Volume 63 - Number 3 - Fall 1997

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce. Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

63:30360 Albrecht, Carol M.; Fossett, Mark A.; Cready, Cynthia M.; Kiecolt, K. Jill. Mate availability, women's marriage prevalence, and husbands' education. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 18, No. 4, Jul 1997. 429-52 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"We predict that marriage prevalence and husbands' education for Black women [in the United States] vary directly with mate availability. We also predict that marriage prevalence and husbands' education will be lower for Black women with less than a high school education than for other Black women. We test these predictions using data on marriage and husbands' education for a national sample of individuals and data on aggregate-level marriage prevalence and husbands' education for a sample of large metropolitan areas. The results support our predictions, and they help to explain how low mate availability for Black women helps to create and maintain an underclass that is disproportionately composed of less-educated Black women and their children."
Correspondence: C. M. Albrecht, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30361 Cantisani, Giambattista; Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero. Nuptiality and complex families in Italy. A long period geographical analysis (1881-1981). [Nuzialità e famiglie complesse in Italia. Analisi territoriale di lungo periodo (1881-1981).] Statistica, Vol. 56, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1996. 217-42 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"The almost 100 Italian counties are characterized by wide differences concerning both nuptiality and household structure. In this paper these geographical differences are studied [for the years 1881-1981], using census data. The aim is to underline the most important geographical differences....Territorial differences by household structures are presented...[and connections] between geography of nuptiality and household structure are studied...."
Correspondence: G. Cantisani, European Communities, Eurostat, Bâtiment Jean Monnet, 2920 Luxembourg. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30362 Catasús Cervera, Sonia. Nuptiality in Cuba in the twentieth century. [La nupcialidad cubana en el siglo XX.] Demografía, ISBN 959-06-0176-6. 1994. 113 pp. Editorial de Ciencias Sociales: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
This is an analysis of characteristics and trends in nuptiality in Cuba over the course of the twentieth century. The focus is on how nuptiality has been affected by socioeconomic, political, and demographic changes. The first chapter discusses some methodological issues and the data sources available. The second chapter examines how nuptiality was affected by various political changes. The third and final chapter analyzes differentials in fertility by place of residence, skin color, and economic activity.
Correspondence: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, Calle 14 No. 4104, Playa, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30363 Danubio, Maria E.; Pettener, Davide. Marital structure of the Italian community of Boston, Massachusetts, 1880-1920. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 3, Jul 1997. 257-69 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The marital structure of Italians living in Boston, Massachusetts, in the period 1880-1920 was studied in order to explore the integration process in the urban context. The study analyses endogamy and inbreeding, using data on 15,579 marriages from the parish books of the three Italian parishes of Boston. Endogamic rates are very high and increased in time, ranging from 93.9% to 97.3%. This correlated with the growth of the Italian community and the decline of the biased sex ratio. One parish, Our Lady of Pompeii in the South End, displays lower endogamic rates because of the reduced and scattered population attending it....Consanguineous marriages and inbreeding increased over time, from the 1890s, and this is in general agreement, although slightly delayed, with the Italian trend."
Correspondence: M. E. Danubio, University of Massachusetts, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA 02125-3393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30364 de Jong, A. H. National Household Forecasts 1996: fewer and fewer couples are married. [Nationale Huishoudensprognose 1996: steeds minder paren zijn gehuwd.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 5, May 1997. 18-27 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"According to the National Households Forecasts 1996 for the Netherlands, covering the period 1996-2020, fewer couples will be married in the future. This is due to the fact that the first marriage rate is revised downwards....This drop in the marriage rate will only be partly compensated by an increase in the frequency of cohabitation. Consequently, there will be fewer couples living together (married and not-married) in 2020. The increase in the percentages of persons living alone will be stronger than was expected in the previous forecasts."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30365 Hoem, Jan M. Educational gradients in divorce risks in Sweden in recent decades. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 1, Mar 1997. 19-27 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with the influence of a woman's educational status on the risk that her marriage will break down, as manifested in divorce levels of Swedish women in their first marriage between the late 1960s and 1991. We shall show that the risk of a first marriage breaking down has increased considerably in recent cohorts, but that the increase has been concentrated in women with lower educational attainments....It is easily conceivable that the educational gradient may respond to apparently undramatic modifications in personal circumstances or in the social environment in a population in which the effect of education on risks of marriage breakdown is weak. We shall show that this has happened in Sweden recently, and consider possible explanations."
