Volume 62 - Number 4 - Winter 1996

I. Historical Demography and Demographic History

Studies dealing with the demographic events of any given period from the early historical up to World War I.

I.1. General Historical Demography

Comprehensive surveys, notes of sources, and items on the state of research. Particularly concerned with the period before modern vital registration was introduced and censuses were taken. Historical items that primarily pertain to one specific demographic variable are classified first under the specific heading and then cross-referenced to this heading.

62:40534 Anderson, Michael. British population history: from the Black Death to the present day. ISBN 0-521-57030-1. 1996. 421 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The five studies brought together in this volume between them survey the trends and debates in English population history from 1348 to 1991, and in Scottish and Welsh population history from 1500 to 1991." Four of the studies included here have been previously published in the series Studies in Economic and Social History. The work is designed for "readers who are not themselves demographers but who, as students, teachers, or non-specialist historians and social scientists, want to know more about what happened and what are the main topics of current debate. Full bibliographies for further study are included."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40535 Anderson, Michael. Population change in north-western Europe, 1750-1850. In: British population history: from the Black Death to the present day, edited by Michael Anderson. 1996. 191-279 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The history of population developments in north-western Europe in the century from 1750 to 1850 is described. The author notes that population doubled over this time period, and, more significantly, Europe seemed to break free of the demographic constraints that had controlled population growth up to that point. The significance of the late marriage patterns that were common to much of the region, and their influence on demographic trends, is assessed. Separate consideration is also given to migration, natural increase, fertility, and mortality. The chapter concludes with a look at the relationship between population trends and economic change, and the author concludes that "there is little reason to believe that population growth in [this] period played a substantial independent role in accelerating economic change."
Correspondence: M. Anderson, University of Edinburgh, Department of Economic History, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40536 Hammel, E. A.; Wachter, Kenneth W. Evaluating the Slavonian census of 1698. Part I: structure and meaning. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1996. 145-66 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Microsimulation, other demographic tools, and evidence of history and ethnography are used to evaluate an important 17th century household census [in Slavonia, which is modern Croatia]. Linguistic, ethnographic, and internal evidence allow adjustment of anomalies in census categories. Microsimulation based on historically and ethnographically plausible rates and household formation scenarios produces simulated households in accord with those of the adjusted census. Results permit estimation of the true population of the region, of the kinship and age composition of households under frontier conditions, and the probable future composition of households as the frontier stabilized and land shortage began to exert pressure for greater density and household complexity. Part I concentrates on historical, ethnographic, and linguistic evidence."
Correspondence: E. A. Hammel, University of California, Department of Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40537 Hatcher, John. Plague, population and the English economy, 1348-1530. In: British population history: from the Black Death to the present day, edited by Michael Anderson. 1996. 9-93 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with population trends in England during the two centuries following the Black Death of 1348-1349. The author notes that over this period, population was either stagnant or in decline, and that the shortage of people played a major part in undermining traditional patterns of agriculture and bringing about a fundamental redistribution of wealth. "It can be seen...that high population coincided with low living standards, and low population with high living standards, and that as population rose so living standards fell, and that as population fell so living standards rose." The implications of the relationship between population trends and living standards are considered from a theoretical aspect, particularly in the light of the work of Robert Malthus. The author concludes that "the prime determinant of the course of population in pre-industrial England was mortality rather than fertility, and that changes in real wages were often merely a secondary influence."
Correspondence: J. Hatcher, University of Cambridge, Department of History, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40538 Houston, R. A. The population history of Britain and Ireland 1500-1750. In: British population history: from the Black Death to the present day, edited by Michael Anderson. 1996. 95-190 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Population trends in the British Isles are examined over the period from 1500 to 1750. Due to the varying availability of sources, much of the focus is on England, but attention is given to the situation in Scotland and Ireland wherever possible. "The aim of the [first] section...is to discuss sources for early modern demographic history and the ways of exploiting them. Population structures and trends are then outlined before the dynamic components of fertility, nuptiality, mortality and migration are discussed. A substantial chapter on the relationship between demographic behaviour and its economic and social context concludes the [study]."
Correspondence: R. A. Houston, University of St. Andrews, Department of Modern History, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9AJ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40539 Rotariu, Traian. Demographic aspects of Transylvania at the beginning of the twentieth century. [Aspecte demografice în Transilvania la începutul secolului al XX-lea.] Sociologie Româneasca, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1993. 171-86 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
The author first offers a general review of the demographic situation in the Romanian province of Transylvania. Next, an analysis is provided of demographic aspects of Transylvania in the first decade of the twentieth century. The analysis covers regional aspects of the population's structure by ethnic group (Romanian, Hungarian, German) and the corresponding level of the birth rate. Data on ethnic structure and birth rate for the 85 Transylvanian counties (average population: 25,000 inhabitants) from 1901 to 1910 do not confirm the thesis that the level of fertility among Romanians was higher than among the Hungarian minority. There is no reason to assume that the situation was different in the past.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40540 Woods, Robert. The population of Britain in the nineteenth century. In: British population history: from the Black Death to the present day, edited by Michael Anderson. 1996. 281-357 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This is an analysis of population trends in nineteenth-century Britain. It is "a study in historical demography written by a geographer. It focuses on the form and nature of long-term population change in Great Britain (not Ireland), but it does so, where necessary, by stressing the geographical variability of demographic forms and the role of population re-distribution." There are separate sections on data sources, migration, marriage, fertility, and mortality.
Correspondence: R. Woods, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

