Volume 62 - Number 4 - Winter 1996

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

62:40589 Boserup, Ester. Development theory: an analytical framework and selected applications. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep 1996. 505-15, 604, 606 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This note suggests a framework for a concise interpretation of contending theories of development and for description of a variety of development processes. The framework posits flows between six structures that have a certain stability, yet yield to change if they are exposed to strong or persistent pressure. The structures are: environment, population, technology level, occupational structure, family structure, and culture. Schematically, the six structures can be located as points on a circle, with arrows between any two structures to indicate the origin and direction of pressure any structure may exert on another. The framework may be used to describe the dynamic in micro- or macro-studies or to distinguish among major conceptional approaches in development theory."
Correspondence: E. Boserup, Casa Campagnola, Nevedone, 6614 Brissago, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40590 Kelley, Allen C.; Schmidt, Robert M. Toward a cure for the myopia and tunnel vision of the population debate: a dose of historical perspective. In: The impact of population growth on well-being in developing countries, edited by Dennis A. Ahlburg, Allen C. Kelley, and Karen O. Mason. 1996. 11-35 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Debates about the economic consequences of population growth and size have been too narrow, and they have been too focused on impacts that occur in the short run....This paper...surveys the evolution of thinking over the post-war period about the net overall economic impacts of rapid population growth--the bottom lines, as it were. We advance a surprising conclusion: most economists who have specialized in population issues have held a balanced and distinctly non-alarmist position on the economic impacts of population growth....[The paper then] moves behind the economists' conclusions and takes up the question: What is the assessment by economic demographers about the specific impacts of population growth in areas such as saving and investment, the environment, poverty, education, and health?" The data concern 135 market-oriented countries around the world.
Correspondence: A. C. Kelley, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40591 Rosenberg, Nathan. The impact of technological changes on resources for growing populations. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 113-25 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This article assesses the role that technological change plays in improving the human condition in the light of a rapidly growing world population. The author concludes that "technological change is indeed a powerful force for improving the human condition. But it is not a panacea. As a complement to a much slower growth in human numbers and to extensive economic reforms, its potential contributions are immense. But it could be tragically misleading to look upon it as a substitute rather than as a complement."
Correspondence: N. Rosenberg, Stanford University, Department of Economics, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40592 Schmidt, Christian; Straubhaar, Thomas. Population development and economic growth. A simulation analysis for Switzerland. [Bevölkerungsentwicklung und Wirtschaftswachstum. Eine Simulationsanalyse für die Schweiz.] Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/Revue Suisse d'Economie Politique et de Statistique/Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 132, No. 3, 1996. 395-414 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"A simulation exercise of a general equilibrium model for Switzerland makes clear that the macroeconomic impacts of aging populations are not very strong. There is no need for urgent policy actions to avoid severe negative economic consequences....However, the aging of population affects negatively the net income of the active labor force. An increasing share of their gross salaries goes to the retirement system to finance the pension payments of a growing number of pensioners. Attempts to moderate the elderly dependency ratio would lower this burden for the active labor force. Options are an increase of the female participation rate, an increase of the labor participation rate of the elderly--[which] also means a higher retirement age--and an increasing flow of immigrants. But socioeconomic problems might probably generate practical limits on the extent to which immigration can be increased."
Correspondence: C. Schmidt, Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Institut für Wirtschaftspolitik, Postfach 70 08 22, 22039 Hamburg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:40593 Simon, Julian L. The ultimate resource 2. ISBN 0-691-04269-1. LC 95-39586. 1996. xliii, 734 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
This is a revised and updated edition of the author's work on the relations among population growth, economic development, and available resources. The author indicates that "population growth and increased income put pressure on supplies of resources. This increases prices, which provides opportunity and incentive for innovation. Eventually the innovative responses are so successful that prices end up below what they were before the shortages occurred. The book also tackles...issues such as the supposed rate of species extinction and the wastefulness of coercive recycling. In [the author's] view, the key factor in natural and world economic growth is our capacity for the creation of new ideas and contributions to knowledge. The more people alive who can be trained to help solve the problems that confront us, the faster we can remove obstacles, and the greater the economic inheritance we shall bequeath to our descendants. In conjunction with the size of the educated population, the key constraint on human progress is the nature of the economic-political system: Talented people need economic freedom and security to bring their talents to fruition."
For the first edition, published in 1981, see 47:4640.
Correspondence: Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40594 United Nations. Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe [CEPAL] (Santiago, Chile). Population growth and economic development. [Crecimiento de la población y desarrollo económico.] Cuadernos de la CEPAL, No. 75, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.162. ISBN 92-1-321435-9. Apr 1996. 95 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper analyses three aspects of the relationship between population growth and economic development: facts, theories and policies....The first part deals with the current debate on population and economic development....The second part examines several theories, developed over recent decades, which were very influential in the 1980s....In the third and last part the author explores various possible ways of attaining a new synthesis between population and socio-economic dynamics, with an emphasis on promoting production within a context of social equity."
Correspondence: UN Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe, Casilla 1790, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

62:40595 Aguilar Barajas, Ismael. Population and economics in Quintana Roo State: some considerations from recent experience. [Población y economía en el estado de Quintana Roo: algunas consideraciones de la experiencia reciente.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1995. 5-33, 235 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This article focuses on the explosive population growth in Quintana Roo [Mexico] during the last few years and its...implications [for] the local economy. First, the article briefly describes population structure, emphasizing some migratory and socioeconomic aspects. Next it considers the status sectoral and regional production structure, which [emphasize] the strong dependence on tourism and its concentration in Cancun. In the conclusions population and economic aspects entwine, providing a more comprehensive developmental perspective."