Correspondence: J. M. Hoem, Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30366 Kiernan, Kathleen E.; Hobcraft, John. Parental divorce during childhood: age at first intercourse, partnership and parenthood. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 1, Mar 1997. 41-55 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"It is well established that young people whose parents divorced or experienced marital breakdown during their childhood are likely to enter into first partnerships and into parenthood earlier than those whose parents remained married. In this paper, using data from the British National Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles Survey, we examine how far the timing of first coitus plays a role in the genesis of this demographic behaviour for children of divorced parents. Other factors, including the timing of menarche, attitudes to sexual activity, degree of parental strictness and religiosity, were also examined. In general, these factors had little explanatory power. The analysis showed that earlier sexual activity for men and women from disrupted families is an important proximate determinant of their earlier entry into partnership and parenthood, compared with those brought up with both natural parents."
Correspondence: K. E. Kiernan, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, Aldwych, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30367 Knudsen, Knud; Wærness, Kari. Is marriage as an institution on its way out in Scandinavia? [Er ekteskapet som institusjon på vei ut i Skandinavia?] Tidsskrift for Samfunnsforskning, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1996. 229-327 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
"This article analyses the normative basis for the marriage institution towards the end of this century, as can be understood from people's attitudes. The discussion takes as a starting point a basic sociological argument about an ongoing process of individualisation. Main hypotheses imply certain attitude patterns according to age, gender, religious orientation, and individual experiences. We further focus on similarities and differences between Sweden and Norway, under the assumption that Sweden in many respects still could be regarded as the more modern society....Empirical analyses are based on data (1994) from an international survey (ISSP) on attitudes on family and gender roles. Applying factor and regression analyses expectations are confronted with actual observations. The findings tell about a marked decrease in support for the marriage institution in both countries, from the older to the younger generation. However, the general support is stronger in Norway, and differences among population groups appear more pronounced."
Correspondence: K. Knudsen, HGSK Senteret, Rogaland, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30368 Liu, Hongyan; Liu, Yuzhi. Only children and the marriage structure in the future. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1996. 395-402 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using data sets from the fourth census in China, this study looks at how only-child rates in areas of Beijing and Shanghai will influence the structure of marriage in the future. The results show that by the year 2030, about 60% of new families in the two metropolises will be composed of couples who are both the only children in their families."
Correspondence: H. Liu, Beijing University, Institute of Demographic Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30369 Neyrand, Gérard; M'Sili, Marine. Mixed couples in contemporary France: marriage, acquisition of French nationality, and divorce. [Les couples mixtes dans la France contemporaine: mariage, acquisition de la nationalité française et divorce.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 3, May-Jun 1997. 571-605 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Mixed nationality marriages tend to involve people of above average social class. This is true of French partners in relation to the French population in general and of foreign partners in relation to their compatriots resident in France. Among the latter, social level is higher still in the mixed couples in which the foreign partner takes French nationality after marriage. The propensity to take French nationality is found to vary according to the national origin and the gender of the foreign partner. Occurring in a rapidly changing legal and cultural context, this interaction of the variables that are specific to the situation of mixed nationality marriages--the national origin and gender of the foreign partner--produces a variety of effects, notably a propensity to divorce that varies greatly according to the gender of the foreign partner."
