Volume 62 - Number 4 - Winter 1996

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

62:40057 Borgegård, Lars-Erik; Håkansson, Johan; Malmberg, Gunnar. Population redistribution in Sweden--long term trends and contemporary tendencies. Geografiska Annaler, Series B: Human Geography, Vol. 77, No. 1, 1995. 31-45 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Eng.
Long-term trends in the spatial distribution of the population of Sweden are analyzed in this study. "Two geographical levels, the national and the local, are analysed in a long term perspective, [from] 1750 until 1990. The measure of concentration used is the Hoover-index on [the] county level. Some major determinants affecting population distribution are stressed; demographic components, economic geographic conditions, socio-economic structure, attitudes and population policy. During the last few decades the traditional trend of population has been broken and one finding is that concentration and dispersion is going on simultaneously on the national and the local level."
Correspondence: L.-E. Borgegård, Umeå University, Department of Geography, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:40058 Dorling, Daniel; Atkins, David. Population density, change and concentration in Great Britain 1971, 1981 and 1991. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, No. 58, ISBN 0-11-691628-1. 1995. vi, 61 pp. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS]: London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to describe how the local areas in which people live in Britain have changed over the last two decades in the most simple way--through their population density. This has been done for a number of reasons. Firstly, basic changes in the distribution of the population are of interest to researchers ranging from those who study the spread of diseases to those who speculate about future property prices. Secondly, this study provides a simple illustration of how characteristics of the population can be compared over time and across many small areas in Britain using new mapping and statistical techniques. Thirdly, the study introduces a derived dataset which makes local change over time analysis possible by combining data from the 1971, 1981 and 1991 Censuses of Population for the same large set of small areas."
Correspondence: Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherine's House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography Library, Madison, WI.

62:40059 Gatzweiler, Hans-Peter. Settlement trends and settlement policies in Germany: Germany's national report to the Habitat II conference. [Siedlungsentwicklung und Siedlungspolitik in Deutschland: Nationalbericht Deutschland zur Konferenz Habitat II.] Raumforschung und Raumordnung, Vol. 54, No. 2-3, Mar-Jun 1996. 129-36 pp. Bonn, Germany. In Ger.
This is a summary of the national report created by the German government's research institute for spatial development to be presented to the United Nation's Habitat II conference in May-June 1996. The report was passed to the Bundestag for ratification on January 24, 1996. It describes current settlement trends in Germany and outlines the policies followed to improve permanently the living standards and environmental conditions of the population. The issues addressed primarily concern environmentally sustainable and socially responsible urban and suburban development.
Correspondence: H.-P. Gatzweiler, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landeskunde und Raumordnung, Am Michaelshof 8, 53177 Bonn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

62:40060 Chavez Galindo, Ana M.; Savenberg, Sandra. Central Mexico: from suburbanization toward megalopolization. [Le centre du Méxique: de la suburbanisation vers la mégalopolisation.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 3, May-Jun 1996. 756-66 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors describe the changes in migration affecting the Mexico City urban area and the surrounding states, and study the relationship between these changes and the urban development of the country. They conclude that from 1980 to 1990, migration patterns shifted significantly. Previously, the net flow had been toward the core of the urban area; now the flow has reversed itself, and more people are moving away from the center to the wider periphery. As a result, the towns and cities of the greater Mexico City area are experiencing growth.
Correspondence: A. M. Chavez Galindo, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Del. Coyoacán, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40061 Fargues, Philippe. The urbanization of the Arab world: the demographic aspect. [L'urbanisation du monde arabe: un éclairage démographique.] Egypte/Monde Arabe, No. 22, Apr-Jun 1995. 43-62 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author explores the reasons why demographers in recent years have paid less attention than previously to questions concerning urbanization, its causes, and consequences. Using the example of urbanization in the Arab countries, the author suggests that demographers have a more useful contribution to make to the study of urbanization at the regional level than at the global level. Particular attention is given to the example of the Egyptian capital, Cairo.
Correspondence: P. Fargues, Centre d'Etudes et de Documentation Juridique, Economique et Sociale, P.O. Box 494, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

