Volume 63 - Number 2 - Summer 1997

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications. Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations, as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

63:20333 Coney, Nancy S.; Mackey, Wade C. Weinberg's Rule versus facultative sex ratio: an impasse in need of Occam's razor. Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 2, Winter 1996. 187-201 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The dynamics of the human sex ratio has two thematic interpretations. One interpretation is that the sperm essentially operate independently of each other, and gender determination at conception is approximated by a coin-flip analogy. This interpretation forms the basis of Weinberg's Rule. The second interpretation is that the woman's ecological situation biases her toward/away from androsperm or gynosperm, i.e. sperm do not operate independently of each other at conception (or differential mortality occurs as a function of gender during gestation). This interpretation forms the basis of the notion that the human sex ratio is facultative....Data have been gathered by adherents to support both interpretations. The conundrum of potentially mutually exclusive explanations being simultaneously accepted is examined."
Correspondence: N. S. Coney, University of Western Illinois, Macomb, IL 61455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20334 Dooghe, G. Demographic profile of the very elderly in Belgium. [Demografisch profiel van de hoogbejaarden in Belgie.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1993. 65-93 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This article describes the development and the characteristics of the elderly aged 85 or over in Belgium. The heterogeneity of the group of the elderly also applies to that of the very elderly: differences as to sex, age, accommodation, income, health and degree of dependence....It is expected that, for the coming decades, the age group 85 years and over will proportionately increase much faster than the age group 65 years and over....The number of families with two generations of elderly people is rapidly increasing and thus causes a constantly higher pressure on the sector of care....Further it appears that the income of the elderly aged 85 or over is very problematic, although the socio-economic position of the elderly has generally improved."
Correspondence: G. Dooghe, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20335 Korchagin, V. P. Indicators of the economic and demographic development of the population. [Indikatory ekonomiko-demograficheskogo razvitiya naseleniya.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 9, 1996. 42-54 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The author develops an index of human development, based on three main components: life expectancy, educational status, and income. The index is applied to data for Russia and other countries that were republics in the former Soviet Union.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20336 Kupiszewski, Marek. Temporal and spatial variations of observed and projected age structures in Poland in the nineteen eighties. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 95/7, 1995. 23 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
"Recently much attention has been paid to the question of changes of age structures, in particular to the question of ageing and young cohorts. In Europe ageing of population is...the focus of these research efforts. In Poland, where the process of ageing is neither advanced nor rapid in comparison to other European countries, not too much attention has been paid to this question up to now....In this paper an attempt is made to show how the fluctuating patterns of mortality, fertility and migration observed in the late seventies and the eighties have influenced the process of changes of population age structures....Most papers based on the multiple-point approach concentrate on the spatial dynamics of population. In this paper the focus is on structural changes."
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20337 Nair, P. Mohanchandran. Imbalance of sex ratio of children in India. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1996. 177-87 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper presents the changing sex ratio of children in India and states and explores the possible reasons for the variations in the sex ratio. It also intends to measure the extent of female mortality disadvantage and describes the possible demographic, social, health and other consequences of changing sex ratios of children. Finally, a thought is...given as to what can be done for the well being of female children."
Correspondence: P. M. Nair, University of Kerala, Department of Demography, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695 034, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20338 Valkovics, Emil. An attempt at quantifying the role of demographic factors determining dependency ratios (II). [Az eltartási arányokat meghatározó demográfiai tényezok kvantifikálása (II).] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 74, No. 11, Nov 1996. 940-52 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"The contribution presents, evaluates and compares four recently elaborated quantitative procedures for estimating the immediate determinants of changing age structures. Two of them are used for evaluating the immediate determinants of changing proportions of populations of different age-groups and two of them are used for showing the immediate determinants of changing (or different) mean ages of populations studied....[The author uses] data for the Hungarian male population at the beginning, at the end and in the middle of 1990."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20339 Walker, Alan; Maltby, Tony. Ageing Europe. Rethinking Ageing Series, ISBN 0-335-19747-7. LC 96-9095. 1997. x, 149 pp. Open University Press: Bristol, Pennsylvania/Buckingham, England. In Eng.