Correspondence: I. Aguilar Barajas, Instituto Technológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Departamento de Economía y Centro de Estudios Estratégicos, Sucursal de Correos `J', 64849 Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40596 Ahlburg, Dennis A.; Kelley, Allen C.; Mason, Karen O. The impact of population growth on well-being in developing countries. Population Economics, ISBN 3-540-60709-9. 1996. 360 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This collection of papers by various authors "examines the nature and significance of the impact of population growth on the well-being of developing countries--in particular, the effects on economic growth, education, health, food supply, housing, poverty, and the environment. In addition, because family planning programs often significantly affect population growth, the study examines the impacts of family planning on fertility and health, and the human rights implications of family planning programs."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, Tiergartenstraße 17, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40597 Aouragh, Lhaocine. The Algerian economy under the strain of demography. [L'économie algérienne à l'épreuve de la démographie.] Les Etudes du CEPED, No. 11, ISBN 2-87762-088-3. 1996. xxiv, 331 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Since 1960 [Algeria's] population has grown at a yearly rate of 3%, from 12 million in 1966...to around 29 million today, with about half the population aged below 20. The high population growth which could have been anticipated and adjusted to or even controlled, remained for twenty years a minor issue for decision makers and its consequences have in the eighties attained an importance commensurate with the neglect with which they have been treated....Considered as an exogenous variable of development, population growth today has become more than ever a strong constraint on the economy....The real attributes of Algeria--petroleum resources as well as the big investments they entail, a large and youthful population...have not been exploited. Worse still, unfortunate economic and political choices, maintained for too long against all logic, have transformed these attributes into obstacles. More than ever, Algeria needs an imaginative development strategy which will take into consideration demographic parameters and the legitimate aspirations of the population for better living."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40598 Coussy, Jean; Vallin, Jacques. Crisis and population in Africa: economic crises, policies of adjustment, and demographic dynamics. [Crise et population en Afrique: crises économiques, politiques d'ajustement et dynamiques démographiques.] Les Etudes du CEPED, No. 13, ISBN 2-87762-094-8. Jul 1996. x, 580 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is a collective work containing 20 papers on the impact of the global economic problems of recent years on the economies and demography of Sub-Saharan Africa. The papers are organized into four sections. The first examines the macro-economic changes that have occurred and their relations to demographic trends. The second looks at how these economic crises have affected people's basic needs and lifestyles. The third attempts to identify specific changes in demographic variables associated with these economic events; in general, the contributors conclude that their impact on fertility and mortality is not yet apparent, although they have already had a significant effect on migration patterns. The fourth section looks at the individual strategies that are being adopted to cope with these changing conditions, including changes in the relations between the sexes, changes in family structure and family solidarity, and the development of the informal economic sector.
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40599 Cuéllar, Oscar. Relations between population, development, and poverty, according to Mexican university professors. [Relaciones entre población, desarrollo y pobreza según los profesores universitarios mexicanos.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1995. 181-204, 238 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"With data from a survey applied to random samples of university professors in seven Mexican cities during the late eighties, this article examines professors' opinions on the relations between population, development, and poverty. After reviewing tendencies and arguments on population and development found in [the] literature, it provides three simple typologies of population consciousness, poverty determinants, and best economic development plans for the country. It then studies their relations, and concludes by outlining the type of reasoning in each of the main orientations detected by the analysis."
Correspondence: O. Cuéllar, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Sociología, Apartado Postal 325, Blvd. Manuel Avila Camacho 90, Col. El Parque, Edo. de México, 53390 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40600 Hecklau, Hans. Demographic problems of economic development in Kenya. Applied Geography and Development, Vol. 41, 1993. 26-38 pp. Tübingen, Germany. In Eng.
The relationship between population growth and economic development in Kenya is examined. The author comes to the conclusion that there is little prospect of the socioeconomic changes that would lead to lower fertility occurring, and that without a reduction in the rate of population growth, progress in socioeconomic development is unlikely. He also suggests that foreign aid has had a negative effect, in that it has, at best, improved the nutritional status of the population and led to even faster rates of population growth. He also suggests that the same deleterious situation exists in most of the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa.
Correspondence: H. Hecklau, Universität Trier, FB VI, Geographie und Geowissenschaften, Postfach 3825, 5500 Trier, Germany. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:40601 Islam, T.; Taslim, M. A. Demographic pressure, technological innovation and welfare: the case of the agriculture of Bangladesh. Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 32, No. 5, Jun 1996. 734-70 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In the early years of its introduction, the HYV [high-yield varieties] technology was widely regarded as a technical breakthrough that would bring about rapid agrarian progress and a revolutionary improvement in the standard of living of the farm population. Three decades later the promise of the new technology remains unfulfilled. This article argues that the adoption of the HYV technology in the agriculture of Bangladesh was determined mainly by an acute demographic pressure. Since the non-agricultural sectors did not expand sufficiently rapidly, there was a tremendous pressure on agriculture to accommodate the additional workforce. The imperative to employ a larger workforce and feed a rising population forced the farmers to adopt the labour-intensive, land-augmenting HYV technology. The welfare of the farmers did not show any secular increase with the switch to the new technology."
Correspondence: T. Islam, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

62:40602 Oppong, Christine. Population change: the status and roles of women. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 157-80 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This essay focuses on women's occupational, maternal, conjugal, and domestic roles and ways in which they are altering in the context of economic and population changes. The latter include labor migration, changes in infant, child, and maternal mortality, fertility, and the age structure of populations. The geographical scope is the developing world, where more than one and a half billion women and girls live."
