic situation. The first part describes the existing social security system and its limitations. The second part examines how the country's demographic trends and socioeconomic development efforts affect the social security system. The report notes that the current system covers about 61% of the salaried population, or about 31% of the total population.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques, B.P. 178, Avenue Maâ el Ainine, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30688 Riley, Nancy E. Gender, power, and population change. Population Bulletin, Vol. 52, No. 1, May 1997. 48 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author explores "the connections between gender and the levels and trends in fertility and mortality. [The] goal is to highlight how gender interacts with population processes in the less industrialized world. The focus is on fertility and mortality, although the third source of population change--migration--is intricately connected with gender as well."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30689 Trompf, Garry W. The attitudes and involvement of religions in population planning. In: Population and global security: environmental challenges II, edited by Nicholas Polunin and Mohammad Nazim. 1994. 175-204 pp. Foundation for Environmental Conservation: Geneva, Switzerland; Energy and Environment Society of Pakistan: Lahore, Pakistan. In Eng.
"As the world of religions embraces the issues of life and death so strongly, we quite naturally ask what sorts of attitudes are to be found among them concerning the current population explosion, and what involvement do the adherents of religions have in addressing this enormous crisis?" The forms and types of religious life are reviewed, and responses of religions to population issues are examined. The author outlines official statements of world faiths, and also discusses popular and unofficial attitudes of these faiths. The involvement in population issues of new, surrogate, and quasi-religions is considered.
Correspondence: G. W. Trompf, University of Sydney, School of Studies in Religion, John Woolley Building, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30690 Welti, Carlos. Population dynamics and social change in Latin America. [Dinámica demográfica y cambio social en América Latina.] Estudios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 3, No. 5, Jan-Jun 1996. 143-60 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Given the current necessity to forecast the medium and long range scenarios in Latin America, sociological analyses of demographic trends have become very relevant. Welti argues that it is essential to reflect upon the relationship between population and development. This is even more critical now that all seems to revolve around the search for growth via structural adjustment. The author analyzes the present demographic setting in Latin America and the impact of demographic policies undertaken within structural adjustment."
Correspondence: C. Welti, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

63:30691 Zeng, Yi. China's agenda for an old-age insurance program in rural areas. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1994. 101-14 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"Based on a field study conducted in August 1993 by the author [in Shangdong Province], this article discusses the experimental program of old-age insurance in rural areas of China. The achievements made so far, the feasibility of old-age insurance in rural areas, and the problems encountered by the program are discussed. Policy recommendations regarding maintenance of the value of the premium, legislation, management of the program, and continuation of the family support system are proposed. It is emphasized that China urgently needs to establish a universal old-age insurance program and other social support services for the elderly."
Correspondence: Haworth Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghampton, NY 13904-1580. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

63:30692 Eberhardt, Piotr. The demographic consequences of famine in Ukraine in the twentieth century. [Konsekwencje demograficzne wielkiego glodu na Ukrainie w latach trzydziestych XX wieku.] Czasopismo Geograficzne/Geographical Journal, Vol. 65, No. 3-4, 1994. 275-90 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
"The demographic situation of [the] Ukrainian SSR in the thirties is [analyzed]...based on 1926 National Census and 1937 National Census....It was attempted to determine as precisely as possible the demographic losses caused by collectivization of Ukrainian agriculture. Dispossession of wealthy peasants, deportation and famine resulted in [the] death of several million persons....The author discusses the political, national and social consequences of this great demographic catastrophe."
Correspondence: P. Eberhardt, PAN Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: University of Michigan Library, Ann Arbor, MI.

63:30693 Grossman, Herschel I.; Iyigun, Murat F. Population increase at the end of colonialism. Economica, Vol. 64, No. 255, Aug 1997. 483-93 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Between 1946 and 1976, the European powers granted independence to all of their large colonies in Africa and Southeast Asia. This paper attempts to provide an economic explanation for this remarkable ending to the era of colonialism. The main theoretical innovation is to consider the effect of population increase on the allocation of time by the indigenous population between productive and subversive activities. The analysis suggests that the increase in population during the colonial period increased the potential private return to subversive activity until the colonies became a net burden on the metropolitan governments. It also suggests that there was less subversive activity in colonies in which the market for indigenous labour was monopsonized because monopsonistic employers internalized the potential negative effect of subversive activity on net profits."