"This book presents findings from recent policy oriented research undertaken by the EU's [European Union's] Observatory on Ageing and Older People: the most definitive account to date of socio-economic policies affecting older people and the extent of their social integration in European society. The book also presents the results from a specially commissioned Eurobarometer survey of public attitudes to ageing and older people conducted in twelve European Union countries. Overall it provides a unique and comprehensive portrait of how older people are perceived by the general public in the EU and how they view themselves and the ageing process. The book criticizes European countries for failing to come to terms with the fact of societal ageing and challenges them and the EU itself to ensure the social integration of older people."
Correspondence: Open University Press, Celtic Court, 22 Ballmoor, Buckingham MK18 1XW, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility.

63:20340 Blanchard, Ray; Bogaert, Anthony F. The relation of closed birth intervals to the sex of the preceding child and the sexual orientation of the succeeding child. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan 1997. 111-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The study investigated whether homosexual men are, on average, born a shorter time after their next-older siblings than are heterosexual men....The probands were 220 heterosexual and 183 homosexual men with at least one older sibling examined in Southern Ontario in 1994-95. These completed a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire concerning their family background and other biodemographic information. The results showed that birth interval was negatively correlated with sibship size, positively correlated with maternal age, and uncorrelated with paternal age. They also confirmed that birth intervals are longer after a male than after a female child. The mean birth intervals preceding heterosexual and homosexual males, however, were virtually identical, indicating that the association of short birth intervals with decreased sex hormone levels in cord blood is unrelated to the development of sexual orientation."
Correspondence: R. Blanchard, Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20341 Dooghe, Gilbert. Life expectancy and quality of life. [Levensverwachting en kwaliteit van het leven.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, 1993. 25-44 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The controversial opinions concerning the relationship between life expectancy and health are successively highlighted, after which various empirical data from international literature pass in review. Although the greatest possible carefulness must be observed, it appears from recent empirical material that in countries with a high life expectancy, each increase will be accompanied by a relatively sharp rise in the number of years of being in poorer health."
Correspondence: G. Dooghe, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20342 Fogel, Robert W.; Costa, Dora L. A theory of technophysio evolution, with some implications for forecasting population, health care costs, and pension costs. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 1, Feb 1997. 49-66 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"We argue that over the past 300 years human physiology has been undergoing profound environmentally induced changes made possible by numerous advances in technology. These changes, which we call technophysio evolution, increased body size by over 50%, and greatly improved the robustness and capacity of vital organ systems. Because technophysio evolution is still ongoing, it is relevant to forecasts of longevity and morbidity and, therefore, to forecasts of the size of the elderly population and pension and health care costs."
Correspondence: R. W. Fogel, University of Chicago, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1101 E. 58th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. E-mail: imok@tao.cpe.uchicago.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20343 Yashin, Anatoli I.; Iachine, Ivan A. How frailty models can be used for evaluating longevity limits: taking advantage of an interdisciplinary approach. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 1, Feb 1997. 31-48 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper we discuss an approach to the analysis of mortality and longevity limits when survival data on related individuals with and without observed covariates are available. The approach combines the ideas of demography and survival analysis with methods of quantitative genetics and genetic epidemiology. It allows us to analyze the genetic structure of frailty in the Cox-type hazard model with random effects. We demonstrate the implementation of this strategy to survival data on Danish twins. We then evaluate the resulting lower bounds for biological limits of human longevity. Finally, we discuss the limitations of this approach and directions of further research."
Correspondence: A. I. Yashin, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. E-mail: a.yashin@chsmed.ou.dk. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population, and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation.

63:20344 Altonji, Joseph G.; Hayashi, Fumio; Kotlikoff, Laurence. The effects of income and wealth on time and money transfers between parents and children. In: Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change: papers. [1996]. 1-27, [21] pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic Demography: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper we study the effects of income and wealth on transfers of money and time between individuals and their parents and in-laws....We estimate the effects of incomes of siblings on the amounts received from parents and the amounts given to parents. We provide the first estimates of the effects of incomes of parents relative to the incomes of parents in-law on the amounts given and received by married couples. We study how the relative incomes of divorced parents affect transfers to and from such parents and their children. Finally, we examine the interrelationship between time transfers and money transfers and examine the effects of distance on the two types of transfers. We attempt to draw out the implications of our results from alternative theories of transfers. Our analysis is based on the recently released transfer supplement to the 1988 [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) along with matched panel data on the incomes, wealth, health status, and family structure of a set of parents and their adult children."