I.2. Methods of Historical Demography

Applications of demographic methodology to the records of the past. Relevant items are coded here and, if of more general interest than to historical demography alone, are cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models .

62:40541 Alter, George; Carmichael, Ann. Studying causes of death in the past: problems and models. Historical Methods, Vol. 29, No. 2, Spring 1996. 44-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors provide an overview of articles in this issue of Historical Methods, which is devoted to new approaches to the historical study of causes of death. Topics covered include cause-of-death registration in the past, assessing long-term changes in causes of death, and suggestions for future research directions.
Correspondence: G. Alter, Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training, Memorial Hall East 220, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40542 Goose, Nigel. The Bishops' Census of 1563: a re-examination of its reliability. Local Population Studies, No. 56, Spring 1996. 43-53 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The ecclesiastical census of 1563, the Bishops' Census [of England], has long been known to local historians as a potentially valuable source of information on population size for particular communities, has been used as a basis for estimates of urban populations and, more recently, to suggest a national population figure for this date. Like all early modern sources used for this purpose, which invariably require manipulation to allow for categories of the population excluded either intentionally or accidentally, it is far from ideal, and certainly was not prepared with the interests of the twentieth century demographer in mind. That said, it appears to be more straightforward than most."
Correspondence: N. Goose, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL10 9AB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40543 Razi, Z. Manorial court rolls and local population: an East Anglian case study. Economic History Review, Vol. 49, No. 4, Nov 1996. 758-63 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The value of manorial court rolls as a source of demographic data in medieval England is examined using the example of the Norfolk manor of Gressenhall. The results suggest that sources of this nature, providing they are of high quality, can provide crude but reliable data for estimating population size.
Correspondence: Z. Razi, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69 978 Tel Aviv, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40544 Wallwork, Stephen C. Allowing for migration in estimating early population levels. Local Population Studies, No. 56, Spring 1996. 30-42 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"If studies of population change are undertaken for places that lack sources of mobility information, there is a temptation to assume that in and out migration roughly compensate each other so that they can be ignored. But differences in local economies between neighbouring communities must often have caused unequal migrations, and one of the purposes of this article is to point out that serious errors may arise if the migration components are ignored. A method is suggested by which these components may be roughly estimated....The method involves noting the appearance and disappearance of surnames in the parish register, together with the numbers of continuing names, from which a further estimate of the population may be obtained." The method is applied to the case of the village of Beeston, Nottinghamshire, England, in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1996-1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.