Correspondence: G. Neyrand, Centre Interdisciplinaire Méditerranéen d'Etudes et de Recherches en Sciences Sociales, rue Fernand Canobio, 13320 Bouc Bel Air, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30370 Qian, Zhenchao. Breaking the racial barriers: variations in interracial marriage between 1980 and 1990. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 2, May 1997. 263-76 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Using PUMS data from the 1980 and the 1990 U.S. Census, I apply log-linear models to examine interracial marriage among whites, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans. Rarely, but increasingly between 1980 and 1990, interracial marriage of whites occurs most frequently with Asian Americans, followed by Hispanics, and then by African Americans. Interracial marriage tends to be educationally homogamous and the odds of interracial marriage increase with couples' educational attainment. Among interracially married couples with different educational attainments, both men and women from lower status racial groups but with high education levels tend to marry spouses from a higher status racial group with low education levels."
Correspondence: Z. Qian, Arizona State University, Department of Sociology, Tempe, AZ 85287-2101. E-mail: zqian@asu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30371 Scheidel, W. Brother-sister marriage in Roman Egypt. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 3, Jul 1997. 361-71 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"According to official census returns from Roman Egypt (first to third centuries CE) preserved on papyrus, 23.5% of all documented marriages in the Arsinoites district in the Fayum (n=102) were between brothers and sisters. In the second century CE, the rates were 37% in the city of Arsinoe and 18.9% in the surrounding villages....A schematic estimate of inbreeding depression in the offspring of full sibling couples indicates that fertility in these families had to be 20-50% above average to attain reproduction at replacement level. In the absence of information on the amount of genetic load in this population, this estimate may be too high."
Correspondence: W. Scheidel, University of Cambridge, Darwin College, Cambridge CB3 9EU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30372 Shah, K. S. The age at marriage of female and family welfare. Janasamkhya, Vol. 11, No. 2, Dec 1993. 101-12 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"One of the critical factors affecting population growth is age at marriage, more specifically the female age of marriage....The efforts made by Good Parents Groups (USA) in this direction to solve this problem are discussed in this paper." The geographical focus is on India.
Correspondence: K. S. Shah, Anand Arts College, Department of Statistics, Anand 388 001, Gujarat, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30373 Sweeney, Megan M. Remarriage of women and men after divorce: the role of socioeconomic prospects. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 18, No. 5, Sep 1997. 479-502 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This analysis of remarriage among the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study's cohort of high school graduates investigates the relationship between socioeconomic prospects and remarriage after divorce. This article expands on previous efforts by including multiple measures of socioeconomic prospects and considering their importance over an extended time frame. In addition, a comparative approach is taken in this analysis, with the importance of socioeconomic prospects considered for the remarriage of both women and men. Several competing hypotheses are tested, with results indicating that, for women, the appropriate model of remarriage varies with age of separation from the first husband. With few exceptions, socioeconomic prospects are not found to be related to the remarriage of men. The implications of these findings for patterns of poverty among divorced women are considered." This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: M. M. Sweeney, University of Wisconsin, Department of Sociology, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30374 Voland, E.; Dunbar, R. I. M. The impact of social status and migration on female age at marriage in an historical population in north-west Germany. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 3, Jul 1997. 355-60 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"It has been suggested that parish-based reconstitution studies may underestimate the true age at marriage because they do not normally include data for emigrants who may be expected to behave differently from individuals who remain in their natal parishes. This study uses data from 18-19th [century] parish registers of north-west Germany to estimate the difference in age at marriage between leavers and stayers. The difference is not significant for males; although that for females is significant, it is small and the consequence of failing to include migrants is likely to be negligible for most studies. However, it is shown that there is also an independent effect on age at marriage that is due to the woman's natal social (economic) status; historical demographic studies that ignore this dimension may risk confounding two different effects."
Correspondence: E. Voland, Universitat Giessen, Zentrum für Philosophie und Grundlagen der Wissenschaft, Otto-Behaghel-Straße 10 C II, 35394 Giessen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30375 Weiss, Yoram. The formation and dissolution of families: Why marry? Who marries whom? And what happens upon divorce. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 81-123 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is a summary of the main ideas that economists bring to the analysis of marriage and divorce. Rather than enumerating the contributions of individuals, the author introduces the main ideas in an integrated fashion using some simple models. The chapter is divided into sections on economic reasons for marriage, how families solve their economic problems, the marriage market, divorce and its economic consequences, and the future of the family.
