Volume 63 - Number 3 - Fall 1997

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications. Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

63:30242 Albizu-Campos Espiñeira, Juan C.; Benítez Pérez, María E.; Catasús Cervera, Sonia; Farnós Morejón, Alfonso; González Quiñones, Fernando; Jiménez Araya, Tomás; Alfonso Fraga, Juan C.; Alvarez Vázquez, Luisa; Sosa Marín, Miguel; Valido Salas, Sandra; MacDonald, Alphonse. Cuba: the fertility transition. Social change and reproductive behavior. [Cuba: transición de la fecundidad. Cambio social y conducta reproductiva.] 1995. 158 pp. Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demográficos [CEDEM]: Havana, Cuba; Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas [ONE]: Havana, Cuba; Ministerio de Salud Pública [MINSAP]: Havana, Cuba; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York; Unicef: New York, New York. In Spa.
This is an analysis of the demographic transition in Cuba, focusing on the factors influencing the trend toward low levels of fertility. The authors conclude that the primary factor affecting reproductive behavior has been the major transformation that has occurred in the role of women in Cuban society, and particularly the improvements in female education and increases in female participation in the labor force. Social policies, combined with health policies that reduced levels of infant mortality and gave women the means to control their fertility, have led to a decline in inequality and a generally homogeneous pattern of low fertility throughout the country.
Correspondence: Universidad de la Habana, Centro de Estudios Demográficos, Avenida 41 Número 2003, Playa 13, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30243 Arroyo, Cristino R.; Zhang, Junsen. Dynamic microeconomic models of fertility choice: a survey. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1997. 23-65 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"We review existing approaches to the specification and estimation of dynamic microeconomic models of fertility. Dynamic fertility models explain the evolution of fertility variates over the life-cycle as the solution to a dynamic programming model involving economic choices. Dynamic models may be classified into structural and reduced-form models. Structural models generally require solution of the underlying dynamic programming problem. Reduced-form models, while based on a structural specification, do not. Recent innovations in estimation methodologies make both types practical and realistic alternatives to static models of lifetime fertility."
Correspondence: J. Zhang, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. E-mail: jszhang@cuhk.edu.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30244 Barkalov, Nicholas B.; Dorbritz, Jürgen. Measuring period parity-progression ratios with competing techniques: an application to East Germany. Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1996. 459-505 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger; Fre.
"After a brief theoretical introduction, this paper presents a survey of period parity-progression measurement techniques, describes their methodological principles, and examines their applicability and [the] reliability of their resulting estimates. The survey includes both relatively complicated detailed methods based on age- and duration-specific fertility tables, and simple procedures, such as the conventional age based method and the Henry indirect method. The former [German Democratic Republic] was chosen as an application case....The results show that the different measurement techniques produce relatively similar estimates of the parity-progression ratios for parities 1 to 3. Those for higher parities, as well as for parity 0, are more dependent upon the method of measurement."
Correspondence: N. B. Barkalov, Development Group International, Alexandria, VA 22314. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30245 Basu, Alaka M. The "politicization" of fertility to achieve non-demographic objectives. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 1, Mar 1997. 5-18 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"It is argued in this paper that `perceptions' about the determinants of fertility and of fertility decline can be `politicized' by various special interest groups; that is, these perceptions can be used to push for policies and interventions which often have an ambiguous relationship to actual fertility, but are important because they already appear on the political agenda of these groups. Such politicization is facilitated by the near-universal consensus that fertility decline is a legitimate goal in the developing world, by the increasing evidence that there can be no grand theory of fertility decline, and by the willingness of scholars to attach a policy significance to all their findings. Two examples of such politicization in India are presented, one of which has a socially beneficial impact, whilst the other is potentially disruptive, to illustrate that such politicization is not without its dangers."
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, Cornell University, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30246 Bongaarts, John; Amin, Sajeda. Prospects for fertility decline and implications for population growth in South Asia. Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 94, 1997. 41 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors begin by assessing "prospects for fertility decline in a number of countries in [South Asia]. Next, [they] review factors affecting post-transitional fertility, a crucial factor in long-range population growth. [They] conclude with an overview of population projections and policy options for reducing population growth."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30247 Cheng, Benjamin S.; Hsu, Robert C.; Chu, Qiyu. The causality between fertility and female labour force participation in Japan. Applied Economics Letters, Vol. 4, No. 2, Feb 1997. 113-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Applying Hsiao's version of the Granger causality method, an examination is carried out into the causality between fertility (BR) and female labour (FR) participation for Japan over the period 1950-1993. A unidirectional causality appears to run from BR to FR without feedback. The F-Statistics show that fertility negatively affects female labour force participation but not vice versa. It appears that women's employment does not hinder the probability of having more children, but having small children at home strongly discourages [women] from seeking outside employment."
Correspondence: B. S. Cheng, Southern University, Department of Economics, Baton Rouge, LA 70813. Location: Princeton University Library (SXF).

63:30248 Dangol, Bishnu D.; Retherford, Robert D.; Thapa, Shyam. Declining fertility in Nepal. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1997. 33-54 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article assesses levels and trends in fertility in Nepal between 1977 and 1995. The data are from two national surveys conducted in 1991 and 1996. Fertility levels and trends are estimated by using the `birth history' method and the `own-children' method. The results show a steady decline in fertility over the estimation period. Assuming a constant rate of fertility decline over this period, the authors estimate that the total fertility rate (TFR) per woman declined by 1.90 children, from 6.68 in 1977 to 4.78 in 1991. In urban areas, the TFR fell by 2.70 children, from 6.10 to 3.40; in rural areas, it fell by 1.83 children, from 6.65 to 4.82."
Correspondence: B. D. Dangol, Central Bureau of Statistics, Population Division, Katmandu, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30249 de Beer, J. Most children born in summer. [Meeste kinderen in zomer geboren.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 5, May 1997. 6-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In the Netherlands 5% more children are born in July and August than in other months. Some 25 years ago most children were born in spring. The seasonal pattern of births in northern European countries shows a peak in spring, whereas the pattern in southern European countries has a peak in July."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30250 Escallier, Robert. Morocco in demographic transition. [Le Maroc, en transition démographique.] Méditerranée, Vol. 81, No. 1.2, 1995. 107-12 pp. Aix-en-Provence, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Although Morocco has entered the second stage of an apparently irreversible demographic transition, major differences in demographic behavior by place of residence and region persist. The author notes that outlying and remote areas continue to experience traditional levels of high fertility, whereas fertility has declined significantly in urban areas; this suggests that urban women have benefited from the new opportunities for education and employment that have become available through modernization.
Correspondence: R. Escallier, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Centre de la Méditerranée Moderne et Contemporaine, 38 parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2, France. Location: Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, NH.