Correspondence: H. I. Grossman, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30694 Hewitt, B. G. Demographic manipulation in the Caucasus (with special reference to Georgia). Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1995. 48-74 pp. Eynsham, England. In Eng.
The author discusses political developments in the Caucasus region since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The focus is on the events in Georgia that led to the war in South Ossetia (particularly in Abkhazia), and the author suggests that this development is the latest in a 200-year history of demographic manipulation of minority peoples by the region's two major powers, Russia and Georgia. Parallels are drawn between the Georgian war in Abkhazia and Russia's war in Chechenia. The author questions the value of the principle of territorial integrity, and suggests that alternative principles safeguarding the rights of ethnic minorities would be more appropriate in these circumstances.
Correspondence: B. G. Hewitt, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H 0XG, England. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

63:30695 Olcott, Martha B. How new the new Russia? Demographic upheavals in Central Asia. Orbis, Vol. 40, No. 4, Fall 1996. 537-55 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
The demographic impact of the collapse of the Soviet Union on the new states of Central Asia is examined. The focus is on the choice faced by the population of Russian origin: whether to stay in the new countries with their increasing emphasis on local languages, religions, and other factors, or to migrate to Russia. The author also reviews the shifting needs and interests of the states concerned, which will both be driven by and magnify these demographic changes. "Although the time of the urgent migration of populations in and out of Central Asia seems to be nearing a close, the slower demographic adjustments wrought by increasing age, comparative birth rates, and the need of maturing young people to seek education and employment will continue. As a result of such changes, the Central Asian states of a decade hence will be strikingly dissimilar both from what they are today and from one another, as each state evolves its own distinctive character."
Correspondence: M. B. Olcott, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 11 Dupont Circle, Washington, D.C. 20036-1207. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:30696 Sirageldin, Ismail. Population dynamics, environment, and conflict. In: Population, environment, and development, edited by R. K. Pachauri and Lubina F. Qureshy. 1997. 249-83 pp. Tata Energy Research Institute [TERI]: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the role of...basic demographic phenomena as a source of social and political conflict or disorder....The [aim] is to examine the role population dynamics plays in influencing...adaptive ability. Our main claim is that social and political conflict is a function of the adaptive capacity of society. We argue further that the effect of population change on society's adaptive capacity is context specific." Aspects considered include population trends and the demographic system; modeling population change and conflict; the role of the state; and empirical illustrations examining the links between population change and the resources of water and cropland.
Correspondence: I. Sirageldin, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, 13109 Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

63:30697 Ahluwalia, Indu B.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Scanlon, Kelley S. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and birth outcome: increased effects on pregnant women aged 30 years or older. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 146, No. 1, Jul 1, 1997. 42-7 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The purposes of this study were to examine the association between self-reported environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy and birth weight, prematurity, and small-for-gestational age infants and to determine whether these associations differ by maternal age. Data from the [U.S.] Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System from two states that collected data on both passive and active smoking for the period 1989-1994 were analyzed....The mean adjusted birth weight among infants of nonsmoking mothers age 30 years or older was 90 g less among infants exposed to ETS than among infants not exposed. No significant association was found among infants of younger nonsmoking mothers. Similarly, the risks for low birth weight...and preterm delivery...were elevated among older nonsmokers exposed to ETS, but not among younger nonsmokers exposed to ETS...."
Correspondence: I. B. Ahluwalia, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, Maternal and Child Health Branch, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Mailstop K-25, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30698 Aïach, Pierre. Particular inequalities. [Des inégalités particulières.] In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 11-33 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This contribution...is divided into two main parts:...Using the examples of [the] Soviet Union and France..., what is pointed out is the way and the reason why health inequalities are denied, or/and converted essentially into another issue: health care services [use] (supply and accessibility). In the second part the similarities and differences in social inequalities (mortality) between children and adults are underlined and questions which seem important are raised: time of appearance; differences between urban and rural areas; development of social gaps in the process of time; significant factors of social mortality according to age, period and location."
Correspondence: P. Aïach, Institut National de la Recherche Médicale, Unité 158, Faculté de Médecine Necker, 156 rue de Vaugirard, 75730 Paris Cedex 15, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30699 Andryszek, Czeslaw. Assessment of health status of population in north and west Poland on the basis of measures related to pollution and degradation of environment. Trends in mortality. Polish Population Review, No. 8, 1996. 39-58 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The objective of this study is to make a cross-sectional assessment of the health status of the population inhabiting West and North Poland, using a set of negative measures of health related to the intensity of environmental factors, and to evaluate mortality trends in the same area that express changes in the rate of morbidity leading to death....The measures assumed in the analysis suggest that the population inhabiting 15 voivodeships in West and North Poland is characterised by a poorer health status than in the other area, both urban and rural."
