Volume 62 - Number 4 - Winter 1996

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

62:40545 Adlakha, Arjun L.; Kinsella, Kevin G.; Khawaja, Marwan. Demography of the Palestinian population with special emphasis on the occupied territories. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 43, 1995. 5-28 pp. Amman, Jordan. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is threefold: (i) to provide time series of the Palestinian Arab population size from 1950 to 1995 in 16 countries in the Middle East and North Africa; (ii) to present detailed current and historical information on the size, composition and components of population change (fertility, mortality and migration) for the Palestinian population living in the occupied territories; and (iii) to assess future growth prospects of the Arab population living in the occupied territories."
Correspondence: A. L. Adlakha, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40546 Allard, Michel; Vallin, Jacques; Andrieux, Jean-Michel; Robine, Jean-Marie. In search of the secret of centenarians: a demographic and medical survey about centenarians in France. In: Health and mortality among elderly populations, edited by Graziella Caselli and Alan D. Lopez. 1996. 61-86 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
Some preliminary results from an ongoing survey of centenarians in France are presented. The objectives and methodology of the survey are first described. The characteristics of this population are then analyzed and life tables for centenarians are presented.
Correspondence: M. Allard, IPSEN, 24 rue Erlanger, 75016 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40547 Bass, Scott A. Japan's aging society. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, Vol. 8, No. 2-3, 1996. 1-12 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
This article introduces a special issue on demographic aging in Japan and its consequences. The author briefly summarizes current demographic trends in Japan, noting that Japan will be transformed from its state in the early 1950s, when there were seven children for each elderly person, to a society 20 years from now in which there will be more people over age 65 than children. He also describes the social and economic policies that are being developed to help the country cope with this transformation.
Correspondence: Haworth Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40548 Caldare, G. Changes in the demographic situation of the Republic of Moldova during the 1970s and 1980s. [Schimbarile în situatia demografica a Republicii Moldova în anii '70-'80.] Sociologie Româneasca, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1993. 341-50 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
This is a general analysis of the demographic situation in the Republic of Moldova and of changes that occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. It presents trends in population size, age structure, spatial distribution, and urban/rural structure. Also, the contributions of natural increase and migration are considered. Special attention is given to the effects of "socialist industrialization" on changes in the ethnic composition of the country's population; these changes involved large-scale migration flows from Russia and Ukraine to Moldova.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40549 Faus-Pujol, Maria C. Changes in the fertility rate and age structure of the population of Europe. In: Europe's population: towards the next century, edited by Ray Hall and Paul White. 1995. 17-33 pp. UCL Press: London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter concentrates on giving an overall view of the current demographic situation in Europe with particular reference to the fertility rate and the age structure of the population. It examines in detail four particular aspects of Europe's population: (a) the idea of European space and population; (b) the growth of the population; (c) the evolution of fertility; and (d) the consequences of all the above on the population structure in the next century."
Correspondence: M. C. Faus-Pujol, Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Departamento de Geografía y Ordenación del Territorio, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40550 Ham Chande, Roberto. The epidemiology of aging: a further stage in the demographic transition. [Epidemiología del envejecimiento: una fase más de la transición demográfica.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 10, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1995. 687-705, 741 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Social and economic indicators depict Mexico as a country of intermediate development. It is also in intermediate stages of demographic and epidemiologic transitions. When these traits are translated into socio-demographic perspectives, all projections indicate that for the next fifty years we can expect: (i) percentage decreases in child and teen-age populations, (ii) large percentage and absolute increases in adult population, and (iii) important increases in the elderly population....Among elders death due to infectious diseases is less common than within other sectors of [the] population. Mortality associated with chronic ailments has increased, with recent and remarkable changes during the last twenty years. This transformation is not evenly distributed. It is more accelerated in developed and urban areas as contrasted with the rural and less developed."