63:30251 Garenne, Michel L.; Frisch, Rose E. Natural fertility. Study Designs and Statistics for Infertility Research, Vol. 5, No. 2, Apr 1994. 259-82 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This article focuses on fertility in the absence of contraception (natural fertility), the main topic of interest for the study of infertility. It presents the levels and patterns of natural fertility in human populations and discusses the demographic effect of the main environmental factors affecting natural fertility: nutrition, physical activity, and diseases. It does not include the study of behavioral factors of fertility, such as marriage patterns, taboos, and contraception."
Correspondence: M. L. Garenne, Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30252 Gómez de León Cruces, José. Recent trends, differentials, and institutional agents. [Tendencias recientes, diferencias y agentes institucionales.] Démos, No. 9, 1996. 8-10 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author discusses fertility trends in Mexico, based on data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Planning. Contraceptive use is also examined, with attention to type of method used, marital status, parity, education, and source of contraceptives.
Correspondence: J. Gómez de León Cruces, Consejo Nacional de Población, Avenida Angel Urraza 1137, Col. Del Valle, C.P. 03100 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30253 Hotz, V. Joseph; Klerman, Jacob A.; Willis, Robert J. The economics of fertility in developed countries. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 275-347 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
In this chapter, the authors review the literature, initiated by Gary Becker's seminal paper in 1960, on the economics of fertility as it applies to fertility behavior in developed countries. "We have two primary objectives. First, we seek to review the important theoretical developments, or model features, spawned by the attempts to explain household fertility behavior within a neoclassical framework. In the process we characterize how the development of the theory of the allocation of time, the concepts of household production theory, and human capital investment theory, among others, helped improve our understanding of the fertility decisions of households in developed societies. Second, we attempt to characterize the implications that these models provide for empirical assessments of the determinants of fertility behavior....We characterize the identification problems as they arise in this context, and we highlight several studies which, in our view, follow exemplary strategies for obtaining estimates of causal relationships, especially with respect to their credibility."
Correspondence: V. J. Hotz, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30254 Khan, H. T. Abdullah. A multilevel modelling approach to the determinants of urban and rural fertility in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1997. 55-76 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The author examines fertility determinants in Bangladesh, using data from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey. "The subject of this paper is threefold: firstly to define the hierarchical levels for the data used in this study and establish multilevel models, secondly to examine the hierarchical variation in fertility between different levels, and thirdly to explore the selected determinants of urban and rural fertility rates....Perhaps the most important contribution here is that cultural and decision-making variables have been found to play an important role in explaining fertility in Bangladesh apart from [other] groups of variables. Religion was found to have a significant influence in rural areas, particularly among older women. This would seem to suggest that increasing urbanization may help to reduce this influence and thus reduce overall fertility rates for the country."
Correspondence: H. T. A. Khan, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30255 Kollmann, Robert. Endogenous fertility in a model with non-dynastic parental altruism. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1997. 87-95 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"A model of fertility choice is studied in which the utility of parents depends on how much they consume, on how many children they have and on the consumption of their children. Hence, parents are altruistic towards their children, but in a more limited sense than in the much discussed dynastic fertility model presented by Becker and Barro (1988). The concept of a (subgame perfect) bequest equilibrium is used to solve the non-dynastic model considered here. The steady state birth rate is lower in the non-dynastic model than in the Becker-Barro model. However, the key qualitative predictions concerning the dynamic behavior of fertility are strikingly similar in both models."
Correspondence: R. Kollmann, Université de Grenoble 2, UFR Sciences Economiques, B.P. 47, 38040 Grenoble Cedex 9, France. E-mail: koll@grenet.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30256 Leridon, Henri. The biological and social determinants of fertility: an overview. [Les facteurs biologiques et sociaux de la fécondité: une vue d'ensemble.] In: Démographie: analyse et synthèse. Causes et conséquences des évolutions démographiques, Volume 3. Apr 1997. 1-19 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France; Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy; Università degli Studi di Siena, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza: Siena, Italy. In Fre.
Some of the basic terms used in the analysis of fertility are defined, including fertility and fecundity, the reproductive period, birth intervals, the menstrual cycle, fecundability, pregnancy duration, and postpartum amenorrhea.
Correspondence: H. Leridon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30257 Li, Jianmin. An analysis of the mechanism that precipitates and limits the economic ramifications of fertility decline in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1996. 373-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study is an analysis of the mechanism that precipitates the economic ramifications of fertility decline [in China] from the perspectives of human life cycle and the relationship between individual economic behavior and the country's macroeconomic environment."
Correspondence: J. Li, Nankai University, Institute of Population and Development, Tianjin, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30258 Lu, Hongping. The impact of Chinese traditional culture on population transition. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1996. 437-45 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Traditional culture exerts an important impact on population transition. This is particularly true in China, a country with a long history of civilization. The impact is double-sided, with both positive and negative sides. Some aspects of the traditional culture have contributed, directly or indirectly, to the tremendous achievement China has made in population control. At the same time, it is true that traditional culture also places great obstacles for the transition of the Chinese population. So to accelerate the transition, it is necessary to take an objective look at traditional Chinese culture and ascertain what benefits might be gained from it."
Correspondence: H. Lu, Hebei University, Population Research Institute, Hebei, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30259 Manning, Linda M.; Samarayanake, V. A. Fertility rates and the socio-economic environment in Missouri. International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 22, No. 7, 1995. 59-71 pp. Bradford, England. In Eng.
"In order to understand the impact of economy-wide socio-economic forces on fertility, [the authors examine] economies which are homogeneous with respect to political, cultural and historical character, which also contains subsectors characterized by socioeconomic diversity. [They first look] at previous research on fertility and then [use] Missouri as a representative example of such an economy."
Correspondence: L. M. Manning, University of Missouri, Department of Economics, Rolla, MO 65401. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30260 Mbizvo, M. T.; Bonduelle, M. M. J.; Chadzuka, S.; Lindmark, G.; Nystrom, L. Unplanned pregnancies in Harare: What are the social and sexual determinants? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 6, Sep 1997. 937-42 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
This article presents results of a hospital-based study undertaken in Harare, Zimbabwe, to estimate the extent of unplanned or unintended pregnancy among mothers giving birth at the hospital. "Out of 923 deliveries, 41% were unplanned and 9% unwanted." Factors analyzed included age, parity, educational status, employment status, marital status, income, and living arrangements. The authors conclude that "there are documentable social and reproductive factors underlying unwanted pregnancy. Risk factors for unplanned pregnancy form a pattern similar to those for maternal mortality. Thus unplanned pregnancy is a major indicator of the presence of factors known to increase the risk of maternal death."
Correspondence: M. T. Mbizvo, University of Zimbabwe Medical School, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.O. Box A178 Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30261 Muñoz Pérez, Francisco. Childless couples in Portugal and Spain. [Las parejas sin hijos en Portugal y España.] Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, Vol. 70, Apr-Jun 1995. 39-66 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author examines fertility declines in Portugal and Spain, using census data for the period 1970-1991. The focus is on the proportion of childless couples and the average number of births per couple. Results show that fertility declines in both countries are similar to other Western European countries. There is more geographical variation in Spain, and voluntary childlessness is rare in both countries.
Correspondence: F. Muñoz Pérez, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30262 Mutharayappa, Rangamuthia; Choe, Minja Kim; Arnold, Fred; Roy, T. K. Son preference and its effect on fertility in India. National Family Health Survey Subject Report, No. 3, Mar 1997. 35 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India; East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey, this report assesses the prevalence of son preference in India as a whole and in the 19 most populous states....The analysis compares the ideal number of sons and the ideal number of daughters mentioned by Indian women as well as contraceptive use by women with two sons and women with two daughters. It goes on to compare the situation for boys and girls in terms of immunization rates, period of breastfeeding, prevalence of three common childhood diseases and likelihood of treatment, prevalence of chronic undernutrition among children under age 4, and infant and child mortality rates. On nearly all these measures and in most states, male children have a decided advantage over female children. Son preference is particularly strong in northern and central India and somewhat weaker in the southern and western regions. Next, the analysis uses life-table methods and hazard models to examine the effect of son preference on fertility....In states where fertility is very high or very low, the effect is small, as expected, but in states with intermediate levels of fertility (between 2.0 and 3.0 children), it varies widely. It is highest in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Gujarat, and Maharashtra and lowest in West Bengal and most of the southern states. If gender preferences could be eliminated entirely, the fertility level in India would decline by about 8 percent."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. E-mail: ipps.nfhs@axcess.net.in. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30263 Pandey, Arvind; Sreenivasan, S.; Sexena, P. C.; Suchindran, C. M. Differentials of the maternal age at first and last births in selected states of India. Janasamkhya, Vol. 11, No. 2, Dec 1993. 73-100 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This is an attempt to examine the age distribution of mothers at the time of first and last births in the selected four [Indian] states and compare the results with those of Kerala State. The four Hindi speaking states are in great contrast to the state of Kerala with respect to socio-economic and demographic conditions. Hence here [the authors] also study the differentials in the maternal age at first and last birth by the socio-economic categories. The data for this study are taken from the fourth report of the SRS published in 1984."
Correspondence: A. Pandey, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30264 Pathak, K. B.; Pandey, Arvind. Biosocial aspects of human fertility: models and applications. ISBN 81-7018-802-4. 1994. xiv, 149 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This volume contains 13 papers that were presented at a workshop organized during the Tenth Annual Convention of the Indian Society for Medical Statistics. The workshop was entitled Modelling of Biosocial Process and Birth Intervals. "These papers covered a wide range of modelling problems and related issues of human fertility. The discussion centered around the estimation of various biosocial determinants of fertility such as post-partum amenorrhea, duration and pattern of breast-feeding, primary, secondary and adolescent sterilities. Models for the analysis of first conceptive delays and subsequent birth intervals were debated. A couple of papers were devoted to the estimation of mean age at different order of births on the one hand and to study the childbearing process in a life table form on the other. Some points were raised regarding the estimation of mean duration of post-partum amenorrhea from the data on breast-feeding duration and a new methodology was suggested. Papers related to the estimation of fecundability, instantaneous and cohort parity progression ratios were also presented."
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing, D. K. Publishers Distributors (P), A-6 Nimri Community Centre, Ashok Vihar, Phase IV, Delhi 110 052, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30265 Pozo Avalos, Arturo; Médico, Asesor. Fertility in Ecuador. [La fecundidad en el Ecuador.] Correo Poblacional y de la Salud, Vol. 5, No. 1, Mar 1997. 39-46 pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
The authors analyze fertility trends in Ecuador, with a focus on differences according to educational level and region of residence. The impact of contraceptive use and other intermediate variables is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30266 Schultz, T. Paul. Demand for children in low income countries. In: Handbook of population and family economics, edited by Mark R. Rosenzweig and Oded Stark. 1997. 349-430 pp. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This chapter reviews the literature on the microeconomics of fertility, with an emphasis on understanding fertility behavior and population growth in developing countries and the effects of economic development on population growth. The relevant statistics on fertility, levels of economic development, and family planning efforts in developing countries are first introduced. Next, the author reviews microeconomic models of fertility. The chapter ends with an empirical analysis of the main determinants of fertility change and variation. The author concludes that although a substantial part of cross-country fertility differentials and changes in fertility over time within countries can be explained by variations in the level and sex composition of schooling, the decline of the importance of agriculture, and reductions in mortality associated with economic development, there is little evidence of the influence of family planning programs on fertility.
Correspondence: T. P. Schultz, Yale University, Box 1987, Yale Station, 277 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30267 Shapiro, David; Tambashe, B. Oleko. Education, employment, and fertility in Kinshasa and prospects for changes in reproductive behavior. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 3, Jun 1997. 259-87 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines fertility behavior of women in Kinshasa, Zaire's capital city with a population of roughly four million. We look at relationships linking women's education, employment, and fertility behavior (children ever born, age at first marriage, contraception, abortion, breastfeeding, and pospartum abstinence), using data from a 1990 survey of reproductive-age women. Other things equal, there are significant differences by educational attainment and by modern sector employment in lifetime fertility and in most of the proximate determinants as well. The results suggest that modern contraception and abortion are alternative fertility control strategies in Kinshasa, with abortion appearing to play an important role in contributing to the observed fertility differentials by education and employment."
Correspondence: D. Shapiro, Pennsylvania State University, College of the Liberal Arts, Department of Economics, 416 Kern Building, University Park, PA 16802-3306. E-mail: d89@psuvm.psu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30268 Singh, O. P.; Pathak, D. S. A probability distribution for forward birth interval regardless of parity. Janasamkhya, Vol. 11, No. 2, Dec 1993. 129-34 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"A probability model for the forward birth interval under very simple and frequently used assumptions has been derived. The model incorporates the effect of foetal wastage. To illustrate the use of the model the mean of the birth interval has been calculated."
Correspondence: O. P. Singh, Udai Pratap College, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30269 Tiefenthaler, Jill. Fertility and family time allocation in the Philippines. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 2, Jun 1997. 377-97, 464, 466 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"While it is obvious that a birth will increase a woman's time devoted to child care, it is less obvious where the additional time comes from. Using data from the Philippines, the author estimates the average time spent in child care, market work, housework, and leisure by mothers, fathers, and older children both before and after the birth of a child. Comparison of the effects of the birth on time allocation across households indicates that the time adjustments made after the birth of a first child are significantly greater than those made after the births of subsequent children. The results also indicate that mothers bear over 90 percent of the time costs of children in families with no older children. When older children are present, however, mothers' percentage contribution falls considerably."
Correspondence: J. Tiefenthaler, Colgate University, Department of Economics, Hamilton, NY 13346. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30270 Tripathy, P. K.; Rao, I. S.; Pradhan, P. N. An analysis of selected demographic parameters in fertility data of Orissa. Janasamkhya, Vol. 11, No. 2, Dec 1993. 113-22 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This work attempts to estimate the selected demographic parameters and analyse fertility data of [the Indian state of] Orissa." Comparison is made with India as a whole.
Correspondence: P. K. Tripathy, Utkal University, Post-graduate Department of Statistics, P.O. Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751 004, Orissa, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30271 Véron, Jacques. The decrease of fertility in the world. [La baisse de la fécondité dans le monde.] Bulletin de l'Association de Géographes Français, Vol. 73, No. 2, Mar 1996. 86-95 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Fertility has strongly declined over the last three decades but a high fertility level persists in a part of the developing world, especially in Africa. Disparities are therefore very pronounced (the TFR [total fertility rate] varies from 1.3 to 7.6 children per woman). The causes of disparities and changes are diverse and complex. They are all linked to the development process."
Correspondence: J. Véron, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:30272 Yip, Chong K.; Zhang, Junxi. A simple endogenous growth model with endogenous fertility: indeterminacy and uniqueness. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1997. 97-110 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper studies the equilibrium dynamics and indeterminacy of equilibria in an endogenous growth model with endogenous fertility choice. We characterize the conditions that give rise to a unique equilibrium as well as multiple equilibria. Whenever there exists a unique equilibrium, it will be globally determinate; when multiple equilibria arise, indeterminacy occurs. In particular, we find that two equilibria occur--one is associated with high fertility and low growth, while the other is associated with low fertility and high growth. A parameterized example is given to assess the empirical feasibility of our results. The validity of the neo-Malthusian relation between fertility and growth is then re-examined. Finally, we study the relation between growth and welfare and compare different balanced growth equilibria in terms of their lifetime-attained utility."
Correspondence: C. K. Yip, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. E-mail: chongkeeyip@cuhk.edu.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

