Volume 62 - Number 4 - Winter 1996

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

62:40695 al-Ramadhan, Muhammad A. New population policy in Kuwait: the quest for a balance in the population composition. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 43, 1995. 29-53 pp. Amman, Jordan. In Eng.
"This study investigates the development of population policy in Kuwait following the Gulf crisis, reveals the changes induced by the post-Gulf-war population policy, and provides an attempt to assess the policy's success. The study concludes that despite the new population policy, expatriates continue to make up the majority of the population. The problem continues to be a challenge for policy makers. There appear to be new levels of sincerity, explicitness and seriousness of purpose in Kuwait's new population policy, but there have not been many real changes in direction from earlier policies. Short of closing the door to expatriates, effective policy options for increasing the Kuwaiti share in the country's total population are limited."
Correspondence: M. A. al-Ramadhan, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Techno-Economics Division, P.O. Box 24885, 13109 Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40696 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. French population policy since 1945. [La politique de population française depuis 1945.] Population et Avenir, No. 627-628, Mar-Jun 1996. 7-13 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
French population policy developments since 1945 are reviewed and compared to events in other developed countries. The author notes that the original objectives of French policy were to ensure a certain standard of living to children in families, regardless of the size of the family. However, over the course of time, the right not to have more children than parents wanted became another policy objective. He also notes that the level of support for families has declined in real terms over time and that France has now been overtaken by other Western countries, such as Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40697 Cook, Rebecca J.; Fathalla, Mahmoud F. Advancing reproductive rights beyond Cairo and Beijing. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep 1996. 115-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The use of human rights to advance reproductive health and self-determination has gained momentum through recent United Nations (UN) conferences, particularly the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo, and the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing....In this article, we explain how national constitutions and international human rights law can be applied to hold governments accountable for neglecting or violating these rights, how the Cairo Programme and the Beijing Platform can be used to add specific detail to reproductive rights and how programs have been developed to protect and promote reproductive rights beyond Cairo and Beijing."
Correspondence: R. J. Cook, University of Toronto, Centre for Bioethics, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40698 Drakakis-Smith, David; Graham, Elspeth. Shaping the nation state: ethnicity, class and the new population policy in Singapore. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1996. 69-89 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper explores the relationships between ethnicity, class and the New Population Policy (NPP) in Singapore in the context of its nation state project....The paper uses data from a sample of the Singaporean population to investigate the impact of the NPP on both ethnic and income (class) groups in order to assess the importance of the ethnic dimension in this aspect of Singapore's development strategy. It concludes that, although differences in fertility behaviour may be rooted in ethnic identity, the control that the government wishes to exert over that behaviour as part of its nation-building project has largely been effected through class interests, and may be better interpreted as part of a broader strategy of human resource management which is attracting the attention of other Asian newly industrialising countries."
Correspondence: D. Drakakis-Smith, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, Roxby Building, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40699 Findlay, Allan M.; Borgegård, Lars-Eric. Geographical perspectives on population policies. Applied Geography, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jul 1995. 197-296 pp. Butterworth-Heinemann: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This special issue contains seven papers on the geographical perspectives of population policies throughout the world.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Butterworth-Heinemann, Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, England. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:40700 Franz, Erhard. Population policy in Turkey: family planning and migration between 1960 and 1992. Deutsches Orient-Institut Mitteilungen, No. 48, ISBN 3-89173-034-9. LC 95-140882. 1994. 358 pp. Deutsches Orient-Institut: Hamburg, Germany. In Eng.
This is a review of developments in population policy and programs in Turkey over the period 1960-1992. The sources of demographic data for the country are first described, and population trends over this period are outlined. Next, there is a chapter on the development of a national population policy, including a family planning program. The author particularly focuses on how political events, such as the involvement of the military in government, lack of adequate funding, and failures of coordination, have hampered the establishment of effective programs. There are also chapters on policies concerning spatial distribution, internal migration, and international migration.
Correspondence: Deutsches Orient-Institut, Mittelweg 150, 20148 Hamburg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40701 Kirby, Eric G.; Kirby, Susan L. On the diffusion of international social values: institutionalization and demographic transition. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 77, No. 2, Jun 1996. 289-300 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This study examined evidence that institutionalization of international social policy is taking place within individual nations. Specifically, we found that overall the views of the world's nations toward perceived population growth within their countries are increasingly reflecting the dominant world view that population growth rates are too high. While economic development significantly impacts population growth, there is evidence that the institutionalization of world opinion is also related to population growth....If, as this study suggests, world values are being institutionalized, it is likely that worldwide crude growth rates will continue to decline, even in the face of declining worldwide death rates."