Correspondence: R. Ham Chande, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Tijuana, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40551 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Demographic characteristics of the Arab population in Judea and Samaria and the Gaza area, 1968-1993. Central Bureau of Statistics Special Series, No. 1025, Jul 1996. 111, 90 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
This report examines population trends in Judea, Samaria, and the Gaza Strip for the period 1968-1993. Data are from the 1967 census and from the population register maintained by the Israeli authorities. There are separate chapters on estimates of population size, fertility, infant mortality, general mortality, and migration. The focus is on the size and characteristics of the Arab population.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 13015, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40552 Jefferys, Margot. Cultural aspects of ageing: gender and inter-generational issues. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 43, No. 5, Sep 1996. 681-7 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A broad review is made of the economic, social and political developments that accompanied the 20th century demographic transition in the developed industrialized societies of Europe and North America and their implications for older people, emphasizing changes in work patterns, the position of women, family and household structures. The denigration of older people is not new, but there is greater consciousness of the disadvantaging aspects of ageist expressions. The different stages of economic development and family systems and norms in developing societies now undergoing the demographic transition in Asia and elsewhere are likely to make the lives of older people there very different from those experienced during the transition period in Europe."
Correspondence: M. Jefferys, King's College London, Centre of Medical Law and Ethics, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40553 Kim, Ik Ki. Demographic transition and population aging in Korea. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 25, No. 1, Jul 1996. 27-40 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper describes the process of population aging in conjunction with the demographic transition in [South Korea]. Korea has recently experienced rapid decreases of both mortality and fertility, which have brought about the rapid process of population aging. The speed of...population aging in Korea is projected as one of the fastest in the world. Population aging brings about changing patterns of family composition, especially new trends of living arrangements of the elderly. Since the process of population aging [began] in Korea, the proportion of [those] living alone and [of those] living with spouse only have significantly increased."
Correspondence: I. K. Kim, Dongguk University, Department of Sociology, 26 3-ga, Pil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40554 Loriaux, Michel. The consequences of the demographic revolution and of the aging of society: restructuring the age groups and modifying intergenerational relations. [Les conséquences de la révolution démographique et du vieillissement sociétal: restructuration des âges et modification des rapports entre générations.] Sociologie et Sociétés, Vol. 27, No. 2, Autumn 1995. 9-26 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The consequences of demographic aging in developed societies are examined. The author notes that "demographic aging has intensified over the last decades, bringing with it a significant modification in relationships between age groups and the sexes....These changes in demographic structures bring with them the reorganization in intergenerational relations, the most spectacular instance of which...[is] the coexistence at the same time and in the same place of four or five generations of direct descendants." The author develops the hypothesis that a new attitude toward old age is needed in which "the social status of the elderly must be reinstated, and everything must be brought into play to encourage the integration of different age groups and intergenerational solidarity, so as to arrive in the best possible conditions at what [can be termed] the `era of old age'...which will accompany the coming of the post-industrial society with its orientation toward the mass production of leisure and of services."
Correspondence: M. Loriaux, Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Démographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40555 Otani, Kenji. Births, survival improvements, and aging. Economic and Political Studies, No. 92, Mar 1995. 109-49 pp. Osaka, Japan. In Jpn.
This article describes several methods of analyzing the process of demographic aging. The author considers the stable population method, the comparative population projection method, and methods based on age-specific growth rates. The third approach tries to decompose changes in the age distribution into fertility and mortality effects on the basis of age-specific growth rates. Equations for four choices using this last approach are identified with respect to changes in the age distribution and average ages and applied to data for Japan.
Correspondence: K. Otani, Kansai University, Faculty of Economics, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40556 Pitrou, Agnès. From the transformation of age groups to the evolution of social relationships. [De la transformation des classes d'âges à l'évolution des rapports sociaux.] Sociologie et Sociétés, Vol. 27, No. 2, Autumn 1995. 27-42 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In Western societies, change in family behaviour patterns, increased life expectancy, transformations in the socioeconomic environment and in culture have effected important modifications in the `age pyramid', the significance of which has fed the debate between experts who have recorded them and who have anticipated their foreseeable consequences. These consequences are examined here in the light of some of their effects on social ties, inside the family and on the community level: the recomposition of the deviations between generations, the appearance of a pre-adult stage, the growth of concomitant responsibilities in relation to ascendants and descendants within family networks, potential concurrent intergenerational conflicts, and the aging of the social fabric [at] the community level. These phenomena in full evolution are a particular incentive to reinforcing the dialogue between demography and sociology."
