Volume 63 - Number 2 - Summer 1997

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications. Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models, if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

63:20132 Afzal, Mohammad; Kiani, M. F. K. Mean ages at parities: an indirect estimation. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 34, No. 4, Pt. II, Winter 1995. 545-61 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to describe an indirect approach for estimating the age patterns of occurrence of birth by parity. The main concern here is not of estimating the frequency of occurrence of births (in a period of time) in relation to the population (birth rate) or in relation to the number of females (fertility). Rather, the focus here is on the ages of first, second, and subsequent births, and on their shifts over time. Essentially, the approach is an extension of Hajnal's method for using proportions single to estimate singulate mean age at marriage...." The approach is illustrated using data from the 1975 Pakistan Fertility Survey and the 1990-1991 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey. A comment by Sultan S. Hashmi is included (pp. 560-1).
Correspondence: M. Afzal, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20133 Andersson, Gunnar. Childbearing trends in Sweden 1961-1995. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 117, ISBN 91-7820-105-5. Jan 1997. 11, [15] pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to update a system of annual indexes of birth rates and to display trends in childbearing for Swedish women over the years since 1961. Our indexes are produced by applying indirect standardization to register data. They enable us to decompose the overall fertility trends, as measured by the period TFR, into its birth-order specific components. Swedish fertility has shown strong fluctuations during our study period and these fluctuations have been particularly dramatic during recent years. A postponement of the age at first birth and a sudden shift to shorter birth intervals are important components in the fertility trends. A peak in the level of childbearing at the beginning of the present decade has now been followed by a sharp drop in the propensity to give birth. This change in behavior pertains to women of all parities."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20134 Bosveld, Willy. Childbearing over thirty: a cohort analysis of age-specific fertility. [Kinderen krijgen boven de dertig: een cohortanalyse naar vruchtbaarheid op leeftijd.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1994. 29-57 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Changes in the total period fertility rate can better be understood if age-and-parity-specific fertility rates are available next to the developments in the age-and-parity-specific populations at risk. The parity progression rates specific for age, i.e. the `local parity progression rates' increase the knowledge in the changing period fertility as they are adjusted for the parity specific populations at risk. Comparing cohorts [of] 1935 and 1970 [in the Netherlands] shows `fertility postponement' started from cohort 1950. Due to postponement a delay in births occurs with respect to women from previous cohorts. `Catching up' starts usually already before the age of 30 years, but at age 30 still some arrears exist. However, the chances for childbearing at or after age 30 increase."
Correspondence: W. Bosveld, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20135 Camstra, Ronald. The influence of childbirth on changes in labor and housing careers. [De invloed van de geboorte van kinderen op veranderingen in de arbeids- en wooncarriere.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, 1993. 43-63 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The individual life course consists of a number of careers which are strongly intertwined. The main focus of this article can be found in the interrelations of the fertility career, the working career, and the housing career [in the Netherlands]. A new data source, the TelePanel, enables us to look at the influence of changes in one career on other careers at the individual level with a high accuracy in time. Childbirth is the main event here. Over the past decades, the moment of quitting a job came closer to the moment of childbirth, which made the sequence change direction: nowadays a woman quits her job because she's pregnant, while she used to quit a job to become pregnant. Analyses of relocation behaviour show that many women delay getting pregnant until they have found [a] larger home."
Correspondence: R. Camstra, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planologisch Demografisch Instituut, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20136 Chakraborty, Nitai; Sharmin, Sayema; Islam, M. Ataharul. Differential pattern of birth intervals in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1996. 73-86 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study provides some empirical evidence for association between some selected explanatory variables and subsequent birth interval [in Bangladesh]. The main strength of this study is that it is based on nationally representative data. Among the six explanatory variables that are examined, the survival status of the index child seems to have a very strong effect on birth spacing....The next explanatory variable that seems to have a strong effect on birth spacing is the age of the mother at the birth of the child, showing an increasing mean birth interval by the age of the mothers. Other explanatory variables, such as education of the mother, sex of the index child, residence and birth order, do not seem to have much influence on birth spacing."
Correspondence: N. Chakraborty, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20137 Courbage, Youssef. Palestinian fertility in the aftermath of the Intifada. [La fécondité palestinienne des lendemains d'Intifada.] Population, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1997. 223-33 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent Palestinian fertility trends are analyzed using data from the preliminary report of the Demographic Survey in the West Bank and Gaza Strip carried out in 1995, which included some 20,000 households. The results indicate that the Palestinian population has not begun a transition to lower fertility, and that completed family size remains at just under seven children. The prospects for change in desired and actual fertility are discussed.
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20138 de Vries, Rina F. Education and differences in female labor force participation and fertility behavior. [Opleiding en verschillen in arbeidsmarktparticipatie en vruchtbaarheidsgedrag van vrouwen.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, 1993. 45-63 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article it is argued that the often noticed duality in patterns of female employment and fertility behaviour can be explained more satisfactorily by focussing on level of education attained. Proceeding from a lifecourse perspective, differences are expected as to choice of lifestyle, especially in the areas of work and family, between low and high educated women. An attempt is made to clarify why differences in content and level of education give rise to diverging value orientations. The mechanisms through which education influences the nature and character of employment and fertility related decisions are elaborated on and discussed." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: R. F. de Vries, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Population Research Centre, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20139 Evans, V. Jeffery. Fertility: past, present, and future. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, Vol. 35, No. 3, 1996. 131-9 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
The author describes how conceptions of the population problem have changed since the 1960s, when the primary focus was on population control. "I will discuss how the nature of the population problem has changed and how the thinking of social scientists has changed with it. I will outline a theoretical framework that may be useful in both understanding how seemingly disparate elements of the population problem of today are interrelated and what the changed nature of the problem implies for those...who are working on the frontiers of reproductive technology."
Correspondence: V. J. Evans, National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 8B13, Bethesda, MD 20892. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20140 Hacettepe University. Institute of Population Studies (Ankara, Turkey); Macro International. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Calverton, Maryland). Fertility trends, women's status, and reproductive expectations in Turkey. Results of further analysis of the 1993 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. Mar 1997. v, 127 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This report consists of three separate studies which present further analyses of data from the 1993 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The first, by Attila Hancioglu, analyzes fertility trends in Turkey from 1978 to 1993 and discusses the components of the fertility decline that occurred in that period. The second, by Banu A. Ergöçmen, discusses the relationship between women's status and marital fertility. The third, by Turgay Ünalan, examines changes in reproductive preferences and fertility trends over time.
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20141 Hoem, Britta; Hoem, Jan M. Sweden's family policies and roller-coaster fertility. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 115, ISBN 91-7820-101-2. Jan 1997. 22, [9] pp. Stockholm University, Demography Unit: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"Sweden has experienced dramatic waves in its fertility level over the last three decades. The Swedish TFR [total fertility rate] dropped from almost 2.5 in the mid-1960s to about 1.7 around 1980 and then increased again to above the replacement level in 1990, after which it fell back to below 1.7 over the subsequent six years. In this paper, we describe the various birth-order components of these waves in some detail and relate them to correspondingly dramatic economic trends and to progressive family-policy reforms."
Correspondence: Stockholm University, Demography Unit, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Author's E-mail: Jan.Hoem@SUDA.SU.SE. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20142 Hutter, I.; Hilderink, H. B. M.; Willekens, F. J.; Niessen, L. W. Fertility change in India. GLOBO Report Series, No. 13, Sep 1996. 90 pp. University of Groningen, Population Research Centre: Groningen, Netherlands; Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu [RIVM]: Bilthoven, Netherlands. In Eng.
This report on fertility change in India is one of the results of a Dutch project on integrated population modeling. The research program, "Global Dynamics and Sustainable Development", has developed a modeling framework, TARGETS, which focuses on the interactions between environmental change and human activities in developing countries. TARGETS includes a generic fertility model, which is applied to India in this report. There are chapters on the demographic transition in India, a qualitative review of the fertility process, case studies of Kerala and Uttar Pradesh, a description of an integrated systems approach to fertility change, and some model explorations of future fertility change. The computer listing of the model used is included as an appendix.
Correspondence: University of Groningen, Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Author's E-mail: I.Hutter@frw.rug.nl. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20143 Juárez, Fátima; Quilodrán, Julieta; Zavala de Cosío, María E. New reproductive trends in Mexico. [Nuevas pautas reproductivas en México.] ISBN 968-12-0653-3. 1996. 232 pp. El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This study examines the decline in fertility that occurred in Mexico from the mid-1970s to the early 1980s, and analyzes its causes. Data are primarily taken from the fertility surveys of 1976-1977 and 1982. There are chapters on fertility trends from 1950 to 1980, new patterns of reproduction, the women who pioneered these reproductive changes, regional differences in fertility, family formation and mobility in metropolitan areas, and Mexico's population policies.
Correspondence: El Colegio de México, Camino al Ajusco 20, Pedregal de Santa Teresa, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20144 MacCormack, Carol P. Ethnography of fertility and birth. 2nd ed. ISBN 0-88133-817-6. 1994. xii, 283 pp. Waveland Press: Prospect Heights, Illinois. In Eng.
This book contains 10 chapters by various authors on the cultural rules and social practices that shape the pattern of human fertility around the world. The focus is on the adaptive process of developing such rules and practices to teach constructive meanings of birth and to maximize the reproductive potential of women. The approach is interdisciplinary, with an emphasis on anthropology.
Correspondence: Waveland Press, P.O. Box 400, Prospect Heights, IL 60070. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20145 Mathews, T. J.; Ventura, Stephanie J. Birth and fertility rates by educational attainment: United States, 1994. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 45, No. 10, Suppl., Apr 24, 1997. 20 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents birth rates for the United States by educational attainment of mother for 1994. Rates are shown by age, race, Hispanic origin of mother, birth order, and marital status. Calculated for the first time are total fertility rates by educational attainment of mother."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. E-mail: nchsquery@nch10a.em.cdc.gov. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20146 Murphy, M.; Hey, K.; Brown, J.; Willis, B.; Ellis, J. D.; Barlow, D. Infertility treatment and multiple birth rates in Britain, 1938-94. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 2, Apr 1997. 235-43 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Trends in multiple birth rates are thought to have been substantially affected by subfertility treatments in the last 25 years, but there are few quantitative assessments of this. This paper examines trends in twin and higher multiple birth rates separately in Scotland, England and Wales and compares their course with corresponding multiple birth rates in the Oxford Record Linkage Study area, where the proportions following subfertility treatment are documented. National data on prescriptions for subfertility treatments reinforce the view that they have had a major effect on the trends, and currently perhaps 60% of triplet and higher order births and 15% of twins follow their use in Britain."