Correspondence: C. Andryszek, Medical University, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, ul. Zachnodnia 81/83, 90-402 Lódz, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30700 Asowa-Omorodion, Francisca I. Women's perceptions of the complications of pregnancy and childbirth in two Esan communities, Edo state, Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 12, Jun 1997. 1,817-24 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the complications and modes of treatment relating to pregnancy and delivery as perceived by Esan women. Focus group discussions generated data for analysis. The women identified miscarriage, separation of the placenta, haemorrhage, obstructed labour, and the retention of the placenta as complications experienced in pregnancy, labour or delivery. Of these complications, haemorrhage was the most severe and devastating because it kills easily owing to the amount of blood lost. However, two alternative modes of treatment, traditional and modern are in use, the most prevalent, cheapest, easier to obtain, and most trusted being the traditional mode of treatment. A reduction in maternal mortality requires a number of strategies. The most radical of these is the recommendation that both traditional and modern treatments need to complement one another in the same health institutions to ensure the maximal effectiveness of both modes of treatment."
Correspondence: F. I. Asowa-Omorodion, University of Benin, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30701 Baker, Jean; Martin, Luann; Piwoz, Ellen. The time to act: women's nutrition and its consequences for child survival and reproductive health in Africa. [Le moment d'agir: nutrition de la femme et ses conséquences pour la survie de l'enfant et la santé reproductive en Afrique.] Dec 1996. viii, 36; [52] pp. U.S. Agency for International Development [USAID]: Washington, D.C. In Eng; Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need for interventions to improve female nutrition [in Africa, concentrating]...primarily on interventions delivered through the health sector. Women's nutrition is discussed within the context of reproductive health....This paper identifies key factors affecting nutritional status, examines conceptual and implementation constraints that have undermined nutrition programs, and recommends approaches for addressing women's nutritional problems in sub-Saharan Africa." The impact on child survival is also considered.
Correspondence: U.S. Agency for International Development, 320 21st Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20523. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30702 Barer, Morris L.; Evans, Robert G.; Hertzman, Clyde. Avalanche or glacier?: health care and the demographic rhetoric. Canadian Journal on Aging/Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement, Vol. 14, No. 2, Summer 1995. 193-224 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Recent research on the impact of an aging population on health care costs in the Canadian province of British Columbia is examined. "The common finding of this body of research is that population aging has accounted for very little of the increase in health care costs over the past three decades, in Canada or elsewhere. Health care utilization has increased dramatically among seniors. But this has had less to do with the fact that there are more of them, than with the fact that the health care system is doing much more to (and for) them than was the case even a decade ago. This suggests that the appropriate care of elderly people should be a central issue for health care policy and management, but that demographic issues are, in the short run at least, largely a red herring."
Correspondence: M. L. Barer, University of British Columbia, Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, 429-2194 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30703 Bobak, Martin; Skodova, Zdenka; Pisa, Zbynek; Poledne, Rudolf; Marmot, Michael. Political changes and trends in cardiovascular risk factors in the Czech Republic, 1985-92. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 51, No. 3, Jun 1997. 272-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "examine the trends in cardiovascular risk factors in [the] Czech population over the last decade during which a major and sudden change of the political and social system occurred in 1989, and whether the trends differed in relation to age and educational group....Total cholesterol and body mass index increased between 1985 and 1988 and decreased between 1988 and 1992. The prevalence of smoking was declining slightly in men between 1985 and 1992 but remained stable in women. There were only small changes in blood pressure....Although a causal association cannot be claimed, national trends in foods consumption are consistent with changes in blood lipids and obesity."
Correspondence: M. Bobak, University College London Medical School, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30704 Charlton, John; Murphy, Mike. The health of adult Britain, 1841-1994. Decennial Supplement, No. 12 and 13, ISBN 0-11-691695-8. 1997. xii, 276; 254 pp. Office for National Statistics: London, England. In Eng.
This two-volume report consists of contributions by various experts charting the changes in the health of the British population between 1841 and 1994. Volume 1 covers mortality, morbidity, and changes in the factors which have influenced health. Topics include sources of data, mortality trends, socioeconomic and demographic trends, changes in diet, alcohol and drug-related diseases, smoking, family and household structures, the environment, and medical advances. Volume 2 covers diseases of particular organ systems, and mortality and morbidity in selected population groups. Topics include communicable diseases, sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, renal and digestive diseases, musculoskeletal disease, accidents, and the health of the elderly.