63:30273 Alfonso Fraga, Juan C. Adolescent fertility: some factors affecting trends in Cuba over the last decade. [La fecundidad adolescente: algunos elementos sobre su comportamiento en Cuba en la ultima decada.] Oct 1992. 21 pp. Comité Estatal de Estadísticas, Instituto de Investigaciones Estadísticas: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
Trends in adolescent fertility in Cuba are analyzed over the period 1981-1991. The author notes that adolescent fertility declined over this period, and that Cuban fertility as a whole remained below replacement level throughout the decade.
Correspondence: Comité Estatal de Estadísticas, Instituto de Investigaciones Estadísticas, Almendares No. 156, Esquina a Desague, Gaveta Postal 6016, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30274 Bender, David L.; Leone, Bruno; Barbour, Scott; Stalcup, Brenda; Thompson, Stephen P. Teenage pregnancy: opposing viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints Series, ISBN 1-56510-562-1. LC 96-48031. 1997. 190 pp. Greenhaven Press: San Diego, California. In Eng.
This is a collection of readings giving various opposing viewpoints on aspects of teenage pregnancy in the United States. The questions addressed are: Is teenage pregnancy a serious problem? What factors contribute to teenage pregnancy? How can teenage pregnancy be prevented? and What new initiatives would reduce teenage pregnancy?
Correspondence: Greenhaven Press, P.O. Box 289009, San Diego, CA 92198-9009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30275 Dinkel, R. H.; Lebok, U. H. The fertility of migrants before and after crossing the border: the ethnic German population from the former Soviet Union as a case study. International Migration, Vol. 35, No. 2, 1997. 253-70 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Empirical data on persons of German ethnic origin migrating to Germany from the former Soviet Union are used to calculate their relative fertility levels before and after arriving in their new host country....A relatively strong fertility decline was observed for German origin migrants (Aussiedler) from the former Soviet Union during their first years in Germany....Surprisingly, the fertility of this former high-fertility population fell to a level much lower than the already low German fertility. The extraordinarily high fertility levels of certain religious groups within the former Soviet Union fell even more rapidly after arrival in their new home country."
Correspondence: R. H. Dinkel, Universität Bamberg, Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Feldkirchenstraße 21, 8600 Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30276 Jeffery, Roger; Jeffery, Patricia. Population, gender and politics: demographic change in rural north India. Contemporary South Asia, Vol. 3, ISBN 0-521-46116-2. 1997. xvi, 278 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This study, which is based on fieldwork carried out in the 1980s and early 1990s in the Bijnor District of Uttar Pradesh in northern India, was originally designed to examine the extent to which gender relations were related to changes in fertility in a rural population in which demographic change was generally slow. In particular, the authors "examine the demographic processes in two castes--the Hindu Jats and the Muslim Sheikhs--and ask why there are higher levels of fertility among the Sheikhs. The authors conclude that explanations can be only partially attributed to narrowly economic concerns, to gender relationships or to religion. Rather, the different economic and political interests and positions of the two groups within the locality are the defining factors. Given their marginalization from the formal urban economy , the Sheikhs have little incentive, for example, to have small families or to invest in the education of their children. In contrast, the Jats--who are locally dominant--are using birth control and educating their children for as long as possible. In the final chapter, the authors demonstrate the significance of their analysis for a wider understanding of the problems of population and politics in India generally."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30277 Khlat, M.; Deeb, M.; Courbage, Y. Fertility levels and differentials in Beirut during wartime: an indirect estimation based on maternity registers. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 1, Mar 1997. 85-92 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, total fertility estimates for Greater Beirut in the mid-eighties and early nineties are presented, and changes in socio-religious differentials of fertility across time are explored....The estimates of total fertility for Beirut shifted from 2.60 in 1984 to 2.52 in 199l, and were higher for Muslims than for Christians in the two periods. The regression analysis showed that (1) the difference between the two religious groups persisted after control for social class, and in fact applied to lower social class; (2) fertility dropped between the two dates in the lower social class, and more so for Muslims than for Christians. In comparison with other countries of the region, the decline in Beirut was found to be relatively modest."
Correspondence: M. Khlat, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30278 Manlove, Jennifer. Early motherhood in an intergenerational perspective: the experiences of a British cohort. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 2, May 1997. 263-79 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using nationally representative longitudinal data from Great Britain, this study examines the fertility patterns of daughters of teen mothers. It tests several mechanisms to help explain how early motherhood is reproduced across generations, including an earlier inherited age of menarche, poor family and educational environments, and an early ideal age of childbearing among daughters of teen mothers. Some support is provided for all mechanisms except for an early inherited age at menarche. Even after controlling for family, school, and individual factors, daughters of teen mothers were more likely to have a birth in their teens and into their early 20s."
Correspondence: J. Manlove, Child Trends, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 100, Washington, D.C. 20008. E-mail: jmanlove@childtrends.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30279 Pandey, G. D.; Tiwary, R. S. Fertility in Hill Korwas--a primitive tribe of Madhya Pradesh. Man in India, Vol. 76, No. 4, Dec 1996. 325-9 pp. Ranchi, India. In Eng.
"Hill Korwa is one of the seven primitive tribes of Madhya Pradesh. Fertility behaviour of 604 eligible couples of Hill Korwa tribe of Surguja district has been studied in this paper. The observations have indicated that the total fertility rate in Hill Korwa couples is about half (2.9) of the non-primitive tribal (5.3) and rural couples (5.9) of the same region. The fecundability at younger ages in this tribe has been also found about 2/3 of the fecundability observed in above two communities."
Correspondence: G. D. Pandey, Regional Medical Research Centre for Tribals, Nagpur Road, P.O. Garha, Jabalpur 482 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30280 Rao, Mohan. Myths of reproductive profligacy of poor: evidence from Mandya District. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 32, No. 25, Jun 21-27, 1997. 1,447-9 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"Literature is replete with images of the reproductive profligacy of the poor in India. In much popular understanding, this is frequently adduced as the cause of the poverty of the poor and indeed of the country....But is this `common sense' assertion based on sound empirical evidence? Krishnaji has drawn attention to its empirical fallacy in a number of publications. Reviewed briefly here is the empirical evidence on family size, child survival and fertility by socio-economic categories followed by the findings from a small study carried out in the Mandya district of Karnataka in south India."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30281 Ugbomeh, Benard A. Rural-urban fertility differentials in Bendel State: myth or reality? Indonesian Journal of Geography, Vol. 27, No. 69, Jun 1995. 51-9 pp. Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"The paper examines fertility differentials between the rural and urban areas of the former Bendel State [Nigeria]. Studies in the 1960s show no discernible pattern of rural-urban fertility differentials in Africa, Nigeria inclusive. Although some studies have recorded urban fertility being actually higher than the rural, others have shown the contrary with the rural areas having higher fertility level. There is therefore the need for a clarification of the controversy. The present paper aims at filling this gap by establishing if fertility differentials between both communities are myth or reality in Bendel State." The author concludes that fertility in urban areas is lower than in rural areas.
Correspondence: B. A. Ugbomeh, Delta State University Abraka, Department of Geography and Regional Planning, Abaraka, Delta State, Nigeria. Location: Yale University Library, New Haven, CT.

63:30282 van Nimwegen, Nico; Beets, Gijs. Divergence and convergence in demographic patterns: similarities and dissimilarities in France and the Netherlands. [Divergentie en convergentie in demografische patronen: overeenkomsten en verschillen tussen Frankrijk en Nederland.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1995. 107-23 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In the last two centuries France and the Netherlands have witnessed strongly diverging demographic developments. In France, for example, fertility decline already started in the second half of the 18th century, whereas in the Netherlands this decline only started at the end of the 19th century. For a long time Dutch fertility was considerably higher than in France. Moreover, the mortality situation has traditionally been more favourable in the Netherlands than in France. However, from 1965 to the present, a process of convergence has been taking place: both countries are now confronted with an unprecedented low fertility level."
Correspondence: N. van Nimwegen, Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

63:30283 Curtis, Kathryn M.; Savitz, David A.; Arbuckle, Tye E. Effects of cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, and alcohol intake on fecundability. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 146, No. 1, Jul 1, 1997. 32-41 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Data from the Ontario [Canada] Farm Family Health Study were analyzed to determine whether smoking, caffeine, or alcohol use among men and women affect fecundability....Cigarette smoking among women and men was associated with decreased fecundability....Caffeine consumption of 100 mg or less versus more than 100 mg in women and men was not associated with fecundability....Decreases were observed among women who were coffee drinkers...and men who were heavy tea drinkers...regardless of caffeine content. Alcohol use among women and men was not associated with fecundability. These data are consistent with previous studies of the adverse effect of tobacco on fecundability in female smokers and suggest an effect of smoking among males."
Correspondence: K. M. Curtis, Centers for Disease Control and Reproduction, Division of Reproductive Health, MS K-34, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30284 Luna, F.; Polo, V.; Fernandez-Santander, A.; Moral, P. Spontaneous abortion pattern in an isolated Mediterranean population: La Alta Alpujarra Oriental (Southeast Spain). Human Biology, Vol. 69, No. 3, Jun 1997. 345-56 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"The effects of several family and embryonic factors on the abortion pattern in a rural Mediterranean population (La Alta Alpujarra Oriental, Southeast Spain) were analyzed from interview data on 3,163 pregnancies from the first half of the twentieth century. No significant differences in spontaneous abortion rates were detected between endogamous and exogamous couples. The abortion pattern of this population is characterized mainly by family and embryonic factors. High rates of early abortions were significantly associated with maternal age and pregnancy order, and parental consanguinity was linked with a notable decrease of abortion frequency during the earlier stages of pregnancy. A tendency toward a higher risk for abortion was also confirmed for twinship of the fetus."
Correspondence: F. Luna, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento Biología Animal I, Sección Antropología, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30285 Sundby, Johanne; Schei, Berit. Infertility and subfertility in Norwegian women aged 40-42: prevalence and risk factors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 75, No. 9, 1996. 832-7 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"There are few population estimates of the prevalence of infertility that also include some information about medical conditions and social classification of study objects. This is a study of 4,034 out of a total of 5,139 (78% of all invited) women in one county of Norway....This survey found permanent primary infertility in 2.6% of the women. Subfertility, as at least one year's delay of pregnancy, was reported by 7.7%. A history of different reproductive problems was associated with impaired fertility. Thirty-two percent of primary infertile women had a history of PID, 13% had experienced amenorrhea and almost 40% reported premenstrual tension, compared with lower frequencies in women with normal fertility (11.0%, 3.3% and 29.4% respectively)."
Correspondence: J. Sundby, Medical Anthropology, UiO, Post Box 1130, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