Correspondence: M. Murphy, University of Oxford, Unit of Health Care Epidemiology, Oxford OX2 6HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20147 Nagarajan, R. Landholding and fertility relationship: a review of the empirical evidence. Artha Vijnana, Vol. 38, No. 3, Sep 1996. 274-305 pp. Pune, India. In Eng.
"The recent availability of empirical evidence gathered from a number of demographic surveys in agrarian societies has led to a debate on the nature and extent of [the] relationship between landholding and fertility. The discussions have yielded plausible ways in which access to land influences fertility behaviour. The main focus of this paper is on an examination of theories relating to the land-fertility relationship and a review of empirical studies on the topic. The results of the empirical studies are presented in a tabular form. The available evidence at the micro and macro levels confirms the existence of a positive relationship between land and fertility. The theoretical arguments on the relationship are reviewed and the suggested land-fertility linkages then examined in the light of the available evidence. Finally, prospects for further research are discussed." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: R. Nagarajan, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune 411 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20148 Nair, Sukumari N.; Nair, P. S. Inter-generational changes in birth intervals in Kerala. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1996. 221-38 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The main objective of the present research attempt is to study the levels and patterns of birth intervals in Kerala [India]--a transitional society....First, we investigate whether or not the length of birth intervals is the same for two generations (20 year period). Second, we tried to know whether the effects of a host of predictor variables on the dependent variable (i.e. birth intervals) [vary] among comparable women of different time periods during a period of accelerated fertility transition in Kerala."
Correspondence: S. N. Nair, University of Kerala, Population Research Centre, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20149 Nakazawa, Minato; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro. Analysis of completed parity using microsimulation modeling. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1997. 173-86 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper aims to construct a demographic microsimulation model, which is easily applicable to gene transmission..., and to examine the distribution of completed parity as a fertility measure at a population level according to the schedule of individual life course....The simulation model was applied to the data of the Gidra-speaking people living in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea."
Correspondence: M. Nakazawa, University of Tokyo, Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan. E-mail: minato@humeco.m.u-tokyo.ac.jp. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20150 Notkola, Veijo; Nieminen, Mauri. Fertility decline in China and family planning programs. [Syntyvyyden pieneneminen Kiinassa ja Kiinan perhesuunnitteluohjelmat.] Sosiologia, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1995. 38-48, 78-9 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Fin. with sum. in Eng.
"The article looks in detail at the population development in China since the 1950s, highlighting some dramatic changes. In the late 1950s the country was hit by widespread famine, which resulted in increased mortality and decreased fertility. Infant mortality climbed to almost 300/1,000. During the 1960s fertility began to increase again and mortality declined. From the beginning of the 1970s fertility started to decline, dropping from about six to just over two children per woman in the late 1980s. Today, fertility is thought to be below replacement level. The main reason for this fertility decline lies in the highly efficient family planning programmes implemented in China since the 1950s and particularly since the 1970s. The decline in infant mortality and the favourable socio-economic development have also been important factors in the decline in fertility. Although fertility in China is currently at a low level, the country's population is still set to grow."
Correspondence: V. Notkola, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 33, Hallituskatu 8, 00014 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20151 Ntozi, James P. M.; Odwee, Jonathan O. O. High fertility in rural Uganda: the role of socioeconomic and biological factors. ISBN 9970-02-074-9. 1995. xi, 184 pp. Fountain Publishers: Kampala, Uganda. In Eng.
This is the fourth in a series of publications based on research done in the Ankole region of Uganda in 1983-1985 on three aspects of fertility: elders' views on fertility, the determinants of fertility, and the value of children. The present study includes "several other variables such as the household property, the influence of the extended family, the length of birth intervals and the incidence of infertility in explaining high fertility in Ankole. The study also puts together data on women, elders and men in a comparative analysis of fertility. In addition, information from the 1948, 1959, 1980 and 1991 censuses of population and housing is utilised to gauge trends during the past four decades. The objective of this monograph is therefore to present a comprehensive [analysis of the] fertility situation in Ankole based on all the demographic data available to-date." The study includes chapters on sexual customs, nuptiality, and contraception.
Correspondence: Fountain Publishers, P.O. Box 488, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:20152 Peters, Kimberley D.; Martin, Joyce A.; Ventura, Stephanie J.; Maurer, Jeffrey D. Births and deaths: United States, July 1995-June 1996. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 45, No. 10, Suppl. 2, Apr 30, 1997. 40 pp. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], Division of Reproductive Health: Atlanta, Georgia; U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents preliminary data on births and deaths in the United States from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) for the 12 months ending June 1996. U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. National and State data on marital status, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, and low birthweight are also presented. Mortality data presented include life expectancy, leading causes of death, and infant mortality."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20153 Petrioli, Luciano. A new female fertility function. Sezione di Popolazione, Ambiente e Metodi Matematico-Statistici, Quaderno, No. 2, Dec 1996. 6 pp. Università degli Studi di Siena, Dipartimento di Studi Aziendali e Sociali: Siena, Italy. In Eng.
In addition to the numerous functions describing trends in age-specific fertility rates, the author proposes another which begins by considering the potential fertility of a woman, represented by the descending branch in the first quadrant of an ellipse. The intervention of some restraints of variable intensity leads to a curve that appears to interpret well the trend of observed rates.
Correspondence: Università degli Studi di Siena, Dipartimento di Studi Aziendali e Sociali, Piazza S. Francesco 17, 53100 Siena, Italy. E-mail: seg.az_soc@unisi.it. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20154 Rodríguez Sumaza, Carmen. Demographic cycles: a socioeconomic perspective. [Ciclos demográficos: una perspectiva socioeconómica.] Sociología, No. 3, ISBN 84-7762-437-2. 1994. 246 pp. Universidad de Valladolid, Secretariado de Publicaciones: Valladolid, Spain. In Spa.
This study describes the fertility fluctuations that have occurred in developed countries since the end of World War II and examines their causes. Using data from Spain, the author employs an interdisciplinary approach to build on the work of Easterlin, and suggests that the primary reason for these fluctuations can be found in changes in the relative economic status of individuals, which in turn flow from changes in the population's age structure. A clear link between economic and demographic factors is established, and the author concludes that the prospects for future employment opportunities indicate that Spain will soon experience a fertility increase similar to that of other European countries.
Correspondence: Universidad de Valladolid, Plaza de Santa Cruz 8, 47002 Valladolid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20155 Sable, Marjorie R.; Spencer, John C.; Stockbauer, Joseph W.; Schramm, Wayne F.; Howell, Vicky; Herman, Allen A. Pregnancy wantedness and adverse pregnancy outcomes: differences by race and Medicaid status. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1997. 76-81 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The relationship between pregnancy wantedness and adverse pregnancy outcomes was studied using data from 2,828 mothers who participated in the Missouri Maternal and Infant Health Survey....Fifty-eight percent of the very low birth weight infants and 59% of the moderately low birth weight infants resulted from unintended pregnancies, as did 62% of the normal-birth-weight infants. Logistic regression showed that mothers of very low birth weight infants were significantly more likely than those who had a normal-weight baby to report that they had felt unhappy about the pregnancy (odds ratio of 1.53). Very low birth weight was also associated with early denial of the pregnancy (1.54). Odds ratios associating these two unwantedness categories with low-birth-weight babies were higher among Medicaid recipients than among women not receiving Medicaid."
Correspondence: M. R. Sable, University of Missouri, College of Education, Assessment Resource Center, Columbia, MO 65211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20156 Sardon, Jean-Paul. Coale's indices, comparative indices, mean generation, total fertility rate and components. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 8, 1996. 251-7 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"Conversion of the Princeton fertility indices into more frequently employed units of measure, such as TFR and its components, can make information on historical times easier to grasp. But the resulting indicators are only estimates, which will be accurate if the underlying assumptions hold, and otherwise may deviate from reality."
For the original French version, see 61:20797.
Correspondence: J.-P. Sardon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20157 Toulemon, Laurent. Very few couples remain voluntarily childless. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 8, 1996. 1-27 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"The secular decline of fertility, which reached its bottommost level between the two world wars, went together with a rise in permanent infertility that was sometimes, in the ideological atmosphere of the time, ascribed to physiological factors, but obviously indicated that some couples were refusing to have children. The signs of a similar pattern in present-day France are much more discreet. Having emerged relatively recently, it is difficult to quantify, but the main problem is that sterility therapy now makes it more difficult to define once and for all a level of infertility beyond which we can speak of `refusal to have children'. In an attempt to do so, [the author] uses an impressive range of tools: analysis of vital registration and census data, of ad hoc and general surveys, methods of estimation to fill in the many gaps, fertility models and so on. It is a useful reminder that the understanding of fertility behaviour goes beyond the mere interpretation of individual intentions."
For the original French version, see 62:20257.
Correspondence: L. Toulemon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20158 Westoff, Charles F.; Bankole, Akinrinola. Mass media and reproductive behavior in Africa. DHS Analytical Report, No. 2, Apr 1997. ix, 39 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
This study examines the contribution of modern mass media to fertility reduction in societies with traditional notions of early childbearing and large families. The data are from DHS surveys in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Namibia, and Zambia, and from a similar survey carrried out in Morocco. "The general conclusion of this research is that there is a persistent and frequently strong association between exposure to the mass media and reproductive behavior in Africa in the expected direction; such exposure is directly related to greater knowledge and use of contraception, intention to use contraception in the future, preferences for fewer children, and intention to stop childbearing. In addition, there is evidence that media exposure is also associated with later age at marriage. These conclusions are generalizable to women and men, both married and single."
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, Suite 300, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20159 Wichterich, Christa. People made to measure: population policies in north and south. [Menschen nach Maß: Bevölkerungspolitik in Nord und Süd.] ISBN 3-88977-359-1. 1994. 267 pp. Lamuv: Göttingen, Germany. In Ger.
This is a collection of 14 essays by various authors on the broad topic of fertility control. The main focus is on the ethical issues surrounding control of women's bodies and the "bodies" of populations as a whole. Individual essays address such issues as new reproductive technologies, eugenics, abortion, and population policy in the developing world. The consensus among the authors is that women and populations should be free to decide their own reproductive fate.
Correspondence: Lamuv Verlag, Postfach 26 05, 37016 Göttingen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