Correspondence: C. Oppong, International Labour Organization, Migration and Population Branch, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40603 Prodi, Romano. The evolution of economic organization in contemporary societies. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 126-36 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Using the examples of Japan and Germany following World War II, the author makes the case that successful development is not dependent on the availability of land resources and raw materials, but on the improvement and management of human resources. The author analyzes differences in educational systems, social organization, and models of capitalism. He concludes that "if within these highly developed industrialized nations several models of social and economic organization successfully coexist, there is no reason why this diversity should not be the case for the rest of the world."
Correspondence: R. Prodi, Università degli Studi, Via Zamboni 33, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40604 Quadrio Curzio, Alberto; Fortis, Marco. Growth and productive structure: a medium-term perspective. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 137-56 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Some aspects of the relation between resources and population in developing countries are explored. "The focus is on the technical and productive resources of the less developed countries in the context of the structure of the production systems in the processes of growth." Two aspects are highlighted: "the wide differences between and within developing regions and the role of industry and manufacturing in the process of economic growth."
Correspondence: A. Quadrio Curzio, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli 1, 20123 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40605 Rao, N. Sudhakara. Egalitarian distribution of income and fertility control. ISBN 81-7099-479-9. 1993. xvi, 300 pp. Mittal Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study concerns the relationship between economic equality and fertility at the macro level in developing countries, and particularly the extent to which a more egalitarian distribution of income can help reduce fertility levels. Data are taken from a variety of published sources. Separate consideration is given to the differences among developing countries that are very poor, those that have achieved moderate levels of development, and those that have achieved high levels of development. Policy recommendations that could lead to greater equality and lower fertility are made in the areas of agricultural reform, access to education, health improvement, and the provision of jobs for the poor.
Correspondence: Mittal Publications, A-110 Mohan Garden, New Delhi 110 059, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40606 Zenteno Quintero, René M. From the ranch of the Tía Juana to Tijuana: a brief history of development and population on the northern border of Mexico. [Del rancho de la Tía Juana a Tijuana: una breve historia de desarrollo y población en la frontera norte de México.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1995. 105-32, 236 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Tijuana has been the most extraordinary example of the modern demographic history of the [Mexican] northern border. This article is an essay on the economic, social, and demographic development of this important urban center during this century. Its purpose is two fold. On the one hand, to understand Tijuana's general population change in light of a unique socioeconomic development in the country, which has been characterized by a close dependence on the United States as well as by the creation of several federal programs aimed [at integrating] the natural economies. On the other hand, to introduce the discussion of the Mexico-United States border region to the non-specialist in this field."
Correspondence: R. M. Zenteno Quintero, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Tijuana, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

62:40607 Carli, Maria R. Economic and population trends in the Mediterranean islands. Collana Atti di Seminari, No. 5, ISBN 88-7104-911-X. LC 95-175214. 1994. xiv, 173 pp. Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane: Naples, Italy. In Eng.
This volume brings together the papers presented at a conference on economic and population trends in the Mediterranean islands, held in Ravello, Italy, in 1990. The emphasis is on demographic trends, their impact on economic developments, and comparisons among the islands studied. These include Sicily, Sardinia, the Aegean islands, the Greek Ionian islands, Crete, the Balearic islands, Cyprus, and Malta.
Correspondence: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, 7 Via Chiatamone, 80121 Naples, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40608 Golini, Antonio; Racioppi, Filomena; Pozzuoli, Stefania. Population dynamics and planning in credit companies. A survey of Italian banks. [Dinamica demografica e pianificazione nelle aziende di credito. Un'indagine tra le banche italiane.] Materiali di Studi e di Ricerche, No. 11, Mar 1996. 45 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
The extent to which Italian credit banks take demographic factors into account in developing their company strategies is examined, with particular reference to how demographic changes can affect marketing policies. The results suggest that banks are aware of the importance to their future business of such trends as demographic aging, but are ill equipped to undertake the kinds of demographic analysis that might give them a competitive edge in adjusting their policies in response to such trends.
Correspondence: Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40609 Hu, Sheng-Cheng. Demographics, productivity growth and the macroeconomic equilibrium. Economic Inquiry, Vol. 33, No. 4, Oct 1995. 592-610 pp. Huntington Beach, California. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the economic effects of demographics and productivity growth in an intertemporal optimizing model with age-based heterogeneity and induced retirement. Our analysis reveals that the projected `population aging' is likely to increase the growth rate of output and to improve the welfare of the economy, especially if there are no distortional policies which prevent retirement decisions from adjusting endogenously to the demographic changes. The economy also displays different patterns of dynamic adjustment in the quantity and price variables depending upon whether retirement is endogenous." The study concerns the United States.
Correspondence: S.-C. Hu, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

62:40610 Bongaarts, John. Population pressure and the food supply system in the developing world. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep 1996. 483-503, 604, 606 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Trends in agricultural production in the developing world between 1962 and 1989 are analyzed to obtain estimates of the contributions of the past expansion of the food supply made by increases in land use, cropping frequency, crop yields, and imports. Countries with high and low population densities responded quite differently to rising demand for food. During the next half century, rapid population growth and continued improvements in the quantity and quality of diets will result in a large (perhaps threefold) rise in the demand for food. While no persistent global shortages of food are foreseen, several problems--including degradation of environmental resources, food production in the densest and poorest countries, and undernutrition--require concerted attention."
