Volume 62 - Number 4 - Winter 1996

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

62:40352 Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y.; Farid, Samir M.; Khan, Moslem U. Changing marriage age and consanguineous marriage in Saudi females. Annals of Saudi Medicine, Vol. 15, No. 5, 1995. 481-5 pp. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In Eng.
"Saudi National Child Health Survey data were used to examine marital age, consanguinity, status and outcome of marriage of Saudi females. The survey (1987-88) involved interviewing 8,482 ever-married urban and rural females by 120 female nurses."
Correspondence: Y. Y. Al-Mazrou, Ministry of Health, Preventive Medicine, Riyadh 11176, Saudi Arabia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40353 Alm, James; Whittington, Leslie A. Does the income tax affect marital decisions? National Tax Journal, Vol. 48, No. 4, Dec 1995. 565-72 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper discusses new empirical evidence on the role of income tax incentives in marital decisions [in the United States]. Time-series evidence suggests that taxes have a small but statistically significant effect on the aggregate marriage rate; however, this evidence is sensitive to the time period and the measure of marriage. Additional evidence, based on household longitudinal data, indicates that the probability of marriage falls and that of divorce rises with an increase in the so-called marriage tax, and that the timing of marriage (though not of divorce) is also affected by taxes. In short, there is strong evidence that taxes affect some marital decisions."
Correspondence: J. Alm, University of Colorado, Department of Economics, Boulder, CO 80309-0256. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40354 Amato, Paul R. Explaining the intergenerational transmission of divorce. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 3, Aug 1996. 628-40 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study uses national longitudinal [U.S.] data to explain the intergenerational transmission of divorce. Parental divorce is associated with an increased risk of offspring divorce, especially when wives or both spouses have experienced the dissolution of their parents' marriage. Offspring age at marriage, cohabitation, socioeconomic attainment, and prodivorce attitudes mediate modest proportions of the estimated effect of parental divorce. In contrast, a measure of interpersonal behavior problems mediates the largest share of the association. The findings suggest that parental divorce elevates the risk of offspring divorce by increasing the likelihood that offspring exhibit behaviors that interfere with the maintenance of mutually rewarding intimate relationships." Data are from the Study of Marriage over the Life Course.
Correspondence: P. R. Amato, University of Nebraska, Department of Sociology, Lincoln, NE 68588-0324. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40355 Bereczkei, Tamas; Csanaky, Andras. Mate choice, marital success, and reproduction in a modern society. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan 1996. 17-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A series of eight predictions concerning human mating was tested on interviews with 1,057 female and 774 male Hungarians, who were close to completed fertility. Mating preferences as predicted from the evolutionary explanations are reflected in actual mate choice. Males, more than females, prefer and choose younger mates at marriage, whereas females tend to marry higher educated mates. The reproductive consequences of mate choice are adaptive: females who marry higher status mates and males who choose younger mates have significantly more surviving children than those following alternative mating strategies."
Correspondence: T. Bereczkei, Medical University of Pécs, Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Szigeti u. 12, Pecs 7624, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:40356 Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Klijzing, Erik; Pohl, Katharina; Rohwer, Götz. Modeling parallel and interdependent processes in demography. [Modellierung paralleler und interdependenter Prozesse in der Bevölkerungswissenschaft.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1996. 29-56 pp. Munich, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"In empirical studies demography is frequently confronted with parallel processes that, when analysed, prove to be interdependent. Thus the question of how to deal with these interdependencies arises. The objective of this essay is to provide an answer to this question. The first step in doing so is to describe the various types of parallel process and to specify the actual methodological problem more precisely. Following this, two different problem-solving approaches are introduced. The first is the `systems approach' often used in the past; the second is the `dynamic causal approach' developed by Blossfeld and Rohwer....To illustrate our theoretical and methodological concepts we use empirical data from the Netherlands and Germany to show how the propensity to marry in consensual unions changes during the first pregnancy (or following the birth of the first child)."
Correspondence: H.-P. Blossfeld, Institut für Empirische und Angewandte Soziologie, Fachbereich 8 der Universität Bremen, Postfach 33 04 40, 28334 Bremen, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40357 Chevan, Albert. As cheaply as one: cohabitation in the older population. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 3, Aug 1996. 656-67 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines the prevalence of cohabitation [in the United States], observes trends in cohabitation between 1960 and 1990, and investigates the conditions leading older persons to cohabit. An indirect strategy is used to measure cohabitation as a result of a validation study of approaches to its measurement. The trend analysis with Public Use Microdata Samples finds 2.4% of unmarried persons age 60 and older cohabiting in 1990, up from virtually 0% in 1960. By 1990 there were 407,000 elderly cohabitors, compared with 9,600 in 1960. Cohorts with considerably higher levels of cohabitation will shortly enter old age. Variables measuring individual characteristics, economic motivations, and the social context are used to predict cohabitation."
Correspondence: A. Chevan, University of Massachusetts, Department of Sociology, Thompson Hall, Box 37525, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40358 de Graaf, A. The impact of parental divorce on the relationships of young adults. [De invloed van echtscheiding van de ouders op relaties van jongeren.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 44, No. 8, Aug 1996. 7-12 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The 1993 Netherlands Fertility and Family Survey shows that parental divorce has an impact on (the attitudes towards) relationships of young adults. Children of divorced parents leave home at an earlier age and have a stronger preference for cohabitation. Once a relationship (cohabitation or marriage) has started, it is more likely to end in separation or divorce."