63:20160 Hwang, Sean-Shong; Saenz, Rogelio. Fertility of Chinese immigrants in the U.S.: testing a fertility emancipation hypothesis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 59, No. 1, Feb 1997. 50-61 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study explores our hypothesis that the fertility of Chinese women, which was kept low by the one-child policy implemented in the People's Republic of China in 1979, is likely to bounce back to a higher level once these women emigrate. We test this hypothesis with data from the 1990 U.S. Census of Population 5% Public Use Microdata Samples. Using least squares regression analysis, we find evidence supporting our hypothesis. Our findings indicate that, other things being equal, women from the People's Republic of China have a significantly lower average number of children than Chinese women from other countries. The fertility difference between the two groups of women reverses direction, however, when we shift our focus to the average number of U.S. births. Women from the People's Republic of China are able to surpass their counterparts in postmigration births due to their accelerating U.S. fertility rate. These findings corroborate theories of social behavior that suggest that rational individuals adjust their fertility levels when external circumstances affect fertility change."
Correspondence: S.-S. Hwang, University of Alabama, Department of Sociology, 237 Ullman Building, 1212 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294. E-mail: shwang@sbs.sbs.uab.edu. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20161 Klepinger, Daniel; Lundberg, Shelly; Plotnick, Robert. How does adolescent fertility affect the human capital and wages of young women? Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 97-2, Feb 1997. 36, [7] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"In this paper, we model and estimate the relationship between early childbearing and human capital investment, and its effect on wages in early adulthood. Taking advantage of a large set of potential instruments for fertility--principally state and county-level indicators of the cost of fertility and fertility control, we use instrumental variables procedures to generate unbiased estimates of the effects of early fertility on education and work experience, and the effects of these outcomes on adult wages....Our results, unlike those of recent `revisionist' studies, suggest that public policies which reduce teenage childbearing are likely to have positive effects on the economic well-being of many young mothers and their families."
Correspondence: University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20162 Lindberg, Laura D.; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Ku, Leighton; Martinez, Gladys. Age differences between minors who give birth and their adult partners. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1997. 61-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The role of adult men in [U.S.] adolescent childbearing has received heightened attention in recent years, and new policy efforts have focused on statutory rape laws as a way to reduce adolescent childbearing. Analyses of the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey indicate, however, that these policies would not apply to most teenage births. Among mothers aged 15-17 who had a child in 1988, 27% had a partner at least five years older than themselves. In addition, since 23% of minors with older partners were married at the time of the infant's birth, 21% of babies born to unmarried minors were fathered by substantially older men. While births to young mothers and older men raise social concerns, these births make up a small share of all teenage childbearing: Only 8% of all births to 15-19-year-olds are to unmarried minors with a partner five or more years older."
Correspondence: L. D. Lindberg, Urban Institute, Population Studies Center, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20163 Liu, Gang; Goldstein, Sidney. Migrant-nonmigrant fertility differentials in Anhui, China. Chinese Environment and Development, Vol. 7, Spring-Summer 1996. 144-69 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
"This analysis is designed to provide insights into the relation between migration and fertility in China. Survey data collected from Anhui Province in 1989 are used to evaluate whether fertility is higher or lower among the temporary migrants to urban places in comparison to permanent residents in those locations....Our analysis will...assess the extent to which socioeconomic characteristics, family planning, and migration help to explain observed differences in the fertility of temporary migrants and permanent residents. In doing so, the basic question to be answered is whether temporary migrants have used their movement as a way to avoid official policies controlling fertility and, in so doing, have they contributed to a higher than average fertility in China?"
Correspondence: G. Liu, Boston Healthy Start Initiative, 1010 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, MA 02118. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20164 Peru. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (Lima, Peru); United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York); Peru. Ministerio de Salud (Lima, Peru). Adolescent fertility in Peru. [La fecundidad adolescente en el Perú.] Dec 1995. 128 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa.
This study on adolescent fertility in Peru is based on data from the 1993 census. The analysis is performed separately for women aged 12-14 and 15-19, and at the national, provincial, and departmental levels. The characteristics of adolescent mothers are compared to the characteristics of adolescents as a whole.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, General Garzón 658, Lima 11, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

No citations in this issue.

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

63:20165 Alihonou, Eusébe; Carre, Nicolas; Capochichi, Virgil; Thonneau, Patrick F. Contraceptive continuation and its determinants in Benin. Contraception, Vol. 55, No. 2, Feb 1997. 97-101 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"To understand better the rates of continuation of different contraceptive methods, a study in 12 family planning centers in Cotonou and Porto Novo, the two largest cities in Benin, was conducted....Age was associated with the probability of abandoning oral contraception....In contrast, drop-out was not associated with age for women using injection...or the IUD....Our results indicate a relatively high and rapid rate of discontinuation for modern contraceptive methods, particularly for young women having chosen oral contraceptive."
Correspondence: P. F. Thonneau, French World Health Organization Collaborative Center/INSERM Unit 292, Hôpital Bicetre, 82 rue du Général Leclerc, 94276 Le Kremlin-Bicetre Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20166 Bhatti, Mansoor ul H. Correlates of choice of contraceptive methods in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 34, No. 4, Pt. III, Winter 1995. 889-98 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
Aspects of the choice of contraceptive methods in Pakistan are examined using data on 375 family planning acceptors from a survey carried out in 1993. The main objectives of the study are: "1. To find out choices and preferences of acceptors for particular contraceptive methods; 2. to analyse the correlates of the choice of contraceptive methods; and 3. to suggest measures to provide methods of choice and to reduce the drop-out rates to the minimum."
Correspondence: M. ul H. Bhatti, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, Street 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20167 Breman, Jan; White, Ben. Coercion and quality in Indonesian family planning. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkund, Vol. 152, No. 1, 1996. 144-7 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
In the form of a response to a critical book review by Anke Niehof, the authors discuss the extent to which there is coercion in the Indonesian national family planning program.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