63:30286 Aparicio, Ricardo; Angulo, Yvon. Unmet need for family planning. [Demanda insatisfecha de planificación familiar.] Démos, No. 9, 1996. 28-30 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The authors analyze the unmet need for family planning in Mexico. Aspects considered include family size, age, education, and rural or urban place of residence.
Correspondence: R. Aparicio, Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Apartado 5429, 1000 San José, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30287 Barkat, Abul; Rahman, Mati U.; Bose, Manik L. Family planning choice behaviour in urban slums of Bangladesh: an econometric approach. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1997. 17-32 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article is aimed at focusing on the intensity of family planning practices in the urban slums of Bangladesh. The choice behaviour of slum dwellers for family planning has been analyzed in the framework of an appropriate econometric model. Some policy implications emerging from the study are also provided. One important policy implication of the study is that programmatic efforts should be enhanced and strengthened for accelerating family planning practices to arrest the unbridled population growth in Bangladesh's urban slums."
Correspondence: A. Barkat, University of Dhaka, Department of Economics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30288 Entwisle, Barbara; Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Evans, Tom P.; Curran, Sara R. Geographic information systems, spatial network analysis, and contraceptive choice. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 2, May 1997. 171-87 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"How does family planning accessibility affect contraceptive choice? In this paper we use techniques of spatial analysis to develop measures of family planning accessibility, and evaluate the effects of these geographically derived measures in a multilevel statistical model of temporary method choice in Nang Rong, Thailand. In our analyses we combine spatial data obtained from maps and Global Positioning System (GPS) readings with sociodemographic data from surveys and administrative records. The new measures reveal (1) important travel time effects even when family planning outlets are close by; (2) independent effects of road composition; (3) the relevance of alternative sources of family planning supply; and (4) the importance of the local history of program placement."
Correspondence: B. Entwisle, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 124 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. E-mail: entwisle.cpc@mhs.unc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30289 Garcia, Sandra G.; Snow, Rachel; Aitken, Iain. Preferences for contraceptive attributes: voices of women in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 2, Jun 1997. 52-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Ten focus-group discussions on attributes of contraceptive methods were held in 1994 with 77 low-income women living in 10 neighborhoods in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. The discussions indicated that the women strongly preferred highly effective contraceptives that would allow users to maintain regular monthly bleeding and that would not cause unpleasant side effects. Monthly bleeding was especially important to these women, since it provided reassurance that pregnancy had been prevented. Secrecy from partners was important to some, but not to the majority of women in the focus groups. Among the numerous obstacles to method acceptance identified were unwanted bleeding problems, partner's objections, fear that an irreversible method might produce intolerable side effects, concern that providers would insert a device without consent, fear of not being able to conceive quickly after stopping use and discomfort with having to interrupt intimacy or touch oneself to insert a method."
Correspondence: R. Snow, Harvard University, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30290 Hasan, Yousuf; Maru, Rushikesh M.; Simmons, Ruth; Ashraf, Ali. Sterilisation trends in Bangladesh: supply side determinants. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 32, No. 27, Jul 5-11, 1997. 1,656-63 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"A government's ability and determination to promote family planning services largely depends on its political will as well as the types of policies and programmes it carries out. This paper looks at sterilisation trends in Bangladesh since 1965 and examines various programme and policy hypotheses that have been associated with the observed trends." Particular attention is given to the factors associated with the decline in the number of male and female sterilizations since 1984.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30291 Jaccard, James; Helbig, Donald W.; Wan, Choi K.; Gutman, Marjorie A.; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna C. The prediction of accurate contraceptive use from attitudes and knowledge. Health Education Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1996. 17-33 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"A framework of the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and behavior was described in the context of [U.S.] couples' use of birth control. It was hypothesized that when knowledge of behavioral enactment is present, attitudes and beliefs about susceptibility to pregnancy will be predictive of accurate use of the diaphragm. Respondents were 111 women who participated in a three-wave panel design focusing on diaphragm use. Analyses indicated that the level of knowledge about what a woman should do to use the diaphragm correctly was high. Correct knowledge, however, did not translate into accurate behavior. Motivational factors focusing on attitudes, perceived susceptibility to pregnancy, and normative factors were also relevant."
Correspondence: J. Jaccard, State University of New York, Department of Psychology, Social Science 112, Albany, NY 12222. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:30292 Jinadu, Musa K.; Olusi, S. O.; Ajuwon, Bade. Traditional fertility regulation among the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria. I. A study of prevalence, attitudes, practice and methods. African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1997. 56-64 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study was conducted among Yoruba women and traditional healers [in Nigeria's Oranmiyan area] with the aim of identifying and describing the practice, preparation, and administration of traditional contraceptives....Findings revealed that knowledge of the traditional contraceptives is nearly universal among the Yoruba population, and the traditional contraceptive prevalence rate is 7.1 percent. The use of traditional contraceptives was significantly more common among uneducated women and among women aged 20 to 29 years old. Findings also revealed the existence of four main varieties of traditional contraceptive devices, the methods of preparation of the traditional contraceptives, varieties of herbal and animal products used, methods of administration, and taboos against usage."
Correspondence: M. K. Jinadu, Obafemi Awolowo University, College of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30293 Jinadu, Musa K.; Ajuwon, Bade. Traditional fertility regulation among the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria. II. A prospective study of use-effectiveness. African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1997. 65-73 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study investigated the effectiveness of traditional contraceptives commonly used by Yoruba women, and the attitudes of users and non-users towards family planning services and contraceptives in Nigeria....The study found that 5.6 percent of the users and 34.5 percent of the non-users became pregnant during the follow-up period. Contraceptive failure was experienced by users of the waistband and ring methods. The main barriers to the use of modern contraceptives as described by women were the negative attitudes of men and the fear of side effects."
Correspondence: M. K. Jinadu, Obafemi Awolowo University, College of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30294 Lasee, Ashraf; Becker, Stan. Husband-wife communication about family planning and contraceptive use in Kenya. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 1, Mar 1997. 15-20, 33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"According to couple data from the l989 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, both knowledge and approval of family planning are virtually universal in Kenya: Among 98% of couples, one or both partners know of at least one modern method, and among 85% of couples both partners approve of family planning. Discussion with the partner about family planning was reported in 82% of couples. However, only 67% of wives and 75% of husbands correctly predicted their spouse's approval of family planning. Knowledge and approval of family planning, husband-wife communication, desire for more children and ideal family size are all significantly associated with current use. Multiple logistic regression analyses show that husband-wife communication, particularly the wife's perception of her husband's approval of family planning, is highly associated with current contraceptive use (odds ratio of 4.2). Dialogue appears to increase the effectiveness of communication: Specifically, one spouse's perception of the other spouse's approval is more likely to be correct if they have discussed family planning than if they have not, and this relationship significantly affects contraceptive use."
Correspondence: A. Lasee, Aga Khan University, Department of Community Health, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi 74800, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30295 Li, Weixiong; Li, Rose M.; Chen, Hao-Chia; Do, Won Hahn. Proceedings of the Beijing International Symposium on Fertility Regulation. Fertility regulation: present and future. Pub. Order No. 97-4118. Mar 1997. xiv, [478] pp. U.S. National Institutes of Health [NIH], National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]: Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of an international symposium on fertility regulation held in Beijing, China, May 21-25, 1995. The focus of the symposium was on "the need to improve the quality of life and to accelerate development of methods that will permit societies to achieve their population goals and to improve the quality of reproductive health services". Following an introductory chapter on general issues of population and family planning, there are chapters with papers written primarily by scholars from China on the pituitary, ovary, uterus, and placenta; male reproduction; progestogen and antiprogestogen in fertility regulation; intrauterine devices; contraceptive methods; new techniques for reproductive research; and social science in population control. The primary geographical focus is on China.
Correspondence: U.S. National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, EPN-640, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30296 Mahmood, Naushin; Ringheim, Karin. Factors affecting contraceptive use in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 35, No. 1, Spring 1996. 1-22 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Using data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of 1990-91, this study examines the effect of selected socio-cultural and supply factors on contraceptive use as reported by married women of reproductive ages. In addition to the expected positive relationship of woman's age, number of living children, education, and place of residence with contraceptive use, it is theorised that there are five factors potentially affecting fertility regulation in the socio-structural context of Pakistan. These include the extent of communication between husbands and wives, religious beliefs, female autonomy, son preference, and the family planning service and supply variables. Using logistic regression analysis, the results of the study indicate that the explanatory power of these five factors is significant in affecting the use of contraception in both urban and rural areas."
Correspondence: N. Mahmood, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30297 Margolis, Sara P. Population policy, research and the Cairo Plan of Action: new directions for the Sahel? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 2, Jun 1997. 86-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"I have argued here that the assumption that there is little or no demand for contraception in countries like those of the Sahel may in part be an artifact of the methods, models and means of demographic estimation used in the region. In other words, if you don't ask the right questions, you will get the wrong answers. If the demand and unmet need for modern contraception is misunderstood, then population programs' lack of impact may result from our failure to determine the appropriate target populations and the associated barriers to method use. This at least may be the case in the Sahel, where population programs continue to tenaciously target married men and women in their reproductive years."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30298 McEwan, John; Wadsworth, Jane; Johnson, Anne M.; Wellings, Kaye; Field, Julia. Changes in the use of contraceptive methods in England and Wales over two decades: Margaret Bone's surveys and the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 1, Apr 1997. 5-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Surveys of contraceptive use [in England and Wales] in 1970 and 1975 are compared with data from the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (NSSAL) carried out in 1990-1991. NSSAL data have been analysed so as to present results in a manner comparable with the earlier surveys. Results show that there has been a marked increase in the use of sterilisation by couples in long-term relationships, and marked changes in the profile of contraceptive methods used by single women. Trends are discussed in relation to data from ONS [Office for National Statistics], to availability of methods and to social changes over 20 years."
Correspondence: J. McEwan, Lewisham and Southwark Community Services, Division in Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care, Optimum Health Services NHS Trust, London, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30299 Meirik, O.; Benagiano, G. Twenty years of epidemiology in fertility regulation. Revue d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique/Epidemiology and Public Health, Vol. 44, No. 6, 1996. 577-87 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper summarizes findings from epidemiological research in fertility regulation which have helped in formulating policies nationally and internationally, without pretending to be all-encompassing; rather, it should help in demonstrating the usefulness and importance of epidemiological research and in discussing outstanding issues of public health relevance."
Correspondence: O. Meirik, World Health Organization, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30300 Ó'Gráda, Cormac; Duffy, Niall. Fertility control early in marriage in Ireland a century ago. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 1109, Jan 1995. 17 pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
"Data were extracted from the 1911 Irish manuscript census to study the regional variation in the extent and character of family limitation strategies in Ireland a century ago. Regression analysis of the data shows evidence of `spacing' in both urban and rural Ireland. Further analysis of the so-called `replacement' problem also produces results consistent with `spacing'."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30301 Omondi-Odhiambo. Men's participation in family planning decisions in Kenya. Population Studies, Vol. 51, No. 1, Mar 1997. 29-40 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study measures the effects of men's participation in family planning decisions [in Kenya], and identifies the conditions which would stimulate greater participation by men in family planning decisions. The principal conclusions are that Kenyan men do participate in these decisions, take an interest in planning their families, support family planning and use contraception to achieve their goals....In particular, the study shows that lack of communication between husband and wife may be a more important obstacle to the adoption of contraception than men's opposition."
Correspondence: Omondi-Odhiambo, P.O. Box 66592, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30302 Perez, Aurora E.; Palmore, James A. Reevaluating the unmet need for family planning in the Philippines. Asia-Pacific Population Research Report, No. 10, Apr 1997. 16 pp. East-West Center, Program on Population [POP]: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"Most studies of unmet need for family planning have used a standard definition of unmet need based on an apparent discrepancy between fertility preferences and contraceptive practice....An analysis of results from the 1993 National Demographic Survey in the Philippines suggests that this definition may result in an underestimate. The authors propose a new definition that classifies women with unmet need into three groups: those with unmet need according to the standard definition, those with unmet need due to health risk, and those with unmet need due to poor contraceptive use....Applying the new definition, the report analyzes the effects of women's social, economic, and demographic characteristics on unmet need for family planning and draws several policy recommendations from the results."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Publication Sales Office, 1601 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848-1601. Author's E-mail: aeperez@cssp.upd.edu.ph. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30303 Phillips, James F.; Binka, Fred N.; Adjuik, Martin; Nazzar, Alex; Adazu, Kubaje. The determinants of contraceptive innovation: a case-control study of family planning acceptance in a traditional African society. Policy Research Division Working Paper, No. 93, 1997. 38 pp. Population Council, Research Division: New York, New York. In Eng.
"In 1994, the Navrongo Health Research Centre (NHRC) launched a three-village pilot project in the Kassena-Nankana District of northern Ghana to develop a program of community-based health and family planning services. This paper presents findings from a case-control study of the determinants of early adoption of family planning in this pilot study. Findings show that personal preference to limit or space childbearing is a less important determinant of contraceptive innovation than is husband's support, spousal communication, or social interaction about family planning."
Correspondence: Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30304 Semaan, Salaam; Lauby, Jennifer; Walls, Carla. Condom use with main partners by sterilized and non-sterilized women. Women and Health, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1997. 65-85 pp. Binghamton, New York. Distributed by Haworth Document Delivery Service, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. E-mail: getinfo@haworth.com. In Eng.
"This study examined condom use with main partners by surgically sterilized and non-sterilized women at risk for HIV infection. Data were obtained from 379 African American women residing in low-income urban communities [in the United States]. Sterilized women were one-fifth as likely as non-sterilized women to use condoms. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that for both groups of women, higher perceived benefits of condom use for disease prevention were associated with condom use. In addition, younger age, self-efficacy for condom use, peer support for condom use, and whether condoms were ever used for pregnancy prevention were associated with condom use among non-sterilized women. Results of this study indicate the role of fertility status in condom use and the value of developing targeted prevention programs that reach women at high risk for HIV infection."
Correspondence: S. Semaan, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/STD/TB Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, E-37, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30305 Senanayake, Pramilla. Women and the family planning imperative. In: Population and global security: environmental challenges II, edited by Nicholas Polunin and Mohammad Nazim. 1994. 155-74 pp. Foundation for Environmental Conservation: Geneva, Switzerland; Energy and Environment Society of Pakistan: Lahore, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Women's roles in society, particularly their contribution to family well-being and social stability, are widely conditioned by their ability to control their own fertility....In many countries, the best years of their lives, from adolescence to the menopause, may be squandered when they are denied the knowledge and means to control their own fertility. For the world as a whole, this represents a loss of human resources on a massive scale....I believe that a new ethical framework for action is needed. Such a framework must recognize that people are the primary resource for development. In this ethical framework, women and their needs should be the central focus."
Correspondence: P. Senanayake, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Regent's College, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30306 Sheykhi, Mohammad T. The socio-psychological factors of family planning with special reference to Iran: a theoretical appraisal. International Sociology, Vol. 10, No. 1, Mar 1995. 71-82 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Iran's explosive population growth, which increases the country's population by about 1.9 million people annually, is causing a considerable strain on resources and the environment, and the coming generations will be facing a serious situation unless this trend is reversed....This study [investigates] the social and psychological factors involved in family planning. The general findings of surveys conducted so far demonstrate that few people know anything about family planning and methods of contraception. Social, cultural and religious institutions seem to inhibit the expansion of family planning. Moreover, the lack of economic and social security promotes a large family size and prevents contraceptive use. However, social change in Iranian society will eventually be brought about by urbanisation, industrialisation and education, and the ensuing modernisation of values is expected to increase the use of contraceptives and lead to changes in the associated social and cultural institutions."
Correspondence: M. T. Sheykhi, Sharak-E-Apadana, Block No. 30 (S2) Entrance No. 1, Tehran 13918, Iran. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30307 Svare, Edith I.; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Poll, Paul; Bock, Johannes E. Determinants for contraceptive use in young, single, Danish women from the general population. Contraception, Vol. 55, No. 5, May 1997. 287-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Determinants for contraceptive use were studied in 5,031, non-pregnant women aged 20-29 years from the general population in Denmark....Important predictors of using one contraceptive method were lifetime number of sexual partners, parity, and age at first sexual intercourse for condoms and age for oral contraceptives. Also, women with a previous legal abortion were more likely to use condoms currently and women with a history of STDs were less likely to use condoms, but more likely to use OCs. Lifetime number of sexual partners was the only predictor of double contraception."
Correspondence: S. K. Kjaer, Danish Cancer Society, Division for Cancer Epidemiology, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30308 Tórrez Pinto, Hugo; García, Franklin; Montaño, Jaime. Factors affecting reproduction in the Bolivian population. [Consideraciones reproductivas de la población boliviana.] 1996. 96 pp. Ministerio de Desarollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente, Dirección de Políticas de Población: La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
This study on contraceptive practice, prevalence, and knowledge in Bolivia is based primarily on data from the Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in 1989 and 1994, supplemented with data from official sources. It has chapters on the population's reproductive health; factors affecting fertility in Bolivia; contraceptive knowledge, practice, and methods; unmet needs for family planning; and projected future demands for contraception.
Correspondence: Ministerio de Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente, Dirección de Políticas de Población, La Paz, Bolivia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30309 Touré, Lalla. Male involvement in family planning: a review of the literature and selected program initiatives in Africa. [Participation des hommes à la planification familiale: revue de la littérature et analyse d'initiatives choisies de programmes en Afrique.] Nov 1996. 30, 36 pp. Support for Analysis and Research in Africa [SARA]: Washington, D.C. In Eng; Fre.
"This paper draws from programs and from the literature to outline male attitudes and behaviors, highlighting key factors influencing contraceptive use in Africa, drawing lessons learned from selected male-involvement initiatives, and finally suggesting some recommendations for the next steps in engaging men in family planning issues."
Correspondence: Support for Analysis and Research in Africa, c/o U.S. Agency for International Development, 320 21st Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20523. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30310 Valente, Thomas W.; Watkins, Susan C.; Jato, Miriam N.; van der Straten, Ariane; Tsitsol, Louis-Philippe M. Social network associations with contraceptive use among Cameroonian women in voluntary associations. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 5, Sep 1997. 677-87 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the association between social networks and contraceptive use. Using data from a survey of women belonging to voluntary associations in Yaoundé, Cameroon, we find that the behavior and characteristics of the members of a respondent's personal networks are associated with her contraceptive use, over and above a set of her own individual characteristics that are usually found to be important. Respondents who report that their network partners approve of contraception, use it, and encourage the respondent to use [it] are more likely to use contraception themselves; the association with encouragement is particularly strong. Moreover, there is a strong association between the specific methods of contraception used by a respondent and those used by her network partners, suggesting that members of personal networks exchange and evaluate specific methods."
Correspondence: T. W. Valente, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population Dynamics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30311 Varga, Christine A. The condom conundrum: barriers to condom use among commercial sex workers in Durban, South Africa. African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1997. 74-88 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"We examined socio-cultural and economic determinants of condom use among 100 female South African commercial sex workers. The symbolism and dynamics of condom use between sex workers and their clientele were explored. These issues were also investigated when sex workers negotiated sex with their personal partners. An additional focus was the extent to which HIV/AIDS influences women's condom use in these situations. Results demonstrate considerable contrast between factors influencing condom use in professional versus private sex situations. With clients, practical issues such as financial strain were the major obstacles to condom use. With personal sex partners, sex workers avoided condoms due to their negative symbolism....HIV/AIDS awareness had minimal impact on condom use."
Correspondence: C. A. Varga, University of Natal, Department of Social Anthropology, Durban 4041, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30312 Visaria, Leela. Unmet need for family planning in Gujarat: a qualitative exploration. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 32, No. 17, Apr-May 1997. 29-36 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in estimating women's unmet need for contraceptive services. This paper briefly reviews the National Family Health Survey estimates of unmet need to describe a macro perspective for discussing the findings based on focus group discussions with women in two districts of Gujarat [India]. It draws attention to the issues and considerations which go into the calculations of women with respect to unmet need which are rarely captured in large-scale surveys."
Correspondence: L. Visaria, Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Near Gota Char Rasta, Gota, Ahmedabad 382 481, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