Correspondence: E. G. Kirby, University of Kentucky, School of Management, 355 Business and Economics Building, Lexington, KY 40506. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40702 Locoh, Thérèse; Makdessi, Yara. Population policies and fertility decline in Sub-Saharan Africa. CEPED Series, No. 2, ISBN 2-87762-099-9. Dec 1996. 43 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
The relationship between population policies and the decline in fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa is explored. The authors conclude that the legitimization of population policies specifying population growth rate targets for the region has followed rather than initiated changes in fertility. "The decline in fertility that is presently being experienced in certain countries and in all urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa is the result of changes in behaviour, the most important being the delay in female age at first marriage and the gradual adoption of diverse birth control methods to space rather than to limit births. There remains much to be done, however, before adopted population policies really meet their objectives. In particular, family planning programs are still not as effective as they might be, despite increased demand for these services among certain portions of the population." This publication is also available in French.
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40703 Novick, Susana. Population policies in Argentina: 1870-1989. A government viewpoint. [Políticas de población en la Argentina:1870-1989. Una visión desde el Estado.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 10, No. 2, May-Aug 1995. 431-55, 482-3 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The purposes of this paper are to analyze the Argentine legislation between 1870 and 1989 that has directly or indirectly affected the dynamics and structure of population, as well as to reveal the ideology of population policies supported by hegemonic social forces. This analysis takes into consideration the different development strategies that have been implemented. Our study explores the way in which the different governments have approached the issue of population, and, more specifically, it analyzes the relation between public policies, population policies, development strategies, and political processes represented in State laws."
Correspondence: S. Novick, Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Calle Viamonte 430-444, 1053 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40704 Rasevic, Mirjana; Petrovic, Mina. Case studies in population policy: an overview. [Iskustva populacione politike: u svetu.] ISBN 86-7093-073-0. 1996. 171 pp. Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja: Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
This is a general review of population policies and their effectiveness, particularly in developed countries. The primary focus is on policies that are designed to increase or decrease fertility. The authors consider both direct and indirect measures designed to raise fertility in developed countries, and the reasons for their relative ineffectiveness. They also examine policies designed to cope with the effects of demographic aging and to control international migration. The consensus achieved by governments at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development concerning population policy issues is also described. The authors conclude by pointing out that population policy issues cannot be dealt with in isolation from related socioeconomic problems.
Correspondence: Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40705 Tomasevski, Katarina. Human rights in population policies: a study for SIDA. ISBN 91-586-6047-X. 1994. 127 pp. Swedish International Development Authority [SIDA]: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
This is an analysis of population policies around the world from the viewpoint of human rights. The author identifies the areas in population policies where human rights issues can be relevant. She also provides a checklist for the assessment of population policies from a human rights perspective, as well as some recommendations for both the providers and recipients of population assistance.
Correspondence: Swedish International Development Authority, 105 25 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40706 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division (New York, New York). Review and appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action: 1994 report. No. ST/ESA/SER.A/152, Pub. Order No. E.95.XIII.27. ISBN 92-1-151299-9. 1995. ix, 149 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the latest in a series of reviews of the progress that has been made toward achieving the goals set in the World Population Plan of Action, adopted at the World Population Conference in Bucharest in 1974. "The present report presents the findings of the fourth review and appraisal, focusing on 30 selected population issues. It provides an overall assessment of the level of implementation of the World Population Plan of Action and appropriate background information on population trends and policies that helped facilitate the deliberations at the International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo in September 1994."
For a previous report in this series, published in 1989, see 57:40694.
Correspondence: UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

62:40707 Gould, W. T. S. Ideology and data analysis in African population policies: the case of Kenya. Applied Geography, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jul 1995. 203-18 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Formal population policies are now common in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly to directly facilitate fertility decline. They tend to be underpinned more by ideology than by systematic data collection and analysis. A case study of policies to promote fertility decline in Kenya, where fertility has fallen substantially in recent years, illustrates how population data, particularly from the 1989 and 1993 Demographic and Health Surveys, have been used by government and international agencies to validate rather than to inform official policies."
Correspondence: W. T. S. Gould, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:40708 Graham, Elspeth. Singapore in the 1990s. Can population policies reverse the demographic transition? Applied Geography, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jul 1995. 219-32 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The extent to which pronatalist policies can counteract the trend toward lower fertility, and even increase fertility, is examined. "Singapore is...treated as a case study to address the more general question of whether population policies can reverse the demographic transition. Official demographic statistics only reveal aggregate trends, however, and a micro-level analysis, based on a sample questionnaire survey of Singapore households undertaken in1992, is used to assess the impact of government population planning. Evidence of policy success to date is limited and future success is likely to hinge upon the effectiveness of the government's educational campaign."