Correspondence: J. G. Altonji, Northwestern University, Department of Economics, Evanston, IL 60208. E-mail: altonji@nwu.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20345 Bhaumik, Sumon K.; Nugent, Jeffrey B. Wealth accumulation, fertility and transfers to elderly heads in Peru. In: Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change: papers. [1996]. 1-18, [6] pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic Demography: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to explore the determinants of transfers from children to elderly parents in both urban and rural areas of Peru where such alternative sources of support are semi-developed but vary considerably in this respect from place to place and group to group, and where social norms and the family are no longer as strong as they once were. In view of the apparently dim prospect for social security, considerable emphasis will be put on the role of savings and wealth accumulation and its effects on transfers....While altruism is acknowledged, the emphasis is on exchange and strategic behavior for purposes of empirically assessing the effectiveness of different strategies which household heads may follow so as to encourage transfers from their children in a country like Peru."
Correspondence: J. B. Nugent, University of Southern California, Department of Economics, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0253. E-mail: nugent@almaak.usc.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20346 Bravo, Jorge. A note on the rate of return of unfunded pension systems. In: Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change: papers. [1996]. 1-14 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic Demography: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"Most...analyses of the rate of return [of unfunded pension systems] have relied on several simplifying assumptions. In the present discussion I lift some of those assumptions and set out to work under a still simple theoretical setup, which is nonetheless closer to real world conditions regarding productivity growth and the institutional rules of the pension systems....I restrict attention to unfunded pensions ignoring other transfers, capital dilution effects, fertility/mortality distinctions and general equilibrium issues. One simplifying assumption I will keep in the present discussion is the fixation of a `typical' individual life-cycle...." The analysis is illustrated with examples from Latin America.
Correspondence: J. Bravo, UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. E-mail: jbravo@eclac.cl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20347 Cigno, Alessandro. Saving, fertility and social security in the presence of self-enforcing intra-family deals. In: Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change: papers. [1996]. 1-28, [5] pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic Demography: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"The effects of social security and fiscal policy on household saving, fertility and welfare are examined in the context of a model, where self-interested individuals interact not only through the market, but also through extended family networks. These effects are strikingly different from those that would result if individuals interacted through the market only, or if all transfers were gifts. In particular, it is shown that a budget-balancing increase in old-age security could raise household saving and would discourage fertility, but would reduce the rate of return of participating in the public pension system; that a debt-financed tax cut could reduce saving; and that child benefits do not benefit children. These theoretical predictions are compared with the empirical evidence." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: A. Cigno, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Facoltà di Scienze Politiche, Via Laura 48, 50121 Florence, Italy. E-mail: cigno@cesit1.unifi.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20348 Deaton, Angus S.; Paxson, Christina H. The effects of economic and population growth on national saving and inequality. Demography, Vol. 34, No. 1, Feb 1997. 97-114 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This is a progress report on ongoing research into the effects of economic and population growth on national saving rates and inequality. The theoretical basis for the investigation is the life cycle model of saving and inequality. We report evidence that is conditional on the validity of the model, as well as evidence that casts doubt on it. Using time series of cross-sectional household surveys from Taiwan, Thailand, Britain, and the United States, we show that it is possible to force a life cycle interpretation on the data on consumption, income, and saving, but that the evidence is not consistent with large rate-of-growth effects, whereby economic and population growth enhances rates of national saving. The well-established cross-country link between economic growth and saving cannot be attributed to life cycle saving, nor will changes in economic or population growth exert large effects on saving within individual countries."
