Volume 63 - Number 2 - Summer 1997

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population.

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

63:20416 Ali, Syed M.; Siyal, Hussain B.; Sultan, Mehboob. Women's empowerment and reproductive choices. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 34, No. 4, Pt. III, Winter 1995. 1,137-50 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The authors use data from the 1990-1991 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey to examine some variables indicating women's empowerment and to analyze the impact of such variables on reproductive choices. They conclude that "most Pakistani women are unaccustomed to the idea of planning children; for them, having children is a phenomenon as simple and common as most other issues of life. Among others who desire a specific number of children, the majority end up having more. It is because socio-cultural influences lead women to have a large family size. Our analysis also denotes similar results, and hence most of the empowerment variables used in this analysis do not explain the variation in the dependent variable as was expected." A comment by Khaleda Manzoor (pp.1,148-50) is included.
Correspondence: S. M. Ali, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20417 Centre for Development and Population Activities [CEDPA] (Washington, D.C.). Interfaith reflections on women, poverty and population. 1996. 134 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference on women, poverty, and population held in Washington, D.C., in February 1996. The primary focus of these papers is on the roles of women in resolving population problems, achieving sustainable development, and reducing poverty levels. The importance of ensuring that the United States maintains its support for the programs and agendas agreed at a number of recent international conferences, including the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the 1995 Social Summit, and the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women, is stressed.
Correspondence: Centre for Development and Population Activities, 1717 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. E-mail: cmail@cedpa.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20418 Cozic, Charles P. An aging population. Opposing Viewpoints Series, ISBN 1-56510-395-5. LC 95-49646. 1996. 216 pp. Greenhaven Press: San Diego, California. In Eng.
This is one in a series of monographs that present a selection of opposing viewpoints on a number of issues of current relevance in the United States. The items selected have been previously published. This book focuses on the aging of the population, and the contributions are grouped under the following topics: how will an aging population affect America?; should entitlement programs for seniors be reformed?; which quality of life do older Americans face?; what type of health care should the elderly receive?; and how does society view aging and the elderly?
Correspondence: Greenhaven Press, P.O. Box 289009, San Diego, CA 92198-9009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20419 Schmid, Josef. "Relations between cohorts": socio-cultural consequences. In: Demografia: analisi e sintesi. Cause e conseguenze dei processi demografici, edited by Graziella Caselli. Apr 1996. 199-211 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Eng.
Some demographic aspects of the relations between cohorts are considered in this chapter. Separate consideration is given to such relationships within the family, among the independent and dependent cohorts of society as a whole, and within the context of the social security system. The author briefly discusses the prospects for further developing pronatalist policies.
Correspondence: J. Schmid, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg, Kapuzinerstraße 16, 96045 Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20420 Spain, Daphne; Bianchi, Suzanne M. Balancing act: motherhood, marriage, and employment among American women. ISBN 0-87154-814-3. LC 96-5087. 1996. xv, 240 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study began as a revision of the authors' 1986 study entitled American Women in Transition. "In recognition of the change in women's lives, we begin this book with an overview of childbearing patterns among American women....Following that, we turn to marital status and living arrangements....The middle chapters...review women's socioeconomic gains of the past decade: in education..., in labor force and occupational status..., in earnings..., and in economic well-being and poverty....[The authors also] examine how women combine employment and family roles. The book is organized around the central roles that women occupy throughout their lives. The dominant theme is that most women now perform a variety of paid and unpaid tasks each day, rather than specializing in motherhood at one stage of life and possibly employment at another. The strategies devised by individual women to address these simultaneous demands form the demographic patterns described in this book." Data are from a variety of sources, both national and international.
For the 1986 study, see 52:40739.
Correspondence: Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

No citations in this issue.