Correspondence: Y. Weiss, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69 978 Tel Aviv, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30376 Wu, Zheng; Penning, Margaret J. Marital instability after midlife. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 18, No. 5, Sep 1997. 459-78 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"Divorce in later life has been shown to produce dramatic declines in the economic, psychological, and physical well-being of marital partners. This study examines the prevalence and determinants of marital disruption after midlife using Becker's theory of marital instability. Using recent Canadian national data, the marital outcomes of women and men who were married as of age 40 are tracked across the remaining years of the marriage. Cox proportional hazard regression models indicate stabilizing effects of the duration of the marriage, the age at first marriage, the presence of young children, as well as of remarriage for middle-aged and older persons. Other significant risk factors include education, heterogamous marital status, premarital cohabitation, number of siblings, and region."
Correspondence: Z. Wu, University of Victoria, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 3050, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P5, Canada. E-mail: zwu@uvvm.uvic.ca. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30377 Zavattaro, M.; Susanne, C.; Vercauteren, M. International migration and biodemographical behaviour: a study of Italians in Belgium. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 3, Jul 1997. 345-54 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper descries the matrimonial and reproductive behaviour of Italians who migrated to Belgium after the Second World War. Migrants were either already married, or later became married, to other Italians. Among the children of migrants, men equally chose Italian or Belgian wives but women tended to prefer Italian partners. Italian-Belgian marriages were more frequent among the better educated groups. Family size is smaller among migrants marrying after migration and in heterogamous marriages. Significant differences in birth intervals are found when marriage occurred before or after migration, between generations, and between homogamous and heterogamous marriages."
Correspondence: M. Zavattaro, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire d'Anthropologie et Génétique Humaine, Avenue F. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control.

63:30378 Basavarajappa, K. G.; Halli, S. S. A comparative study of immigrant and non-immigrant families in Canada with special reference to income, 1986. International Migration, Vol. 35, No. 2, 1997. 225-52 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A comparison of immigrant and non-immigrant families in Canada based on unpublished data from the 1986 Census of Canada indicates that immigrant families have stronger family ties and higher income than their nonimmigrant counterparts. This could be partly because immigrant families contain higher proportions of their members at prime working ages, higher proportions with three or more employment income recipients and higher proportions working full year full time....The multivariate analysis of family income indicates that age and family type have overwhelming effects and that place of birth is third in importance."
Correspondence: K. G. Basavarajappa, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30379 Behrman, Jere R. Intrahousehold distribution and the family. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 125-87 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The focus of this chapter is on intrahousehold allocations, and what are the roles in such allocations of endowments, preferences, human resource investment prices, household resource levels, labor market opportunities, and marriage markets....Intrahousehold allocations appear to be quite important in the determination of time use, human resource investments, and intra- and intergenerational transfers. The nature of such allocations [has] potentially significant implications for efficiency, equity, and the efficacy of micro- and macro-economic policies, as well as for the analysis of the impact of human resources on economic outcomes."
Correspondence: J. R. Behrman, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30380 Bergstrom, Theodore C. A survey of theories of the family. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 21-79 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This chapter first describes various theoretical approaches taken by economists to the study of the family. "The second section of this review draws on the analogies to a little factory and to a little city. It explores the theory of household technology and the household utility possibility frontier. The third section concerns decision theory within the household. This discussion applies standard consumer decision theory as well as bargaining theory and the theory of public choice. The fourth section of this paper deals with family formation and the choice of mates. This theory is analogous to `Tiebout theory' in urban economics, where the objects of choice include not only the public goods supplied in each city, but which individuals live together. An aspect of family life that has fewer parallels in the economics of market economies is intrafamilial love and altruism. The final section of this paper reviews a growing theoretical literature on love, altruism and the family."