Correspondence: Office for National Statistics, 1 Drummond Gate, London SW1V 2QQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30705 Colditz, Graham A.; Hoaglin, David C.; Berkey, Catherine S. Cancer incidence and mortality: the priority of screening frequency and population coverage. Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 2, 1997. 147-73 pp. Malden, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We examine the criteria currently used [in the United States] to evaluate the effectiveness of screening for cancer and highlight issues on which the policy decisionmaking process requires additional data. We focus on cancers of the cervix, breast, and colon, as there is sufficient information about them to permit us to discuss seriously the trade-off between screening frequency and population coverage. We extend the approach of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force by also considering the trade-off between (a) expending resources to achieve more complete coverage with a program and (b) more frequent screening that, in all likelihood, entails reduced coverage. Thus we ask, `Working within a constrained health care budget, how do we achieve the greatest reduction in cancer mortality?'"
Correspondence: G. A. Colditz, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30706 Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Nieto, F. Javier; Muntaner, Carles; Tyroler, Herman A.; Comstock, George W.; Shahar, Eyal; Cooper, Lawton S.; Watson, Robert L.; Szklo, Moyses. Neighborhood environments and coronary heart disease: a multilevel analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 146, No. 1, Jul 1, 1997. 48-63 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The authors investigated whether neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics are associated with coronary heart disease prevalence and risk factors, whether these associations persist after adjustment for individual-level social class indicators, and whether the effects of individual-level indicators vary across neighborhoods. The study sample consisted of 12,601 persons in four U.S. communities...participating in the baseline examination of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (1987-1989)....Living in deprived neighborhoods was associated with increased prevalence of coronary heart disease and increased levels of risk factors, with associations generally persisting after adjustment for individual-level variables. Inconsistent associations were documented for serum cholesterol and disease prevalence in African-American men."
Correspondence: A. V. Diez-Roux, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, Division of General Medicine, 622 West 168th Street, PH 9 East 105, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30707 D'Souza, Rennie M. Housing and environmental factors and their effects on the health of children in the slums of Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 3, Jul 1997. 271-81 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"To examine the association of environmental factors (including housing) with respiratory infections and diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age, a cross-sectional study of 403 families was conducted in a squatter settlement of Karachi [Pakistan]. In the 2-week period before the survey prevalence of diarrhoea and respiratory infections was 14.4% and 15.0% respectively. The factors significantly associated...with diarrhoea in households in the multivariate analysis were: number of children under 5, regular cleaning of sewers, storage of water in small utensils and cooking inside a one room house....[The] results suggest that children under 5 years of age in lower income areas are at additional risk to health because of poor environmental conditions."
Correspondence: R. M. D'Souza, Aga Khan University, Department of Community Health Sciences, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi 74800, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30708 Eberstadt, Nicholas. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, epidemiologist: a review essay on Moynihan's Miles to go: a personal history of social policy. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 2, Jun 1997. 405-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
In this review essay, the author examines the contribution of Daniel P. Moynihan to the study of such public health problems in the United States as violent crime, illicit drug use, and traffic hazards. The focus is on the impact of these on morbidity and mortality and the role of social policy in reducing this impact.
Correspondence: N. Eberstadt, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1150 17th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30709 Findley, Sally; Zayan, Ahmed; Kere, Maria; Kone, Youssof; Sogbo, Gaston. Stretching the limits of health interventions in Burkina Faso. Health Transition Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, Apr 1997. 95-107 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"Many health programs in developing countries share the common goals of reducing infant and child mortality. But there is no consensus on the most effective way to attain these goals....When evaluating the effect of health and non-health interventions, it is important to include a range of program types and behavioural changes. If there are differences in the adoption of behaviour associated with specific contextual variations, this will suggest the need to consider how susceptible particular kinds of behaviour are to specific program features that vary at each site. [A child-health promotion] program in Burkina Faso offers the possibility of controlling for different combinations of program activities."