Correspondence: A. S. Deaton, Princeton University, Research Program in Development Studies, 219 Bendheim Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544-1022. E-mail: deaton@wws.princeton.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20349 Foster, Andrew D.; Rosenzweig, Mark R. Does transfer behavior exhibit imperfect commitment? Insurance, the family, and financial institutions in low-income rural areas. In: Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change: papers. [1996]. 1-24, [7] pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic Demography: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper we directly test the proposition that imperfect commitment plays a significant role as a barrier to efficient trade across states of the world by using three data sets from rural South Asia....In particular after characterizing the optimal implementable risk sharing contract under imperfect commitment and illustrating how the degree of altruism and income correlation influence this contract in the context of a simple numerical model, we test whether current transfers are responsive to the history of previous transfers and to contemporary shocks as should be the case if transfers play a significant insurance role but do not achieve full insurance as a result of the inability of households to commit to make first-best state-contingent transfers. We also examine the extent to which these relationships are influenced by the presence of financial intermediaries and by the type and location of the transfer partner."
Correspondence: A. D. Foster, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Economics, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. E-mail: afoster@pop.upenn.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20350 Gokhale, Jagadeesh. Demographic change, generational accounts, and national saving in the United States. In: Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change: papers. [1996]. 1-23, [5] pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic Demography: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"The paper first describes the methodology of generational accounting and presents the accounts for the United States. Next, it describes the nature of the demographic transition currently under way in the United States, and performs sensitivity tests on U.S. generational accounts under different assumptions regarding future mortality, fertility, and immigration rates. Finally, the paper utilizes the life-cycle-hypothesis-based framework to examine the role of demographic change in influencing national saving in the United States."
Correspondence: J. Gokhale, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, East 6th and Superior Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44101. E-mail: jjg01@frbcleve.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20351 International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]. Committee on Economic Demography (Liège, Belgium); East-West Center. Program on Population (Honolulu, Hawaii). Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 12-15 September 1995: papers. [1996]. [520] pp. Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers presented at a 1995 seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change. The seminar was organized by the IUSSP Committee on Economic Development and the East-West Center Program on Population. The 17 papers are grouped into four sections: generational accounting, economic change and savings, the role of the state, and the role of the family.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liège, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20352 Lee, Ronald. A cross-cultural perspective on intergenerational transfers and the economic life cycle. In: Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change: papers. [1996]. 1-25, [16] pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic Demography: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"In this paper...I attempt to measure the direction of reallocations [of resources] in societies ranging from hunter/gatherer/horticulturalists of the Amazon Basin, to the contemporary U.S. Where possible, I go beyond examining the direction of these reallocations to say something about the mechanisms and institutions through which the reallocations are achieved. I will show that there are three broad kinds of mechanisms through which resources can be reallocated: (1) the accumulation and decumulation of real wealth, or capital; (2) borrowing and lending, or credit transactions; and (3) outright gifts with no quid pro quo, or transfers. Throughout the paper, the main emphasis will be on transfers, which will be seen to have some special properties which given them a unique role in the macroeconomy."
Correspondence: R. Lee, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. E-mail: rlee@demog.berkeley.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20353 Mason, Andrew; Miller, Tim. Dynasties, intergenerational transfers, and lifecycle income. In: Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change: papers. [1996]. 1-26, [14] pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic Demography: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"The primary purpose of this paper is to examine, at the aggregate level, how the family in Taiwan redistributes income among its members....The first section provides an overview of lifecycle inequality and the extent of inter-age transfers during the fifteen year period for which detailed data are available (1976-1991)....The second section lays the foundation for the economic analysis that follows by modeling the demography of the patrilineal, extended family in Taiwan....The third section incorporates income data into the model in order to assess the extent to which dynasties can smooth income over the lifecycles of its individual members....In the fourth section, we model and estimate intergenerational transfers."
Correspondence: A. Mason, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. E-mail: masona@ewc.bitnet. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20354 Peru. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (Lima, Peru); Peru. Ministerio de la Presidencia [PRES] (Lima, Peru); Fondo de Compensación y Desarrollo Social [FONCODES] (Lima, Peru); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografía [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Information on population and poverty from social programs. [Información sobre población y pobreza para programas sociales.] CELADE Serie OI, No. 115, Pub. Order No. 850-96-OI-OTDETI-INEI. Sep 1996. 383 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa.