63:20168 Bulut, Aysen; Filippi, Véronique; Marshall, Tom; Nalbant, Hacer; Yolsal, Nuray; Graham, Wendy. Contraceptive choice and reproductive morbidity in Istanbul. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 1, Mar 1997. 35-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Istanbul [Turkey] to investigate the relationship between contraceptive choice and reproductive morbidity. Altogether, 918 women who had ever used any means of avoiding pregnancy were interviewed at home, and, among these, 694 parous nonpregnant women were examined by three female physicians. The women were aware of bearing a considerable burden of ill health, with 81 percent reporting at least one episode of illness in the three months prior to the interview. Current users of the intrauterine device were significantly more likely than users of other methods to report menstrual disorders, but pelvic relaxation and reproductive and urinary tract infections, whether perceived or diagnosed, were not significantly related to any of the contraceptive methods....Most users tended to stay with the same method once chosen and...health concerns played an important part only in the initial choice of the method."
Correspondence: A. Bulut, Istanbul University, Institute of Child Health, Milliet Cad., 34390 Capa, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20169 Colombo, Bernardo; Scarpa, Bruno. Calendar methods of fertility regulation: a rule of thumb. Statistica, Vol. 56, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1996. 3-14 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita.
"[Many] illiterate women, particularly in the third world, find [it] difficult to apply usual calendar methods for the regulation of fertility. Some of them are even unable to make simple subtractions. In this paper we are therefore trying to evaluate the applicability and the efficiency of an extremely simple rule which entails only [the ability to count] a number of days, and always the same way."
Correspondence: B. Colombo, Università degli Studi di Padova, Department of Statistical Sciences, Via 8 Febbraio 2, 35122 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20170 Duncan, M. Elizabeth; Tibaux, Gerard; Kloos, Helmut; Pelzer, Andrée; Mehari, Letebirhan; Perine, Peter L.; Peutherer, John; Young, Hugh; Jamil, Yasmin; Darougar, Sohrab; Lind, Inga; Reimann, Karin; Piot, Peter; Roggen, Erwin. STDs in women attending family planning clinics: a case study in Addis Ababa. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 4, Feb 1997. 441-54 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
In a study of sexually transmitted diseases carried out in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, information was included on contraceptive practice. "A study of 2,111 women of whom 542 (25.7%) attended FPCs [family planning clinics] in Addis Ababa showed utilisation rates to be highest in women who were: Tigre (33%) or Amhara (31%), aged 20-34 years (30%), age 16 or older at first marriage/coitus (28%:38% in those first married after 25 years); who had a monthly family income of 10 Ethiopian Birr (EB) or more (33%:36% for those with income 100-500 EB), three or more children (37%), more than five lifetime husbands/sexual partners (39%); or were bargirls (73%) or prostitutes (43%)."
Correspondence: M. E. Duncan, Ahlaine, Cardrona, Peebles EH45 9HX, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:20171 Gold, Melanie A.; Schein, Aviva; Coupey, Susan M. Emergency contraception: a national survey of adolescent health experts. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1997. 15-9, 24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In a survey of 167 [U.S.] physicians with expertise in adolescent health, 84% said they prescribe contraception to adolescents, but only 80% of these prescribe emergency contraception, generally a few times a year at most. Some 12% of respondents said they believe that providing emergency contraception to adolescents would encourage contraceptive risk-taking, 25% said they think it would discourage correct use of other methods and 29% said they think repeated use of the method could pose health risks. Physicians who were more likely than their colleagues to prescribe emergency contraception included obstetrician-gynecologists (92%), those who graduated from medical school after 1970 (77%) and those who describe their practice as being in an `academic' setting (76%). Physicians may restrict use of the method by limiting treatment to adolescents who seek it within 48 hours after unprotected intercourse (29%), by requiring a pregnancy test (64%) or an office visit (68%), or by using the timing of menses as a criterion for providing the method (46%)."
Correspondence: M. A. Gold, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Division of General Academic Pediatrics/Adolescent Medicine, 3705 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20172 Greenwell, K. Fern. Contraceptive method mix menu: providing healthy choices for women. World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 49, No. 2, 1996. 88-93 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This article addresses expansion of the contraceptive method mix, in the specific context of underserved women in developing countries who, like all women, expect to maintain their health status while successfully regulating their fertility. It is a critical review of the health implications of the contraceptive methods most commonly included on a menu of options and includes fertility awareness methods as essential non-supply method options where barriers currently exist for supply methods."
Correspondence: K. F. Greenwell, World Health Organization, UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20173 Gulati, S. C. Contraceptive method's use and choice in Kerala and Uttar Pradesh: multinomial logit analysis of NFHS data. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1996. 205-20 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This study purports to highlight the relative significance of alternate factors affecting choice and current use of contraceptive methods in different socioeconomic and cultural settings of Kerala and Uttar Pradesh, which have been categorized as demographically most advanced and most backward states of India respectively....The study clearly highlights that contraceptive use rates are significantly lower amongst the Muslims compared to the Hindus and the other religious groups....The extent of son preference is much higher in Uttar Pradesh compared to the southern state of Kerala....It is higher education and not just literacy amongst women which can bring about results in terms of wider usage of contraceptive methods and reduction in fertility."
Correspondence: S. C. Gulati, Institute of Economic Growth, Population Research Centre, Delhi University Enclave, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20174 Jejeebhoy, Shireen J. Addressing women's reproductive health needs: priorities for the family welfare programme. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 32, No. 9-10, Mar 1-14, 1997. 475-84 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"A growing recognition that population dynamics, quality of life and women's status are closely interrelated argues strongly for a fresh look at India's population programme. Strategies to broaden the narrow focus of services, and more important, to put women's reproductive health services and information needs in the forefront are urgently required. [The author addresses the questions:] What are the gaps in women's reproductive health care? What are the constraints women face in accessing quality health care?"
Correspondence: S. J. Jejeebhoy, 16-A G. Deshmukh Marg, Mumbai 400 026, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:20175 Kamuzora, C. L. Towards understanding low contraceptive prevalence in African societies. African Review, Vol. 19, No. 1-2, 1992. 1-12 pp. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In Eng.
"While limited to the exploration of the factors that lead to the understanding of current low contraceptive prevalence levels [in Africa], this paper raises questions concerning the change to deliberate control of fertility....The identification and understanding of factors associated with low contraceptive prevalence in Africa have been sought in the experiences of developing countries in Asia....Here a summary discussion is made and implications for successful fertility regulation programmes are drawn."
Correspondence: C. L. Kamuzora, University of Dar es Salaam, Demographic Unit, Box 35050, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