63:30313 Capitanio, Antonella. A nonparametric method to analyze basal body temperature dynamics. [Un metodo non parametrico per l'analisi della dinamica della temperatura basale.] Statistica, Vol. 56, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1996. 189-200 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper a non-parametric method for the analysis of basal body temperature is proposed. Particularly the proposed technique focuses on the time speed of the studied phenomenon. An empirical application shows how the presented method can be used to identify anomalous cycles."
Correspondence: A. Capitanio, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, Via Zamboni 33, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30314 Chasen-Taber, Lisa; Willett, Walter C.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Spiegelman, Donna; Rosner, Bernard A.; Hunter, David J.; Colditz, Graham A.; Manson, JoAnn E. Oral contraceptives and ovulatory causes of delayed fertility. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 146, No. 3, Aug 1, 1997. 258-65 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The return of fertility following the use of oral contraceptives is examined using a 1989 nested case-control study within a cohort of 116,686 female registered U.S. nurses. "Cases comprised 1,917 married nurses without previous pregnancy who were unable to become pregnant for at least 1 year and were subsequently diagnosed with primary ovulatory infertility. Controls comprised 44,521 married parous nurses with no history of infertility and no pregnancies lasting less than 6 months. After allowing for 2 years of suppressed fertility following discontinuation of oral contraceptive use and excluding women with signs of menstrual or hormonal disorder, the authors found that the multivariate relative risk for ovulatory causes of delayed fertility was 1.2...for ever users. There was no statistically significant trend of increasing risk with increasing duration of use and younger age at first use. The fact that 88 percent of cases reported an eventual pregnancy by 1993 suggests that absolute fertility was not impaired."
Correspondence: L. Chasen-Taber, Channing Laboratory, 3rd Floor, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30315 Lindberg, Laura D.; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Ku, Leighton; Levine, Greg. Young men's experience with condom breakage. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 3, May-Jun 1997. 128-31, 140 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The study examines young [U.S.] men's experiences with condom breakage as one aspect of effective condom use, using retrospective reports from a nationally representative sample of men aged 17-22. It focuses on young men's annual risk of experiencing any breakage and identifies characteristics associated with an elevated risk of breakage." Results indicate that "23% of those using condoms reported experiencing at least one condom break during the previous 12 months. Of all condoms used, 2.5% had broken. In multivariate analyses, increased experience with condoms reduced the likelihood of experiencing condom breakage. Recent sex education was associated with an almost 80% decrease in the risk of breakage among young men who used condoms infrequently. Young males who had ever had a sexually transmitted disease (STD), or whose sexual partner had had an STD, were almost three times as likely as other respondents to have experienced condom breakage."
Correspondence: L. D. Lindberg, Urban Institute, Population Studies Center, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30316 Roberts, Sarah J. The immediate effects of the pill safety scare on usage of combined oral contraceptives in north east England. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 51, No. 3, Jun 1997. 332-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In October 1995, following advice from the Committee on Safety of Medicines, the Department of Health issued a press release concerning the use of seven brands of combined oral contraceptive pills....Doctors were recommended to review all women using the seven brands and advise them to change to lower risk types....The abrupt change in contraceptive advice for over half the women [surveyed in northeastern England] taking the pill has had a substantial immediate impact on the types of pills prescribed, and there are preliminary indications that up to 5% of users may have stopped using effective contraception, albeit temporarily. Consequently, overall health risks may have risen in the short term."
Correspondence: S. J. Roberts, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Wolfson Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30317 Rugpao, Sungwal; Beyrer, Chris; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Natpratan, Chawalit; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Celentano, David D.; Khamboonruang, Chirasak. Multiple condom use and decreased condom breakage and slippage in Thailand. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1997. 169-73 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"We measured rates of condom slippage and breakage during heterosexual commercial sex in northern Thailand. Of 7,594 condoms examined in 4,734 client visits (5,040 sex acts), breakage was noted in 1.8% of single condom use (49.3% of acts), as compared with 0.2% with two condoms (49% of sex acts), and no breaks with more than two condoms (1.2% of sex acts)....Slippage occurred in only 0.1% of sex acts. Case-control analysis indicated that multiple clients, younger aged clients, sex after midnight, and high intensity (rough) sex were associated with condom breaks. The decline in breakage may be attributable to greater expertise in condom use by sex workers and clients, in response to the successful Thai national `100% Condom Campaign'. Use of more than one condom during sex has been initiated by sex workers and their clients, a community response to condom promotion messages and fears of HIV infection."
Correspondence: C. Beyrer, Chiang Mai University, Research Institute for Health Sciences, P.O. Box 80 CMU, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