Correspondence: A. de Graaf, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, Burgemeester Oudlaan 50, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40359 Fu, Haishan; Goldman, Noreen. Incorporating health into models of marriage choice: demographic and sociological perspectives. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 58, No. 3, Aug 1996. 740-58 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine how health-related characteristics and behaviors affect first marriage rates among young American adults. The results emphasize the importance of including health variables in models of marriage choice by demonstrating that persons with unhealthy behaviors (such as high levels of alcohol consumption and the use of hard drugs) and with physical characteristics that are typically associated with poorer past and future health statuses (obesity and short stature) have lower marriage rates than their healthier counterparts."
Correspondence: H. Fu, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40360 Gibson, Colin S. Dissolving wedlock. ISBN 0-415-03225-3. LC 93-7386. 1994. 246 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This book is an interdisciplinary, socio-legal study of marriage breakdown in England and Wales over the last three centuries. It is organized into three parts, which deal with the period before civil divorce or separation; marriage patterns in the twentieth century; and marriage breakdown today.
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40361 Gray, Jeffrey S. The economic impact of divorce law reform. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jun 1996. 275-96 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The role no-fault divorce plays in lowering the economic well-being of [U.S.] women remains controversial. This paper attempts to shed light on this issue by surveying the literature and presenting new evidence that also considers state laws governing the distribution of marital property at divorce. The data suggest that the economic impact of no-fault divorce is very sensitive to the type of marital property law in each state. Under certain marital property laws the adoption of no-fault divorce may even be welfare improving for married women."
Correspondence: J. S. Gray, University of Illinois, Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, 1301 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40362 Guo, Zhigang; Deng, Guosheng. A theoretical study on the marriage market: perspectives on the marriage market in the process of fertility decline in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1996. 13-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A lop-sided sex ratio tends to create a social problem known as the marriage squeeze. For a long time in its history, China has always been plagued by the phenomenon of discrepant sex ratios. However, the problem never became serious due to adjustments in husband-wife age differentials under the condition of growth in population. Along with the rapid decrease in fertility, the issue of sex ratio at birth has become a cause for concern in recent years. Considering the historical transformation in China's demographic structure, this article examines sex ratio and the marriage squeeze in both theoretical and practical terms and conducts initial analyses on their trend of development in the future."
Correspondence: Z. Guo, Chinese People's University, Population Research Institute, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40363 Hoffman, Saul D.; Duncan, Greg J. The effect of incomes, wages, and AFDC benefits on marital disruption. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 30, No. 1, Winter 1995. 19-41 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper uses a choice-based model to estimate the effects [in the United States] of a broad set of economic factors, including AFDC benefit levels, husband's earnings, and a woman's wage rate on the probability of marital dissolution. We find that the probability of divorce is lower for marriages in which the husband's labor income is higher. We also find that while AFDC income has a substantial effect on welfare receipt by a divorced woman, it has a relatively small effect on the probability that a married woman will become divorced. Finally, we find no support for the hypothesis that rising wages for women have increased marital instability."
Correspondence: S. D. Hoffman, University of Delaware, Department of Economics, Newark, DE 19716. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

62:40364 Lester, David. Trends in divorce and marriage around the world. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, Vol. 25, No. 1-2, 1996. 169-71 pp. Binghamton, New York. In Eng.
"A study of 27 [developed] nations indicated that divorce rates rose in 25 of the nations from 1950 to 1985 while marriage rates declined in 22 of the nations. Nations with higher divorce rates in 1950 had steeper increases in the divorce rate subsequently, supporting a critical-mass hypothesis."
Correspondence: Haworth Document Delivery Service, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40365 Lewis, Jane; Kiernan, Kathleen. The boundaries between marriage, nonmarriage, and parenthood: changes in behavior and policy in postwar Britain. Journal of Family History, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jul 1996. 372-87 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article suggests that there have been two major changes in the pattern of development of lone motherhood since the Second World War [in England]. First there was a widespread separation of sex and marriage. The second shift has been more recent and arguably more radical, involving the separation of marriage and parenthood. Whereas the first set of changes was regarded with considerable optimism by commentators, the second has given rise to moral panic about lone motherhood. The result, we suggest, has been a recasting of family law, putting the emphasis on the responsibilities of parenthood rather than marriage."
Correspondence: J. Lewis, University of Oxford, Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40366 Manting, Dorien. The changing meaning of cohabitation and marriage. European Sociological Review, Vol. 12, No. 1, May 1996. 53-65 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In the Netherlands, the social meaning of both marriage and cohabitation has changed. Cohabitation started as an alternative way of living, developed into a temporary phase before marriage, and finally became a strategy for moving into a union gradually....This article addresses the question whether or not individual past and current life-course experiences become increasingly important in explaining the differentiation of entry into marriage across female birth cohorts, and yet become decreasingly important in explaining the differentiation of entry into cohabitation across female birth cohorts. This question is examined using a non-proportional hazard model. Empirical evidence supports this hypothesis strongly, in that both past determinants such as family size or religion and current life-course determinants such as work or education change in their impact on cohabitation and marriage across birth cohorts."