63:20176 Karra, Mihira V.; Stark, Nancy N.; Wolf, Joyce. Male involvement in family planning: a case study spanning five generations of a South Indian family. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 1, Mar 1997. 24-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Family planning program planners often view men as gatekeepers who, if involved in reproductive decisionmaking, will thwart women's efforts to regulate fertility. This study examines fertility decisions made by five generations of one South Indian family and the factors affecting its sudden observed fertility decline. Male involvement in family planning and use of male methods are associated with the fertility decline and resulted in long-term benefits for women. Traditional notions about gender roles and family, in addition to economic concerns, shaped fertility decisionmaking. Individual motivation rather than choice of methods was more important for positive male participation in family planning."
Correspondence: M. V. Karra, Population Leadership Program, Western Consortium for Public Health, 210 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20177 Khan, H. T. Abdullah. A hierarchical model of contraceptive use in urban and rural Bangladesh. Contraception, Vol. 55, No. 2, Feb 1997. 91-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper, a model is developed for examining the hierarchical effects of contraceptive use and its determinants in urban-rural Bangladesh by employing data from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS). In the survey, a total of 11,905 ever-married women of reproductive age were interviewed in urban and rural situations....It has been found that contraceptive use has no significant variation between regions; however, a statistically significant variation exists between the blocks (census tracts) of Bangladesh. Findings also indicate that mother's parity, her education, family planning decisions, and female independence score are found to have a significant positive effect on the use of contraception in urban and rural Bangladesh, whereas child death has a significant negative influence. Religion and work experience of women are found to have little effect on contraceptive use."
Correspondence: H. T. A. Khan, University of Dhaka, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. E-mail: akhan.stat@ducc.agni.com. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20178 Kosunen, Elise; Sihvo, Sinikka; Hemminki, Elina. Knowledge and use of hormonal emergency contraception in Finland. Contraception, Vol. 55, No. 3, Mar 1997. 153-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"We studied the knowledge and use of hormonal emergency contraception (EC) in Finland by mailing a questionnaire to a national sample of 3,000 women aged 18-44 years (response rate 74%). Ten percent of the women aged under 25 and 4% of all respondents had sometimes used EC. Unmarried women were more likely to report having used hormonal EC than were married women, and nulliparous women reported more use than did parous women. However, no statistically significant difference in EC use among women with or without previous abortion history was observed. Older women were less aware of EC than of other methods; only one-third of the women aged over 35 knew about this method. Current contraceptive practices were otherwise similar among ever-users and never-users of EC, but EC users more commonly reported using condom together with oral contraceptives or IUD. Nobody reported using EC as her only contraceptive method."
Correspondence: E. Kosunen, University of Tampere Medical School, P.O. Box 607, 33101 Tampere, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20179 Lodewijckx, Edith. Turkish and Moroccan women: family planning in Flanders and Brussels and in the countries of origin. [Turkse en Marokkaanse vrouwen: gezinsplanning in Vlaanderen en Brussel en in de herkomstlanden.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, 1994. 53-78 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Moroccan and Turkish communities constitute the most important migrant populations living in Flanders and Brussels today. Some aspects of their family formation, with emphasis on contraceptive behaviour are described, and are compared with the behaviour of the autochthonous population, as well as with that of the non-migrant population in the countries of origin. The desired and realised fertility of Turkish and Moroccan women in Belgium is higher than that of the nationals but they both want and have smaller families than the non-migrant couples in Turkey and Morocco....The contraceptive profile of the migrant population is more `modern' than that of the non-migrant populations."
Correspondence: E. Lodewijckx, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudiën, Markiesstraat 1, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20180 Meekers, Dominique; Oladosu, Muyiwa. Spousal communication and family planning decision-making in Nigeria. Population Research Institute Working Paper in African Demography, No. AD96-03, Apr 1996. 33 pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Scattered research suggests that the limited success of family planning programs in Nigeria and other countries of sub-Saharan Africa, may stem from the fact that these programs mainly target women, while family planning decisions are usually made either by the couple, or by the husband or male partner. This study uses data from the 1990 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey in order to obtain a better understanding of the factors that facilitate or hinder spousal communication and to investigate the effect of spousal communication on contraceptive use in Nigeria."
This paper was originally presented at the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20181 Oddens, Björn J. Determinants of contraceptive use: national population-based studies in various West European countries. ISBN 90-5166-509-1. 1996. 206 pp. Eburon Publishers: Delft, Netherlands; International Health Foundation: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Dut.
This study of current contraceptive practice in Europe is primarily based on two surveys carried out in 1992 in the United Kingdom and Germany, involving 967 and 1,064 women aged 15-45, respectively. The analysis provides information on the contraceptive methods currently used in the two countries by those trying to avoid pregnancy; changes in contraceptive patterns since the mid 1980s; the effect of pill scares and AIDS campaigns on contraceptives chosen; attitudes toward various contraceptive methods; factors determining contraceptive use; and factors affecting international differences in contraceptive usage. Chapters are also included on the impact of contraceptive pricing on demand in eight Western European countries, and the dynamics of oral contraceptive switching in the Netherlands.
Correspondence: Eburon Publishers, P.O. Box 2867, 2601 CW Delft, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20182 Oheneba-Sakyi, Yaw; Takyi, Baffour K. Effects of couples' characteristics on contraceptive use in Sub-Saharan Africa: the Ghanaian example. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan 1997. 33-49 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines couples' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics in the context of their attitudes towards family planning, and the impact of these factors on the use of contraceptives. The characteristics of the husbands and their influence on wives' behaviour illustrate the role of intra-household relations between men and women and their effect on fertility-related behaviour in patriarchal African societies."
Correspondence: Y. Oheneba-Sakyi, State University of New York, Potsdam College, Department of Sociology, Potsdam, NY 13676-2294. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20183 Peru. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Dirección Técnica de Demografía y Estudios Sociales (Lima, Peru); United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York); Peru. Ministerio de Salud (Lima, Peru). Peru: the demand for family planning. [Peru: demanda de planificación familiar.] Pub. Order No. 677-95-SG-OEPI. LC 96-136461. Aug 1995. 161 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa.
Data from the 1993 census and a recent survey (ENDES II) are used to analyze levels of contraceptive practice and the unmet need for contraception in Peru. The level of demand for family planning is first examined at national, departmental, and provincial levels. Next, the methodology for making such estimates is considered. Variations in contraceptive usage by marital status, educational status, region or area of residence, housing characteristics, age, and parity are then discussed. Finally, the data sources on which the study is based are described.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, General Garzón 654-658, Lima 11, Peru. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

63:20184 Pinkerton, Steven D.; Abramson, Paul R. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV transmission. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 9, May 1997. 1,303-12 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper two estimates of condom effectiveness are reported. The first estimate is derived from a pooled analysis of published studies investigating condom use and seroconversion rates among sexual partners of HIV-infected persons....The pooled seroconversion data are then used to derive the second index of condom effectiveness, which provides an estimate of the reduction in per-contact probability of HIV transmission provided by the consistent use of condoms." The results indicate that "a reexamination of HIV seroconversion studies suggests that condoms are 90 to 95% effective when used consistently, i.e. consistent condom users are 10 to 20 times less likely to become infected when exposed to the virus than are inconsistent or non-users. Similar results are obtained utilizing model-based estimation techniques, which indicate that condoms decrease the per-contact probability of male-to-female transmission of HIV by about 95%."
Correspondence: S. D. Pinkerton, Medical College of Wisconsin, Center for AIDS Intervention Research, Milwaukee, WI. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:20185 Potts, Malcolm. Sex and the birth rate: human biology, demographic change, and access to fertility-regulation methods. Population and Development Review, Vol. 23, No. 1, Mar 1997. 1-39, 223, 225 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Human beings have been able to exercise conscious control over their fertility since the second half of the twentieth century, but wherever access to birth control technologies is not constrained by law, policies, custom, or economic factors, there has been a marked fall in family size, in most cases to a total fertility rate of 2 or less....Social success in the modern world tends to be associated with the acquisition of material goods but not with larger families. It follows that making fertility-regulation choices available (including voluntary sterilization and safe abortion) through multiple, convenient channels of distribution is likely to prove the most straightforward strategy for lowering birth rates. This article explores the implications of this perspective for international family planning policies."
Correspondence: M. Potts, University of California, School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20186 Salvini, Silvana. Contraception and family planning: social change and population control in developing countries. [Contraccezione e pianificazione familiare: trasformazioni sociali e controllo della popolazione nei paesi in via di sviluppo.] Ricerca, ISBN 88-15-05761-7. 1997. 311 pp. Il Mulino: Bologna, Italy. In Ita.
This is a general study on the population problems that the developing countries are facing, and on the prospects for resolving those problems. The book is in four parts. Part 1 describes the history of contraception. Part 2 looks at fertility trends and the spread of contraception in developing countries. Part 3 examines the factors that are associated with the successful control of fertility, including cultural change, economic development, social policies, and improvements in the status of women. Part 4 deals with population policies, and with the evaluation of their effectiveness. The author identifies the following factors as being most likely to encourage a significant decline in fertility and an increase in life expectancy: the spread of education, the availability of services and structures to promote reproductive health as well as maternal and child health, and, above all, improvements in the status of women.
Correspondence: Il Mulino, Strada Maggiore 37, Casella Postale No. 119, 40100 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20187 Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Poindexter, Alfred N.; Bateman, Louise. Consistency of condom use among users of injectable contraceptives. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1997. 67-9, 75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Use of condoms for protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was examined over a nine-month period among 536 women from 17 clinics in southeastern Texas who had selected the injectable depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) as a contraceptive. Among women who were using condoms prior to receiving DMPA, nearly half said they never or rarely did so after initiating DMPA use; only 18% of all women in the study used condoms consistently while relying on DMPA. Factors associated with consistent condom use were being black (odds ratio of 2.0), being unmarried (odds ratio of 2.2), having a history of STD infection (odds ratio of 1.8), having previously used condoms (odds ratio of 2.7) and having no interest in future childbearing (odds ratio of 1.8). Our data suggest that the majority of users of injectables may not be protected from exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus and other STDs."
Correspondence: H. Sangi-Haghpeykar, Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Houston, TX 00730. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20188 Schuler, Sidney R.; Hashemi, Syed M.; Riley, Ann P. The influence of women's changing roles and status in Bangladesh's fertility transition: evidence from a study of credit programs and contraceptive use. World Development, Vol. 25, No. 4, Apr 1997. 563-75 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Multivariate analyses of data from a recent study in rural Bangladesh suggest that women's access to credit provided by two organizations, Grameen Bank and BRAC, augments use of contraception. This effect increases with the duration of the women's involvement in the credit programs. Although three of eight measures of women's empowerment have statistically significant effects on contraceptive use (women's economic security and contribution to family support, freedom of mobility, and relative freedom from domination by the family), these variables account for surprisingly little of the effect of credit on contraceptive use. The authors present qualitative data describing how the credit programs empower women, and speculate about other paths through which participation in them may influence contraceptive use."
Correspondence: S. R. Schuler, JSI Research and Training Institute, 1616 North Fort Myer Drive, Arlington, VA 22209. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