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Population Council, Research Division, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40611 Clarke, John I. The impact of population change on environment: an overview. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 254-68 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The link between rapid population growth and environmental change is examined in this chapter. "The most striking issues of current concern in population-environment relationships are the growth of mega-cities, the processes of deforestation and desertification, the occurrence of disasters, and the growing contrasts in human consumption patterns. A necessary reduction in these contrasts by raising the quality of life in developing countries will ironically increase global environmental pressures, suggesting that rapid population growth is undesirable." The author also suggests that these problems are unlikely to be resolved unless current inequalities in population-environment relationships and resource use between rich and poor countries are addressed.
Correspondence: J. I. Clarke, University of Durham, Department of Geography, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40612 Colombo, Bernardo; Demeny, Paul; Perutz, Max F. Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development. ISBN 0-19-828918-9. LC 95-38883. 1996. xxiv, 338 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This collective work is a product of a special study week organized by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences on the relationship between resources and population. The meeting was held at the Vatican, November 17-22, 1991. "The proceedings were framed by a broad subdivision of the topic into six parts, examining, first, demographic history and global population prospects, followed by discussion of the relationships between population and physical, biological, and human resources. The substantive proceedings concluded with considerations of issues of human health and human settlement." The book ends with reports and recommendations of working groups on population problems and issues concerning health, resources, and economic development.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40613 Dyson, Tim. Population and food: global trends and future prospects. Global Environmental Change Series, ISBN 0-415-11974-X. LC 95-38227. 1996. xix, 231 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the prospects for adequately feeding the world's population from now until the year 2020, given the likelihood of continued population growth. He concludes that "the alarming neo-Malthusian prognosis for the world during the next two or three decades is almost certainly wrong." He notes that the overall balance between population and food has not deteriorated in the recent past; in fact, there have been general improvements in average levels of per capita food consumption. He suggests that population growth will pose serious challenges for food production and that reducing the rate of population growth would make the problem easier to handle. However, he also concludes that "there is fair reason to expect that in the year 2020...world agriculture will be feeding the then larger global population no worse--and probably a little better--than it manages to do in the mid-1990s." The importance of interregional transfers of food to cope with problems in particular areas--Sub-Saharan Africa, for example--is noted.
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40614 Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ehrlich, Anne H. Betrayal of science and reason: how anti-environmental rhetoric threatens our future. ISBN 1-55963-483-9. LC 96-34249. 1996. xiii, 335 pp. Island Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
In this book, the authors challenge efforts to downplay the reality and importance of global environmental problems and tendencies to undermine and misinterpret environmental data. They "contrast anti-environmental rhetoric with the consensus view of the scientific community, tackling head-on such issues as population growth, desertification, food production, global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, and biodiversity loss. They also offer a unique glimpse into how science works, and they discuss how scientists can speak out on matters of societal urgency yet retain the support of the scientific community."
Correspondence: Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40615 Falkenmark, Malin. Approaching the ultimate constraint: water shortage in the third world. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 71-81 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter addresses the relationships between natural resources and population from the perspective of water as fundamental to life. I start with the premise that a large number of the lowest-income countries suffer from water shortages. Since water--in spite of its renewable character--is a finite resource, I argue that population growth will exacerbate the problems of water deficiency."
Correspondence: M. Falkenmark, Swedish Natural Science Research Council, Box 6711, 113 85 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40616 Farinelli, Ugo. Materials and mineral resources. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 64-70 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The case is made that the industrialized countries have resolved problems of potential shortages in raw materials and mineral resources by developing new technologies that decrease the need for those resources. The implications of this change for developing countries and their prospects of achieving satisfactory levels of socioeconomic development are assessed.
Correspondence: U. Farinelli, Italian National Agency for Atomic and Alternative Energy Resources, Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40617 Feen, Richard H. Keeping the balance: ancient Greek philosophical concerns with population and environment. Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 6, Jul 1996. 447-58 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Not until the rise of the Greek city-states do we see a civilization more than passively concerned with the delicate balance between food supply and population. Ancient Athens was especially troubled by demographic pressures. Thus the ancient Greek philosophers, particularly Plato and Aristotle, were more than sensitive to the relationship between population and resources when postulating the ideal size of a city-state of their day. Cold reality, not metaphysics, was the inspiration for their writings."
Correspondence: R. H. Feen, 2500 Wisconsin Avenue, #632 NW, Washington, D.C. 20007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40618 Grepperud, Sverre. Population pressure and land degradation: the case of Ethiopia. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan 1996. 18-33 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper tests the population pressure hypothesis (PPH) for the Ethiopian Highlands using quantitative methods. The hypothesis posits that under comparable physical conditions heavily eroded areas occur in highly populated regions. A severity of soil erosion index (SESI), a proxy for some types of water erosion, was chosen as the dependent variable. Because the dependent variable is categorical and ordinal, an ordinal cumulative logit model was chosen for the analysis. The findings imply that as pressure from people and livestock exceeds some threshold, a rapid degradation of land [takes] place."
Correspondence: S. Grepperud, University of Oslo, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 1095, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:40619 Kates, Robert W. Population, technology, and the human environment: a thread through time. Daedalus, Vol. 125, No. 3, Summer 1996. 43-71 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Some theoretical aspects of the relationship between population and resources are considered, starting from the theories of Thomas Robert Malthus and continuing up to the present day. "We appear to be about halfway in numbers into the third great population surge, and the good news from the ages is thus that some relief may lie ahead, albeit in a century or so. Twentieth-century population and consumption growth is totally unprecedented in human history, and the bad news from the millennia is that great civilizations failed to maintain much smaller rates of growth in the past. We also have no news, especially from the centuries: our science can observe but not readily explain past and existing interactions of population, technology, and resources."