Correspondence: S. Findley, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30710 Gage, Anastasia J.; Sommerfelt, A. Elisabeth; Piani, Andrea L. Household structure and childhood immunization in Niger and Nigeria. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 2, May 1997. 295-309 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this study, we use data from the Demographic and Health Surveys to examine the relationship between household structure and childhood immunization in Niger and Nigeria. We show that household structure is an important determinant of childhood immunization in Nigeria: Children from nuclear, elementary polygynous, and three-generational households are worse-off than those from laterally extended households. However, the lower odds of full immunization among children from three-generational and elementary polygynous households are attributable to low economic status and low maternal education levels, respectively. In Niger, household structure does not have a significant effect on children's likelihood of being fully immunized."
Correspondence: A. J. Gage, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 206 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: gage@pop.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30711 Garenne, Michel. Public health policies and their demographic impact. [Les politiques de santé publique et leur incidence démographique.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 3. Apr 1997. 237-69 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Università degli Studi di Siena, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza: Siena, Italy. In Fre.
This chapter evaluates the demographic impact of public health policies and programs. Some methodological and theoretical issues are first explored. The author then describes some health programs that deal with specific diseases, such as smallpox and malaria, and also immunization programs in general. He also considers programs designed to improve nutrition, as well as those aimed at chronic diseases such as cardio- and cerebrovascular disease and cancer; those designed to reduce the ravages of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking; those attempting to reduce mortality from accidents, suicide, and homicide; and those concerned with reducing rates of perinatal and maternal mortality. Finally, he describes the different types of national health policies that have been developed in capitalist and socialist, and in developed and developing countries.
Correspondence: M. Garenne, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, 213 rue Lafayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30712 Gysling, Jacqueline. The social study of reproductive health in Chile: an overview at the beginning of the 1990s. [La investigación social en salud reproductiva en Chile: panorama al inicio de los noventa.] Feb 1995. 154 pp. Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Programa Interdisciplinario de Estudios de Género: Santiago, Chile; Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales [FLACSO]: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
This is a general review of sociological studies on reproductive health in Chile. The author first defines the concept of reproductive health. She gives an account of how the subject was studied in Chile from 1985 to 1993 and provides a description of the various institutions involved in research on this area. The work concludes with a bibliography of relevant research projects and of the research emanating from them.
Correspondence: Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Programa Interdisciplinario de Estudios de Género, Ignacio Carrera Pinto 1045, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30713 Konde-Lule, Joseph K. The effects of urbanization on the spread of AIDS in Africa. African Urban Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 1-2, Jan-May 1991. 13-8 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"In this article the effect of urbanization on the AIDS epidemic in Africa is reviewed....The effect of urbanization on sexual mobility is reviewed in many ancient and modern cultures....Urbanization has combined with the influence of Western civilization to bring to an end the habit of sexual networking within the extended family circles but has promoted commercial sex and prostitution, previously unknown in rural Africa. Rural-urban migration has greatly contributed to the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and AIDS while urbanization has forced some women into prostitution in order to earn a living."
Correspondence: J. K. Konde-Lule, Makerere University, Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30714 Kuciarska-Ciesielska, Marlena. Examination of the status of health of population in Poland. Polish Population Review, No. 8, 1996. 59-70 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"This article presents sources of information about the health status of the Polish population...; the number and causes of deaths, the morbidity due to more important diseases and average life expectancy....At the same time this situation is compared with those in some European countries."
Correspondence: M. Kuciarska-Ciesielska, Central Statistical Office, Al. Niepodleglosci 208, 00-608 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30715 Lumey, L. H. The Dutch famine of 1944-1945: short term and long term consequences. In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 299-310 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"During the last months of the Second World War the Western Netherlands was affected by an acute famine....The effect on mortality at all ages was immediate and large. It was most pronounced in the very young and the very old, and larger in men compared to women. Fertility declined sharply once the average official food rations no longer supplied 1,500 calories a day and was associated with social class. In a historical birth cohort study of women born in the University of Amsterdam teaching hospital during the famine its short and long term consequences are evaluated in more detail. Women born during the famine show a dramatic decline in birth weight. By contrast, women conceived during the famine show an increase in birth weight."
Correspondence: L. H. Lumey, American Health Foundation, Division of Epidemiology, 320 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30716 Matthews, Zoe; Diamond, Ian. Child immunisation in Ghana: the effects of family, location and social disparity. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 3, Jul 1997. 327-43 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The data from the Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Ghana in 1988 are used to identify determinants of immunisation uptake for children under 5 years. The logistic binomial analysis shows that socioeconomic factors are significant, especially women's education and region, and that the type of prenatal care received by the mother is also important. There is a strong familial correlation of vaccination behaviours, and there is also clustering of data within enumeration areas."