Correspondence: A. Pitrou, CNRS-LEST, 35 Avenue Jules Ferry, 13626 Aix-en-Provence Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40557 Radulescu, Sorin M. The elderly and the transition to a market economy in Romania. Discriminating attitudes vis-à-vis the elderly. [Populatia vârstinica si tranzitia la economia de piata în România. Atitudini de discriminare a populatiei vârstnice.] Sociologie Româneasca, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1993. 313-26 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
Population aging started late in Romania but has increased rapidly in the last few decades. The share of the population aged 60 and over reached 17% in 1992 and the decline in fertility after 1989 will considerably increase this share in the future. The author provides a detailed analysis of the present economic and social situation of the elderly in Romania. Factors such as the economic crisis, and particularly the deterioration of the standard of living, the very low income (pension) level, the high rate of inflation, and the lack of appropriate medical care have pushed most of the aged population into poverty. According to recent surveys, 1.5 million people out of the 3.8 million aged 60 and over live below the poverty line.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40558 Seth, Swapan. Two-way movement of sex ratio. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 31, No. 40, Oct 5, 1996. 2,730-3 pp. Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The female-male ratio in the total population has long been low in India since the beginning of this century and it is declining steadily. It could suggest, apparently,...the idea that the low sex ratio may be prevalent in all the age groups also. But it is revealed that among the marriageable adults sex ratio has been high. A comparison among population data of India, France and Switzerland visualises a demographic paradox."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:40559 Vassin, Sergei A. The determinants and implications of an aging population in Russia. In: Russia's demographic "crisis", edited by Julie DaVanzo and Gwendolyn Farnsworth. 1996. 175-201 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"This paper examines rates of growth and changes in the age structure of the Russian population. Shifts in population and subpopulation growth rates, as well as waves in the population age structure, can be traced to the reverberating effects of several demographic crises in Russia in this century. Fertility has had the most prominent influence on Russia's population structure. It is due to low fertility that more than 10 percent of the Russian population is elderly (ages 65 and over) and the share of [the] elderly will grow another 4 percentage points by the year 2015. Russia's present and anticipated fertility rates and subpopulation dependency ratios carry important policy implications for the nation's economy and social institutions." Comments by discussants are included (p. 201).
Correspondence: S. A. Vassin, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Economic Forecasting, Center for Demography and Human Ecology, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

62:40560 Bernstein, Marianne E.; James, William H. More on sex-ratio hypotheses. Current Anthropology, Vol. 36, No. 5, Dec 1995. 830-2 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
These two short articles continue an ongoing debate, begun by Valerie J. Grant and John F. Martin in previous issues of the journal Current Anthropology, on the factors, such as coital frequency, that influence the sex ratio of newborn humans.
For a related article by Grant and a response from Martin, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: M. E. Bernstein, 5552 Stonehaven Lane, Sarasota, FL 34233. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40561 Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Villena, Arturo; Ubilluz, Milward. Age at menarche in Peruvian girls at sea level and at high altitude: effect of ethnic background and socioeconomic status. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1996. 457-63 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The objective of the present study was to determine median age at menarche using the status quo method and the independent effects of ethnic background and socioeconomic status on the age at menarche in Peruvian girls from two distinct levels of altitude: Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m). The sample included 503 girls from Lima and 625 girls from Cerro de Pasco, ages 10-18 years....After logistic regression analysis, an effect on age at menarche of chronological age and place of residence was observed, but not by ethnic background, socioeconomic status, [or interactions between these factors]....Thus later age at menarche observed in girls at high altitude is not due to differences in ethnicity or socioeconomic status."