Correspondence: R. W. Kates, Brown University, Feinstein World Hunger Program, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40620 Milik, Alexandra; Prskawetz, Alexia. Slow-fast dynamics in a model of population and resource growth. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1996. 155-69, 171 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Models of the interaction of population, the economy, and the environment often contain nonlinear functional relationships and variables that move at different speeds. These properties foster apparent unpredictabilities in system behaviour. Using a simple deterministic model of demographic, economic and environmental interactions we illustrate the usefulness of geometric singular perturbation theory in environmental population economics. In contrast to local stability analysis, the theory of slow-fast dynamics helps to gain new insights into the global behaviour of the system. In particular, the knowledge of the basins of attraction of the stationary states enables one to determine the regions of sustainable future paths of resources and population."
Correspondence: A. Milik, Vienna Technical University, Institute for Econometrics, Operations Research and Systems Theory, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40621 Muhammed, Amir. Population and agricultural resources in the developing countries. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 88-96 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Trends in global agricultural production are analyzed in the light of future population projections. The author concludes that many developing countries will not be able to feed their growing populations, and that factors such as degradation of land resources and global warming could have a negative impact on their agricultural production capacity. On the other hand, new technologies can improve productivity. "While there is wide scope for greater South-South collaboration in efforts to improve the food production capabilities of developing countries, the industrialized countries hold the key to the economic survival of the majority of the poor countries. The major obstacles include a heavy international debt burden, barriers to free international trade to the detriment of the developing countries, and restrictions on sharing new knowledge and on technology transfer imposed by most developed countries."
Correspondence: A. Muhammed, Pakistan Academy of Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40622 Panayotou, Theodore. An inquiry into population, resources and environment. In: The impact of population growth on well-being in developing countries, edited by Dennis A. Ahlburg, Allen C. Kelley, and Karen O. Mason. 1996. 259-98 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The chapter's focus is on the impact of population growth on local ecosystems. Global impacts are not discussed, not because they are any less significant but because they are beyond the scope of this chapter. We begin with an analytical abstraction of how households, communities and societies respond to population growth under alternative conditions, focusing on natural resource depletion and scarcity. Issues of environmental pollution and degradation are taken up later in the chapter where economy-wide responses and empirical evidence are introduced." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: T. Panayotou, Harvard Institute for International Development, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40623 Poleman, Thomas T. Global hunger: the methodologies underlying the official estimates. Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 6, Jul 1996. 545-68 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the methodologies employed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Bank, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to quantify the extent of global hunger during the past 50 years. The methodologies are shown to be less than perfect and to contain built-in biases favoring exaggeration. They have also proved amenable to manipulation by those with a political agenda to pursue. Other approaches to measuring world hunger should therefore be sought."
Correspondence: T. T. Poleman, Cornell University, Department of Agricultural, Resource, and Managerial Economics, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40624 Potrykowska, Alina; Clarke, John I. Population and environment in industrialized regions. Geographia Polonica, No. 64, ISBN 83-901355-4-X. 1995. 300 pp. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization: Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference on population and environment in Poland's industrialized regions. The conference, which was held in Warsaw and Kraków, June 27-30, 1994, was organized jointly by the Polish Academy of Sciences's Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization and the IUSSP Committee on Population and Environment. The 21 papers are divided into five sections. The first section describes the activities of the sponsoring organizations. The second section focuses on the impact of environmental degradation on health and mortality in Poland's industrialized regions. The third section looks at older industrialized regions in Belgium, East Germany, Italy, Estonia, Hungary, and England and Wales. The fourth section looks at problems in newly industrialized countries, including India, Brazil, and Mexico. The fifth and final section is concerned with perceptions and policies.
Correspondence: Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40625 Prosterman, Roy L.; Hanstad, Tim; Li, Ping. Can China feed itself? Scientific American, Vol. 275, No. 5, Nov 1996. 90-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors evaluate whether China's population of around 1.2 billion people--or 22% of the global total--will be able to feed itself on only 9% of the world's arable land. They conclude that some relatively straightforward policy changes, such as giving local farmers greater rights over the land that they cultivate, could have significant impacts on increasing food production.
Correspondence: R. L. Prosterman, University of Washington, School of Law, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

62:40626 Ramphal, Shridath; Sinding, Steven W. Population growth and environmental issues. Environmental Literacy Series, ISBN 0-275-95371-8. LC 96-16279. 1996. xvi, 196 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This book consists of some of the background materials prepared for the Forum on Population, Environment and Development held at the New York Academy of Medicine in New York City, September 22-23, 1993. The focus of the meeting was on the linkages between population growth and four environmental issues: biological diversity, global warming, air and water resource management, and land use. The geographical focus is worldwide, with particular emphasis on the situation in developing countries.
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, P.O. Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881-5007. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40627 Ruttan, Vernon W. Population growth, environmental change and technical innovation: implications for sustainable growth in agricultural production. In: The impact of population growth on well-being in developing countries, edited by Dennis A. Ahlburg, Allen C. Kelley, and Karen O. Mason. 1996. 139-73 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper I explore a number of agricultural, resource and environmental concerns that will condition the capacity of the agricultural sector to respond to the demands that population and income growth will place on the sector--particularly in the developing countries of Latin America, Asia and Africa."
Correspondence: V. W. Ruttan, University of Minnesota, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40628 Searle, Rick. Population growth, resource consumption, and the environment: seeking a common vision for a troubled world. ISBN 1-55058-064-7. LC 95-208032. 1995. xxii, 112 pp. University of Victoria, Centre for Studies in Religion and Society: Victoria, Canada. In Eng.