Correspondence: Z. Matthews, University of Southampton, Department of Social Statistics, Southampton SO9 5NH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30717 Menza, Valeria; Lupien, John R. World population and nutritional well-being. In: Population and global security: environmental challenges II, edited by Nicholas Polunin and Mohammad Nazim. 1994. 125-39 pp. Foundation for Environmental Conservation: Geneva, Switzerland; Energy and Environment Society of Pakistan: Lahore, Pakistan. In Eng.
"The agricultural sector is a major source of income and livelihood, as well as the main source of food, for many of the world's poor. As such, it presents the greatest opportunity for socio-economic development and consequently offers the greatest potential for achieving sustained improvements in the nutritional status of the rural poor....Enormous efforts will be needed in all sectors to provide for and protect the welfare and human dignity of the 10 thousand million people projected for the year 2050. To achieve this, human welfare, including nutritional well-being, must be placed at the centre of all population, social, and economic development, policies."
Correspondence: V. Menza, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Policy and Nutrition Division, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30718 Mertens, T. E.; Low-Beer, D. HIV and AIDS: where is the epidemic going? [¿Hacia dónde se encamina la epidemia de infección por VIH y sida?] Pan American Journal of Public Health/Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Vol. 1, No. 3, Mar 1997. 220-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors review the course of HIV and AIDS throughout the world, with a focus on predicting future trends and expanding prevention efforts. "As of the end of 1995, and following an extensive country-by-country review of HIV/AIDS data, a cumulative total of 6 million AIDS cases were estimated to have occurred in adults and children worldwide and currently 20.1 million adults are estimated to be alive and infected with HIV or have AIDS. Of the total prevalent HIV infections, the majority remain concentrated in eastern, central and southern Africa, but the epidemic is evolving with spread of infection from urban to rural areas, as well as to West and South Africa, India and Southeast Asia, and to a lesser extent--with proportional shifts to heterosexual infections--in North America, Western Europe and Latin America."
For an English version, see 62:40682.
Correspondence: T. E. Mertens, World Health Organization, Division of Policy Development, Programs, and Evaluation, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30719 Munguti, Katua; Grosskurth, Heiner; Newell, James; Senkoro, Kesheni; Mosha, Frank; Todd, James; Mayaud, Philippe; Gavyole, Awena; Quigley, Maria; Hayes, Richard. Patterns of sexual behaviour in a rural population in north-western Tanzania. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 10, May 1997. 1,553-61 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Patterns of sexual behaviour have been implicated in the spread of the [HIV] epidemics, but few quantitative data are available on sexual behaviour in rural populations in Africa. This paper reports data from a survey of 1,117 adults aged 15-54 years selected randomly from twelve rural communities in Mwanza Region, Tanzania. Sexual debut occurred early, 50% of women and 46% of men reporting first sex before age 16. On average, women married 1.8 years and men 6.1 years after their sexual debut....Marital dissolution and remarriage were common in both sexes. Reported numbers of sexual partners were compared with those recorded in a population survey in Britain....Casual sex during the past year was reported by 53% of the men and 15% of the women, but only 2% of men reported sexual contact with bar girls or commercial sex workers. Only 20% of men and 3% of women had ever used a condom."
Correspondence: R. Hayes, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30720 Murray, Christoher J. L.; Lopez, Alan D. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet, Vol. 349, No. 9063, May 17, 1997. 1,436-42 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is the third of four planned papers reporting results from the Global Burden of Disease Study, a project attempting to provide comparable and accurate estimates of causes of death for the year 1990 for the world's major regions by age group and sex. In this paper, the authors analyze premature mortality and disability around the world using the concept of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) as a standard unit to aid comparisons. "Developed regions account for 11.6% of the worldwide burden from all causes of death and disability, and account for 90.2% of health expenditure worldwide. Communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders explain 43.9%; non-communicable causes 40.9%; injuries 15.1%; malignant neoplasms 5.1%; neuropsychiatric conditions 10.5%; and cardiovascular conditions 9.7% of DALYs worldwide....15.9% of DALYs worldwide are attributable to childhood malnutrition and 6.8% to poor water, and sanitation and personal and domestic hygiene."