Correspondence: G. F. Gonzales, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, P.O. Box 1843, Lima, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40562 Grant, Valerie J. On sex ratio and coital rate: a hypothesis without foundation. Current Anthropology, Vol. 36, No. 2, Apr 1995. 295-8 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author reviews the hypothesis that high sex ratios could be associated with high coital rates, challenging in particular a recent paper by John F. Martin. She proposes an alternative hypothesis based on biological dominance. A response by Martin (pp. 296-8) is included.
For the study by Martin, published in 1994, see 61: 10569.
Correspondence: V. J. Grant, University of Auckland, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Science, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40563 Manton, Kenneth G.; Stallard, Eric. Strategies to maximize health and functioning and increase life expectancy. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 200-23 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This chapter explores ways to maintain good health and active function in the elderly population in a time of increasing life expectancy and demographic aging. The authors present "a model which represents the effects of nutrition, exercise, and other nontechnical interventions, societal conditions, and the interface of individual physiology and social conditions on functioning and survival. This model can be used to forecast changes in active life expectancy in developing and developed countries."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40564 Olshansky, S. Jay; Carnes, Bruce A. Prospect for extended survival: a critical review of the biological evidence. In: Health and mortality among elderly populations, edited by Graziella Caselli and Alan D. Lopez. 1996. 39-58 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liège, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors present a critical review of the logic behind competing estimates of human longevity in an attempt to establish why there are such large differences in estimates of future human life expectancy. They suggest that the study of longevity is an excellent subject for an interdisciplinary approach involving both biologists and demographers. They conclude that low-mortality countries are approaching the upper limits for life expectancy, and that a law of diminishing returns is likely to prevent further significant gains in longevity.
Correspondence: S. J. Olshansky, University of Chicago, Center on Aging, Health, and Society, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40565 Reubinoff, Benjamin E.; Schenker, Joseph G. New advances in sex preselection. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 66, No. 3, Sep 1996. 343-50 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
This is a review of the literature on preconceptual sex selection. The results show that "reliable preconceptual sex selection is currently possible only by preimplantation diagnosis, or sperm separation by flow cytometry combined with IVF. Both methods involve invasive procedures and are at present exclusively used for medical indications. It may be that in the near future, an improvement in flow cytometry output of sexed spermatozoa will provide sufficient sorted gametes for artificial insemination. In such a case, the medical community will be forced to take a stand, whether this reliable noninvasive method of sexing will be allowed for social purposes."
Correspondence: J. G. Schenker, Hadassah University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ein-Kerem, P.O. Box 12000, Jerusalem 91120, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

62:40566 Ahlburg, Dennis A. Population growth and poverty. In: The impact of population growth on well-being in developing countries, edited by Dennis A. Ahlburg, Allen C. Kelley, and Karen O. Mason. 1996. 219-58 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This chapter presents estimates of the number of people in poverty and changes over time in the number of people in poverty, identifies factors that are related to poverty, and evaluates the role that population growth plays in determining poverty. Attention is paid to both the standard definition of poverty and to the broader concept of well-being. Little direct evidence on the impact of population growth exists. Indirect evidence, however, suggests some possible links....Overall, the evidence shows that many countries have been able to reduce poverty while population has been growing, but population has been a contributory factor in the difficulties of reducing poverty in many other countries." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: D. A. Ahlburg, University of Minnesota, Center for Population Analysis and Policy, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40567 Buchmann, Marlis; König, Markus; Li, Jiang Hong; Sacchi, Stefan; Meier, Urs. Changes in upward and downward occupational mobility. [Berufliche Aufstiegschancen und Abstiegsrisiken im Wandel.] Statistik der Schweiz, ISBN 3-303-15132-6. 1996. 80 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Ger. with sum. in Fre.