63:20189 Strickler, Jennifer A.; Magnani, Robert J.; McCann, H. Gilman; Brown, Lisanne F.; Rice, Janet C. The reliability of reporting of contraceptive behavior in DHS calendar data: evidence from Morocco. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 1, Mar 1997. 44-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report addresses the consistency of reporting in the contraceptive calendar in the 1992 and 1995 Morocco Demographic and Health Surveys. Because a panel design was used in these surveys, the same women were interviewed in both years, providing a unique opportunity to examine the reliability of responses. Measures of reliability for various aspects of contraceptive-use dynamics are computed, and the impact of reporting errors on contraceptive failure, discontinuation, and switching rates is estimated. Results suggest that reporting of contraceptive behavior in Moroccan DHS calendar data appears to be relatively reliable at the aggregate level. Individual respondents, particularly those whose contraceptive patterns have been complex, have a lower level of reliability. The observed inconsistencies do not appear to affect aggregate-level estimates of contraceptive prevalence; however, measures of contraceptive-use dynamics are less stable."
Correspondence: J. A. Strickler, University of Vermont, Department of Sociology, 31 South Prospect Street, Burlington, VT 05405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20190 Tawiah, E. O. Factors affecting contraceptive use in Ghana. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 2, Apr 1997. 141-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The relationships between selected demographic and socioeconomic variables and current use status of contraception were examined using logistic regression technique. Information on current contraceptive use was provided by 3,156 out of 4,488 currently married women aged 15-49 interviewed in the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Respondents' approval of family planning emerged as the most important predictor of current contraceptive use, followed by discussion of family planning with partner and level of education. As a policy measure, information, education and communication programmes on family planning should be intensified, particularly in rural areas. Female education, at least up to secondary level, should be given top priority."
Correspondence: E. O. Tawiah, University of Ghana, Regional Institute for Population Studies, P.O. Box 96, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20191 Valabrègue, Catherine; Treiner, Sandrine. The pill, and then? Two generations cope with birth control. [La pilule, et après? Deux générations face au contrôle des naissances.] ISBN 2-234-04609-2. 1996. 298 pp. Stock: Paris, France. In Fre.
This book is in two parts. The first part, by Valabrègue, describes the development of the family planning movement in France over time, from the adoption of anticontraceptive legislation in 1920 up to the reforms of the 1960s. The second part, by Treiner, examines the situation from a female perspective in the period since the 1960s, with particular reference to the benefits and problems posed by the general availability of effective modern contraceptive methods such as the oral contraceptive pill.
Correspondence: Editions Stock, 23 rue du Sommerard, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20192 Villela, Wilza; Barbosa, Regina. Contraceptive choices and experiences of sexuality: a comparison of sterilized and non-sterilized women. [Opções contraceptivas e vivências da sexualidade: comparação entre mulheres esterilizadas e não esterilizadas em região metropolitana do Sudeste do Brasil.] Revista de Saúde Pública, Vol. 30, No. 5, Oct 1996. 452-9 pp. São Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"A cross sectional study involving 357 women, 174 of them sterilized and 183 non-sterilized, with a view to comparing their sexual and reproductive behaviour, was undertaken....The results show that sterilized women--who are older and more often have steady partnerships than non-sterilized women--fulfil traditional gender roles more closely than the others. Furthermore, no sterilized woman had used the condom in the month prior to the interview."
Correspondence: W. Villela, Instituto de Saúde da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo, Rua Santo Antonio 549, 2o andar, 01314 000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20193 Zelaya, Elmer; Peña, Rodolfo; García, Jairo; Berglund, Staffan; Persson, Lars Å.; Liljestrand, Jerker. Contraceptive patterns among women and men in León, Nicaragua. Contraception, Vol. 54, No. 6, Dec 1996. 359-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The aim was to study the contraceptive patterns among men and women in León, Nicaragua. A questionnaire about sexual, contraceptive, reproductive and socioeconomic issues was directed to 7,789 households including 22% of all women of the municipality aged 15-49 years (n = 10,867). A subsample of 388 men and 413 women aged 15-49 years was drawn at random....Private interviews revealed that among fertile women who had been sexually active within the last three months, non-pregnant and wishing to avoid pregnancy, 77% were contracepting. Female sterilization was the most common contraceptive method (39%), followed by intrauterine device (16%)....Contraceptive use in sexually active women aged 15-44 years was lower among those having lower education, living in rural areas, and living under poverty conditions. The predominance of female sterilization and the occasional condom use--mainly reported by men--reflects a situation of relative male control over contraception and reproduction."
Correspondence: E. Zelaya, Umeå University, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects and Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

63:20194 Harrison, Polly F.; Rosenfield, Allan. Contraceptive research and development: looking to the future. ISBN 0-309-05442-7. LC 96-26149. 1996. xi, 519 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This book "explores the frontiers of science where the contraceptives of the future are likely to be found and lays out criteria for deciding where to make the next R&D investments....[It] comprehensively examines today's contraceptive needs, identifies `niches' in those needs that seem most readily translatable into market terms, and scrutinizes issues that shape the market: method side effects and contraceptive failure, the challenge of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, and the implications of the `women's agenda'....[The authors analyze] the response of the pharmaceutical industry to current dynamics in regulation, liability, public opinion, and the economics of the health sector and offer an integrated set of recommendations for public- and private-sector action to meet a whole new generation of demand."
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

63:20195 Barberis, M.; Harvey, P. D. Costs of family planning programmes in fourteen developing countries by method of service delivery. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 2, Apr 1997. 219-33 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The cost effectiveness of several modes of family planning service delivery based on the cost per couple-year of protection (CYP), including commodity costs, is assessed for 1991-92 using programme and project data from fourteen developing countries (five in Africa, four in Asia, three in Latin America and two in the Middle East)....Sterilisation services provided both the highest volume (over 60% of total) and the lowest cost per CYP ($1.85)....The highest costs were for community-based distribution projects (0.7 million CYPs), which averaged $9.93, and clinic-based services with a community-based distribution component (almost 6 million CYPs), at a cost of $14.00 per CYP. Based on a weighted average, costs were lowest in the Middle East ($3.37 per CYP for all modes of delivery combined) and highest in Africa ($11.20)."
Correspondence: M. Barberis, DKT International, 1120 19th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20196 Bertrand, Jane T.; Kincaid, D. Lawrence. Evaluating Information-Education-Communication (IEC) programs for family planning and reproductive health: final report of the IEC Working Group. No. WG-IEC-03, Oct 1996. ix, 178 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
This report is one of the main products of a project involving the Carolina Population Center, the Center for International Health and Development at Tulane University, and the Futures Group. The project examined how to evaluate IEC activities carried out as part of family planning or reproductive health programs. Separate chapters are included on the evaluation of counseling, group presentations, community mobilization, mass media campaigns, and communication directed to influentials. A final chapter examines the extent to which it is possible to evaluate whether an observed change has occurred due to IEC input.
Correspondence: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB 8120, 123 East Franklin Street, Suite 304, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20197 Freedman, Ronald. Do family planning programs affect fertility preferences? A literature review. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 1, Mar 1997. 1-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A literature review finds few studies about whether family planning programs have reduced fertility preferences. The strong and surprising evidence from Matlab, Bangladesh, demonstrated that this intensive program did not decrease preferences; however, it did crystalize latent demand for fewer children, resulting in a demand for contraception. One cross-national multivariate study was consistent with this finding. A few intracountry multivariate studies found small program effects, decreasing the number of children that couples want. An intensive multimethod study in India found plausible larger effects. Most studies of program media effects are flawed by possible selection bias, but one longitudinal study avoids this pitfall and finds large effects for one country. Program feedback effects are plausible but not yet demonstrated empirically. The effects of a coercive program are plausible, at least in China, but not definitively demonstrated."
Correspondence: R. Freedman, University of Michigan, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20198 Frost, Jennifer J.; Bolzan, Michele. The provision of public-sector services by family planning agencies in 1995. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1997. 6-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Results from a 1995 [U.S.] survey of a nationally representative sample of 603 publicly funded family planning agencies reveal that 96% rely on federal funding, 60% on state funding and 40% on local funding to provide family planning and other services. Although only 25% of the contraceptive clients served by these publicly funded agencies...are Medicaid recipients, 57% have incomes below the federal poverty level and an additional 33% have incomes of 100-250% of the poverty level. Some 40% of the recipients of family planning services are black, Hispanic or from other minority groups, and 30% are younger than 20. Each agency employs an average of three physicians who together provide approximately seven hours of care per week and seven midlevel clinicians who provide 71 hours of care per week. The pill is the only contraceptive method provided by all agencies, but 96% provide the injectable; at least 90% spermicide, the condom and the diaphragm; 78% periodic abstinence; and 59% the implant."
Correspondence: J. J. Frost, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20199 Manzoor, Khaleda. Utilisation, excess capacity, and performance of family welfare centres in a district of Punjab. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 34, No. 4, Pt. III, Winter 1995. 1,151-64 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author examines how the Family Welfare Centres, which provide most of the family planning services in Pakistan, might provide such services more efficiently. Data are from a number of sources, and primarily consist of information collected through observation of the centers at work in 1992. A comment by S. Mazhar Hussain Hashmi is included (pp. 1,162-4).
Correspondence: K. Manzoor, National Institute of Population Studies, House No. 8, Street 70, F-8/3, P.O. Box 2197, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