Correspondence: C. J. L. Murray, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30721 Olshansky, S. Jay; Carnes, Bruce; Rogers, Richard G.; Smith, Len. Infectious diseases--new and ancient threats to world health. Population Bulletin, Vol. 52, No. 2, Jul 1997. 52 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines the phenomenon of `new' and re-emerging IPDs [infectious and parasitic diseases] from an international perspective. The authors discuss the factors that have influenced the re-emergence of these diseases, including urbanization, migration and travel, and agricultural practices that have increased exposure to diseases once confined to other animals and small geographic areas. They also review the changes in medical practice and treatment that have helped breed bacterial strains resistant to standard drug treatment."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30722 Pick, William M.; Cooper, Diane. Urbanisation and women's health in South Africa. African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1997. 45-55 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper reports on a study conducted in Khayelitsha, Cape Town [South Africa], which explored the relationship between urbanisation and the health of women. The objectives were to relate age, migration, length of stay in urban areas, employment status, and occupation to the health, including reproductive health, of women living in Khayelitsha. Interviews with 659 women (61 households had no senior woman) revealed that...more than 90 percent of the women had access to antenatal care. Recent inmigrants had more pregnancies, were less aware of screening for cervical cancer, less likely to have had a Pap smear, less knowledgeable about where to have a Pap smear done, and less likely to have heard of AIDS....More than half of those of childbearing age used contraception, mainly intramuscular hormones (76%)."
Correspondence: W. M. Pick, University of the Witwatersrand Medical School, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, South Africa. E-mail: 081pick@ciron.wits.ac.za. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30723 Rehm, Jürgen T.; Bondy, Susan J.; Sempos, Christopher T.; Vuong, Cuong V. Alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 146, No. 6, Sep 15, 1997. 495-501 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) but an increased risk of other causes of morbidity and mortality. It remains unclear whether there is an upper limit to a protective effect of alcohol intake on CHD risk. Whether there is a U- or an L-shaped relation between alcohol consumption and CHD incidence...is examined using the [U.S.] National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I. Baseline data were collected in 1971-1975. Follow-up data through 1987 (14.6 years mean follow-up) were analyzed for 6,788 European-American males (n=2,960) and females (n=3,828) aged 40-75 years at baseline. Cox regression was used to assess the association between alcohol consumption and incidence of CHD. For females, an increased risk was found above 28 drinks per week relative to abstainers...which was significant, but was based on small numbers. For males, no upturn in risk was found at higher intake. Mortality data supported these results."
Correspondence: J. T. Rehm, Addiction Research Foundation, 33 Russell Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2S1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30724 Robles González, E.; Bernabeu Mestre, J.; Benavides, F. G. The sanitary transition: a conceptual revision. [La transición sanitaria: una revisión conceptual.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1996. 117-44 pp. Bellaterra, Spain. In Spa.
The authors investigate changes that have taken place in health conditions of Western European populations during the twentieth century, as well as the consequences of those changes. They discuss the epidemiologic transition and theories about mortality decline, and examine critiques of the transition theory. The conceptualization of a theory of sanitary transition is considered.
Correspondence: F. Robles González, Universitat d'Alacant, Departament de Salut Pública, San Vicente del Raspeig, 03690 Alicante, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30725 Rollet, Catherine; Norvez, Alain. Social policies, inequalities, and infant health. [Politiques sociales, inégalités et santé de la petite enfance.] In: Santé et mortalité des enfants en Europe: inégalités sociales d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, edited by Godelieve Masuy-Stroobant, Catherine Gourbin, and Pierre Buekens. 1996. 367-414 pp. Academia-Bruylant: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; L'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The comparison of a long period experience (France since the 19th century) with that of two other countries (Sweden and the United States) allows us to analyze the relationships between social policies, inequalities and infant health....Two results appear: first, even with a strong and comprehensive social policy, such as in Sweden, social inequalities have not disappeared....Secondly, the shortages of a global protection system cannot be replaced by specific and short-term policies: this is what the American experience reveals."