Correspondence: D. Manting, Statistics Netherlands, Department of Population, P.O. Box 4000, 2270 JM Voorburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40367 Morocco. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Marital status in Morocco from 1960 to 1994. [Etat matrimonial au Maroc de 1960 à 1994.] Sep 1996. 60 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
Changes in marital status in Morocco from 1960 to 1994 are analyzed using data from various official sources, including censuses, the latest of which was held in 1994, and surveys. The first chapter examines the marital status of the population as a whole, including differences by sex and by place of residence. The second chapter investigates trends in nuptiality over time, listing the percentage of those unmarried by age and sex and describing trends in age at first marriage. The third and final chapter concerns widowhood and divorce.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques, Nouveau quartier administratif Haut-Agdal, B.P. 178, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40368 Morocco. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques [CERED] (Rabat, Morocco). Nuptiality conditions and their relations to migration, mortality, and fertility. [Les conditions de nuptialité et leurs rapports avec la migration, la mortalité et la fécondité.] Aug 1996. 37 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
This is an analysis of recent nuptiality trends in Morocco, with particular regard to two basic indicators of nuptiality: the number of those remaining unmarried at age 50 in a given generation, and the age at first marriage for those marrying under age 50. The impact of nuptiality trends on migration, mortality, and fertility is examined.
Correspondence: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Démographiques, Nouveau quartier administratif Haut-Agdal, B.P. 178, Rabat, Morocco. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40369 Mukiza-Gapere, Jackson; Ntozi, James P. M. Impact of AIDS on marriage patterns, customs and practices in Uganda. Health Transition Review, Vol. 5, Suppl., 1995. 201-8 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The authors report on "a study to examine household composition and family structure under the conditions of high AIDS-related mortality...in six districts in Uganda....Eleven focus group discussions for young females and eleven for young males were conducted in the six districts....The evidence from the focus-group discussions is that marriage customs and practices have changed over time because of factors related to socio-economic development, modernization and Western culture. More recently the changes in marriage have been closely connected with the AIDS epidemic in Uganda. However, many customs have persisted, such as parental participation in the introduction and negotiation for children's marriages, bride price, dowry, circumcision of boys before marriage, fining boys who elope with girls and rewarding virginity at marriage. The societies where these practices exist want them to continue because they regard them as good."
Correspondence: J. Mukiza-Gapere, Makerere University, Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40370 Rabusic, Ladislav. On marriage and family trends in the Czech Republic in the mid-1990s. [O soucasném vývoji manzelského a rodinného chování v Ceské Republice.] Demografie, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1996. 173-80 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper discusses the latest trends in marriage and family behaviour in the Czech Republic. These trends show profound changes as compared with the situation before 1989....It is claimed here that the decrease of the marriage rate and the fertility rate, and gradual increase of the age at first marriage and increase of illegitimacy rate are normal and even necessary characteristics of modern democratic societies."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40371 Ratcliffe, Barrie M. Popular classes and cohabitation in mid-nineteenth-century Paris. Journal of Family History, Vol. 21, No. 3, Jul 1996. 316-50 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article aims to show that we do not know what we believe we do about the extent and meaning of recourse to cohabitation among popular classes in Paris in the first half of the nineteenth century. Discourse on cohabitation and illegitimacy is deconstructed, revealing that analyses of popular behavior are based on problematic data and flawed methods. If cohabitation was widespread, this was because of the legal and economic constraints imposed on workers, particularly migrants, rather than a symptom of cultural breakdown or the emergence of a counterculture. The article interrogates serial data, and especially marriage records, as well as the archives of charity organizations, to argue that Parisian workers were anxious to marry, to marry in church, and to marry respectably. It suggests that we should dedramatize cohabitation and recognize that popular-class attitudes and behavior were more conformist and traditional than we have been led to think."
Correspondence: B. M. Ratcliffe, Université Laval, Cité Universitaire, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40372 Sardon, Jean-Paul. Divorce trends in France. [L'évolution du divorce en France.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 3, May-Jun 1996. 717-49 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
After discussing the historical and current data sources for divorce in France, the author examines changes in the divorce rate from 1900 to the present. Particular attention is paid to how the rate varies according to the year the marriage was begun and the duration of the marriage.
Correspondence: J.-P. Sardon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40373 Schwarz, Karl. Is getting married still up-to-date? An analysis of nuptiality trends in the old German Länder based on demographic statistics. [Ist heiraten noch zeitgemäß? Analyse der Entwicklung der Heiratshäufigkeit in den alten Bundesländern auf der Grundlage bevölkerungsstatistischer Daten.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1996. 131-43 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Based upon current age-specific marriage probabilities for singles, one can expect that about 25% of men and roughly 20% of women will still be single at age 50....The decline in frequency of marriage must be regarded as dramatic; for as recently as 25 years ago it was quite certain that--as has been the case for 200 years--only 5 to 10% of people in any given generation would remain single. The decrease in the frequency of marriage is not offset by the increase in consensual unions. Moreover, such partnerships also have children much more [rarely] than marriages. The continued strong appeal of marriage as a legal institution is surely attributable to the privileges that accrue to it, particularly with respect to family and social law. Should other forms of living arrangements also benefit from these privileges in the future, a further decline in nuptiality and fertility could be expected."