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

63:20421 Bonita, Ruth; Howe, Anna L. Older women in an aging world: achieving health across the life course. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 49, No. 2, 1996. 134-41 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article...presents demographic data that clearly demonstrate the need for recognition of the health of aging women as a global issue of major public health concern. The authors show that, while female life expectancy at birth is significantly different in developed and developing countries (because of high infant and maternal mortality in the latter), these differences tend to decrease for women in developing countries who reach middle age...The role of older women as care-givers is discussed, as is the likelihood of a future increase in the proportion of older women living alone in the developing world....Suggestions are made on methodologies for monitoring health trends in aging women, and on the role of WHO in this respect."
Correspondence: R. Bonita, University of Auckland, Department of Medicine, University Geriatric Unit, Private Bag, Auckland 1, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20422 Brookmeyer, Ron. AIDS, epidemics, and statistics. Biometrics, Vol. 52, No. 3, Sep 1996. 781-96 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Statistical thinking has made significant contributions to our understanding of epidemics. Examples where statistics has played an important role in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic include estimating the number of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, estimating the incubation period of the disease, studying the etiology of the disease, and monitoring and forecasting the course of the epidemic. Some parallels with other epidemics in history are drawn. The AIDS epidemic has also raised important questions about the design of clinical studies and whether classical approaches are sufficiently flexible to provide timely answers to therapeutic questions in a growing epidemic. In a public health crisis, there is a sense of urgency and data may be collected with unusual sampling schemes and inherent biases. Attention needs to be paid as much to sampling variation as to systematic sources of bias. Accurate disease surveillance data and methods for analyzing such data are crucial for detecting and monitoring future epidemics."
Correspondence: R. Brookmeyer, Johns Hopkins University, School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. E-mail: rbrookme@phnet.sph.jhu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20423 Conseil pour le Développement de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales en Afrique [CODESRIA] (Dakar, Senegal); Comité National de Prévention du SIDA [CNLS] (Dakar, Senegal); Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération [ORSTOM] (Paris, France). International Symposium. Social Sciences and AIDS in Africa: Review and Prospects. [Colloque International. Sciences Sociales et Sida en Afrique: Bilan et Perspectives.] Oct 1996. xvi, 892 pp. Dakar, Senegal. In Eng; Fre.
These two volumes include documents for presentation at a conference on AIDS in Africa, held in Sali Portudal, Senegal, November 4-8, 1996. The session papers, some of which are in draft form, are in English or French, and are organized under the following five topics: the epidemic of AIDS and its social, political, and cultural contexts; models and projections in times of AIDS; social practices, living conditions, and vulnerable groups; modes of assistance to those affected by AIDS; and AIDS, medicine, and the social sciences. There are also papers for three round tables: AIDS under adverse circumstances, assistance to HIV-infected people, and institutional and noninstitutional participants in national HIV-control programs.
Correspondence: Conseil pour le Développement de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales en Afrique, B.P. 3304, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20424 Islam, S. M. Shafiqul; Islam, M. Monirul. Influences of selected socio-economic and demographic factors on child immunization in a rural area of Bangladesh. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1996. 275-83 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present paper is to study the level of childhood immunization in a rural area of Bangladesh and to examine the influences of selected socio-economic and demographic factors on immunization of child....Education of mothers was found to have a significant positive relationship with childhood immunization for both the last and penultimate children....This study also reveals that the mother's [tetanus] vaccine status during last pregnancy has statistically significant effect on youngest and penultimate childhood immunization....The multivariate analysis has also shown that sex of the child is one of the important determinants of childhood immunization."
Correspondence: S. M. S. Islam, University of Chittagong, Department of Statistics, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20425 Johannisson, E.; Kovács, L.; Resch, B. A.; Bruyniks, N. P. Assessment of research and service needs in Eastern Europe--concerns and commitments. ISBN 1-85070-696-4. LC 95-32808. 1995. xlvi, 231 pp. Parthenon Publishing Group: Pearl River, New York/Carnforth, England. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a workshop held in Szeged, Hungary, October 25-27, 1993. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the research and service needs in reproductive health in Central and Eastern Europe and to propose ways and means to improve reproductive health in the population of the countries concerned. Following a general introduction, the next three sections of the book examine reproductive health issues in the public, nonprofit, and private sectors, respectively. In the fourth section, the participants describe the current status in their own countries concerning reproductive health, including family planning and infertility services. These countries include Albania, Armenia, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Ukraine.
Correspondence: Parthenon Publishing Group, Casterton Hall, Carnforth, Lancashire LA6 2LA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20426 Kovács, L. Reproductive health: a human right and a pillar of human dignity. Advances in Contraception, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1996. 241-337 pp. Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers presented at a symposium in Szeged, Hungary, on reproductive health. The symposium was dedicated to Professor Egon Diczfalusy on the occasion of his 75th birthday. Chapters are included on reproductive health in selected countries; STDs, AIDS, and reproductive health; reproductive health of the young and the elderly, and before and after childbearing age; women's health; and international collaboration.