Correspondence: T. C. Bergstrom, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30381 Biblarz, Timothy J.; Raftery, Adrian E.; Bucur, Alexander. Family structure and social mobility. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,319-41 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"Different types of family structures experienced during childhood have varying effects on men's socioeconomic attainment and social mobility. Holding origin occupational characteristics constant, men (both white and African American) from a mother-headed family structure do as well as men from two-biological-parent families. In contrast, there is a negative effect of other types of family structures (father-headed, stepfamily) on socioeconomic attainment. Also, intergenerational occupational inheritance--from male family head to son or from female family head to son--is strongest when the mother is present, weakest when the mother is absent. The farther alternative family structures take sons away from their mothers, the more the intergenerational transmission process breaks down."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: T. J. Biblarz, University of Southern California, Department of Sociology, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2539. E-mail: biblarz@rcf.usc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30382 Bresar, Alenka. Family policy in Slovenia. [Polityka na rzecz rodziny w Slowenii.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 39, No. 3-4, 1995. 77-88 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
"This article presents selected socio-demographic indicators (i.e. average life expectancy, parity and mortality rates, the number of divorces, women's professional activity rates and unemployment rates among men and women) and reviews...family benefits in Slovenia. The author compares some of the information with Poland and Hungary."
Correspondence: A. Bresar, Univerza v Ljubljani, Institute of Population Studies, Kongresni trg 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30383 Call, Neysa M.; Gray, Elmer. Longitudinal studies of family size and the human sex ratio. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science, Vol. 57, No. 2, 1996. 101-5 pp. Lexington, Kentucky. In Eng.
"In 1992, we obtained family size and sex ratio data from 1,000 students in Ogden College of Science, Technology and Health, Western Kentucky University, by using the same study format that was followed at the university ca. 10 and 20 years ago. The objectives were to compare findings of the studies made at decadal intervals, to explore further the effects of composition of sexes of existing children on family size, and to explore relations among past, present, and projected generations. The results showed that the average number of children per family decreased for successive generations within studies and for successive studies. Preferences for both sexes and for males influenced family size in all studies."
Correspondence: N. M. Call, Western Kentucky University, Department of Agriculture, Bowling Green, KY 42101-3576. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30384 Goldstein, Alice; Guo, Zhigang; Goldstein, Sidney. The relation of migration to changing household headship patterns in China, 1982-1987. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 1, Mar 1997. 75-84 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Radical changes in fertility, economic structure, and level of development occurred in China between 1982 and 1987. Nonetheless, during this period family size remained relatively stable because the decline in household size due to lower fertility was offset by an increase in the number of adults. A major explanatory factor has been the government's changing migration policies which led first to family fission and then to fusion. Migration and household composition data from the 1982 census of China and the 1987 National Sample Survey show that during spousal separation women often assumed the headship of their household, and in many instances retained it after the return of [their] spouse. Since this pattern is most pronounced in cities, we suggest that women's headship is related to changing norms that engender greater acceptance of equality between the sexes. It also reflects pragmatic recognition that these women have developed their own important networks for the efficient operation of their household."
Correspondence: A. Goldstein, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30385 Haurin, R. Jean; Haurin, Donald R.; Hendershott, Patric H.; Bourassa, Steven C. Home or alone: the costs of independent living for youth. Social Science Research, Vol. 26, No. 2, Jun 1997. 135-52 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
The authors "explain the tendency of youth to reside outside the parental household and the decision to share living arrangements with unrelated persons. We depart from the typical demographic analysis of household formation by using a multiequation framework, by addressing sample truncation bias, and by testing for whether marriage and childbearing are endogenous decisions. Household formation should depend on the cost of independent living and the individual's ability to pay that cost. We focus on the role of spatially varying rental costs and use Australian data to test our hypotheses. We find that the cost of shelter influences the decision to reside in a group or alone. We also find that an individual's earnings capacity significantly impacts both the decision to reside separately from others and the decision to reside outside the parental household."
Correspondence: R. J. Haurin, Ohio State University, Center for Human Resource Research, 921 Chatham Lane, Suite 200, Columbus, OH 43221. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30386 Keilman, Nico. Households and families: application to the developed countries. [Ménages et familles: application aux pays développés.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 3. Apr 1997. 163-99 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Università degli Studi di Siena, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza: Siena, Italy. In Fre.