These are the proceedings of a seminar held in Lima, Peru, July 4-7, 1995, on information available through social programs on population and poverty. The primary geographical focus of the proceedings is on poverty in Peru. However, there is one chapter on demographic aspects of poverty, which includes papers on the relations between demographic trends and poverty; population trends and poverty in Peru; fertility, contraception, and poverty in Peru; and population trends and poverty in Nicaragua.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Oficina Técnica de Difusión Estadística y Tecnología Informática, Oficina de Impresiones, General Garzón 658, Lima 11, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20355 Rofman, Rafael. Moving social security toward fully funded schemes: who pays the cost? In: Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change: papers. [1996]. 1-19 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic Demography: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The author first describes "the background of the Social Security reforms in Latin America. [The paper] discusses the role of the most important determinants of the systems' crisis and also presents the main characteristics of the new, reformed systems. The third section of the paper reviews a few basic concepts necessary to organise the discussion about the transition costs. In particular, the problems of the analysis' time frame and the need to compare normative versus real world systems are considered....A simple model [is presented] that, by formalising the basic equations of PAYG [pay as you go] and multipillar systems, allows us to frame the problem of the transition costs. The fourth section of the paper describes the Social Security system of Argentina, including its main characteristics before 1994 and the main changes introduced by that year's reform. An estimation of the transition cost is presented, as well as a description of the main mechanisms used to finance it."
Correspondence: R. Rofman, Centro de Estudios de Población, Corrientes 2716 - 7th Floor, Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: rafael@cenep.satlink.net. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20356 Tiefenthaler, Jill. The productivity gains of marriage: effects of spousal education on own productivity across market sectors in Brazil. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 45, No. 3, Apr 1997. 633-50 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The gains in productivity through marriage in Brazil are analyzed using data on 50,451 married couples. The data were collected in 1989. Specifically, the author estimates the effects of spousal education on own productivity for both men and women in different market sectors. The results support the hypothesis that there are increases in productivity from both division of labor and association in marriage, and that there is thus a positive relationship between own productivity and marriage.
Correspondence: J. Tiefenthaler, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

63:20357 Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Lee, Ronald. Demographic uncertainty and the OASDI fund. In: Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change: papers. [1996]. 1-15, [8] pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic Demography: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"Our subject is the relationship between demographic uncertainty and the dynamics of the OASDI [Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance] fund. We begin by describing stochastic population forecasts for the U.S....Next, we show how the stochastic demographic projection is integrated with the dynamics of the fund, to obtain stochastic projections of the fund's future trajectory. We present results that illustrate the kind of information that is available in such an approach, information which is qualitatively and quantitatively different from that obtained by other methods."
Correspondence: S. Tuljapurkar, Stanford University, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford, CA 94305-5020. E-mail: tulja@bose.stanford.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20358 Valdés, Salvador. The political economy of two Chilean pension systems. In: Seminar on intergenerational economic relations and demographic change: papers. [1996]. 1-20 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], Commitee on Economic Demography: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper offers an analysis of the politics of Chilean pensions. It analyzes the experience in the 1950s and 1960s with the old pension system, and the two pension systems that currently coexist in Chile....The first part of the paper reviews the political ideals on which the old pension system was based, which were the social-democratic ideals that sustain welfare states....The paper then describes how the two current pension systems were designed and reformed with the aim of preventing patronage and populism."
Correspondence: S. Valdés, Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Economía, Av. Vicuna Machenna 4880, Santiago 4880, Chile. E-mail: svaldes@lascar.puc.cl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

63:20359 Chan, Angelique; DaVanzo, Julie. Ethnic differences in parents' coresidence with adult children in Peninsular Malaysia. RAND Labor and Population Program Reprint Series, No. 96-22, Pub. Order No. RAND/RP-602. 1997. 29-59 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"In this paper we use data from the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS-2) to examine the extent to which ethnic differences in the living arrangements of the older population in Peninsular Malaysia can be explained by ethnic differences in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. We also investigate whether the three main ethnic groups of Malaysia differ in the extent to which their living arrangements are influenced by these factors. For the married, the higher incidence of remarriage and lower housing costs for Malays each contribute importantly to their lower coresidence rates. The relatively poorer health of Indians and better health of Malays also contribute to the ethnic differences in coresidence rates for the married, as does the higher incidence of daughter-only families among Malays. The explanatory variables considered here explain less of the ethnic differences in coresidence rates for the unmarried."