Correspondence: E. Graham, University of St. Andrews, Department of Geography, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, Scotland. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:40709 Le Bourdais, Céline; Marcil-Gratton, Nicole; Bélanger, Danièle. Family policy in Quebec: "think and act family". [La politique familiale au Québec: "penser et agir famille".] Collection de Tirés à Part, No. 356, [1996?]. 117-30 pp. Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The authors describe recent trends in family policy in the Canadian province of Quebec. They note that the policies developed have had the double objective of influencing the province's demographic trends and of supporting families in the context of social policy. Comparisons are drawn between the family policies of Canada as a whole, which considers families in the context of individual decisions and restricts its efforts to trying to help families in need, and Quebec, which attempts to support families in general as the basic unit of the reproduction of society. This article is reprinted from the book Les Politiques Gouvernementales Face aux Familles Canadiennes en Transition, published by the Institut Vanier de la Famille in 1994.
Correspondence: Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40710 Mason, Karen O. Population programs and human rights. In: The impact of population growth on well-being in developing countries, edited by Dennis A. Ahlburg, Allen C. Kelley, and Karen O. Mason. 1996. 337-60 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The issue with which this paper deals is how government population programs--in particular, programs designed to influence the rate of population growth by altering the birth rate--affect human rights....In the first section, I review definitions of human rights and discuss some of the inherent difficulties of judging whether particular government actions violate those rights. In a second section, I outline the controversies about population programs and human rights that have arisen during the past two decades, identifying, to the extent possible, the different `sides' in these controversies and discussing the moral and scientific considerations relevant to these controversies. In the paper's final sections, I discuss two specific elements of government population programs that have been attacked on ethical grounds, namely, the use of incentives, and the use of demographic targets and pressures." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: K. O. Mason, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40711 Packer, Corinne A. A. The right to reproductive choice: a study in international law. ISBN 951-650-546-5. 1996. x, 213 pp. Åbo Akademi University, Institute for Human Rights: Turku, Finland. In Eng.
"From the perspective of international law, the author begins with the thorny issue of the definition of the right to reproductive choice and examines the complex web of rights which give it content. Thereupon, the strengths and weaknesses of the human rights instruments and mechanisms which secure the right to reproductive choice are considered. Also reviewed are the texts adopted at recent international conferences....The author explores the contemporary cultural, religious and demographic issues which present challenges to the application of the right to reproductive choice, such as national population policies, abortion and medically assisted reproduction. Listings of states [which are] parties to the relevant universal and regional human rights instruments, as well as excerpts from these and other texts together with selected state reservations...[are also included]." The geographical focus is worldwide.
Correspondence: Åbo Akademi University, Institute for Human Rights, Gezeliusgatan 2, 20500 Turku, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40712 Zodgekar, Arvind V. Family welfare programme and population stabilization strategies in India. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, Mar 1996. 3-24 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"After tracing the development of the world's oldest family planning programme [in India], the article describes some of the achievements and weaknesses of the related policies and programmes that were in force until the drafting of a new policy during this decade. It concludes with a number of recommendations that if implemented would make the programme sustainable over the long term."
Correspondence: A. V. Zodgekar, Victoria University of Wellington, Department of Sociology and Social Policy, 22 Inga Road, Milford, Auckland 9, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

62:40713 Altamirano, Aina T. Return migration on the policy agenda in Sweden. Applied Geography, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jul 1995. 267-78 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Explicit policies on return migration are of rather recent date in most European countries, including Sweden. During the last few years a number of new policy initiatives have been taken in this field. The purpose of this paper is to examine how official Swedish policies on return migration have changed during the last 20 years. The conclusion is that Sweden has moved from a `non-policy' in the 1970s, much in opposition to `guestworker' or rotation systems, towards an active and explicit policy promoting return in the mid-1990s. The major trends in the country's immigration, emigration and return flows are also presented."
Correspondence: A. T. Altamirano, Umeå University, Department of Geography, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:40714 Birrell, Bob; Evans, Samantha. Recently-arrived migrants and social welfare. People and Place, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1996. 1-11 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"This article explores the impact of the Coalition Government's proposals to limit recently-arrived migrants' access to social welfare benefits [in Australia]. It concludes that while the short-term consequences for these migrants will be severe, the proposals do not address the more significant long-term welfare costs of family migration."