Changes in vertical occupational mobility in Switzerland between 1970 and 1990 are analyzed using data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 censuses. The relationships among education, occupational position, and occupational status are examined. The types of training that lead to upward and downward mobility are also discussed.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40568 Gauthier, Hervé. Demographic variables and social dependency: annual and intergenerational comparisons. [Variables démographiques et charges sociales: comparaisons annuelles et intergénérationnelles.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 24, No. 2, Autumn 1995. 285-321 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Drawing on a profile of age-specific expenditures for selected [Canadian] Government programmes (services and transfers), we examine the effect of demographic changes and labour force participation on social expenditures in the upcoming decades. In terms of cross-sectional analysis, increased activity rates and particularly a postponed retirement age would exercise a major impact....Using a different approach, it is possible to distinguish for each generation the social benefits received and corresponding contributions. Whereas the amount of benefits received by a specific cohort essentially depends on its size, contributions vary according to annual social expenditures. The demographic structures are such that the generations born before 1991 will profit from an excess in benefits...while for the following generations the situation will be reversed....For all scenarios with negative population growth, future generations may expect to incur a deficit in terms of social expenses."
Correspondence: H. Gauthier, Bureau de la Statistique du Québec, 117 rue Saint-André, Quebec, Quebec G1K 3Y3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40569 Lanjouw, Peter; Ravallion, Martin. Poverty and household size. Economic Journal, Vol. 105, No. 433, Nov 1995. 1,415-34 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The widely held view that larger families tend to be poorer in developing countries has influenced research and policy. The scope for size economies in consumption cautions against this view. We find that the correlation between poverty and size vanishes in Pakistan when the size elasticity of the cost of living is about 0.6. This turns out to be the elasticity implied by a modified version of the food share method of setting scales. By contrast, some measures of child nutritional status indicate an elasticity of unity. Consideration of the weight attached to child versus adult welfare may help resolve the non-robustness of demographic profiles of poverty."
Correspondence: P. Lanjouw, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40570 McDonald, Lynn. Retirement pensions in Canada: the inequalities of a dualist system. [Les pensions de retraite au Canada: les inégalités d'un système dualiste.] Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, Vol. 24, No. 2, Autumn 1995. 205-44 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Using data from the Survey of Ageing and Independence (N=20,036), this research examines the effect of a dual economy on retirement incomes for both men and women [in Canada]. Specifically, the analysis compares core and periphery retirees on sociodemographic characteristics, work characteristics, income characteristics and pension arrangements. Models are then estimated to ascertain what factors influence the retirement incomes for those retirees who previously worked in the core or periphery of the economy. The findings suggest that Canadian pension policy has served to exacerbate the already precarious economic position of retired women, a known outcome of their unstable labour force histories and family responsibilities. The dualist pension system has assisted in producing an underclass of retirees, the principal causalities being women who previously worked in the periphery of the economy."
Correspondence: L. McDonald, University of Toronto, Faculty of Social Service, 214 Huron Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40571 O'Hare, William P. A new look at poverty in America. Population Bulletin, Vol. 51, No. 2, Sep 1996. 48 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author "examines the trends in the number and characteristics of the poor [in the United States], and looks at some of the common misperceptions about poverty. The report discusses the great diversity and dynamic nature of the poverty population, and the enormous differences in economic well-being among population groups and geographic areas. The author shows how demographic change, along with social and economic change, has contributed to the increase in poverty over the past 20 years, and speculates about future trends. He also looks at major welfare programs used by poor and low-income Americans, and reviews the fundamental changes in government welfare programs enacted in the mid 1990s."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40572 Sorenson, Ann M.; Grindstaff, Carl. Adolescent mothers: the impact of living arrangements on long-term economic outcomes. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1995. 91-105 pp. Alberta, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Adolescent fertility raises issues that touch on important social values and more practical concerns. Among the latter are the living arrangements that develop in the first months after a birth. Analyses of data [for Ontario, Canada] that cover nearly eight years of a longitudinal prospective study trace the implications of early living arrangements for events related to education, employment, subsequent childbearing, and the longer term socioeconomic well being of 213 young mothers. Educational attainments and income in young adulthood suggest the advantages of living with parents rather than entering into an early marriage, cohabiting, or living alone after an adolescent birth. However, problematic relationships and abusive behaviour experienced in childhood and early adolescence suggest that remaining in the family household is not a viable option for a significant number of very young mothers."