This is a report of a meeting held in Whistler, British Columbia, August 18-27, 1993. The conference addressed the role of religion in shaping people's attitudes and behavior toward the environment, the pressure of increasing population, and the use of the earth's resources. "To those in developed countries the biggest threat to the environment often seems to be the world's rapidly expanding population. However, from the perspective of developing countries, the problem is not too many people, but the excessive use of the world's resources by the relatively small population of the rich developed countries. It is this double-sided problem that was examined by ethics specialists from the major world religions and the aboriginal traditions, as well as experts in economics, law, family planning, and demography."
Correspondence: University of Victoria, Centre for Studies in Religion and Society, P.O. Box 3045, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40629 Stycos, J. Mayone. Population and the environment: polls, policies, and public opinion. Population and Environment, Vol. 18, No. 1, Sep 1996. 37-63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"There is a growing need for new social scientific knowledge, especially the assessment of public opinion toward current or potential policies on population and the environment. In this paper I deal with several questions relevant to this need: 1. Has the demand for better policies on population and the environment produced an increase in the social science knowledge base on these subjects? 2. What data are available and needed to assess the...attitudes of governments toward population and environmental problems? 3. What data are available and needed to assess public attitudes on population and environmental problems?"
Correspondence: J. M. Stycos, Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40630 Uitto, Juha I.; Ono, Akiko. Population, land management, and environmental change: UNU Global Environmental Forum IV. Pub. Order No. UNUP-956. ISBN 92-808-0956-3. 1996. xiii, 89 pp. United Nations University Press: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This publication is based on the UNU Global Environmental Forum, which brought together leading scholars from both the South and the North to address the issues of population, land management, and environmental change. The authors draw extensively upon field research carried out in the tropical and subtropical regions of South-East Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Amazon. The topics covered include the need to conserve biological diversity in managed agricultural ecosystems; indigenous knowledge in sustainable management of biological and land resources; the role of women; and participatory approaches to rural development." The work consists of nine studies by various authors on various related topics, with particular emphasis on the problems posed by rapid population growth, commercialization of the economy, and other production pressures.
Correspondence: United Nations University Press, 53-70 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40631 Waggoner, Paul E.; Ausubel, Jesse H.; Wernick, Iddo K. Lightening the tread of population on the land: American examples. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep 1996. 531-45, 604-5, 607 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The authors search the past century for principles and trends influencing land use in the United States and contemplate the future when Americans might number an additional 100 million. Examples from American cities, counties, and states suggest that land covered by the built environment increases less than in proportion to population. For example, despite the rising use of paper relative to gross national product, the declining use of lumber combined with improved forestry kept the area of forest land fairly steady as population rose. Similarly, rising yields and changing tastes have countered the impact of rising population and wealth on crop-land area. All told, a lightening tread of Americans on the land in the next century could spare for nature over 90 million hectares, an area equal to 100 times the size of Yellowstone National Park."
Correspondence: P. E. Waggoner, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40632 Waterlow, John C. Nutritional constraints on human resources. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 97-110 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
Focusing on developing countries, the author examines the impact of nutrition, and particularly the intake of energy foods such as grains, on human physical activity, growth, and fecundity.
Correspondence: J. C. Waterlow, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Public Health and Policy, 99 Gower Street, London WC1E 6AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40633 Wrigley, Edward A. A historical perspective on population and resources. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 6-24 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
The dynamic relationship between population and resources in preindustrial times is first examined, with particular reference to how standards of living were affected by the ebb and flow of population. The author then considers how the industrial revolution changed this relationship.
Correspondence: E. A. Wrigley, University of Oxford, All Souls College, Oxford OX1 4AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

62:40634 Adam, Paula. Mothers in an insider-outsider economy: the puzzle of Spain. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1996. 301-23 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"There is growing evidence that social policies towards mothers have important effects on their labour market behaviour. This article argues that these effects are less important in a Male Breadwinner Regime if there is employment insecurity in the household or if women intend to participate in the long-run. I consider the case of Spain, where the workforce has become polarized between insiders and outsiders and where social policies closely resemble the Male Breadwinner Regime. The results show that Spanish mothers fall into two groups: those who do not withdraw from the labour force after childbirth and those who withdraw and do not re-enter after their children arrive at school age. Entry or re-entry appears related to the husband's employment uncertainty. Married women in an `insider household' are less likely to be mobile than women in an `outsider household'."
Correspondence: P. Adam, European University Institute, Department of Economics, Via dei Roccettini 5, 50016 San Domenico di Fiesole, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40635 Bühler, Elisabeth; Dorigo, Guido; Eberle, Susanne; Cipriano, Beatrice; Boruvka, Jan. Regional labor markets for women and men. [Regionale Arbeitsmärkte für Frauen und Männer.] Statistik der Schweiz, ISBN 3-303-03063-4. 1996. 119 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Ger. with sum. in Fre.
Data from the 1990 census of Switzerland are used to examine the regional distribution of economically active men and women according to socio-occupational categories. The extent and dynamics of sex segregation in regional labor markets are analyzed.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40636 Campani, Giovanna; Carchedi, Francesco; Mottura, Giovanni. Flexibility and regularization. Aspects and problems of the seasonal employment of immigrants in Italy. [Flessibilità e regolarizzazione. Aspetti e problemi del lavoro stagionale degli immigrati in Italia.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 33, No. 122, Jun 1996. 199-222 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The study focuses on a number of theories put forward...on immigrants' labour patterns in Italy. Particular attention is given to different aspects of seasonal labour, including mobility and flexibility, especially in the agricultural sector in the South....The study suggests that a precise and immediate regularization of seasonal labour is urgently needed...."