Correspondence: K. Schwarz, Klopstockstraße 14, 65187 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40374 Sinha, R. K. Marriage and marital dissolution in India: a multistate life table analysis. IIPS Research Report Series, No. 15, 1994-1995. 33, [49] pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"The present research study aims to examine...marriage and marriage dissolution in India and selected states through the multi-state increment-decrement marital status life table approach. The objective of the study is to construct a multi-state marital status life-table for India and selected states which can provide estimates for the expected durations of singlehood, married and widowhood based on the transition probabilities in [each] different marital status."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40375 Sjoquist, David L.; Walker, Mary B. The marriage tax and the rate and timing of marriage. National Tax Journal, Vol. 48, No. 4, Dec 1995. 547-58 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"The effect of the differential tax treatment of married and unmarried couples, the so-called marriage tax, on the rate and timing of [U.S.] marriages is analyzed. Using time-series data, we study the effect of the marriage tax on the fraction of unmarried women over the age of 15 years who marry in each year. We find no effect. We also investigate whether couples shift the timing of their marriage from the end of one year to the beginning of the next year in response to an increase in the marriage tax. We find empirical support for this behavior."
Correspondence: D. L. Sjoquist, Georgia State University, Policy Research Center, Atlanta, GA 30303. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:40376 Toulemon, Laurent. Cohabitation outside of marriage is here to stay. [La cohabitation hors mariage s'installe dans la durée.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 3, May-Jun 1996. 675-715 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The increase in cohabitation in France over the last 20 years is discussed, and its relationship to marriage and fertility is examined.
Correspondence: L. Toulemon, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40377 Wahab, Abdul; Ahmad, Mahmud. Biosocial perspective of consanguineous marriages in rural and urban Swat, Pakistan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jul 1996. 305-13 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Consanguineous marriages in two population samples, one rural and one urban, from Swat (Pakistan) were studied. The frequency of consanguineous marriages was found to be 37.13% and 31.11%, and mean inbreeding coefficients were calculated as 0.0168 and 0.0162, for the rural and urban populations respectively. The most frequent type of marriage was between first cousins, in both samples....Differences by ethnic and educational groups were...found. Contrary to previous studies, a significant increase in the incidence of consanguineous marriages over the years has been observed."
Correspondence: A. Wahab, Government Degree College, Matta, Swat, NWFP, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40378 Wineberg, Howard. The resolutions of separation: are marital reconciliations attempted? Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 3, Jun 1996. 297-310 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study, using 1987-88 [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households data, has examined the prevalence and characteristics of ever-separated white women who attempt a marital reconciliation. Marital reconciliations are quite common as 44% of the separated women attempt a reconciliation. There is some support for the thesis that those with the fewest resources and greatest reliance on the relationship are the most likely to attempt a reconciliation. In comparing these findings with previous research on the marital dissolution process, there is little consistency in the relationship that the sociodemographic variables have with attempting a reconciliation and with the success of an attempted reconciliation. The implications of these findings are discussed."
Correspondence: H. Wineberg, Portland State University, School of Urban and Public Affairs, Center for Population Research and Census, Portland, OR 97207-0751. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

62:40379 Akkerman, Abraham. A problem in household composition. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1996. 3-18, 67 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Distinction made between household-persons and household-markers [the person who identifies the family or household as a unit] is formalized in the notion of nested populations. This leads to an extension of the Leslie model into a formulation of growth for both population and households. The extended model involves the matrix presentation of household composition where ratios of household-persons who are age 0, per household-marker, function as surrogate values for fertility rates. The extended model describes change over time in the distribution of population by age, and in the distribution of households by age of household-marker, or household-head. The model involves the inversion of a nonnegative matrix, and is feasible only if it yields, projected over time, nonnegative entries in vectors representing distribution of population by age, and distribution of household-heads by age. Conditions for the feasibility of the extended model are discussed, and a sufficient condition for feasibility over a single interval is identified."
Correspondence: A. Akkerman, University of Saskatchewan, Department of Geography, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40380 Alter, George. The European marriage pattern as solution and problem: households of the elderly in Verviers, Belgium, 1831. History of the Family, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1996. 123-38 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The essay considers the effects of marriage patterns on the support of the elderly with empirical evidence from Verviers, a small industrial city in nineteenth-century Belgium. The (Northwest) European Marriage Pattern offered a solution for those elderly who had children, especially those with large families, because coresidence with children was the main source of support. The larger community experienced a problem...in the form of large numbers of persons who never married or reached old age with no surviving children. Moreover, while those who had married were able to maintain their economic status, those who never married liquidated their property holdings and became boarders and lodgers in the households of nonkin."
Correspondence: G. Alter, Indiana University, Department of History, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40381 Benveniste, Corinne; Soleilhavoup, Jeanine. Single-parent families. [Les familles monoparentales.] Contours et Caractères, ISBN 2-11-066167-4. Sep 1994. 144 pp. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of one-parent families in France. Such families make up about 13% of all families, putting France in an intermediate position with regard to other developed countries. Women represent 86% of parents responsible for such families. In contrast to the situation in the 1960s, when widowhood was the main cause of the formation of one-parent families, divorce is now the primary reason for their establishment. The characteristics of female-headed families are analyzed, including employment, socioeconomic status, public assistance, living conditions, and lifestyle factors. The changes in laws and social policy associated with the growth of one-parent families are also described.