63:20200 Campbell, Eugene K.; Campbell, Puni G. Family size and sex preferences and eventual fertility in Botswana. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 2, Apr 1997. 191-204 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Botswana is one of the sub-Saharan countries where actual fertility has declined. This study examines the fertility preferences of both men and women and shows that fertility intentions have a significant influence on future fertility behaviour. Fertility preferences are relatively low and there is no significant difference between those of men and women. Men's preference for sons influences desired family size and eventual fertility. For women as well as men, child survival is an important factor. Women's income is also influential."
Correspondence: E. K. Campbell, University of Botswana, Department of Demography, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20201 Delbanco, Suzanne; Lundy, Janet; Hoff, Tina; Parker, Molly; Smith, Mark D. Public knowledge and perceptions about unplanned pregnancy and contraception in three countries. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1997. 70-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A 1994-1995 survey of men and women aged 18-44 in the United States, Canada and the Netherlands revealed considerable differences in public knowledge and perceptions about unplanned pregnancy and contraception. The proportion who believe that unplanned pregnancy is a `very big problem' is 60% in the United States, 36% in Canada and 6% in the Netherlands. Americans are more likely than their Canadian or Dutch counterparts to cite societal problems as significant factors in the rate of unplanned pregnancy; higher proportions of Americans also cite the cost of contraceptives...and an inability to obtain methods....In all three countries, adults are generally well informed about the relative effectiveness of commonly used contraceptives, but Americans are more skeptical about method safety and effectiveness....Health care professionals are the most frequently cited source of contraceptive information, but only 51-63% of adults have ever discussed contraception with such a practitioner."
Correspondence: S. Delbanco, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2400 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20202 Dorbritz, Jürgen; Schwarz, Karl. Infertility in Germany--a mass phenomenon? Analyses of manifestations and causes. [Kinderlosigkeit in Deutschland--ein Massenphänomen? Analysen zu Erscheinungsformen und Ursachen.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1996. 231-61 pp. Munich, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"In the old federal territory and within the forseeable future in Germany as a whole as well, childlessness could well become the most important factor to influence the fertility trend....Analyses of the decline in the birth rate beginning in the 1970s show that this trend is not primarily the result of the disappearance of the large family or of the dominance of the one-child family but rather of the influence of childlessness....Childlessness has been correlated with income (a higher level of childlessness among those of lower income), the level of occupational training (increased childlessness among those with higher qualifications) and living situation (higher childless rate for more or less individualised living situations)....There is also a correlation between childlessness and the postponement of marriage and the birth of the first child as well as the decline in mean numbers of children in the parent generation of today's childless women."
Correspondence: J. Dorbritz, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20203 Fialová, Ludmila; Tucek, Milan. Opinions on ideal number of children in selected European countries. [Názory na ideální pocet detí ve vybraných evropských zemích.] Demografie, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1997. 1-12 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
"Comparison of the opinions of 14 European countries' population on ideal number of children in the family recorded...in 1994...[shows] a considerable homogeneity of European countries, especially that of the young generation....The [comparison indicated]...differences among individual countries, which issued from their own cultural and religious traditions. It was confirmed that...young Europeans share...the opinion that the childless life is not empty and dull and that the parents...need not try to keep the family together with respect to their children. This fact indicates, together with a low attractiveness of the institution of marriage, [continuation] of a low fertility level even in the future."
Correspondence: L. Fialová, 250 66 Zdiby 16, Prague Vychod, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20204 Mauldon, Jane; Delbanco, Suzanne. Public perceptions about unplanned pregnancy. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1997. 25-9, 40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article reports on the results of a nationally representative telephone survey examining Americans' level of concern about unplanned pregnancy in general. We investigate the extent to which different groups share views about the problem and what they see as the primary causes of unplanned pregnancy in the United States. Finally, we examine differences in these beliefs and in the level of concern across various segments of the population." Results from the 1994 survey indicate that 60% of respondents "believe that unplanned pregnancy is a very big problem in the United States, and virtually all (90%) say it is at least a somewhat big problem. Two-thirds mistakenly believe that a larger percentage of women have unplanned pregnancies now than 10 years ago. A decline in moral standards is cited by 89% of respondents as contributing very much or somewhat to the problem. Lack of education is mentioned as a significant factor by 87%, and 88% see any of three barriers to contraceptive use--knowledge about use, access or cost--as being important factors."
Correspondence: J. Mauldon, University of California, Graduate School of Public Policy, 2607 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility. Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology.

63:20205 Bedall, Fritz. A statistical analysis of abortions in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1977 to 1988. [Eine statistische Analyse der Schwangerschaftsabbrüche der Jahre 1977 bis 1988 in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1996. 319-27 pp. Munich, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The tables compiled...at the Federal Institute for Population Research on probabilities relating to abortion in the Federal Republic of Germany are subjected to a statistical analysis. The data, differentiated according to age and marital status of pregnant women during the period 1977 to 1988, show that abortion probabilities steadily rise from a low level (below 4%) beginning at age 30 to a high level (40%) and that they occupy a consistently high level (45%) among unmarried women, regardless of age. These correlations remained constant over the entire twelve-year period covered by the study."
Correspondence: F. Bedall, Staatsinstitut für Schulpädagogik und Bildungsforschung, Arabellastraße 1, 81925 Munich, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20206 Blayo, Chantal. Abortion trends in France since 1976. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 8, 1996. 29-57 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
The author analyzes abortion trends in France since 1976. Aspects considered include abortion registration and incidence, the characteristics of women who abort, repeat abortions, and type of procedure. "Abortion is very rarely used as a method of birth control. If abortion rates are higher in France than in some other western European countries, it is because sterilization is much less widespread."
For the original French version, see 62:10340.
Correspondence: C. Blayo, Université Montesquieu-Bordeaux IV, Avenue Léon-Duguit, 33608 Pessac, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20207 Entwisle, Barbara; Kozyreva, Polina. New estimates of induced abortion in Russia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 28, No. 1, Mar 1997. 14-23 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article describes findings from a new source of data for estimating the incidence of induced abortion in the Russian Federation, the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS). According to RLMS data, the abortion rate in 1994 was 56 per 1,000 women aged 15-44, with a 95% confidence interval of plus or minus 12 per 1,000, an estimate that varies from that advanced by official sources and other studies. The sensitivity of this estimate to survey design, underreporting of abortion, and potential confusion about miniabortions is considered. Consistency of abortion estimates with patterns of contraceptive use is also evaluated. A significant advantage of RLMS data is the ability to estimate abortion rates specific to respondent characteristics. The article presents findings concerning socioeconomic differences."
Correspondence: B. Entwisle, University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center, University Square, CB #8120, 123 West Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20208 International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (London, England). Abortion: the European experience. Choices, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1997. 44 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This special issue is a product of a conference on European women's choices concerning abortion. The conference was held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in March 1996. The contributors describe the situation in different countries, including the Baltic countries, Poland, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Yugoslavia, and Turkey. The general conclusion of the conference was that the European experience shows that legal and safe abortion can be combined with very low abortion rates if it is accompanied by good sexual and contraceptive education and services.
Correspondence: International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20209 Lazarus, Ellen S. Politicizing abortion: personal morality and professional responsibility of residents training in the United States. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 44, No. 9, May 1997. 1,417-25 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on some of the problems generated by abortion policies and procedures in an obstetrics/gynecology residency program [in the United States]. Examples of conflicts among residents are presented to demonstrate the effect of pluralistic moral perspectives. A system is described where some residents will do abortions and some will not. Patients seeking abortion are often treated in an unprofessional manner when it appears that a conflict exists between the values of patients and those of residents. Unless the socialization of residents includes ethical training, defined educational policy and institutional direction, ethical dilemmas will lead to increased resident stress, an inadequate doctor-patient relationship and a continued shortage of physicians willing to perform abortions despite new policies called for in graduate medical education."
Correspondence: E. S. Lazarus, Case Western Reserve University, Department of Anthropology, Cleveland, OH 44120. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