This article is reprinted from the Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, Vol. 11, Mar 1996.
Correspondence: RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. E-mail: order@rand.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20360 Deolalikar, Anil B. The determinants of primary school enrollment and household schooling expenditures in Kenya: do they vary by income? Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 97-7, Jan 1997. 14, [5] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington; W. H. Freeman: New York, New York. In Eng.
"While there is a very large literature on what determines child schooling in developing countries, much of it has ignored income differences in the demand for schooling....This paper has three distinct objectives. First, it attempts to estimate the joint demand for primary school enrollment and schooling expenditures per pupil (which I treat as a measure of schooling quality), using data from Kenya. Second, the paper estimates the differing impacts of additional school facilities and teacher-pupil ratios on the household demand for primary schooling. Third and finally, the paper explores the possibility of systematic income differences in the parameters of the schooling demand relations."
Correspondence: University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20361 Meekers, Dominique; Calvès, Anne-Emmanuèle. "Main" girlfriends, girlfriends, marriage, and money: playing the field in Sub-Saharan Africa. Population Research Institute Working Paper in African Demography, No. AD96-02, Apr 1996. 28 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"As individual partner choice gradually replaces arranged marriages, and age at first marriage rises, African adolescents increasingly engage in a number of premarital sexual relationships, either sequentially or simultaneously, which implies both socio-economic and health risks....Unmarried males commonly have a `main' girlfriend who they are expected to marry, but may also have one or more `other' girlfriends, for whom there are no such expectations. Often girls have similar strategies. This study uses recent focus group data from Cameroon to examine current types of premarital sexual relationships among urban youths, the motivations and objectives of both males and females for engaging in such relationships, and the perceptions of the factors that enhance or decrease the marriage prospects of these premarital relationships."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20362 Villa, Pierre. The measurement of education capital: a demographic approach. [La mesure du capital éducatif: une approche démographique.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1997. 77-101 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Macroeconomic time series of human capital are computed for France over a long period. The educational level is used to discriminate the quality and the efficiency of different types of labour....Inequalities concerning schooling are stable at their lowest level in recent years. The educational investment fluctuates according to demographic reasons but its trend is given by the increase of women's school attendance, the increase of their participation in the labour force and the general lengthening of higher education after the second world war."
Correspondence: P. Villa, Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales, 9 rue Georges-Pitard, 75740 Paris Cedex 15, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

63:20363 Aguettant, Joseph L. Impact of population registration on hilltribe development in Thailand. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1996. 47-72 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Ethnic minority groups traditionally live on the fringes of society. In Thailand, an increasing number of them in recent decades have shown willingness to participate in the country's development and to take their place closer to the mainstream of society....Throughout the past few decades, population registration has become one of the most important issues related to the hilltribe people of Thailand....The aim of this study...is to review the past and current picture of development policy for the highlands and to assess some legal aspects of the Government's integration policy with regard to population registration and citizenship."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20364 Hansen, Kristin A.; Faber, Carol S. The foreign-born population: 1996. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 494, Mar 1997. 6 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report on the characteristics of the foreign-born population of the United States is based on data from the 1996 March Current Population Survey. Comparisons are made with the U.S. population as a whole.
Correspondence: K. A. Hansen, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. E-mail: kahansen@census.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20365 Hoóz, István. Alteration of nationality structure in the Carpathian Basin. [A nemzetiségi struktúra átalakulása a Kárpát-medencében.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 74, No. 11, Nov 1996. 930-9 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"The study analyses the changes [taking] place in the number and proportion of the population of Hungarian nationality [in the Carpathian region], drawing on the database covering more than 100 years and compiled from the results of population censuses. International statistics have also been used, the situation after World War I is reviewed, then the results of population censuses after World War II are analysed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20366 Jackson, Robert H. The creation and changing definitions of demographic knowledge: the case of mestizos in the indigenous communities of the Valle Bajo of Cochabamba, Bolivia. [Naissance et métamorphoses du savoir démographique: le mestizaje des communautés indigènes de la Valle Bajo de Cochabamba, en Bolivie.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 25, No. 1, Spring 1996. 69-99 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Spanish officials and members of the Catholic church created a series of race-based caste terms designed to identify and categorize the peoples of mixed ancestry. The Spanish American caste system relied on the assumed ability of a census-taker or priest to define the blood lines of an individual based on skin color and physical characteristics. However, the demographic knowledge created from the caste system was imprecise, and changed over time....There were also long-term shifts in the meaning of terms and the definitions of status caused by socioeconomic changes. An example is the rapid rate of apparent mestizoization in the...indigenous communities of the Valle Bajo of Cochabamba, Bolivia. The rapid increase in the number of mestizos was related to changing definitions of the status and identity of indigenous peoples, and was not strictly caused by racial mixture."