Correspondence: Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 17, 322 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20427 Lavy, Victor; Strauss, John; Thomas, Duncan; de Vreyer, Philippe. Quality of health care, survival and health outcomes in Ghana. RAND Labor and Population Program Reprint Series, No. 96-20, Pub. Order No. RAND/RP-570. 1997. 333-57 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the effect of quality and accessibility of health services and other public infrastructure on the health of children in Ghana. We focus on child survival, child height and weight using data from the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The results suggest an important role for public health policy in eliminating the rural-urban disparities in health status and particularly in improving the health status of rural children and reducing their mortality rates. Increased availability of birth services and other related child programs, as well as improved water and sanitation infrastructure would have an immediate payoff."
Reprinted from Journal of Health Economics, Vol. 15, 1996.
Correspondence: RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20428 Macklin, Ruth. Ethics and reproductive health: a principled approach. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 49, No. 2, 1996. 148-53 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Universal ethical principles can be used to analyse problems in reproductive health. The principle of beneficence obligates people to strive to bring about more beneficial consequences than harmful ones. The principle known as respect for persons presumes that all human beings have dignity and are worthy of respect. Showing equal respect for women as persons means recognizing their autonomy and treating them as capable decision-makers and full participants in medical decisions. A third leading concern of bioethics is justice, which requires a fair distribution of family planning methods, including access to safe abortion in cases of contraceptive failure."
Correspondence: R. Macklin, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20429 Mayer, Jonathan D. Social science, human ecology, and emerging diseases. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 97-3, Feb 1997. 31 pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"The complacency with which much of the medical community viewed infectious diseases until the 1980s is understandable, for smallpox had been eliminated, tuberculosis was well on the way to being a minor problem in the United States, and many infectious diseases in the tropics appeared to be on the wane. However, because of many factors, infectious diseases are very much a cause for concern in some places, and for alarm in other places. HIV has devastated much of sub-Saharan Africa; drug-resistant tuberculosis continues to increase in the United States, particularly among the urban poor and homeless, and hospital acquired infections are increasing. Several of these have extremely high case-fatality rates, since they are responsive to no known antibiotics. Over the long term, disruption of the ecosystem and its fragile equilibrium with humans, continues to take its toll."
Correspondence: University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20430 Mboi, Nafsiah. Women and AIDS in South and South-East Asia: the challenge and the response. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 49, No. 2, 1996. 94-105 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"South and South-East Asia are at the centre of the most aggressive advances of the AIDS epidemic today....For anatomical reasons, women are more vulnerable than men to infection by HIV. In addition, throughout the Asian region, women's `natural' vulnerability is vastly magnified by poverty and generally low levels of education and personal autonomy which make it difficult for them to gain access to information and appropriate services. Because of women's multiple roles in the epidemic--potential `infectee', care-giver, transmitter of infection--if we are to be successful in halting the spread of HIV/AIDS we must give particular attention to reaching, working with, and serving women."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20431 Mizrahi, Andrée; Mizrahi, Arié. The health response. [La réponse sanitaire.] In: Demografia: analisi e sintesi. Cause e conseguenze dei processi demografici, edited by Graziella Caselli. Apr 1996. 71-83 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Fre.
The relationship between medical expenditures and mortality is examined using the example of France over the period 1960-1991. The authors note that medical expenditures doubled from 1982 to 1994, while life expectancy increased 2.9 years over the same period.
Correspondence: A. Mizrahi, Centre de Recherche, d'Etudes et de Documentation en Economie de la Santé, 1 rue Paul Cezanne, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20432 Murray, Christopher J. L.; Lopez, Alan D. Global health statistics: a compendium of incidence, prevalence and mortality estimates for over 200 conditions. Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series, Vol. 2, ISBN 0-674-35449-4. LC 96-26652. 1996. vii, 906 pp. Harvard University, School of Public Health: Boston, Massachusetts; World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland; World Bank: Washington, D.C. Distributed by Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. In Eng.
This is the second publication in a planned series of 10 volumes that summarize epidemiological knowledge about the major health conditions and risk factors around the world, including information on causes of death. "Following [a] brief introduction describing the methods used to prepare the estimates, the remainder of the volume includes a series of tables containing basic demographic information for each of the eight geographical regions used in the World Development Report 1993, followed by a much larger number of tables which provide estimates of incidence, prevalence, average age of onset, average duration, deaths in 1990 and projected deaths in 2000 for various diseases and sequelae."
For Volume 1 in this series, also published in 1996, see 63:10735.
Correspondence: Harvard University, School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20433 Murray, Christopher J. L.; Lopez, Alan D. Regional patterns of disability-free life expectancy and disability-adjusted life expectancy: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet, Vol. 349, No. 9062, May 10, 1997. 1,347-52 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is the second of four planned papers reporting results from the Global Burden of Disease Study, a project attempting to provide comparable and accurate estimates of causes of death for the year 1990 for the world's major regions by age group and sex. In this paper, the authors analyze regional patterns of healthy life expectancy. The results indicate that "the higher proportion of lifespan spent disabled in high-mortality populations is consistent with the compression of morbidity hypothesis. The threshold definition of disability used substantially affects the results of [disability-free life expectancy. Disability-adjusted life expectancy], which incorporates severity weights for disabilities, is a useful summary measure of the burden of disability and mortality."
For the first paper in this series, by the same authors, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: C. J. L. Murray, Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