63:20210 Maleck-Lewy, Eva. And what if I'm pregnant? Women between autonomy and dependence. [Und wenn ich nun schwanger bin? Frauen zwischen Selbstbestimmung und Bevormundung.] ISBN 3-7466-8998-8. 1994. 249 pp. Aufbau Taschenbuch Verlag: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
This is a summary of abortion history in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1993, focusing on the debate surrounding Paragraph 218, the 1871 law banning abortion; it was reformed in 1992, but in 1993 Germany's supreme court ruled parts of the reform unconstitutional. The author sketches out the history leading up to the law, the changes made during and after the two world wars, the liberalization of abortion in East Germany under Communist rule, and finally, the debate and legislation that followed reunification. There is a chapter on abortion in other countries, especially the United States; there is also a short bibliography, a detailed explanation of the provisions of the 1993 law, a list of accredited counseling and family planning centers in Germany, and an appendix containing various primary sources such as the actual text of legislation and extracts from hearings.
Correspondence: Aufbau-Verlag, Postfach 193, 10105 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20211 Matthews, Stephen; Ribar, David; Wilhelm, Mark. The effects of economic conditions and access to reproductive health services on state abortion rates and birthrates. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1997. 52-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The effects that such factors as wages, welfare policies and access to physicians, family planning clinics and abortion providers have on [U.S.] abortion rates and birthrates are examined in analyses based on 1978-1988 state-level data and longitudinal regression techniques. The incidence of abortion is found to be lower in states where access to providers is reduced and state policies are restrictive. Calculations indicate that decreased access may have accounted for about one-quarter of the 5% decline in abortion rates between 1988 and 1992. In addition, birthrates are elevated where the costs of contraception are higher because access to obstetrician-gynecologists and family planning services is reduced. Economic resources such as higher wages for men and women and generous welfare benefits are significantly and consistently related to increased birthrates; however, even a 10% cut in public assistance benefits would result in only one birth fewer for every 212 women on welfare. Economic factors showed no consistent relationship with abortion rates."
Correspondence: S. Matthews, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 22 Burrowes Building, University Park, PA 16802-6202. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20212 Merz, Jon F.; Jackson, Catherine A.; Klerman, Jacob A. A review of abortion policy: legality, Medicaid funding, and parental involvement, 1967-1994. RAND Labor and Population Program Reprint Series, No. 96-24, 1996. 61 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"This article has three sections. The first section briefly summarizes the United States Supreme Court decisions that set the constitutional boundaries of state actions regarding abortion legality, Medicaid payment for abortion for indigent women, and the requirements for the involvement of minors' parents in the abortion decision. The second and main section of the article provides a documented state-by-state review. The third and final section summarizes this review (including figures graphically describing the status of each policy by state through time) and presents some concluding comments."
This article is reprinted from Women's Rights Law Reporter, Vol. 17, No. 1, Winter 1995.
Correspondence: RAND, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. E-mail: order@rand.org. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20213 Millar, Wayne J.; Wadhera, Surinder; Henshaw, Stanley K. Repeat abortions in Canada, 1975-1993. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1997. 20-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we describe the rate of and trends in repeat abortion in Canada from 1975 to 1993, and we relate these data to selected characteristics of Canadian women who obtained repeat abortions. Additionally, although the Canadian data have a level of completeness and detail not available in most other countries, we compare the Canadian experience with that of other industrialized countries." Results indicate that "the proportion of abortion patients undergoing repeat procedures increased from 9% to 29% over the 19-year period. The proportion was above average (22-28% for all years combined) among women who were in common-law marriages, those aged 25-39 and those who had previously had children....During the study period, the repeat rate rose sharply among women younger than 25 but fell among those aged 30 and older. In 1993, fewer than 2% of abortions were obtained by women who had had three or more previous procedures, suggesting that abortion is not widely used as a primary method of birth control."
Correspondence: W. J. Millar, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20214 Orobaton, Nosa. Are unsafe induced abortions contributing to fertility decline in Africa? Findings from Egypt and Zimbabwe. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1996. 261-74 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The objectives of this paper are to: 1. Examine the effect of induced abortions on the decline of total fertility rates in [Egypt and Zimbabwe]. 2. Discuss the implications of rising induced abortion rates for maternal health within the context of restrictive legal environments. 3. Suggest recommendations for reducing the incidence of abortion related maternal deaths."
Correspondence: N. Orobaton, BASICS Project Eritrea, c/o Partnership for Child Health Care, 1600 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22209. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20215 Tatalovich, Raymond. The politics of abortion in the United States and Canada: a comparative study. Comparative Politics Series, ISBN 1-56324-417-9. LC 96-23923. 1997. xii, 265 pp. M. E. Sharpe: Armonk, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a comparative analysis of the changes made in abortion policy in Canada and the United States from the late 1960s to the present day. Chapter 1 reviews the situation in both countries in the 1950s and 1960s before changes in the laws concerning abortion were made. Chapter 2 deals with the 1973 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe vs. Wade and the different approach taken in Canada culminating in Morgentaler vs. the Queen in 1988. Chapter 3 discusses efforts to tighten restrictions on abortion in the legislatures of both countries following these two cases. Chapter 4 examines public opinion on abortion issues and the activities of pro-life and pro-choice lobby groups. Chapter 5 analyzes the political aspects of this issue. Chapter 6 explores how the executive branches of the governments have dealt with abortion policy in the two countries. Chapter 7 investigates abortion implementation and the roles played by public authorities and the private sector in providing abortion services.
Correspondence: M. E. Sharpe, 80 Business Park Drive, Armonk, NY 10504. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

63:20216 Dunne, Michael P.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Statham, Dixie J.; Pangan, Theresa; Madden, Pamela A.; Heath, Andrew C. The consistency of recalled age at first sexual intercourse. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan 1997. 1-7 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"It is widely believed that people can remember the age at which they first had sexual intercourse. Questions about age at onset are routinely asked in population sexual behaviour surveys and in clinical history-taking. However, there are limited test-retest data, especially with regard to individual differences in unreliable recall. In this study, telephone interviews and follow-ups an average of 15 months later were conducted with 570 non-virgin [Australian] subjects aged between 28 and 73 years. Test-retest correlations for recalled age at first intercourse were 0.85 for females and 0.91 for males. Consistency was slightly lower among older people and women with a history of sexual abuse. There were no significant associations between consistency of recall and measures of personality, educational background or history of alcohol dependence and depression."
Correspondence: M. P. Dunne, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Epidemiology Unit, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20217 Farid, Samir; Clarke, Sue; Diamond, Ian. The determinants of the duration of breast feeding in Bahrain. Actuarial Studies and Demography Research Paper, No. 004/97, ISBN 1-86408-358-1. Mar 1997. 20, [8] pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to determine the socio-economic and demographic factors having the greatest influence on breast feeding behavior during [the] early months of a child's life [in Bahrain]. There are many possible factors for consideration and in this study they are divided into three broad groups: educational, health-related and demographic."
Correspondence: N. Parr, Macquarie University, School of Economics and Financial Studies, Actuarial Studies and Demography Department, NSW 2109, Australia. E-mail: lschalch@efs.mq.edu.au. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20218 Mannan, Haider R.; Islam, M. Nurul. Determinants of breastfeeding duration in Bangladesh: a hazards model analysis. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1996. 249-60 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to study the determinants of breastfeeding duration in Bangladesh, a country for which a dataset is available at the national level through the Bangladesh Fertility Survey (BFS)....The hazards analysis has identified that the maternal characteristics such as mother's education, mother's age at birth of index child and parity are more important in explaining the duration of breastfeeding than the spousal characteristics such as husband's education and husband's occupation, which have come out insignificant in the final model."
Correspondence: H. R. Mannan, Dhaka University, Department of Statistics, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20219 Sahu, Damodar; Pandey, Arvind; Sunil, T. S. Determinants of duration of post-partum amenorrhoea in Gujarat: a multivariate life table analysis. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1996. 239-48 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper...we intend to find the effect of various covariates on the duration of PPA [postpartum amenorrhea] in the state of Gujarat [India]....The...analysis has shown that the rate of attainment of PPA varies significantly by mother's household standard of living, place of residence, age and education. The duration of breastfeeding has been found to emerge as a significant time dependent covariate affecting the length of PPA."
Correspondence: D. Sahu, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household.

63:20220 Pillai, Vijayan K.; Yarbrough, James. Unmarried Zambian school teenagers and sexual activity: a discriminant analysis. Demography India, Vol. 25, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1996. 285-90 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This study has several purposes: Firstly, to isolate variables which discriminate between teenagers who have [a] liberal attitude toward sex and those who do not and, secondly, to determine if the variables suggested by current explanations of modernization are supported by data from an African country, Zambia. Another purpose is to ascertain the social and demographic profile of the teenagers who have liberal sexual attitudes as contrasted with those who do not."
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, University of North Texas, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 13675, Denton, TX 76203-3826. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

63:20221 Scott, Susan; Duncan, C. J. Interacting factors affecting illegitimacy in preindustrial northern England. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 29, No. 2, Apr 1997. 151-69 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Illegitimacy in a historic, single community at Penrith, Cumbria [in northern England] (1557-1812), has been studied using aggregative analysis, family reconstitution and time series analysis. This population was living under extreme conditions of hardship....In a complex interaction of events, the peaks of the cycles in wheat prices were associated with rises in adult mortality which promoted an influx of migrants and a concomitant rise in illegitimacy. The association between immigration and illegitimacy was particularly noticeable after the mortality crises of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Children of immigrant families also tended to produce illegitimate offspring. Native and immigrant families responded differently to extrinsic fluctuations, and variations in their reproductive behaviour were probably related to access to resources."
Correspondence: S. Scott, University of Liverpool, Department of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.