Correspondence: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40382 Bideau, Alain; Brunet, Guy. Demographic systems and family patterns in historical Western Europe. History of the Family, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1996. vi, 123-226 pp. JAI Press: Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The essays in this issue were developed from papers presented at a conference [on historical demography] held at La Plagne, France, in December, 1994....The authors attempt to incorporate individual behavior into an historical perspective as well as into the behavior of groups that are not pre-defined....The articles reveal an effort to reinsert migration phenomena into the demographic analysis of earlier populations....The articles accord strong consideration to all factors that lead to `differentiation'....And...there is a reintroduction of social and economic parameters as factors in explaining observed demographic phenomena." The geographic focus is on historical Western Europe.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Jai Press, 55 Old Post Road No. 2, P.O. Box 1678, Greenwich, CT 06836-1678. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40383 Bideau, Alain; Brunet, Guy. Stay or leave? Individual choice and family logic: the destinations of children born in the Valserine Valley (French Jura) in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. History of the Family, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1996. 159-68 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"To study inheritance, it is necessary in the first place to know the number of heirs in each family, how property was divided between them, and whether their inheritance was sufficient to enable them to maintain and support several children in the parish. This study examines the process by which the populations of the parishes of Valserine Valley in France reproduce themselves from one generation to the next, by means of examining the `effective' progeny of couples to determine how many of them produce children (heirs) who continue to live in the Valley. The ultimate goal of these researches is to establish the characteristics of those who leave the Valley, and how these differ from those who choose to stay. The article examines whether it is possible to discern a family strategy in the way these decisions are made, and whether behavior of the persons in question is determined by individual choice."
Correspondence: A. Bideau, Université Lumière Lyon 2, Centre Piere Léon, 14 avenue Berthelot, 69007 Lyon, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40384 Budak, Mary-Anne E.; Liaw, Kao-Lee; Kawabe, Hiroshi. Co-residence of household heads with parents in Japan: a multivariate explanation. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jun 1996. 133-52 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This paper uses a multivariate logit model to study the factors affecting the Japanese household heads' propensities to co-reside with elderly parents, based on the micro data of a 1986 national survey. Our major findings are as follows. The most important factors are (1) inheritance of house or residential land from parent; (2) parent's spouseless status and age; (3) household head's sibling status; and (4) household head's nativity status. In a multivariate context, the negative effect of the household head's level of education was significant but not very important, whereas the presence of a working wife with child had a very weak positive effect on the co-residence with parent. Our overall conclusion is that the intergenerational co-residence in Japan is strongly affected by cultural norms and has a strong rational (economic) basis."
Correspondence: K.-L. Liaw, McMaster University, Department of Geography, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40385 Caldwell, John C. The demographic implications of West African family systems. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 27, No. 2, Summer 1996. 331-52 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author identifies a family system prevalent in Western Africa which is categorized by strong emotional and economic lineage bonds and relatively weak bonds between spouses. "Marriage is often unstable and a high proportion of children are reared by couples containing only one or none of the children's parents. Spouses typically maintain separate budgets." The implications for child health are considered. "The implications for fertility are that the families of origin of both wives and husbands--but chiefly the latter--participate in fertility control decisions. In a situation where much of the expense of rearing children falls on the mother, but where her husband usually makes the fertility control decisions and benefits most from children's assistance in later life, low levels of fertility control and high levels of fertility are almost inevitable."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Australian National University, Health Transition Centre, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40386 Campbell, Cameron; Lee, James Z. A death in the family: household structure and mortality in rural Liaoning: life-event and time-series analysis, 1792-1867. History of the Family, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1996. 297-328 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"Through a discrete-time life-event analysis of triennial household register data from a northeast Chinese village, Daoyi, between 1774 and 1873, we find that an individual's probability of dying, which we treat as an indicator of access to resources and the nature of household roles, was affected by the composition of their coresident kin....Widows and widowers had higher mortality than the currently married. Orphans had higher mortality than children with at least one parent present. Reflecting the dependence of a wife's status on whether she had produced an heir for her husband, married women in young adulthood and middle age who had at least one son had substantially lower mortality than those without. Reflecting the strength of the claim that elderly males could make on household resources, children with coresident grandfathers had higher mortality than those without. Even though sons were supposed to be a form of old-age security, however, the death rate of the elderly was not reduced by the presence of sons and grandsons."
Correspondence: C. Campbell, University of California, Department of Sociology, Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40387 Croes, M. M. Same-sex cohabitation. [Samenwoners van gelijk geslacht.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 44, No. 10, Oct 1996. 24-6 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Little is known about the number of homosexuals [in the Netherlands] in general and about homosexual couples in particular. In the so-called continuous population system information has been collected on all persons in the Netherlands who do not live in a family context. On the basis of a number of assumptions an estimated total of 21.3 thousand couples have been found who may have a homosexual relationship and who are living at the same address. Three out of five of these couples consist of males. Only 2 thousand couples, mostly females, live with one or more children. Half the number of all same-sex couples without children live in the highly urbanised municipalities. These findings correspond with studies on the prevalence of homosexuality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40388 Dankmeyer, Ben. Long run opportunity-costs of children according to education of the mother in the Netherlands. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1996. 349-61 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Children claim a large part of the parents' potential resources, particularly their time. Direct time costs arise through the time spent out of the labour force while the children are small, indirect costs are the result of lower investment into human capital. It is demonstrated in this paper that the average opportunity costs of children of lower educated mothers [in the Netherlands] can be higher than those of higher educated mothers."