Correspondence: A. M. Sorenson, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M52 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40573 Taylor, J. Edward; Wyatt, T. J. The shadow value of migrant remittances, income and inequality in a household-farm economy. Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 32, No. 6, Aug 1996. 899-912 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article offers econometric evidence that income remittances sent home by family migrants stimulate household-farm incomes indirectly by relieving credit and risk constraints on household-farm production. A high but unequally distributed shadow value of migrant remittances appears to reinforce an equalising direct effect of remittances on the income distribution across a sample of household-farms in rural Mexico."
Correspondence: J. E. Taylor, University of California, Department of Agricultural Economics, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

62:40574 Chanana, Karuna. Educational attainment, status production and women's autonomy: a study of two generations of Punjabi women in New Delhi. In: Girls' schooling, women's autonomy and fertility change in South Asia, edited by Roger Jeffery and Alaka M. Basu. 1996. 107-32 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper I...seek to contextualise the relationship between gender, education and autonomy within the family [in India], by asking how far familial considerations of feminine propriety, protection of female sexuality, feminine domain and social roles affect women's participation in education, its perceived benefits, the reasons for sending daughters to schools, and the type and amount of education received by women. More specifically, I explore three dimensions of autonomy, namely, husband-wife communication; mother's role in influencing decisions regarding children's education; and the twin issues of daughters' right to property and dowry demand."
Correspondence: K. Chanana, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Zakir Hussain Centre for Educational Studies, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40575 DeGraff, Deborah S.; Bilsborrow, Richard E.; Herrin, Alejandro N. Children's education in the Philippines: does high fertility matter? Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jun 1996. 219-47 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of family size and sibling position on children's current school enrollment status in the Philippines. The theoretical framework focuses on the determinants of children's participation in alternative activities, specifically schooling, market work, and home production. This approach allows for a greater understanding of the mechanisms through which fertility, as reflected by number of siblings and sibling composition, influences children's education than would examining the determinants of schooling alone. The model is estimated using the 1983 wave of the Bicol Multipurpose Survey. The results indicate the existence of negative effects of fertility on school enrollment, which, in part, operate through work status. In addition, these effects differ according to the sibling position of the child."
Correspondence: D. S. DeGraff, Bowdoin College, Department of Economics, Brunswick, ME 04011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40576 Ermisch, John. The demand for housing in Britain and population ageing: microeconometric evidence. Economica, Vol. 63, No. 251, Aug 1996. 383-404 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The paper estimates a household's demand function for housing [in Britain] using household data. Estimates of the price and (current) income elasticities are robust at about -0.4 and 0.5 respectively. Independent of price and income effects, there is a strong age pattern to household demand. In conjunction with the age profile of household formation, this pattern implies that changes in the age distribution of the population have important effects on aggregate housing demand, although economic growth dominates in determining its rate of growth."
Correspondence: J. Ermisch, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:40577 Jeffery, Patricia; Jeffery, Roger. What's the benefit of being educated?: Girls' schooling, women's autonomy and fertility outcomes in Bijnor. In: Girls' schooling, women's autonomy and fertility change in South Asia, edited by Roger Jeffery and Alaka M. Basu. 1996. 150-83 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper we address the following questions. How much autonomy do women have, in the sense of being able to influence key decisions about their lives? What are the local meanings of schooling in general, and female schooling in particular? Are there variations in autonomy that can be traced to women's educational experiences, and can these be related in turn to fertility differences?" Data were collected from two villages in rural North India.
Correspondence: P. Jeffery, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40578 Jeon, B. Philip; Berger, Mark C. The demographic cycle and optimal schooling choices. Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 63, No. 2, Oct 1996. 301-11 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
A model is developed that enables the authors to estimate the effects of demographic cycles on both earnings and schooling. The model is tested using data from the 1991 Korean Occupational Wage Survey. The results indicate that cohorts following large birth cohorts in the cycle choose relatively less formal schooling compared with pre-peak cohorts, and that post-peak cohorts also have lower incomes. This result concerning South Korea is consistent with findings from previous studies in the United States.