Correspondence: B. Birrell, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40715 Bonetti, Paolo. Brief notes on the evolution of the legal position of immigrants from outside the European Community in Italy in 1995-1996. [Brevi note sull'evoluzione della condizione giuridica dei cittadini extracomunitari in Italia nel 1995/96.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 33, No. 122, Jun 1996. 178-98 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"In 1995/96 Italian immigration decrees on the legal status of non-EC citizens have maintained a confused and, in some cases, an unconstitutional character. Government decree n.489/November 1995, issued on the grounds of an alleged emergency, did not succeed in regulating incoming flows for seasonal work and enforcing restrictive measures on illegal immigration. Hopefully, it will manage to clear the position of 250,000 illegal entries. This latter provision is likely to prove a further incentive for illegal immigrants, the...opposite of what the government had in mind."
Correspondence: P. Bonetti, Università degli Studi di Milano, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza, Via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40716 Bredeloup, Sylvie. The Senegalese community in the Ivory Coast and national immigration policy redefined. [Les Sénégalais de Côte-d'Ivoire face aux redéfinitions de l'ivoirité.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 33, No. 121, Mar 1996. 2-24 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"International economic crisis has increased constraints from which Senegalese migrants were already suffering both in their country of origin and in the receiving countries....Since 1991, the introduction of compulsory residence permits for foreign workers...[bears] witness to the degrading conditions for those entering the Ivory Coast and also reveals that agreements of free movement were in fact not working."
Correspondence: S. Bredeloup, Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération, B.P. 1386, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40717 Briggs, Vernon M. Immigration policy and the U.S. economy: an institutional perspective. Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 30, No. 2, Jun 1996. 371-89 pp. Lincoln, Nebraska. In Eng.
The author examines some aspects of the current situation concerning immigration to the United States. He predicts that the 1990s will witness the largest flow of immigrants into the population and labor force of any decade in the country's history; furthermore, since there is no universally accepted right to immigrate, the adoption of migration policy is one area of economic policy-making that is not controlled by market forces. He also notes that while the country's need is for a highly skilled, motivated, and educated labor force, the majority of current immigrants have low skill levels and relatively little education. The need to develop and implement a migration policy that is in tune with the country's economic objectives is stressed. He concludes that "the resurrection of mass immigration from out of the nation's distant past was a political accident; its perpetuation in the 1990s is contrary to national interest. Immigration reform, therefore, needs to be [in] the forefront of the nation's economic policy agenda."
Correspondence: V. M. Briggs, Cornell University, Department of Labor Economics, 266 Ives Hall, Ithaca, NY 14851-0952. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:40718 Calavita, Kitty. U.S. immigration and policy responses: the limits of legislation. In: Controlling immigration: a global perspective, edited by Wayne A. Cornelius, Philip L. Martin, and James F. Hollifield. 1994. 55-82 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
"This chapter briefly traces the history of U.S. immigration and the policies that have both responded to the influx and stimulated and shaped it....The more general purpose of this chapter is to lay the groundwork for exploring the possibility that a number of patterns can be discerned, and that the nature of these patterns may suggest an ongoing set of dynamics that constrain the immigration policy process. Following a necessarily sketchy outline of the major immigration reforms of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including a more in-depth discussion of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, the chapter concludes by proposing that three `paired oppositions,' or contradictions, pervade the U.S. experience with immigration and the efforts to regulate it."
Correspondence: K. Calavita, University of California, Department of Criminology/Law and Society, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40719 Cornelius, Wayne A. Controlling Latin American migration to industrialized countries: the U.S. and Japanese experiences. Latin American Studies/Raten Amerika Kenkyu, No. 14, 1994. 1-38 pp. Ibaraki, Japan. In Eng.
The author compares the experience of Japan and the United States in developing policies to control Latin American migration to each country. Aspects considered include conditions under which such migration occurs, structural economic dependence on Latin American labor, temporary vs. permanent migration, and the politics of immigration.
Correspondence: W. A. Cornelius, University of California, Department of Political Science, 13333 Landfair Road, San Diego, CA 92130. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40720 Farmer, Ruth S. J. Economic deregulation and changes in New Zealand's immigration policy: 1986 to 1991. People and Place, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1996. 55-63 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"New Zealand's immigration intake is small by the standards of the main immigrant receiving nations and many of her immigrants are subsequently lost through the process of re-emigration. Nevertheless, changes in New Zealand immigration policy over the last 10 years have been profound. This article is the first of a two-part history of these changes."