Correspondence: B. Dankmeyer, University of Amsterdam, Department of Economics, Roeterstraat 11, 1018 WB Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40389 Derouet, Bernard. Nuptiality and family reproduction in male-inheritance systems: reflections on the example of the Franche-Comté (seventeenth-eighteenth centuries). History of the Family, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1996. 139-58 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The family system practiced in the rural Franche-Comté [France] until the nineteenth century was based on egalitarian inheritance among sons and on the exclusion of daughters; as such, it was associated with distinct Malthusian nuptiality. This system cannot be understood without an examination of the formation and dynamics of a type of family that included frequent stages of undivided patrimony and coresidence in a context giving little encouragement to neolocal marriage and to the independence of sons. A comparative perspective suggests certain similarities with the stem family system, despite differences in inheritance norms.... Acceptance of the common idea of a contrast between impartible and partible inheritance should be highly qualified, insofar as partibility can hide various patterns of social reproduction. Different kinds of joint family household systems must be distinguished carefully, for they have neither the same significance nor imply the same demographic patterns."
Correspondence: B. Derouet, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Centre de Recherches Historiques, 54 Boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40390 Echarri Cánovas, Carlos J. Households and families in Mexico: analyzing them through sample surveys. [Hogares y familias en México: una aproximación a su análisis mediante encuestas por muestreo.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 10, No. 2, May-Aug 1995. 245-93, 483 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This study analyzes some characteristics of Mexican households through a poorly exploited source of information: the household questionnaires of national sampling fertility surveys. First of all, we review socio-demographic literature on households and families, particularly from Latin America and Mexico. Then we analyze the meaning and determining factors of household headship....Afterwards we analyze two household characteristics: family composition--size, relationship of each member with the head, existence of complete or incomplete family nucleus--and living conditions within the dwelling--occupation density, building material, and availability of water supply and sanitation."
Correspondence: C. J. Echarri Cánovas, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40391 Fialová, Ludmila. Demography of children in the Czech Republic in the 1980s. [Demografie o detech v Ceské republice v 80. letech.] Demografie, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1996. 90-104 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes demographic trends affecting children in the Czech Republic in the 1980s. Aspects considered include parental age, employment status of mothers, divorce and remarriage, marriage patterns and living arrangements of young adults, and births outside marriage.
Correspondence: L. Fialová, 250 66 Zdiby 16, Prague východ, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40392 Garasky, Steven; Meyer, Daniel R. Reconsidering the increase in father-only families. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 3, Aug 1996. 385-93 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Previously reported estimates of rapid growth rates among father-only families [in the United States] did not account for cohabitation. An explicit treatment of cohabitation removes about half of the presumed growth. Nevertheless, we find that the number of father-only families grew at more than double the rate of mother-only families during the 1980s. Decomposition analyses show that the largest factor associated with the increase is that fathers now head a greater proportion of all formerly married single-parent families with children. Although the share of single-parent families headed by fathers is larger in 1990 than in 1980 even after controlling for cohabitation, it is smaller than in 1970."
Correspondence: S. Garasky, Iowa State University, Human Development and Family Studies, 1089 LeBaron Hall, Ames, IA 50011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40393 Gee, Ellen M.; Mitchell, Barbara A.; Wister, Andrew V. Returning to the parental "nest": exploring a changing Canadian life course. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1995. 121-44 pp. Alberta, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper, we focus on the phenomenon of young adult children returning to live at home, drawing upon a random sample of 218 returners and 202 home-leavers (non-returners) in the Greater Vancouver area in 1993-94. First, a descriptive account of returning home is provided on three dimensions: age at events (e.g., first home-leaving, first return); number of returns (single vs. multiple returns); and reasons for returning home. Age, sex, and marital status variations are also explored. Second, a proportional hazards analysis is performed on the rate of returning home, using several variables drawn from the life course perspective. The major predictors of returning home include: child's marital status, reason for leaving home, child's main activity, family type, and age at home-leaving. Theoretical implications of the results regarding families and life course transitions are discussed."
Correspondence: E. M. Gee, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40394 Gensler, Howard. The effect of welfare on the family size of single female household heads. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 1996. 77-88 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The effect of welfare on family size is estimated by means of an ordered probit analysis on single female household heads. A multiyear cross-sectional pooled data set derived from the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey over the period 1979 to 1990 is analyzed. Behavioral impacts from a range of economic variables are consistent in sign with theoretical predictions, and are of reasonable magnitudes. A $1,000 increase in the amount of welfare per child can be expected to increase family size by 6.7 percent for single female-headed households."
Correspondence: H. Gensler, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40395 Hall, Ray. Households, families and fertility. In: Europe's population: towards the next century, edited by Ray Hall and Paul White. 1995. 34-50 pp. UCL Press: London, England. In Eng.
In this chapter, the author examines changes in families and households in Europe over the past two decades and speculates on the future of the family. Topics covered include changing attitudes toward sex, changing marriage patterns, divorce, cohabitation, fertility outside marriage, fertility trends, and new forms of households. The author concludes that "it is difficult to imagine a reverse or retreat of women back into the home and therefore it is difficult to envisage higher order births ever becoming widespread again. Future changes in Europe's population will arise from changes in the structure and organization of the family and particularly how the tensions between women's various roles and the family can be resolved."