Correspondence: B. P. Jeon, John Carroll University, University Heights, Cleveland, OH 44118. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:40579 Lamprecht, Markus; Stamm, Hanspeter; Meier, Urs. Social inequality in education. [Soziale Ungleichheit im Bildungswesen.] Statistik der Schweiz, ISBN 3-303-15131-8. 1996. 57 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Ger. with sum. in Fre.
Data from the 1990 census of Switzerland are used to analyze the influence of social background and gender on educational status. The authors also consider whether expansion of the educational system has changed the influence of these factors.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40580 Schulz, Reiner. Marital status as a determinant of the structure of the familial support and assistance network. [Der Familienstand als Determinante der Struktur des familialen Hilfs- und Unterstützungsnetzwerks.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1996. 3-27 pp. Munich, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article identifies differences (and similarities) among help and support networks for [German] women of the middle-aged generation according to marital status. The significance of marital status with respect to the size and structure of a network of relationships...is already underscored by the fact that fewer single, widowed and divorced women of the middle-aged generation (around the age of 50) live with a partner, and that these women tend to have [fewer] children than married women. The analysis clearly shows that these `gaps' in key network positions are unlikely to be filled by other members of the family or, for instance, by friends or neighbours. This is particularly true when help is of crucial importance, e.g. in cases of illness or invalidity. Conversely, where a particular type of support requires a smaller investment of time over a shorter period, the `supply' of those willing to provide help is generally larger."
Correspondence: R. Schulz, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

62:40581 Boelens, Peter. Ethno-demography: its historical context in Russia, Ukraine and Byelorussia. Nethur-Demography Paper, No. 38, Jul 1996. 46 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This paper looks at the history of seven major ethnic groups over the lifetime of the Soviet Union, focusing on their demographic experience in three of the major western republics of the former USSR. "Within the context of a demographic research project on scenarios for the future population by nationality in Russia, the Ukraine and Byelorussia, this paper provides the historical, socio-economic and linguistic background of seven nationalities under study: Russians, Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Tatars, Crimean Tatars, Germans and Jews. The paper is written in the form of a literature review, together with a presentation of the most important and recent census data in the fields of language and socio-economic characteristics. On a more general level, the paper starts with a discussion of the reasons why it is theoretically important to link the concepts of ethnicity and demography."
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40582 De Vita, Carol J.; Pollard, Kelvin M. Increasing diversity of the U.S. population. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 77, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1996. 12-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Changes in the ethnic composition of the U.S. population are projected from the present up to the year 2050. The authors note that the population will continue to grow in the twenty-first century, but at an increasingly slower pace, with an estimated total of 394 million in 2050. "The United States is evolving from a predominantly white, European population to one that is increasingly diverse, in which people of color represent a growing share. The minority population numbered nearly 70 million in 1995, about one in four Americans. By the middle of the 21st century, however, the size of the `minority' population should just about equal that of the non-Hispanic white population."
For a related publication, also published in 1996, see 62:20036.
Correspondence: C. J. De Vita, Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40583 Hugo, Graeme. Atlas of the Australian people--1991 census. Western Australia. ISBN 0-644-45909-3. 1996. xxvii, 315 pp. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This is one in a series of publications focusing on the ethnic origins of the Australian population, using data from the 1991 census. "This volume of the atlas focuses on the overseas-born within the Western Australian population as revealed in the 1991 Census. The settlement patterns of the major birthplace groups are considered in some detail in this volume of the atlas. Also considered here are the number and distribution of indigenous Australians, religious groups, the children of the overseas-born, and the age structure of the overseas-born, as well as the use of languages other than English and English language proficiency."