63:30318 Smith, Herbert L.; Tu, Ping; Merli, M. Giovanna; Hereward, Mark. Implementation of a demographic and contraceptive surveillance system in four counties in North China. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 16, No. 4, Aug 1997. 289-314 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper details efforts to implement a demographic and contraceptive surveillance system in four counties in North China....We discuss the interaction between data collection and policy implementation--its general forms, its manifestations in modern China, and its relevance for the current project. We describe the system that we are implementing--what the old system looked like, and how we have tried to improve it. We evaluate the system's functioning over three years, based on field observations and preliminary data from one of the project's four counties. We conclude that there has been progress in the timely accumulation of standardized data; but there remains an antinomy whereby, past a point, an emphasis on data quality has the effect of sensitizing those responsible for recording data to the problematic nature of such data, thereby weakening accuracy."
Correspondence: H. L. Smith, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

63:30319 Amazigo, Uche; Silva, Nancy; Kaufman, Joan; Obikeze, Daniel S. Sexual activity and contraceptive knowledge and use among in-school adolescents in Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 1, Mar 1997. 28-33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Among 2,460 secondary school students surveyed in two southeastern Nigerian states, only 36% could correctly identify the most likely time for conception to occur. Female students were considerably more likely than males to understand the timing of conception (46% vs. 25%); less dramatic differences emerged by students' residence and grade in school. Among students who supplied information about their sexual activity, 40% had had intercourse; the proportion who were sexually experienced climbed from 26% of 14-year-olds to 54-55% of 18-19-year-olds. While 36% of the young women had had sexual partners who were roughly their age, 25% had been involved with older businessmen; the young women said they have intercourse more frequently and are less likely to restrict intercourse to the safe period of their cycle when they are involved with older partners than when they have boyfriends their own age. Only 17% of sexually active students had ever used a contraceptive method other than abstinence."
Correspondence: U. Amazigo, University of Nigeria, Department of Zoology, Nsukka, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30320 Calvès, Anne-Emmanuèle; Meekers, Dominique. The advantages of having many children for women in formal and informal unions in Cameroon. CEPED Series, No. 3, ISBN 2-87762-106-5. Jul 1997. 38 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The analysis of data from the 1991 Cameroon Demographic Health Survey (CDHS) demonstrates that married women, women in co-residential informal unions, and women in non-co-residential informal unions have different perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of having many children. These findings are important for improving the efficiency of future population policies designed to reduce levels of fertility. The results also show that non-co-residential and co-residential informal unions are conceptually different from marriages, which strongly suggests that the reported increases in the prevalence of informal unions in many African societies indicate an important change in the African family, the implications of which are still poorly understood."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30321 Davies, James B.; Zhang, Junsen. The effects of gender control on fertility and children's consumption. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1997. 67-85 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Effects of sex preference on investments in children's human capital, bequests and fertility are studied, with and without sex selection, in a model based on parental altruism. Both pure sex preference, a feature of the parental utility function, and indirect preference, which arises from gender-related differences in earnings opportunities, are examined. When there is no gender control the impact of pure sex preference is seen in smaller consumption for daughters than for sons. However, when gender control is exerted, sex preference raises the sex ratio and it is possible that sisters may, on average, consume no less than their more numerous brothers. In an example of the model with specific functional forms, parents who practise gender control have larger families than if sex selection techniques were unavailable. The effect is magnified if sons' earnings opportunities are better than daughters'."
Correspondence: J. Zhang, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. E-mail: jszhang@cuhk.edu.hk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30322 Gwako, Edwins L. M. Married women's ideal family size preferences and family planning practices: evidence from rural Kenya. Social Science Journal, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1997. 369-82 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This article examines the...trends in women's ideal family size preferences and family planning practices in rural Kenya. By using primary data collected from three samples drawn from the Abagusii, Abaluyia and Masai ethnic groups, the research findings suggest a declining trend in ideal family size preferences and increasing rates in the adoption of family planning methods. These research findings hold some important implications for the reversion of the recorded high population growth rates particularly among the Abagusii and Abaluyia of western Kenya." The data concern a random sample of 600 currently married women aged 15-49 from the three ethnic groups concerned and were collected by the author in 1991-1993.
Correspondence: E. L. M. Gwako, Washington University, Department of Anthropology, Campus Box 1114, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30323 Hollos, Marida; Larsen, Ulla. From lineage to conjugality: the social context of fertility decisions among the Pare of Northern Tanzania. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 3, Aug 1997. 361-72 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper is a case study of the linkages between selected characteristics of the social organization in a particular ethnic group and reproductive values and behavior. Specifically, it examines factors that might be responsible for the acceptance of contraception and an expressed desire for a relatively small number of children among the Pare of Northern Tanzania. It is hypothesized that with the increasing shift towards wage labor and diminishing dependence on land and lineage relations, there is a growing reliance on the conjugal bond and the development of a partnership marriage in which husbands and wives perceive their interests as mutual. This facilitates communication, particularly about family planning. Research methodology consisted of a two-pronged approach and combined an intensive ethnographic study of the households in the Ugweno District of the Pare mountains with individual surveys administered to a sample of 512 women and in-depth interviews conducted with 20 women regarding the value of children and contraceptive and birth histories."
This paper was originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: U. Larsen, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30324 Jones, Rachel K.; Brayfield, April. Life's greatest joy?: European attitudes toward the centrality of children. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,239-69 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This study estimates the effects of selected personal characteristics on attitudes toward the centrality of children in six European countries: Austria, Great Britain, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, and the former West Germany. Using data from the 1988 International Social Science Survey (ISSP), our analysis demonstrates that Europeans do not share a common perspective on children: Italians view children as more central, while the Dutch view children as less central, with the other countries in between. We also find that progressive attitudes toward women's work and family roles are negatively associated with favorable attitudes toward the centrality of children in all six countries, although gender itself has no significant effect in Austria, Ireland, Italy, and West Germany. Surprisingly, women are less likely than men to view children as central in Great Britain and the Netherlands."
Correspondence: R. K. Jones, Tulane University, Department of Sociology, 220 Newcomb Hall, New Orleans, LA 70118-5698. E-mail: rachelj@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30325 Kumar, Surinder; Sapru, Rita. Social marketing: a study of retailers' knowledge about condom in Delhi. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 19, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1996. 63-9 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"Social marketing is the strong instrument available for enhancing contraceptive availability and use. And the retailer has the key role to play. For the retailer to play the significant role of promoter and provider of contraceptives, he/she must have adequate knowledge about condoms. This study was conducted in the Union Territory of Delhi to assess the retailers' knowledge about condoms, covering a sample of 252 retailers....The study concludes that the retailers selling socially marketed condoms had very poor knowledge about the proper method of use of [the] condom, its storage and disease prevention benefits."
Correspondence: S. Kumar, Employees State Insurance Corporation, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30326 Lahai-Momoh, Judith C.; Ross, Michael W. HIV/AIDS prevention-related social skills and knowledge among adolescents in Sierra Leone, West Africa. African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1997. 37-44 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study examined the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions among high school students age 14 years and older who attended school in two large urban towns, Bo and Freetown, Sierra Leone, West Africa....Some 52 percent of the subjects who had intercourse reported that they used condoms. Factors related to condom use were age, knowledge about HIV/AIDS, and anxiety about disclosure of HIV/STD problems. Data indicate that intercourse was common and that greater condom use was associated with less anxiety over sexual negotiation and greater anxiety over disclosure of having HIV or an STD."
Correspondence: M. W. Ross, University of Texas, School of Public Health, Center for Health Promotion Research and Development, P.O. Box 20186, Houston, TX 77225. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30327 Lee, Sung Yong. Sex preference versus number preference: the case of Korea. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 25, No. 2, Dec 1996. 235-67 pp. Seoul, Republic of Korea. In Eng.
"This paper examines whether son preference has a strong positive effect on fertility rates via number preference. To test this hypothesis, [South] Korea was used as a case because Korea still shows strong son preference but its fertility rates have reached below the replacement level....Statistical analysis shows that the existence of a son has a stronger effect on fertility behavior in Korea than the number of children. Nevertheless, the effects of son preference may not have a significant effect on the fertility rates since the probability of having only daughters becomes lower as the parities increase....In spite of the existence of the strong son preference, the ideal (or desired) number of children [has] decreased in [South] Korea. Moreover, the means to control the number of children, such as abortions, have been supported by the Korean government policies. Through sex-selective technologies, abnormally higher sex ratios at birth have occurred since 1985."
Correspondence: S. Y. Lee, Sungkyunkwan University, 53, 3-ga, Myungryun-dong, Chongro-ku, Seoul 110-745, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30328 Mensch, Barbara S.; Arends-Kuenning, Mary; Jain, Anrudh; Garate, Maria R. Avoiding unintended pregnancy in Peru: does the quality of family planning services matter? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 1, Mar 1997. 21-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"An analysis linking data on pregnancy intentions from the 1991-1992 Peru Demographic and Health Survey with information from a 1994 follow-up survey found that among 1,093 women from Nor-Oriental del Marañón and Lima who participated in both surveys, 20% had a mistimed or unwanted pregnancy in the 29 intervening months. In all, 15% had an unintended pregnancy ending in a live birth and 5% an unintended pregnancy with another outcome....Unintended pregnancies were predominantly attributable to failure of a traditional contraceptive method (35% of such pregnancies) or nonuse of any method (26%). The proportion of women who failed to meet their reproductive goals between surveys declined as their education and the quality of available family planning services, as measured by a 1992 situation analysis, improved. The effect of quality of care on women's ability to avoid unwanted fertility was significant in logistic regression models including only service factors and women's demographic characteristics. In models including rural-urban residence and region, neither these variables nor quality of care had a significant effect."
Correspondence: B. S. Mensch, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30329 Myers, Scott M. Marital uncertainty and childbearing. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,271-89 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"I use data from a U.S. sample of married adults and hypotheses guided by the Uncertainty Reduction Theory of Parenthood...to examine how marital solidarity and uncertainty affect the odds of having a child. The analyses do not support the idea that couples who lack marital solidarity and are unhappy with their marriages use childbearing as a strategy to increase solidarity and, in turn, reduce marital uncertainty. Instead, the dominant pattern is that a solid marriage and compatibility between spouses encourage parenthood and higher-order childbearing. The results are also discussed in terms of economic and normative theories of fertility."
Correspondence: S. M. Myers, Iowa State University, Department of Sociology, 107 East Hall, Ames, IA 50011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30330 Nerlove, Marc; Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. Children: a capital good or a base for income redistribution policies. Public Finance/Finances Publiques, Vol. 48, Suppl., 1993. 78-84 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The economic implications of various normative perceptions (valuations) of children are explored. On the one extreme, there is the approach which views children as merely an `old-age security', that is, children are some substitute for pension funds in the absence of well-developed capital markets. On the other extreme, there is the endogenous fertility approach, according to which parents care about both the number of and welfare of their children. Parents accordingly choose both the number and welfare of their children in response to economic constraints and opportunities. The analysis of the economic implications of the various approaches is both positive and normative."
Correspondence: M. Nerlove, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30331 Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Ellertson, Charlotte; Surasrang, Yukolsiri; Loc, Ly Thai. Knowledge and attitudes about emergency contraception among health workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 2, Jun 1997. 68-72 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"In a series of focus groups and in-depth interviews, physicians, midwives and other family planning providers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, were questioned about their knowledge and attitudes regarding use of three methods of emergency contraception--the Yuzpe regimen, a levonorgestrel-only regimen and postcoital insertion of a copper-bearing IUD. Most providers were familiar with the concept of emergency contraception and endorsed its practice, but lacked accurate and detailed information about method use. They also overestimated contraindications and potential side effects. Providers advocated for additional training for themselves and for druggists, who provide these methods over the counter. Participants generally agreed about the need for more empirical information about the safety and efficacy of these methods, but disagreed about the degree to which emergency methods should be made readily available to women in Vietnam."
Correspondence: N. T. N. Ngoc, Hung Vuong Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30332 Rasevic, Mirjana. Family planning as a lifestyle. [Planiranje porodice kao stil zivota.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1996. 61-81 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses family planning and changing attitudes toward family size in developed and developing countries. The effects of the value of children, changing norms, economic conditions, social change, and promotion of family planning programs are considered.
Correspondence: M. Rasevic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade,Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30333 Schoen, Robert; Kim, Young J.; Nathanson, Constance A.; Fields, Jason; Astone, Nan M. Why do Americans want children? Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 2, Jun 1997. 333-58, 463-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Prevailing theories of fertility behavior do not explain what sustains fertility in industrialized countries. Extending James Coleman's concept of social capital, the authors argue that the social resource value of children is an important factor motivating childbearing. Data for the United States from the 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Households are used to test hypotheses regarding how fertility intentions are influenced by the social resource value of children, the economic costs of children, and the effect of children on parental career. The social resource value of children emerges as a powerful predictor of fertility intentions across groups stratified by race, gender, union status, and parity. Children create social capital for parents, an important and previously underappreciated reason for why Americans want children."
Correspondence: R. Schoen, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Population Dynamics, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30334 Serour, G. I.; Ragab, A. R. Biosocial aspect of unwanted pregnancy: a case study from rural Egyptian community. Population Sciences, Vol. 15, Jan 1996. 13-26 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The paper reports on the biosocial aspect of unwanted pregnancy in a rural Egyptian community. This study is contexted in terms of reproductive health, shortcomings of family planning programmes and the problem of unwanted pregnancy in Egypt....Findings are outlined in terms of contraception behaviour, unwanted pregnancy and abortion."
Correspondence: G. I. Serour, Al-Azhar University, International Islamic Center for Population Studies and Research, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Demography, P.O. Box 1894-11651, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility. Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology.