Correspondence: R. Hall, University of London, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Department of Geography, 327 Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40396 Handa, Sudhanshu. The determinants of female headship in Jamaica: results from a structural model. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 44, No. 4, Jul 1996. 793-815 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The determinants of female family headship in Jamaica are examined, with particular reference to the economic forces that lead to female headship. "The first section provides a sociological review of the Jamaican family structure, Section II outlines an economic model of household headship and considers some of its testable implications, Sections III and IV discuss the sample and present the results of the estimation procedure, and Section V concludes the discussion." The author concludes that "estimates from the structural probit model provide support for a theory that outside opportunities, or threat points, influence the household formation decision of adult women in Jamaica. An increase in the expected level of their own consumption and their children's welfare, associated with being a household head, significantly increases the probability of becoming a head."
Correspondence: S. Handa, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:40397 Hao, Lingxin. Family structure, private transfers, and the economic well-being of families with children. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 1, Sep 1996. 269-92 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This study examines the relationship between family structure, private transfers, and the economic well-being of families with children under 18 [in the United States]. We use family wealth as a measure of economic well-being....We examine family structure beyond marital status to include remarriage, cohabitation, and the gender of single parenthood. We focus on financial transfers from both kin and nonkin. After analyzing the distribution of family wealth and transfers by family structure, we estimate the effects of family structure, transfers, and their interaction on family wealth. Drawing on data from the National Survey of Families and Households (1987-88), we find that (1) family net wealth and total private transfers vary with family structure along three lines, marriage-remarriage, marriage-cohabitation, and male-female single parenthood; (2) marriage is a wealth-enhancing institution; (3) private transfers promote family net wealth; and (4) marriage reinforces the promoting effect of private transfers on family wealth."
Correspondence: L. Hao, University of Iowa, Department of Sociology, W140 Seashore Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40398 Hoffmann-Nowotny, Hans-Joachim. Partnership--marriage--family. Views and insights. [Partnerschaft--Ehe--Familie. Ansichten und Einsichten.] Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1996. 111-30 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The remarks in the first section of the article are intended to establish a certain `clarity' with respect to the results of research currently available regarding [partnership, marriage, and the family]. This is to be accomplished by presenting the results of a content analysis conducted for three German and one American scholarly journals during the period 1991 to 1995 [and by theoretical and methodological critiques]. The second section contains an examination of an especially `ambiguous' object of research in family sociology, namely the de-institutionalisation of forms of social relationships. The author also examines this topic critically in an attempt both to offer explanations and to establish `new clarity'."
Correspondence: H.-J. Hoffmann-Nowotny, Universität Zürich, Soziologisches Institut, Rämistrasse 69, 8001 Zurich, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40399 Horský, Jan. A study on historical family formation from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. [Studium historického utvárení rodiny v 16. az 18. století.] Demografie, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1996. 165-72 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses family formation and characteristics in Bohemia from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. Aspects considered include living arrangements, family status by age, marriage age, and ethnicity.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40400 Kuijsten, Anton C. Changing family patterns in Europe: a case of divergence? European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1996. 115-43 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Over the past decades, European countries have witnessed rather uniform trends in basic demographic indicators of fertility and of family formation and dissolution....Quite contrary to the ideas of the general public and the expectations of some experts, whatever the degree of convergence that is really there, the effect has not been a trend towards convergence of household and, especially, family patterns. Pluralization of household and family patterns can indeed be observed everywhere, but in each case this pluralization has another face, as it is influenced by cultural and policy differences. This will be demonstrated with the help of a presentation of preliminary results of an international comparative research project in ten European countries that was recently carried out."
Correspondence: A. C. Kuijsten, University of Amsterdam, Department of Planning and Demography, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40401 Lauterbach, Wolfgang. Family generations in modern societies or: generational rhythm. [Familiengenerationen in modernen Gesellschaften oder: der Rhythmus der Generationen.] Gesellschaft und Familie Arbeitspapier, No. 17, Aug 1995. [vii], 39 pp. Universität Konstanz, Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät: Konstanz, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The author describes a research project that has as its objective "the empirical analysis of the effects of demographic processes, historical events and social welfare state regulations on intergenerational family structures, transfer processes, options and restrictions." The focus is on Germany. Some results concerning three-generation family structures involving grandchildren and grandparents are discussed.
Correspondence: Universität Konstanz, Sozialwissenschaftliche Fakultät, FG Soziologie, Postfach 5560 D33, 78434 Konstanz, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40402 Lee, Gary R. Economies and families: a further investigation of the curvilinear hypothesis. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 27, No. 2, Summer 1996. 353-72 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The relationship between the complexity of a given society and family complexity is reexamined in the light of previous studies. Data are from an ethnographic atlas published in 1967. Treating family and marital structure as separate dimensions, the author concludes that "several components of societal complexity predict the occurrence of frequent polygyny much more effectively than they predict variation in family structure."
Correspondence: G. R. Lee, University of Florida, Department of Sociology, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40403 Mason, Andrew. Population, housing, and the economy. In: The impact of population growth on well-being in developing countries, edited by Dennis A. Ahlburg, Allen C. Kelley, and Karen O. Mason. 1996. 175-218 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
The author examines the interrelations among population growth, housing, and the economy in Asia. "The first section focuses on household demography, i.e., how slowing population growth is affecting the number and demographic characteristics of households in Asia....The second section is concerned with the relationship between population growth and the quality and price of housing....The third section of the report reviews evidence regarding the...hypothesis...that rapid population growth slows economic development by diverting investment to the housing sector and away from more `growth oriented' uses."