63:20434 Robine, Jean-Marie. Lengthening of life and health status of the population. In: Demografia: analisi e sintesi. Cause e conseguenze dei processi demografici, edited by Graziella Caselli. Apr 1996. 51-69 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
This chapter concerns the concept of healthy life expectancy, which has become increasingly relevant in developed countries because these countries have experienced significant increases in overall life expectancy and consequent increases in morbidity among the elderly. The author notes that comparisons among countries are handicapped by the lack of agreement concerning the indicators of morbidity. However, the author does conclude that "whatever country is examined, the rise in life expectancy has not been accompanied by an increase in the time lived with severe disability or with severe handicaps."
Correspondence: J.-M. Robine, Equipe INSERM Démographie et Santé, Centre Val d'Aurelle, Parc Euromédecine, 34298 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20435 Salomon, Michel; Toubon, Robert; Batlle, Sandra. AIDS, societies, and populations. [Sida, sociétés et populations.] ISBN 2-7420-0139-5. 1996. 308 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of a symposium on AIDS, societies, and populations held at the Assemblée Nationale in Paris, October 17-18, 1995. The symposium had three objectives: to make clear the demographic impact of the AIDS epidemic, to look at the ethical problems that the countries affected by the epidemic are facing, and to see what role international assistance can play in helping the countries most affected by the combined effects of poverty and overpopulation. The organizers note that by the year 2000, according to some estimates, 95% of those affected by AIDS will be in developing countries; most of them will be young, educated, and female, the very people who would normally be the pillars of support for their communities. This will likely increase the detrimental effects of the epidemic on the societies concerned.
Correspondence: John Libbey Eurotext, 127 avenue de la République, 92120 Montrouge, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20436 Smith, James P.; Kington, Raynard. Demographic and economic correlates of health in old age. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 1, Feb 1997. 159-70 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper we examine disparities in the ability to function among older Americans. We place special emphasis on two goals: (1) understanding the quantitatively large socioeconomic status-health gradient, and (2) the persistence in health outcomes over long periods. We find that there exist strong contemporaneous and long-run feedbacks from health to economic status. In light of these feedbacks, it is important to distinguish among alternative sources of income and the recipient of income in the household. This research also demonstrates that health outcomes at old age are influenced by health attributes of past, concurrent, and future generations of relatives. Finally, we find that the demographic and economic differences that exist among them explain functional health disparities by race and ethnicity, but not by gender."
Correspondence: J. P. Smith, RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. E-mail: James_Smith@RAND.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20437 United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Update: trends in AIDS incidence, deaths, and prevalence--United States, 1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 46, No. 8, Feb 28, 1997. 165-73 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"The national acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) surveillance system is used to describe the impact of HIV-related morbidity and death in the United States. This report presents trends in AIDS incidence during 1996 and describes recent declines in deaths among persons reported with AIDS (AIDS deaths) and increases in AIDS prevalence."
Correspondence: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20438 Vossen, Ad P. Population aging and public health care in the Netherlands: the long-term demographic effects. [Bevolkingsveroudering en gezondheidszorg in Nederland: het demografisch effect voor de lange termijn.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1993. 1-19 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes the demographic impact of population aging on public health care in the Netherlands. "The population system is operationalized in terms of its age structure (as derived from three strongly differing demographic scenarios), while the costs of health care are expressed in age/gender profiles. By holding the latter constant in time, one can calculate whether changing age patterns will decrease or increase the per capita costs of health care. Our analyses show that the demographic effect on the cost of illness can be predicted reasonably well for the coming twenty-five years, and will approximately amount to ten per cent."
Correspondence: A. P. Vossen, Katholieke Universiteit Brabant, Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, Sectie Demografie, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

63:20439 Westergaard, Tine; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Aaby, Peter; Melbye, Mads. Population based study of rates of multiple pregnancies in Denmark, 1980-94. British Medical Journal, Vol. 314, No. 7083, Mar 15, 1997. 775-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Trends in multiple pregnancies that are not explained by changes in maternal age and parity are explored using data on 803,019 pregnancies occurring in Denmark between 1980 and 1994. The results indicate that "a relatively small group of women has drastically changed the overall national rates of multiple pregnancies. The introduction of new treatments to enhance fertility has probably caused these changes and has also affected the otherwise decreasing trend in infant mortality. Consequently, the resources, both economical and otherwise, associated with these treatments go well beyond those invested in specific fertility enhancing treatments."
Correspondence: M. Melbye, Statens Serum Institut, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Department of Epidemiology Research, Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.