Correspondence: R. H. Jackson, Texas Southern University, Department of History, Geography, and Economics, 3100 Cleburne Avenue, Houston, TX 77004. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20367 Kolstoe, Paul. Russians in the former Soviet republics. ISBN 1-85065-206-6. 1995. xii, 340 pp. Hurst: London, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the Russian population, totaling about 25 million persons, living in the independent countries that were part of the former Soviet Union. "The objective has been to supply background material on how the Russian diaspora phenomenon has arisen and developed, as well as to analyse its effects on post-Soviet politics today. In the historical parts, an attempt is made to identify the driving forces behind the migratory patterns of the Russians seen under the tsars and the commissars, and a separate chapter discusses the social and political status of the Russians living in the non-Russian republics during the Soviet period."
Correspondence: C. Hurst, 38 King Street, London WC2E 8JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:20368 Labat, Jean-Claude; Dekneudt, Joël. The method for projecting the foreign population used by INSEE in 1986. [La méthode de projection de la population étrangère utilisée par l'INSEE en 1986.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1997. 149-62 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The methods used in 1986 to project the foreign population resident in France are described.
Correspondence: J.-C. Labat, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20369 Le Bras, Hervé. Projections of the foreign population: a ten-year perspective. [Dix ans de perspectives de la population étrangère: une perspective.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1997. 103-33 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"During the last ten years several projections relating to the resident foreign population of France have been constructed. These may be compared with estimates of the same foreign population at the date for which forecasts have been made. These show that the accuracy of the projection depends on the way in which the forecasters view laws relating to citizenship....It is shown in this context how a demographic approach focused on `immigrants' can shift to a legal approach focused on the notion of `citizenship', and sometimes even to a biological approach by denying any possibility of naturalization to some groups. Lastly, a simple procedure is outlined on how to project foreign populations in order to de-mystify the process of computerised calculations."
Correspondence: H. Le Bras, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. E-mail: lebras@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20370 Mészáros, Árpád; Fóti, János. Characteristics of the Gypsy population. [A cigány népesség jellemzoi Magyarországon.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 74, No. 11, Nov 1996. 908-29 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"The study sums up the number and socio-economic characteristics of [the] gipsy population in Hungary. The history of gipsy surveys, dating back more than one hundred years, is reviewed....The present situation is described drawing on the 1990 population census and the data of a special gipsy survey carried out in 1993. In the course of their analysis the authors discuss in detail the demographic characteristics, regional structure, labour market position, household budget situation, and housing conditions of gipsies."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20371 Mutlu, Servet. Ethnic Kurds in Turkey: a demographic study. International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 28, No. 4, Nov 1996. 517-41 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to make as accurate an estimate of the number of Kurds in Turkey and of their geographical distribution as the data permit....The question of the geographical distribution of the Kurds and non-Kurds in Turkey...gives an idea...of the extent of the likely population exchange should the Kurds ever form a separate state. Even in the case of the more likely prospect of Turkey remaining a unitary state within its present borders, the distribution of Kurds is of interest from the standpoint of national and local politics, inasmuch as recently some of the Kurds, especially in large cities, seem to have been voting in a bloc for certain candidates. They have been providing the swing vote, thus gaining a degree of importance far out of proportion to their number and to their ratio vis-à-vis the total electorate in a locality."