Correspondence: Australian Government Publishing Service Press, G.P.O. Box 84, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40584 Prins, C. J. M. Non-Dutch residents and Dutch residents born abroad, January 1, 1995. [Niet-Nederlanders en in het buitenland geboren Nederlanders, 1 januari 1995.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 44, No. 6, Jun 1996. 11-7 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"On 1 January 1995, 757,000 non-Dutch residents were living in the Netherlands....The relatively large number of naturalizations in 1994 has been the main cause of the decrease in the number of non-Dutch nationals....Net changes of nationality make the largest contribution to the growth of the number of Dutch residents born abroad....Non-Dutch residents are much younger on average than the population of the Netherlands as a whole."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40585 Sandefur, Gary D.; Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Cohen, Barney. Changing numbers, changing needs: American Indian demography and public health. ISBN 0-309-05548-2. LC 96-70052. 1996. x, 314 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The papers in this volume were first presented at a workshop on the demography and health status of American Indians and Alaskan Natives. The meeting was organized by the National Research Council's Committee on Population and was held in May 1995. The focus was on recent demographic trends in this population and their implications for health service delivery. Particular attention is given to the problem of distinguishing between "changes in the size, characteristics, and distribution of these populations caused by fertility, mortality, and migration trends and changes caused by the increased tendency of people to identify themselves as Indians in response to census or survey questions on race, ethnicity, and ancestry. Over the last 20 years, changes in self-identification have been substantial and have affected estimates of birth and death rates, as well as estimates of the geographic and income distributions of American Indians."
Correspondence: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40586 Schmelz, Uziel O. The Jewish population of Hesse from the mid-nineteenth century to 1933. [Die jüdische Bevölkerung Hessens von der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts bis 1933.] Schriftenreihe Wissenschaftlicher Abhandlungen des Leo Baeck Instituts, No. 51, ISBN 3-16-146177-0. 1996. xiv, 410 pp. J. C. B. Mohr: Tübingen, Germany. In Ger.
This study is based mainly on a recently discovered archive from the 1925 German census in which, on Jewish initiative, statistics on the Jews in Hesse were compiled. Data and analyses are presented on their age and sex distribution, regional distribution, fertility, mortality, marriage and divorce, education, employment, economic and social status, migration (both international and internal), and cultural assimilation. The development of the Hessian Jewish population is traced over several generations, and is compared with the Gentile population in Hesse and with the Jewish population in the rest of Germany. The author concludes that the main trends in the Jewish population, such as declining fertility and population aging, foreshadowed later developments in the population as a whole.
Correspondence: J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Postfach 2040, 72010 Tübingen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40587 Srb, Vladimír. Assimilation and bending over the nationality of the Czechoslovak population in light of population censuses, 1950-1991. [Asimilace a preklánení národnosti obyvatelstva v Ceskoslovensku ve svetle scítání lidu 1950-1991.] Demografie, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1996. 157-64 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
"The annual balances of population by nationality (live births by mother's nationality, deceased and migrants by their nationality) [allow us] to calculate the volume of nationality assimilation after each population census as well as so called `bending over of nationality' [declaring a nationality not one's own] when we compare the balance and the results of population census by nationality....The author analyzes probable causes of assimilation processes among individual population censuses in Czechoslovakia on the basis of such processes in the Czech and in the Slovak part of the previous Czechoslovak federation...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40588 Trebici, Vladimir; Ghetau, Vasile. The minority nationalities in the Romanian population: present and future prospects. [Populatia României si minoritatile nationale: prezent si perspective.] Bibliotheca Demographica, No. 2, 1996. 56 pp. Academia Româna, Institutul National de Cercetari Economice, Centrul de Cercetari Demografice: Bucharest, Romania; Centrul de Informare si Documentare Economica: Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
This monograph is in two parts. The first part, by Vladimir Trebici, reviews the available data sources on the Hungarian minority in Romania, and analyzes the demographic characteristics of this population, including its geographical and rural-urban distribution, religion, fertility and mortality differentials, migration, and natural increase. The second part, by Vasile Ghetau, looks at probable long-term changes in Romania's main ethnic groups, including Romanians, Hungarians, and gypsies over the period 1992-2025.
Correspondence: Centrul de Informare si Documentare Economica, Casuta Postala 54-29, Bucharest 54, Romania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1996-1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.