This chapter aims to give a broad overview of trends in family and household development in Europe. Some concepts and definitions are first presented, and problems concerning the measurement of changes in family and household structure are discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the available data sources are reviewed. Some consideration is also given to the implications of changes in family and household characteristics for future housing needs in Europe.
This is a revised version of the English-language paper cited in 63:20252.
Correspondence: N. Keilman, Statistics Norway, P.O. Box 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30387 Keilman, Nico; Prinz, Christopher. Modelling the dynamics of living arrangements. In: Social security, household, and family dynamics in ageing societies, edited by Jean-Pierre Gonnot, Nico Keilman, and Christopher Prinz. 1995. 21-45 pp. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A particular living arrangement can be operationalized in several quite distinct ways. We discuss three options here. Living arrangements will be defined as either marital status, family type, or household type. The choice to be made between these three forms of arrangements in the context of a particular case study depends on various theoretical and practical factors, including data availability and model complexity. The key question, however, is to what extent the option chosen is a good predictor of the relevant behaviour of the individuals under consideration....We review existing models that are able to project living arrangements forward in time....We focus primarily on dynamic models in which individuals (living in a couple, a family, or a household) are simulated."
Correspondence: N. Keilman, Statistics Norway, Division for Demography and Living Conditions, P.O. Box 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30388 Kohler, Catherine; Thave, Suzanne. Immigrants and their families according to the 1990 census. [Les immigrés et leur famille au recensement de 1990.] INSEE Résultats: Démographie-Société, No. 56-57, ISBN 2-11-066569-6. May 1997. 210 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Data from the 1990 French census are used to analyze the characteristics of immigrant families, defined as households in which one or both of the couple was born abroad. There were 2,324,000 immigrant households in 1990, representing 11% of all households in France. These households generally had more children under age 25 than French households as a whole (1.2 as opposed to 0.8). There are 3 million immigrant children living with their parents, and three-quarters of these children are under age 18. There are 1.7 million immigrant couples, of which 51% are mixed, meaning only one of the two is an immigrant. One-parent families and single-person households are less frequent among immigrants than among the French population in general. Overall, the size of the immigrant population has remained stable at about 7% of the total population since 1975. Extensive statistical tables are included.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30389 Lichter, Daniel T.; McLaughlin, Diane K.; Ribar, David C. Welfare and the rise in female-headed families. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 103, No. 1, Jul 1997. 112-43 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The article provides a bridge between recent marriage market research and studies of welfare incentive effects on U.S. family formation. Estimates from state and county fixed-effects models indicate significant effects of changing state Aid to Families with Dependent Children, food stamps, and Medicaid expenditure levels on county-level changes in families headed by unmarried mothers. However, neither changing welfare benefit levels nor declining economic and marital opportunities could account for recent increases in female headship. The results imply that large additional cuts in welfare payment levels would lead to only small reductions in the percentage of female-headed families with children."
Correspondence: D. T. Lichter, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. E-mail: Lichter@pop.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:30390 Mulder, Clara H.; Hooimeijer, Pieter. Living alone or with a partner: the changing way of leaving home. [Alleen of samenwonen: de veranderende bestemming bij het verlaten van het ouderlijk huis.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1995. 1-28 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The age at which young people in the Netherlands leave the parental home has fallen slightly in the early nineteen nineties after a previous decrease in the fifties, sixties and seventies and a stabilization and slight rise in the eighties. In this article more light is shed on this trend. It is argued that the evolution in the age at nest-leaving should be understood as originating from different trends in two separate processes: leaving home to live alone and leaving home to live with a partner. Data from the Dutch Housing Demand Surveys show that people from successive birth cohorts leave home to live alone at earlier ages, whereas leaving home to live with a partner is postponed increasingly."