Correspondence: G. Campani, Università di Firenze, Piazza San Marco 4, 50121 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40637 Cosaert, Patrice. A new development in Taiwan: full employment and immigration. [Une nouvelle donne à Taiwan: plein emploi et immigration.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2, 1995. 191-202 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Full employment together with one of the world's lowest unemployment rates have confronted the Taiwanese economy with [a serious shortage of] available manpower, causing rocketing costs which threaten to slow down further expansion. Despite an apparent overpopulation of the island, the government is compelled to commit itself reluctantly [to a] strict and controversial programme of selective [use of] migrant workers."
Correspondence: P. Cosaert, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Laboratoire de Géographie Humaine, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40638 Farago, Peter; Hunold, Claude; Kuhn, Fredy; Boruvka, Jan. Foreign workers in Switzerland. A structural analysis. [Ausländische Erwerbstätige in der Schweiz. Eine Strukturanalyse.] Statistik der Schweiz, ISBN 3-303-03064-2. 1996. 67 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Ger. with sum. in Fre.
Data from the 1990 census of Switzerland are used to examine the demographic and social characteristics of foreign workers, their position in the labor market in comparison with Swiss workers, and trends since 1970. The structure of the foreign labor force is also analyzed by country of origin and residence status.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40639 Giannelli, Gianna C. Women's transitions in the labour market: a competing risks analysis on German panel data. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1996. 287-300 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper analyses the transitions between the three states of non-employment, part-time and full-time work of a sample of married women living in West Germany....A non-parametric duration analysis shows that women have a similar attachment to full-time and part-time work in terms of survival, and that survival in non-employment is shorter than in the other two states. Estimates of a parametric discrete-time competing risks duration model show that wives of retired husbands go into full-time work, children under 3 years have a disincentive effect on part-time work and that part-time work is a state that German women prefer to stay in and not a first step to full-time employment, whereas foreign women living in West Germany prefer full-time jobs."
Correspondence: G. C. Giannelli, Università di Firenze, Istituto di Economia e Finanza, Facoltà di Giurisprudenza, Piazza Indipendenza 9, 50129 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40640 Green, Anne E.; Owen, David. The labour market aspects of population change in the 1990s. In: Europe's population: towards the next century, edited by Ray Hall and Paul White. 1995. 51-68 pp. UCL Press: London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter identifies some of the main labour supply implications of the changing age structure of the population and migration trends within the United Kingdom and western Europe in the 1990s, placing them in the context of likely changes in the character of labour demand over the same period....The foremost features of the changing age structure of the population focused on in this chapter are the increase in the number of elderly people, and the decline in the number of school-leavers. With regard to changes in spatial distribution, the emphasis is on macro-scale trends; notably, the differential growth and decline of urban and rural areas, and of core and peripheral regions."
Correspondence: A. E. Green, University of Warwick, Institute for Employment Research, Coventry CV4 7AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40641 Guérin, Gilles; Wills, Thierry; Saba, Tania; St-Jacques, Nathalie. Early retirement or prolonged working life? Aspirations of unionized professionals aged 50 years and over. [Retraite anticipée ou extension de la vie professionnelle? Les aspirations des professionnels syndiqués de 50 ans et plus.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 24, No. 2, Autumn 1995. 245-83 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Two opposing retirement options--early retirement or prolonged working life--are being presented in the burgeoning literature related to the ineluctable ageing of the work force. Both are allegedly proposed for economic reasons and claim to meet the expectations and needs of ageing workers. But what in reality are the retirement goals of older workers and which factors, individual and organizational, affect the decision to retire? In tackling this question, the article draws on a survey conducted among workers from 15 unions, mostly affiliated with the Quebec Council of Managers and Professionals. Based on data from 1,319 respondents, the findings indicate that the majority of professionals would prefer to retire earlier, that 60 is much more considered a normal retirement age than 65, and that only 8% of the respondents wish to continue working after 65--and this mostly out of economic necessity, not choice. The factors that underlie this preference for early retirement are then identified and discussed."
Correspondence: G. Guérin, Université de Montréal, Ecole de Relations Industrielles, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40642 Guillemard, Anne-Marie. Transformations in the transition between work activity and retirement in Europe: new stakes for social security. [Les transformations de la transition entre activité et retraite en Europe: de nouveaux enjeux pour la protection sociale.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 24, No. 2, Autumn 1995. 171-204 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The tendency towards early retreat from the work force observed in Europe over the past years can be attributed to social security measures other than old age security, and is not simply due to an advancing retirement age. Two programmes have been especially favoured for protecting ageing workers: disability insurance and unemployment insurance. Preretirement compensation packages have also facilitated the early departure of these workers from the labour force, whether employed or not. Such emerging models in the transition from work activity to retirement are revealing, both in terms of the social restructuring of the life cycle, and the overhaul of the social safety net. These transformations are analyzed in conclusion in relation with their potential role in new stakes for social security."