Correspondence: A. Mason, East-West Center, Program on Population, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40404 McDonald, Peter. Families in Australia: a socio-demographic perspective. ISBN 0-642-22426-9. 1995. 65 pp. Australian Institute of Family Studies: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"This book examines the changes that have been occurring in family life in Australia over the past 30 years from a social and demographic perspective. Future directions for the family in Australia are also discussed." Topics covered include defining families, cultural differences, families beyond the household, households, leaving the parental home, marriage patterns, families and the labor force, having children, divorce and remarriage, aging, and the future of the family.
Correspondence: Australian Institute of Family Studies, 300 Queen Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40405 Mukiza-Gapere, Jackson; Ntozi, James P. M. Impact of AIDS on the family and mortality in Uganda. Health Transition Review, Vol. 5, Suppl., 1995. 191-200 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper reports the findings of a study on the impact of AIDS on the family and mortality covering six districts in...Uganda....The information collected in the elders' survey covered household composition, mortality, morbidity and their causes, impact of AIDS on the family, general health status of the community and migration....This survey shows that a new structure is emerging for households in Uganda. Households are headed by widows, widowers, single women and even children under 18 years of age as well as orphans. Widows are heading the households because the old practice of widow inheritance by brothers-in-law is disappearing since they fear contracting HIV from the widow. Widowers are also finding it difficult to get remarried because women are afraid of being infected by them."
Correspondence: J. Mukiza-Gapere, Makerere University, Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40406 Pathak, K. B.; Pandey, Arvind; Shajy, K. I. A study of the implications of changes in family dynamics in India: 1971-1988. IIPS Research Report Series, No. 16, 1994-1995. 33 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Mumbai, India. In Eng.
"This research has examined the implications of demographic transition (fertility and mortality changes) on kinship relationships in India during 1971-1988. Three simulations based on the schedules of fertility and mortality of India during 1971, 1981, and 1988 have been undertaken...."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40407 Quesnel, André; Vimard, Patrice. Family reconstitutions and agrarian changes. Case studies from Africa and Mexico. [Recompositions familiales et transformations agraires. Une lecture de cas africains et mexicain.] ETS Documents de Recherche, No. 1, Jun 1996. 23 pp. Equipe de Recherche Transition de la Fécondité et Santé de la Reproduction [ETS]: Marseilles, France; Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération [ORSTOM]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper investigates the question of agricultural, family and demographic innovations in the context of agrarian evolution in developing countries. This analysis uses case studies from rural societies in Togo, Côte-d'Ivoire and Yucatán (Mexico) to illustrate the limitations of Boserup and Chayanov's models. It shows that changes in family and demographic cycles and systems follow agrarian evolution and population growth resulting from market integration. This is the reason why agricultural innovation cannot proceed directly from demographic pressure and remains dependant on organisational transformations of the family and production units. Innovation, which is a source of change in farming systems in which women and the youth play an increasing role, is thus primarily a social phenomenon and cancels most often the constraints that could have led to technical progress."
Correspondence: Equipe de Recherche Transition de la Fécondité et Santé de la Reproduction, ORSTOM/LPE, Case 10, Centre St. Charles, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseilles Cedex 3, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40408 Roloff, Juliane. Family formation and the desire for children in Germany: family income, child costs, and their influence on reproductive behavior decisions. [Familienbildung und Kinderwunsch in Deutschland: Familieneinkommen, Kinderkosten und deren Einfluß auf generative Verhaltensentscheidungen.] Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft, No. 82d, 1996. 122 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
Data from the 1992 Fertility and Family Survey in Germany are used to examine family income, the cost of living, and the cost of children. The relationship among family income, the subjective perception of the family's financial situation, and the desire for children is then analyzed. A final section deals with the relationship between income and the acceptance of family policy measures, and with the impact of family policy measures on reproductive decisions. Comparisons are made between the former East and West Germany.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40409 Sasai, Tsukasa. Trends and determinants of household structure in China. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 51, No. 3, Oct 1995. 20-35 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Changes in household structure in China are analyzed. The focus is on the period 1953-1991.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40410 Schlesinger, Benjamin. Lone-parent families in cross-cultural perspectives: ethnic and immigration issues. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 1996. 89-105 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"One-parent families represent about 10-20 percent of all families in Europe, North America, New Zealand and Australia. About 90 percent are headed by women, who have become heads of households mainly due to divorce, separation, and never-married status. The presentation will review existing research and data related to cross-cultural one-parent families. The topics covered include routes to lone parenthood, characteristics common among female-headed families, positive and negative aspects of this type of family, up-to-date statistics, and a discussion of children living in one-parent families. Implications for immigration and ethnicity issues will be included...as well as research implications and intervention strategies for the one-parent family."
Correspondence: B. Schlesinger, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M52 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40411 Zhao, Zhongwei. The demographic transition in Victorian England and changes in English kinship networks. Continuity and Change, Vol. 11, No. 2, Aug 1996. 243-72 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Starting with a brief examination of the rapid demographic changes--particularly in mortality and fertility--which took place in England during the Victorian period and the radically different demographic experiences of the 1851-1855 and 1901-1905 birth cohorts, this study focuses on the impact of these changing demographic conditions upon English kinship networks and family support systems. Changes in kinship patterns over the life course have been examined at the level of individuals by using a computer microsimulation system, CAMSIM. The simulation exercise makes it possible to see the effects of fertility and mortality transition upon the number and types of kin who were alive and present, and thus potentially available for family-based support, for each simulated individual."
Correspondence: Z. Zhao, University of New South Wales, School of Sociology, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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