Correspondence: C. Rollet, Université Versailles-St. Quentin-en-Yvelines, 3 rue de la Division Leclerc, 78280 Guyancourt, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30726 Sommerfelt, A. Elisabeth; Piani, Andrea L. Childhood immunization: 1990-1994. DHS Comparative Studies, No. 22, Mar 1997. ix, 49 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report aims to present comparative survey findings related to childhood vaccination against six diseases--tuberculosis, diphtheria, whooping cough (pertussis), tetanus, poliomyelitis and measles--using data from the USAID-funded Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program....The proportion of children for whom the interviewer saw a written vaccination record ranged from 35 percent in Niger and Nigeria to 89 percent in Rwanda. The highest card rates were found for sub-Saharan African countries, and Asian countries tended to have the lowest rates."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30727 Spira, A. Twenty years of research in reproductive epidemiology. [Vingt ans de recherches en épidémiologie de la reproduction humaine.] Revue d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique/Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol. 44, No. 6, 1996. 588-95 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"During the last two centuries, humanity has gone through two major transitions: first a demographic transition and second an epidemiological transition. In this moving environment, attention has been placed on a better understanding of the conditions of human reproduction. The role of epidemiology, a quantitative discipline, situated at the interface between biology, medicine and social sciences, has largely contributed to favoring advances in knowledge and rational use of data, with the aim of improving the health of the general population. Inversely, the new problems involved in the complex situation of human reproduction, of which using two individuals as the basic statistical unit for procreation is not of the least importance, have certainly contributed to the advancement of epidemiology."
Correspondence: A. Spira, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale, Unit 292, Hôpital de Bicêtre, 82 rue du Général Leclerc, 94276 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30728 Tsui, Amy O.; Wasserheit, Judith N.; Haaga, John G. Reproductive health in developing countries: expanding dimensions, building solutions. ISBN 0-309-05644-6. LC 97-4867. 1997. xii, 314 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is the final report from the Panel on Reproductive Health in Developing Countries, set up by the Committee on Population of the National Research Council in 1994. "Sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancies, infertility, and other reproductive problems are major concerns around the world, especially in developing countries. This book describes the magnitude of these problems and what is known about the effectiveness of interventions in four areas: infection-free sex, intended pregnancies and births, healthy pregnancy and delivery, and healthy sexuality. Addressing the design and delivery of reproductive health services, this volume presents lessons learned from past programs and offers principles for deciding how to spend limited funds." Full text is available on-line at http://www.nap.edu.
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30729 Young, T. Kue. Recent health trends in the Native American population. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, Apr 1997. 147-67 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the changes in the health status of Native Americans since the mid-1950s, how the disease pattern differs from non-Natives, and regional differences within the Native American population. Despite some limitations, data from the Indian Health Service indicate that substantial decline in the infant mortality rate and mortality from such infectious diseases as tuberculosis and gastroenteritis has occurred. With the exception of cardiovascular diseases and cancer, the risk of death from most causes [is] higher among Native Americans than the total U.S. population....Genetic susceptibility plays a significant role in some diseases, such as diabetes, while for others, the generally lower socioeconomic status, higher prevalence of certain health risk behaviors and lower utilization of preventive services in the Native American population are important determinants."
Correspondence: T. K. Young, University of Manitoba, Northern Health Research Unit, Department of Community Health Sciences, Room S100, 750 Bannatyne Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E OW3, Canada. E-mail: tkyoung@cc.umanitoba.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

63:30730 Bosch, E.; Calafell, F.; Pérez-Lezaun, A.; Comas, D.; Mateu, E.; Bertranpetit, J. Population history of North Africa: evidence from classical genetic markers. Human Biology, Vol. 69, No. 3, Jun 1997. 295-311 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"We compiled all the available data on allele frequencies for classical genetic polymorphisms referring to North African populations and synthesized the data in an attempt to reconstruct the populations' demographic history using two complementary methods: (1) principal components analysis and (2) genetic distances represented by neighbor-joining trees. In both analyses the main feature of the genetic landscape in northern Africa is a east-west pattern of variation pointing to the differentiation between the Berber and Arab population groups of the northwest and the populations of Libya and Egypt. Moreover, Libya and Egypt show the smallest genetic distances with the European populations, including the Iberian Peninsula."
Correspondence: E. Bosch, Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Biologia, Laboratori d'Antropologia, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30731 Sokal, Robert R.; Oden, Neal L.; Rosenberg, Michael S.; DiGiovanni, Donna. The patterns of historical population movements in Europe and some of their genetic consequences. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1997. 391-404 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Population movements of 891 ethnic units in Europe over the past 4,200 years, and the correlations of these movements with modern genetic distances were investigated on a one-degree-square grid of the continent. There is significant spatial pattern in movements from sources, to targets, and overall. Patterns change significantly over time. Patterns of sources and targets differ significantly. Modern movements are more numerous than ancient movements. Movements on the periphery of Europe are few in number and are concentrated in direction, while Central European movements are numerous and unconcentrated in direction....The findings are interpreted in the context of European ethnohistory and population biology."
Correspondence: R. R. Sokal, State University of New York, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5245. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.