Correspondence: A.-M. Guillemard, Université Paris-Sorbonne, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40643 Gustafsson, Siv S.; Ermisch, John F. Symposium on: "labor force transitions of women in connection with childbirth". Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1996. 221-361 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"All the papers in this volume are concerned with the labor force transitions of mothers in connection with childbirth. The papers analyze several European countries: [Great Britain, Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Norway, and Spain]....All of the papers make use of longitudinal data allowing the dating of birth and labor force transitions."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, P.O. Box 31 13 40, 10643 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40644 Gustafsson, Siv S.; Wetzels, Cécile M. M. P.; Vlasblom, Jan D.; Dex, Shirley. Women's labor force transitions in connection with childbirth: a panel data comparison between Germany, Sweden and Great Britain. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1996. 223-46 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper we make use of the panel aspects of the German GSOEP, the Swedish HUS and the British BHPS data...[to analyze] labor force transitions triggered by child births of different birth orders....We find that German and British women have even higher full-time labor force participation than Swedish women 12 months before the birth of the first child. The difference is more pronounced for second and third births than for first births. We suggest that these differences are caused by different family policy regimes where Germany can be characterized as a breadwinner regime and Sweden a regime oriented towards equal role sharing of father and mother. Our results on determinants of being in the labor force both after and before the birth of a child as well as determinants of the tempo of entering the labor force after birth show that women's own human capital is important both in Germany and Great Britain, whereas in Sweden also less educated women have entered the labor force by the time the child is 2 years old."
Correspondence: C. M. M. P. Wetzels, University of Amsterdam, Department of Economics, Roeterstraat 11, 1018 WB Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40645 Joshi, Heather; Macran, Susan; Dex, Shirley. Employment after childbearing and women's subsequent labour force participation: evidence from the British 1958 birth cohort. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1996. 325-48 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Data on women from the British 1958 Cohort Study is used as evidence on the determinants of their labour force participation at age 33. A conventional cross-sectional model of full or part-time employment makes use of some longitudinal material not normally included in such models. Whether the woman made the hitherto customary break from employment at the time of the first maternity is included in recognition that this cohort was among the first generation to be offered Statutory Maternity Leave. Results suggest that the presence of children (still) inhibits full-time employment and raises the probability of part-time employment; that income effects on participation have continued to weaken while wage elasticity for full-time employment is high. Continuity of employment straight after childbearing raises the chances of subsequent full-time employment, but by no means guarantees it. Gains from maternity leave and other family friendly employment policies have been far from uniform."
Correspondence: H. Joshi, City University, Social Statistics Research Unit, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40646 Khan, S. R.; Chowdhury, A. M. R.; Ahmed, S. M.; Bhuiya, A. Women's education and employment: Matlab experience. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, Mar 1996. 45-58 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This study attempts to assess [Bangladeshi] women's educational impact on their employment activities and some other selected background characteristics....The bivariate analysis demonstrated clearly the relative importance of education, which was positive and significant, on such characteristics as contraceptive use, number of living children, amount of savings and loans, hygiene practice and employment activity. The multivariate logit analysis revealed that generally a woman was more likely to be engaged in wage-earning activity if she had some level of education; the higher the level, the more likely that she would be employed. It also found that women's employment is closely related to their savings."
Correspondence: S. R. Khan, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40647 Kishor, Sunita. Urban women's employment trajectories in Ghana and Bolivia. DHS Occasional Paper, No. 5, Apr 1996. xiii, 53 pp. Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Calverton, Maryland. In Eng.
Some aspects of women's labor force participation in developing countries are explored using DHS data for Ghana and Bolivia. "Specifically, the following questions are addressed: What is the nature of women's current employment in Ghana and Bolivia, and how does it differ across the two countries? How do women who have had at least one birth pattern their labor force participation across different birth intervals in the two countries? [and] Within a multivariate analytical framework, what factors account for the variation in current employment and the different patterns of labor force interaction over time, within and across the two countries?"
Correspondence: Macro International, Demographic and Health Surveys, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705-3119. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40648 Ondrich, Jan; Spiess, C. Katharina; Yang, Qing. Barefoot and in a German kitchen: federal parental leave and benefit policy and the return to work after childbirth in Germany. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1996. 247-66 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Since 1979 German federal maternity leave and benefit policy has given women incentives to stay at home and take care of their newborn and youngest children. In 1986 this leave and benefit policy was changed in several ways, turning it into a powerful instrument for delaying mothers' return to work after childbirth....We estimate post childbirth return to work hazards for women during the federally protected leave protection period and immediately upon completion of this leave period. During the leave mothers are less likely to return to work the longer is the time left in the leave protection period; however, this result cannot be attributed generally to high levels of maternity benefits. When the leave protection period ends, mothers with strong labor force attachment who are still on leave return to their jobs."
Correspondence: J. Ondrich, Syracuse University, Center for Policy Research, Syracuse, NY 13244-3114. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40649 Rönsen, Marit; Sundström, Marianne. Maternal employment in Scandinavia: a comparison of the after-birth employment activity of Norwegian and Swedish women. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1996. 267-85 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"A striking characteristic of recent Western labour market trends is the rise in employment among mothers of very young children. So far, few studies have analysed the impact of public policies on employment rates of young mothers. In this study we address this issue by comparing two similar countries, Norway and Sweden, which have the same set of policies with slight variations, using data sets with similar designs. We analyse rates of re-entry into paid work after first birth for mothers in 1968-88 by means of hazard regression. One important finding is that the right to paid maternity leave with job security greatly speeds up the return to work."
Correspondence: M. Rönsen, Statistics Norway, Division for Social and Demographic Research, P.B. 8131 Dep, 0033 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40650 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). 1990 population and housing census. Subject Report No. 5: economic activity characteristics. ISBN 974-236-183-5. [1996?]. [xviii], 72, 90 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This report analyzes sample data from the 1990 census of Thailand on economic activity. Comparisons are made with data from previous censuses and differences between Buddhists and Muslims are assessed with regard to labor force activity, employment, and unemployment.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1996-1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.