63:30335 Blank, Rebecca M.; George, Christine C.; London, Rebecca A. State abortion rates: the impact of policies, providers, politics, demographics, and economic environment. Journal of Health Economics, Vol. 15, No. 5, Oct 1996. 513-53 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper uses data on [U.S.] abortion rates by state from 1974-1988 to estimate two-stage least squares models with fixed state and year effects. Restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion are correlated with lower abortion rates in-state and higher rates among nearby states. A maximal estimate suggests that 19-25% of the abortions among low-income women that are publicly funded do not take place after funding is eliminated. Parental notification laws for teen abortions do not significantly affect aggregate abortion rates. A large number of abortion providers in a state increases the abortion rate, primarily through inducing cross-state travel."
Correspondence: R. M. Blank, Northwestern University, Department of Economics, 2003 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208. E-mail: rblank@nwu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30336 Blayo, Chantal. The situation concerning abortion in France. [Le point sur l'avortement en France.] Population et Sociétés, No. 325, Jun 1997. [4] pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
A review of recent trends in induced abortion in France is presented using official data from the compulsory reporting of induced abortions introduced in 1975. The author analyzes the characteristics of women having abortions, the incidence of repeat abortions, abortion mortality, and the relation between abortion and contraception.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. E-mail: ined@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30337 Brown, Robert W.; Jewell, R. Todd. The impact of provider availability on abortion demand. Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 14, No. 2, Apr 1996. 95-106 pp. Huntington Beach, California. In Eng.
"This paper applies a fertility-control model to estimate the responsiveness of abortion demand to travel-cost variations using county-level data [for] the state of Texas. Abortion rates as well as pregnancy rates appear to be sensitive to availability-induced variations in the travel cost of abortion services. In particular, the results suggest that residents in counties with longer travel distances to the nearest abortion provider have lower abortion rates and lower pregnancy rates."
Correspondence: R. W. Brown, University of North Texas, Department of Economics, Denton, TX 76203-3826. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

63:30338 Ellertson, Charlotte. Mandatory parental involvement in minors' abortions: effects of the laws in Minnesota, Missouri, and Indiana. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 87, No. 8, Aug 1997. 1,367-74 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The effects of laws mandating parental involvement in minors' abortions in three U.S. states are analyzed using Poisson and logistic models fitted to vital records. "In each state, the in-state abortion rate for minors fell (relative to the rate for older women) when parental involvement laws took effect. Data offered no empirical support for the proposition that the laws drive up birthrates for minors. Although data were incomplete, the laws appeared to increase the odds of a minor's traveling out of state for her abortion. If one judges from the available data, minors who traveled out of state may have accounted for the entire observed decline in the in-state abortion rate, at least in Missouri. The laws appeared to delay minors' abortions past the eighth week, but probably not into the second trimester."
Correspondence: C. Ellertson, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:30339 Henshaw, Stanley K. Teenage abortion and pregnancy statistics by state, 1992. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 3, May-Jun 1997. 115-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article provides an update of national trends in rates of abortions and pregnancies among women aged 15-19 through 1992 (the latest year for which data are available) and births through 1995. It also presents the most accurate available estimates of state-level teenage abortion and pregnancy statistics." Results indicate that "in 1992, 112 pregnancies occurred per 1,000 U.S. women aged 15-19; of these, 61 ended in births, 36 in abortions and 15 in miscarriages. Black teenagers' rates of pregnancies, births and abortions were 2-3 times those of whites; Hispanic teenagers had rates of births and abortions between those of blacks and whites. While similar proportions of pregnant black and non-Hispanic white teenagers had abortions (40% and 38%, respectively), the proportion was lower among Hispanics (29%)....Between 1991 and 1995, the birthrate of black teenagers fell from 116 to 96 per 1,000, a level well below that of Hispanics (106 per 1,000)."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30340 Hug, Chrystel. Abortion in Ireland. [L'avortement en Irlande.] Irlande Politique et Sociale, No. 5, 1994. 43-64 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"From the ultimate taboo subject, abortion curiously became the most debated issue in the eighties....On this issue, as on other socio-moral issues, Irish society might be now coming of age--now that the logic of the law has been pushed to its extreme and back. This article retraces the trials and tribulations the issue has gone through."
Correspondence: C. Hug, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. Location: Yale University Library, New Haven, CT.

63:30341 Joyce, Theodore; Kaestner, Robert. State reproductive policies and adolescent pregnancy resolution: the case of parental involvement laws. Journal of Health Economics, Vol. 15, No. 5, Oct 1996. 579-607 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"State laws regulating abortion have increased markedly in the wake of recent Supreme Court decisions. We test whether laws that require minors to notify or obtain consent from a parent before receiving an abortion affect the likelihood that a pregnancy will be terminated. We use individual data on births and abortions from three southern states, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. We find that South Carolina's parent consent statute is associated with a decline of 10 percentage points in the probability of abortion among non-black minors of 16 years of age. We find no effect for any other age or racial group and conclude that the impact of parental involvement laws on the pregnancy resolution of minors is not large."
Correspondence: T. Joyce, National Bureau of Economic Research, 50 East 42nd Street, 17th Floor, New York, NY 10017-5405. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30342 Koonin, Lisa M.; Smith, Jack C.; Ramick, Merrell; Strauss, Lilo T.; Hopkins, Frederick W. Abortion surveillance--United States, 1993 and 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 46, No. 4, Aug 8, 1997. 37-98 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report summarizes and reviews information reported to CDC regarding legal induced abortions obtained in the United States during 1993 and 1994. This analysis also includes recently reported abortion-related deaths that occurred during 1991....Since 1990, the number of abortions has declined each year. Since 1987, the abortion-to-live-birth ratio also has declined; in 1994, it was the lowest recorded since 1977. This decrease in the abortion ratio reflected the lower proportion of pregnant women who obtained an induced abortion. As in previous years, deaths related to legal induced abortions occurred rarely (i.e., approximately one death per 100,000 legal induced abortions)." Extensive data are provided.
Correspondence: L. M. Koonin, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health (C06), Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30343 Levine, Phillip B.; Trainor, Amy B.; Zimmerman, David J. The effect of Medicaid abortion funding restrictions on abortions, pregnancies and births. Journal of Health Economics, Vol. 15, No. 5, Oct 1996. 555-78 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper considers whether [U.S.] state Medicaid abortion funding restrictions affect the likelihood of getting pregnant, having an abortion and bearing a child. We exploit a natural experiment afforded by Supreme Court decisions and employ more traditional multivariate models with alternative fixed effect specifications. An analysis of 12 years of state-level data indicate that restrictions are associated with a reduction in abortions and either no change or a reduction in births, implying fewer pregnancies. Subsequent analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) is consistent with these findings and show the response is concentrated among the low-income population."
Correspondence: P. B. Levine, Wellesley College, Department of Economics, Wellesley, MA 02181. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:30344 Nations, Marilyn K.; Misago, Chizuru; Fonseca, Walter; Correia, Luciano L.; Campbell, Oona M. R. Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 12, Jun 1997. 1,833-45 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Two folk medical conditions, `delayed' (atrasada) and `suspended' (suspendida) menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to `regulate' these conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also described, including ingesting herbal remedies, patent drugs, and modern pharmaceuticals....The authors argue that the ethnomedical conditions of `delayed' and `suspended' menstruation and subsequent menstrual regulation are part of the `hidden reproductive transcript' of poor and powerless Brazilian women. Through popular culture, they voice their collective dissent to the official, public opinion about the illegality and immorality of induced abortion and the chronic lack of family planning services in Northeast Brazil....The development of safer abortion alternatives should consider women's hidden reproductive transcripts."
Correspondence: C. Misago, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Maternal and Child Epidemiology Unit, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30345 Nilsen, Stein T.; Iversen, Ole-Erik. The pill scare--more legal abortions. [Negativ omtale av p-piller--økning av antall svangerskapsavbrudd.] Tidsskrift for den Norske Lægeforening/Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association, Vol. 29, No. 116, 1996. 3,486-8 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
"The reports on a higher risk of venous thromboembolism associated with third generation oral contraceptives (OCs) received a great deal of media attention in Norway. The Norwegian Medicines Control Authority recommended restricting the use of third generation OCs....During the first six months of 1996, the number of legal abortions in 11 hospitals covering 60% of all legal abortions in Norway increased by 297, or 7%, compared with the same period in 1995. A continuous downward trend in the number of legal abortions during the period 1990-95 has been broken, and replaced by an increase, which could represent a greater risk to women's health than a few cases of venous thromboembolism."
Correspondence: S. T. Nilsen, Kvinneklinikken, Sentralsjukehuset i Rogaland, 4003 Stavanger, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30346 Okonofua, Friday. Preventing unsafe abortion in Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1997. 25-36 pp. Benin City, Nigeria. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper reviews pertinent literature and identifies research needs relating to unsafe abortion in Nigeria....In the first part of the article, a conceptual framework for developing a research agenda to prevent unsafe abortion among Nigerian women is articulated....In the second section of the article, we offer a detailed description of the available research data as well as gaps in knowledge on unsafe abortion in Nigeria. In the final part of the paper, recommendations are made on priority areas of research that are capable of stemming the high rate of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion among Nigerian women."
Correspondence: F. Okonofua, Women's Health and Action Research Centre, 4 Alofoje Street off Uwasota Street, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30347 Osis, Maria J. D.; Hardy, Ellen; Faúndes, Anibal; Rodrigues, Telma. Difficulties encountered in gathering information from the population of women on illegal abortion. [Dificuldades para obter informações da população de mulheres sobre aborto ilegal.] Revista de Saúde Pública, Vol. 30, No. 5, Oct 1996. 444-51 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The frequency and conditions under which induced abortion was performed in a region of S. Paulo State [Brazil] are investigated. The women were interviewed at home using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Most of the women interviewed declared they had never had an abortion nor had they thought of having one, and four percent referred to having had an induced abortion. However, another 16.7 percent said that they had taken tea or medicine at least once to bring on their menses. In this group, most of the women who thought they were pregnant at that time said they [had] never had an abortion, in spite of having bled after drinking tea or medicine. The results lead to the conclusion that women tend to omit information on the practice of abortion when questioned directly. This is especially true of those who use oral means to bring on their menses and who seemed not to consider this a way of inducing an abortion."
Correspondence: M. J. D. Osis, Centro de Pesquisas das Doenças Materno-Infantis de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6181, 13081-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil. E-mail: cemicamp@turing.unicamp.br. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30348 Singh, Susheela; Wulf, Deirdre; Jones, Heidi. Health professionals' perceptions about induced abortion in South Central and Southeast Asia. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 2, Jun 1997. 59-67, 72 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"Although the legal status and the availability of induced abortion are highly variable in South Central and Southeast Asia, findings from a 1996 survey of 232 knowledgeable health professionals indicate that women of all socioeconomic levels obtain abortions, and many procedures take place in settings that may increase the risks to the woman's health. Overall, the vast majority of nonpoor urban women seeking abortions are believed to go to medically trained providers; however, roughly one-third to one-half of poor women in both urban and rural areas turn to a wide range of nonmedical providers or induce their abortion themselves. Of all women having abortions in these countries, about one-third are thought to experience medical complications, and only about half of these are hospitalized for treatment; thus, an estimated one in seven women having an abortion are hospitalized for the treatment of complications. The estimated abortion rate of 30 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 suggests that each year, 3% of women in South Central and Southeast Asia have an abortion; therefore, according to the survey results, about 1% are likely to suffer medical complications."
Correspondence: S. Singh, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30349 Singh, Susheela; Sedgh, Gilda. The relationship of abortion to trends in contraception and fertility in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 1, Mar 1997. 4-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"We indirectly project levels of abortion using a methodology that relies on estimates of the number of women who are hospitalized for the treatment of complications related to induced abortion. Because good trend data on contraceptive use in the past two decades are now available, we can examine the changing relationship from the late 1970s until the early 1990s between induced abortion and contraceptive use in three large countries of Latin America: Brazil, Colombia and Mexico. Specifically, we address the following questions: Have trends in abortion incidence and in contraceptive prevalence been interrelated? Has this relationship varied by country, or by region within countries? And how do contraceptive use and abortion, respectively, account for fertility levels and for changes in the fertility rate?"
Correspondence: S. Singh, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30350 Thukral, A. K. Female foeticide and sex ratio. Journal of Human Ecology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1993. 51-4 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The recent introduction and usage of sex determination tests have become rather a curse for the female foetus in India. The practice of aborting female embryo[s] emanates from the male preference in our society. The present report simulates the sex ratio ensuing from the practice of female foeticide. The analysis takes into consideration the rank of the child at which the couple practises the female foeticide in order to have a male child, assuming that the couple does not practise female foeticide to have more than one child of male sex...."
Correspondence: A. K. Thukral, Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Botanical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Amristar 1430 05, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30351 van de Walle, Etienne. Flowers and fruits: two thousand years of menstrual regulation. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 38, No. 2, Autumn 1997. 183-203 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The hypothesis that Western couples in antiquity, the Middle Ages, and early modern times purposely regulated their fertility through early abortion by using a number of plant substances is challenged. "Based on an examination of medical and scientific literature, in particular, this article argues that plant substances were taken primarily to stimulate the natural process of menstruation, and that their use as abortifacients was a rare deviation from the norm....[The author argues] that there were powerful reasons to prescribe these drugs, even though it was recognized that they should be treated with caution, lest they interfere with pregnancy. [He shows] that the hypothesis of widespread fertility control by means of these substances does not find much support in the sources consulted. [He also investigates] whether these substances have left a trace in the literature about abortion."
Correspondence: E. van de Walle, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