Correspondence: C. H. Mulder, Universiteit Utrecht, Faculteit Ruimtelijke Wetenschappen, Heidelberglaan 2, 3583 CS Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30391 Niemeyer, Frank. The characteristics of private households, 1995. [Strukturen der Privathaushalte 1995.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 5, May 1997. 287-92 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
This article examines the structure of households in Germany based on the 1995 microcensus. Private households are classified by type, such as one-person households, households with children, and couples; the composition of the various household types is then analyzed in detail. Comparisons are made between the former East and West Germany, and it is noted that the differences are diminishing. Finally, the question of how household structure changes throughout the life cycle is examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30392 Niphuis-Nell, Marry. One-parent families in a historical perspective. [Eenoudergezinnen in historisch perspectief.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1995. 45-64 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article the situation of one-parent families in past centuries is sketched. The leading question is how specific the situation of today's one-parent families is compared to the situation of these families in past times....Surprising similarities between today and former times concern their relative numbers and their high chances of living in poverty and relying on poor relief or social assistance. However, differences exist clearly as to the origins and social acceptance of one-parent families." The geographical focus is on selected developed countries.
Correspondence: M. Niphuis-Nell, Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau, Postbus 37, 2280 AA Rijswijk, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30393 Ruggles, Steven. The effects of AFDC on American family structure, 1940-1990. Journal of Family History, Vol. 22, No. 3, Jul 1997. 307-25 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"The `end of welfare as we know it' in the United States was predicated on the belief that the welfare system was responsible for dramatic upsurge of single-parent families. This article addresses the issue historically, examining the potential impact of interstate differences in Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) benefit levels on family structure from 1940 to 1990. The author's results reveal that the impact of AFDC on family structure was considerably smaller in the period from 1940 to 1970 than in 1980 or 1990. It is concluded that increasing welfare benefits cannot account for a significant portion of the increase in illegitimacy, divorce, or separation in the postwar period. Nevertheless, rising benefit levels are significantly associated with changes in the living arrangements of unmarried mothers."
Correspondence: S. Ruggles, University of Minnesota, 100 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30394 Saluter, Arlene. Household and family characteristics: March 1996 (update). Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 495, Jun 1997. 1 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This short report, updating the March 1995 report on household and family characteristics in the United States, summarizes major findings from the Current Population Survey. In accordance with Census Bureau policy to reduce the number of printed reports and instead provide more information in electronic format, the detailed tabulations will be updated annually, and are available on the World Wide Web (http://www.census.gov). A paper version of these tables is available on request for a fee.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, P.O. Box 277943, Atlanta, GA 30384-7943. E-mail: moconnel@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30395 Sandefur, Gary D.; Liebler, Carolyn A. The demography of American Indian families. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, Apr 1997. 95-114 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper uses data from the decennial censuses to examine family structure and changes in family structure over time among American Indians. The information about the national Indian population indicates that the trends in family structure among American Indians are parallel in many respects to those in the general U.S. population. That is, the percentage of young American Indian women who have never married has increased over time, the percentage of American Indian women who are divorced has increased over time, and the percentage of American Indian children who reside with a single parent has increased as well. The percentage of American Indian women who have never married and who are divorced and the percentage of American Indian children who live with a single parent are higher than those among the general population."
Correspondence: G. D. Sandefur, University of Wisconsin, Institute for Research on Poverty, Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. E-mail: sandefur@ssc.wisc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30396 Scheewe, Peter. Living situation of households with children: result of the 1993 1% building and housing sample. [Wohnsituation von Haushalten mit Kindern: Ergebnis der 1%-Gebäude- und Wohnungsstichprobe 1993.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 5, May 1997. 306-14 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
The structure of households in Germany with children under 18, their physical living quarters, conditions of ownership and rent, and quality of life are examined. Comparisons are drawn between the former East and West Germany.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30397 Tolnay, Stewart E. The great migration and changes in the northern black family, 1940 to 1990. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,213-38 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"There is a strong tradition in the social sciences that links the migration of southern [U.S.] blacks to northern cities with changes in family structure in the North. This article examines that assumption by comparing the living arrangements of children and women for migrants and nonmigrants in northern central cities. Data from the newly available Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, for the period 1940 through 1990, are used for this purpose. The findings show that northern urbanites with `southern origins' actually exhibited more traditional family patterns--more children living with two parents, more ever-married women living with their spouses, and fewer never-married mothers. It is concluded that the evidence yields no support for the longstanding assumption that southern migrants contributed disproportionately to changes in the African American family in northern cities during this century."