Correspondence: S. Mutlu, Ege University, Department of Economics, Bornova 35040, Izmir, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20372 Petersen, William. Ethnicity counts. ISBN 1-56000-296-4. LC 96-37513. 1997. 331 pp. Transaction Publishers: New Brunswick, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
This book "describes how ethnic identity is determined and how ethnic or racial units are counted by official statistical agencies in the United States and throughout the world. The initial step is understanding how each person identifies himself or herself as a member of an ethnic group. As such identities are compiled, printed volumes give them official sanction." Topics covered include the identification of Americans of European descent, differentiation among blacks, ethnic relations in the Netherlands, case studies of Japan and Switzerland, and the question of who is a Jew. The main theme of the book is that the current outpouring of studies on race and ethnicity in the United States is inevitably based on the relevant available statistics, and therefore it is important to look behind the census tables presenting the data to analyze how those data were compiled.
Correspondence: Transaction Publishers, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20373 Reddy, P. H.; Modell, B. The Baigas of Madhya Pradesh: a demographic study. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan 1997. 19-31 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper outlines the demographic characteristics of the Baiga tribe, one of the most primitive of the aboriginal tribal groups of Central India. The Baiga population has grown steadily since the first anthropological study of the tribe in the 1930s. Age at menarche, age at marriage, breast-feeding, and time interval between marriage and first conception are natural. There are more females than males. Sub-tribe endogamy is common; consanguineous marriage is favoured (34% of marriages are between first cousins) and marital distance is low (mean 7.1 km). Though the mean menarcheal age is high (15.2 years), mean age at first marriage is low (16.6 years), giving a long reproductive period."
Correspondence: P. H. Reddy, University College London Medical School, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, London WC1 E6HX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20374 Solana, Antonio M.; Pascual de Sans, Àngels. Resident foreigners in Spain. [Els residents estrangers a Espanya.] Documents d'Anàlisi Geogràfica, No. 24, 1994. 169-80 pp. Barcelona, Spain. In Cat. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Spa.
The authors review trends in the size of the resident foreign population in Spain since the 1940s. A continuing growth over time, with temporal fluctuations, is noted, with a rapid rise in immigration in the 1980s, leading to new legislation designed to control immigration in 1985-1986 and 1991. The authors note that Europeans, particularly from countries of the European Union, make up a large percentage of the foreign population, but that the number of immigrants from developing countries has increased significantly in the last 10 years.
Correspondence: A. M. Solana, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departament de Geografia, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:20375 Toshchenko, Zh. T.; Chaptykova, T. I. The diaspora as a subject of sociological research. [Diaspora kak ob''ekt sotsiologicheskogo issledovaniya.] Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniya, No. 12, 1996. 33-42 pp. Moscow, Russia. In Rus.
The authors consider the concept of diaspora and assess its relevance to the current situation concerning the Russian population living outside the borders of Russia today. Data are provided on the size of the Russian population now living in the various countries which were part of the former Soviet Union.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20376 Tribalat, Michèle. A surprising rewriting of history. [Une surprenante réécriture de l'histoire.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1997. 137-47 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this article, Michèle Tribalat gives us a very different version of the history of `foreign population projections' in France in the 80's. In 1979-1980, Hervé Le Bras himself directed a research project commissioned by the `Haut Comité de la Population'. The outcome of that project, she argues, is a rare example of what shouldn't be done when projecting populations. It combines several methodological errors: departures of foreigners taken as absolute numbers (leading to the emergence of `negative populations') plus a fluctuating definition of `nationality' (narrow at the beginning of the projection, wider later on). To these must be added several mistakes in the calculation proper."
For the article by Le Bras, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: M. Tribalat, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. E-mail: tribalat@ined.fr. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20377 van der Erf, R. F.; Liefbroer, A. C. Foreign-born women: at home in the Netherlands? [Allochtone vrouwen: thuis in Nederland?] Bevolking en Gezin, ISBN 90-709-9044-X. 1994. 174 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium; Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Dut.
This supplement contains five articles on aspects of the foreign-born population living in the Netherlands. The topics covered include family formation and values among Turkish and Moroccan women in Belgium and the Netherlands; the socioeconomic status of women of foreign descent; immigrant women and the labor market; and social policies aimed at foreign women.
Correspondence: Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.