Correspondence: R. S. J. Farmer, University of Waikato, Department of Geography, Private Bag, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40721 García y Griego, Manuel. Canada: flexibility and control in immigration and refugee policy. In: Controlling immigration: a global perspective, edited by Wayne A. Cornelius, Philip L. Martin, and James F. Hollifield. 1994. 119-40 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
Canadian policy concerning immigration in general and refugees in particular in the period since World War II is described. The author argues that Canada's relative success in developing appropriate policies resulting in acceptable levels of immigration is related to three main factors: first, that Canada has been somewhat isolated from the more difficult challenges faced by the United States and many European countries; second, that Canada has demonstrated the ability to make quick and effective adjustments to its migration policies when needed; and third, a general realization that Canada cannot absorb large numbers of unwanted immigrants without threatening its stability.
Correspondence: M. García y Griego, University of California, Department of Social Sciences, Irvine, CA 92717. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40722 Jacobsen, Karen. Factors influencing the policy responses of host governments to mass refugee influxes. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 3, Fall 1996. 655-78 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The policy responses of asylum governments to mass influxes of refugees have varied considerably. Focusing on less developed countries, this article explores why some host governments respond in relatively generous ways, while other governments act more restrictively. The policy alternatives available to receiving governments are classified, and a set of factors influencing refugee policy formation is explored. These factors include: the costs and benefits of accepting international assistance, relations with the sending country, political calculations about the local community's absorption capacity, and national security considerations."
Correspondence: K. Jacobsen, Regis College, 235 Wellesley Street, Weston, MA 02193. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40723 Jones, Huw. The continuing ethnic-origins dimension of Australian immigration policy. Applied Geography, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jul 1995. 233-44 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Although Australia dismantled its ethnically discriminatory, immigrant-selection policy in the early 1970s, ethnicity remains--implicitly and unofficially--a significant consideration in its immigration policies and practices. The paper outlines the traditional `White Australia' policy before describing the operation and impact of the new selection policies and the associated official commitment to multiculturalism. The causes, regional pattern and acceptability of the modern Asianization of immigration are then assessed. The final section indicates how ethnic-origin preferences continue to operate in an apparently non-discriminatory selection policy, largely through the management of demand by placements of Australian migration officers in particular locations overseas."
Correspondence: H. Jones, University of Dundee, Department of Geography, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:40724 Jowett, A. J.; Findlay, A. M.; Li, F. L. N.; Skeldon, R. The British who are not British and the immigration policies that are not: the case of Hong Kong. Applied Geography, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jul 1995. 245-65 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"While `closed-door' immigration policies are adopted by most countries, `exceptionalist' legislation is often made to permit entry of special immigrant groups. An example is the British Nationality (Hong Kong) Act 1990, which was passed in the run-up to the change in sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997. Britain's increasingly restrictive immigration policies prior to 1990 [have] resulted in the majority of Hong Kong citizens having British nationality (as British Dependent Territories citizens) but without the right of abode in the U.K. The 1990 Act conferred full British citizenship status on 50,000 heads of households in Hong Kong." The authors conclude that "in a world of marked global inequalities, immigration pressure will become even more extreme and is likely to produce an increasing number of cases of exceptionalist immigration legislation in countries with both `open' and `closed'-door policies."
Correspondence: A. J. Jowett, University of Glasgow, Department of Geography and Topographic Science, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:40725 Martin, Philip L. The United States: benign neglect toward immigration. In: Controlling immigration: a global perspective, edited by Wayne A. Cornelius, Philip L. Martin, and James F. Hollifield. 1994. 83-99 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
The author reviews the factors affecting current U.S. immigration policy, and particularly those factors that have led to the current policy of benign neglect of immigration in contrast to most other developed countries, which have taken active steps toward making immigration more difficult. He reviews the push-pull factors affecting migration to the industrialized countries, recent U.S. experience of immigration, and the situation in California, the state frequently considered as an indicator of the country's future as a whole. The policy options available in the U.S. context are then considered.
Correspondence: P. L. Martin, University of California, Department of Agricultural Economics, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40726 Messina, Anthony M. Immigration as a political dilemma in Britain: implications for Western Europe. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 23, No. 4, Winter 1995. 686-98 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"Informed by evidence drawn from the British case, this article assesses three competing explanations for how and why political elites in Western Europe lost control of postwar immigration and immigrant policy: the liberal thesis, the political-historical perspective, and the political institutional breakdown explanation. The British case casts doubt on the assumption that West European elites did lose control of policy, although, to the extent that perfect control was not exercised, the political-historical argument best explains this phenomenon."
Correspondence: A. M. Messina, Tufts University, Department of Political Science, Medford, MA 02155. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

Copyright © 1996-1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.