Correspondence: S. E. Tolnay, State University of New York, Department of Sociology, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222. E-mail: st716@cnsibm.albany.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30398 Valero Lobo, Angeles. The family. Permanence and change. The case of Madrid. [La familia. Pervivencia y cambio. El caso de Madrid.] Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1996. 145-65 pp. Bellaterra, Spain. In Spa.
The author analyzes household structure and living arrangements in Madrid, Spain, during the past 20 years. Aspects considered include marital status, family and household characteristics, age distribution of household members, and one-parent households.
Correspondence: A. Valero Lobo, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30399 van Imhoff, Evert. Modelling the impact of changing household structure on social security in the Netherlands. In: Social security, household, and family dynamics in ageing societies, edited by Jean-Pierre Gonnot, Nico Keilman, and Christopher Prinz. 1995. 181-208 pp. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author "presents...a case study for the Netherlands in which the notion of living arrangement is extended to the actual household situation of the individual, rather than his or her marital status. A household classification with 11 distinct positions that an individual person may occupy at a certain point in time is used, and projections are carried out with the LIPRO model....The rise of the number of persons living alone is the most important result of the study....[The author] also demonstrates how the growth in social security expenditures decomposes into effects caused by the size of the population, its age structure, and its household composition."
Correspondence: E. van Imhoff, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30400 van Praag, Bernard M. S.; Warnaar, Marcel F. The cost of children and the use of demographic variables in consumer demand. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 241-73 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This chapter is about the costs of children to their families, with particular reference to the problems involved in calculating how much support poor families should receive for their children from society as a whole. Having reviewed the relevant literature, the authors conclude that the seemingly simple concept of the cost of children is not easy to define, and that except at starvation level, "there does not seem to be a specific cost level which can be identified as the costs."
Correspondence: B. M. S. van Praag, University of Amsterdam, Spui 21, 1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30401 van Solinge, Hanna; Wood, Jenny. Sample surveys as a potential data source for the study of non-standard household forms and new living arrangements: an inventory of data sources on European households and families. NIDI Report, No. 48, ISBN 90-70990-64-4. 1997. 106 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
This report examines the problems of identifying non-standard household forms in the countries of the European Union (EU). "[The report] investigates the extent to which EU-wide and country-specific sample surveys can be used as an alternative data source for identifying the emergence of selected non-standard household forms or new living arrangements, including (1) consensual unions, (2) reconstituted families, (3) certain types of part-time membership, such as Living Apart Together relationships (LATs) and co-parenting, and (4) same sex relationships. A summary of survey methods and conceptual problems is given, examining some eighty household surveys or equivalent data. The report focuses on the potential of forty of these data sources for the study of non-standard household forms, in terms of initial data collected, concepts used and methods for collecting relationship data, rather than on the final tabulations produced after data processing."
Correspondence: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30402 Zmegac, Jasna C. New evidence and old theories: multiple family households in northern Croatia. Continuity and Change, Vol. 11, No. 3, Dec 1996. 375-98 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"The ethnography of rural Croatia in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries abounds in descriptions of large families and complex households, the so-called zadruga, while descriptions of life in smaller families and simple households are rarely to be found....[The article analyzes] historical data on household size and composition in north-eastern Croatia (Slavonia), and focuses in particular on the impact which social and economic forces have exerted on the size of the family and household. On the basis of this analysis, certain observations will then be advanced, namely that in a circumscribed geographical area there is evidence of great heterogeneity in family forms, that this heterogeneity cannot be entirely attributed to the impact of the life-cycle and that the urban and rural sectors of society may have valued differently particular types of family and household."
Correspondence: J. C. Zmegac, Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Research, Zagreb, Croatia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.