63:30352 Winikoff, Beverly; Sivin, Irving; Coyaji, Kurus J.; Cabezas, Evelio; Xiao, Bilian; Gu, Sujuan; Du, Ming-kun; Krishna, Usha R.; Eschen, Andrea; Ellertson, Charlotte. The acceptability of medical abortion in China, Cuba and India. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 2, Jun 1997. 73-8, 89 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"In a comparative study of the acceptability of medical abortion and surgical abortion among women in developing countries, patients at clinics in China, Cuba and India were allowed to choose between a surgical procedure and a medical regimen of mifepristone and misoprostol. The most common reasons women cited for choosing medical abortion were their desire to avoid surgery and general anesthesia; the reasons they mentioned most frequently for choosing surgical abortion were speed, simplicity and effectiveness. The failure rate for medical abortion varied from 5% in India to 16% in Cuba, while that for surgical abortion ranged from 0% in India to 4% in Cuba. Although side effects were more frequently reported by women who chose medical abortion, the majority of women at all sites were either satisfied or highly satisfied with their abortion experience, regardless of method (medical, 84-95%; surgical, 94-100%). At every site, medical abortion clients were significantly more likely than surgical clients to report being highly satisfied...but also were more likely to report not being satisfied....In China and India, women who had a medical abortion were significantly more likely than those who had a surgical abortion to say they would choose the same method again."
Correspondence: B. Winikoff, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

63:30353 Davies-Adetugbo, Anita A. Sociocultural factors and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in rural Yoruba communities of Osun State, Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 45, No. 1, Jul 1997. 113-25 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports on local knowledge and attitudes of breastfeeding and the sociocultural factors that shape its practice in poor rural Yoruba communities of Southwestern Nigeria. The study has conducted 10 focus group discussions among homogeneous groups of grandmothers, pregnant women, lactating mothers, husbands, and community health workers, and a questionnaire survey of 256 third trimester pregnant women. All women in these communities breastfeed their infants on demand, and for up to two years, because breastmilk is universally accepted as the best food for babies, and breastfeeding spaces births."
Correspondence: A. A. Davies-Adetugbo, Obafemi Awolowo University, College of Health Sciences, Department of Community Health, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:30354 Nath, Dilip C.; Goswami, Giti. Determinants of breast-feeding patterns in an urban society of India. Human Biology, Vol. 69, No. 4, Aug 1997. 557-73 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study uses data from a retrospective survey conducted in 1991-1992 to investigate current breast-feeding patterns and to identify the key factors that influence the duration of exclusive breast feeding and infant's age at the time of weaning in an urban Hindu society of the northeast Indian state of Assam. Applying life table procedures and a hazards regression model, we found evidence that the median duration of exclusive breast feeding and infant's age at the time of weaning were negatively associated with mother's education, per capita income, and social status of the household....Male infants were found to have a significantly lower risk of early weaning than female infants."
Correspondence: D. C. Nath, Gauhati University, Department of Statistics, Guwahati 781 014, Assam, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

63:30355 Ermisch, John F.; Wright, Robert E. The economic environment and entry to single parenthood in Great Britain. Applied Economics, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan 1996. 483-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The study estimates a hazard-rate model of the socioeconomic factors influencing the risk of entering single parenthood among British women, through pre-marital births to never-married women. Higher welfare benefits and higher unemployment levels moderately increase the likelihood of a pre-marital birth. The male-female wage ratio has little impact. The facts of being in education or employment are associated with a lower risk of a pre-marital birth among this group of women. This suggests that flows into single parenthood `select' women in poorer economic circumstances."
Correspondence: J. F. Ermisch, University of Essex, ESRC Research Centre on Micro-Social Change, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex C04 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30356 Garssen, M. J.; Sprangers, A. H. Nonmarital fertility by mother's country of birth. [Buitenechtelijke vruchtbaarheid naar geboorteland van de moeder.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 45, No. 6, Jun 1997. 6-11 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The number of non-marital births in the Netherlands has doubled between 1985 and 1995, from 14.8 thousand to 29.9 thousand....There are major differences in the share of illegitimate fertility between countries of birth of the mother. Women born in Turkey or Morocco show the lowest shares (4.5% and 4.9% respectively)....The proportion of non-marital births among women born in countries of the European Union (excluding the Netherlands) was above average but similar to that of their countries of origin. The largest shares of non-marital births are recorded among women born in the Netherlands Antilles/Aruba and in Suriname."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30357 Hoffman, Saul D.; Foster, E. Michael. Economic correlates of nonmarital childbearing among adult women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 3, May-Jun 1997. 137-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this research note, we examine socioeconomic correlates of nonmarital childbearing among [U.S.] women aged 20 or older. We present an assessment of how these women are faring along a number of important socioeconomic dimensions compared with women with different marital and fertility histories. Our goal is to provide preliminary evidence as to the potential economic implications of this growing demographic phenomenon." Results indicate that "the socioeconomic status of women who have had a nonmarital birth as an adult is similar to that of women who had a birth as an adolescent: they have similar median income-to-needs ratios (2.29 vs. 2.17), and similar rates of poverty (20% vs. 23%) and welfare receipt (22% vs. 19%). Women who have had both teenage and postteenage nonmarital births fare particularly poorly: their median family income is $11,280; nearly half receive welfare; and 55% are officially poor."
Correspondence: S. D. Hoffman, University of Delaware, Department of Economics, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:30358 Stevans, Lonnie K. Aid to families with dependent children (AFDC) and non-marital births in the USA: an examination of causality. Applied Economics, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan 1996. 417-27 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Utilizing a sample of 2,964 unmarried women over the period 1979-88 from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a test was performed to determine the causal direction of relationship between receipt of aid to families with dependent children (AFDC) and the decision to have a non-marital birth. The existence of `causality' is defined as the lack of a simultaneous relationship or joint dependency between these variables. One of the most interesting findings was a failure to reject the hypothesis that these choices are jointly determined. Both were found to depend upon variables that are demographic, economic, personal, and family related. The profiles derived from the specification and estimation of a simultaneous equation system with discrete endogenous variables depict a woman whose fertility and economic decisions were predominantly based on economic deprivation, demographic situation and family instability."
Correspondence: L. K. Stevans, 134 Hofstra University, Department of BCIS/QM, Hempstead, NY 11735. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:30359 Winegarden, C. R.; Bracy, Paula. Welfare benefits and illegitimacy in the U.S.: reconciling contradictory trends. Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 64, No. 1, Jul 1997. 167-79 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"In the continuing public debate over `welfare reform' in the U.S., one of the most controversial issues concerns the extent (if any) to which record levels of illegitimate births may be caused by the program of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Paralleling the popular controversy, an expanding research literature provides widely disparate answers to this question....Economic theory unequivocally predicts a positive `AFDC effect' on out-of-wedlock childbearing. However, there is no escaping the fact that the recent upsurge in illegitimacy in the U.S. has occurred in the face of steep declines in the real value of welfare benefits per dependent family."
Correspondence: C. R. Winegarden, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.