62:40062 Gugler, Josef. The urban transformation of the developing world. ISBN 0-19-874158-8. LC 95-34814. 1996. xviii, 327 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of eight studies by various authors on aspects of urbanization in developing countries. The general approach is interdisciplinary. It is suggested that "the urban transformation of the globe may come to be seen as the lasting legacy of the twentieth century. Already close to half the world's population lives in urban settlements....More than one and a half billion people live in the cities of the South. Within little more than a generation their number will triple." The first essay examines regional differences in urbanization among the developing regions. The next five examine urbanization in Asia as a whole, and in China, India, Indonesia, and the Arab world in particular. The last two chapters look at Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40063 Hammel, Daniel J.; Wyly, Elvin K. A model for identifying gentrified areas with census data. Urban Geography, Vol. 17, No. 3, Apr-May 1996. 248-68 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
This study concerns the identification of areas in U.S. cities undergoing gentrification. The authors "develop a model relating tract-level census statistics to the results of a detailed field survey of 24 census tracts in Minneapolis-St. Paul. We use stepwise and canonical discriminant analysis to select nine variables distinguishing gentrified neighborhoods and to classify all central-city tracts for each decade between 1960 and 1990. Results indicate a moderate level of overall accuracy, and the model is more than 90% accurate in distinguishing areas of heavy reinvestment from stable, middle-class districts."
Correspondence: D. J. Hammel, Illinois State University, Department of Geography and Geology, Normal, IL 61790-4400. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40064 Keyfitz, Nathan. Internal migration and urbanization. In: Resources and population: natural, institutional, and demographic dimensions of development, edited by Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max F. Perutz. 1996. 269-85 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a general review of contemporary trends in rural-urban migration and urbanization in developing countries. The author examines the reasons for and consequences of the rapid growth of cities in the developing world. Some possible solutions to the resulting problems of overurbanization are presented.
Correspondence: N. Keyfitz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Population Program, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40065 Nucci, Alfred; Long, Larry. Spatial and demographic dynamics of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan territory in the United States. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec 1995. 165-81 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Population in [U.S.] nonmetropolitan territory is growing more slowly in the 1990s than the total population of metropolitan areas, but several features of the nonmetropolitan `turnaround' of the 1970s have returned. Our study starts with metropolitan areas as bounded in 1963, and analyses subsequent population change in these areas and in counties added to their expanding fringe by 1973, 1983, and 1993; then we added in new metropolitan areas recognised as of these dates, and subsequent addition of counties to their fringes. For these territorial aggregates we analyse natural increase, net migration, and change in the native and foreign-born populations....[The results reveal] that the rise between 1960 and 1994 in the percentage of Americans who live in metropolitan areas can be attributed entirely to territory reclassified during this period to the metropolitan sector from the nonmetropolitan sector."
Correspondence: L. Long, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40066 Polèse, Mario; Wolfe, Jeanne M.; Lefebvre, Sylvain. Urbanization in developing countries. [L'urbanisation des pays en développement.] ISBN 2-7178-2875-3. 1995. 529 pp. Economica: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a collection of 16 papers by 38 authors associated with the Groupe Interuniversitaire de Montréal Villes et Développement, which represents an interdisciplinary approach to the study of urbanization in developing countries. The papers are grouped into four categories: understanding the urbanization process from economic and demographic perspectives through analytical techniques and models; strategies of adaptation to urban conditions, including problems of housing, acculturation, and the provision of services; problems of urban government and administration; and managing urbanization in the context of development.
Correspondence: Economica, 49 rue Héricart, 75015 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40067 Roseman, Curtis C.; Laux, Hans D.; Thieme, Günter. EthniCity: geographic perspectives on ethnic change in modern cities. ISBN 0-8476-8032-0. LC 95-30780. 1996. xxviii, 309 pp. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, Maryland/London, England. In Eng.
This book presents a selection of 13 studies by various authors on aspects of migration flows from developing countries to urban areas in developed countries. These migration flows have resulted in urban populations of considerable ethnic diversity, here called EthniCities. "This book focuses on geographical processes and concomitant socioeconomic and political issues associated with ethnic diversity in a variety of urban areas in eleven countries. Although varying in size, complexity, and historical background, each of these urban areas contains ethnic diversity that is of crucial importance to fundamental issues facing their respective societies. In some cases the population size and residential spatial distribution of some or all ethnic groups have been relatively stable; in many other cases these dimensions have changed very rapidly in the last few years."
Correspondence: Rowman and Littlefield, 4720 Boston Way, Lanham, MD 20706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40068 Rowland, Richard H. Russia's disappearing towns: new evidence of urban decline, 1979-1994. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, Vol. 37, No. 2, Feb 1996. 63-87 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
"A specialist on the urban geography of Russia and the USSR presents findings from important new sources of data that shed additional light on the phenomenon of urban population decline. The analysis focuses on regional patterns of urban decline in the late Soviet period through 1994, and investigates the functional characteristics of towns and cities that are experiencing population decline or even disappearing altogether. Complementing earlier work on the subject by the author, the present research extends the analysis to include all officially designated urban places in Russia."
Correspondence: R. H. Rowland, California State University, Department of Geography, 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA 92407-2397. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:40069 Yin, Wenyao. A comparative study on the structure of population size at the provincial level in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1996. 23-39 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents a detailed analysis of the characteristics and typologies of the distribution of population rankings and population sequences at the provincial level in China. It closely examines the gaps between population size structures and their changes in cities under various provinces. The purpose of this paper is to discover the internal linkage between city population size structure and the pace of economic development and urbanization. Findings...confirm the fact that priority development for high-ranking cities and multi-scale coordination are the two aspects which, as a unity of opposites in urban population systems, produce a joint effect on the level of economic development and the pace of urbanization."
Correspondence: W. Yin, Hangzhou University, Population and Development Research Institute, 34 Tian Mu Shan Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:40070 Zhu, Junming. An analysis of the social space structure of population in the Shanghai municipality. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1996. 87-102 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data used in this article come from three sources: the third and fourth population censuses in Shanghai, the residential housing survey, and the aerial, remote sensing survey of land utility. Using principal components and clustering analysis techniques, this article analyzes the social space structure of population in the Shanghai city proper. Findings suggest that the key factors leading to the formation of the social space structure divided among Shanghai's population are primarily reflected in the six composite social variables of population: educational structure, degree of population density, gender and occupational structure, immigrant population, living conditions, and marital status."
Correspondence: J. Zhu, Beijing University, Population Research Institute, Hai Dian, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

62:40071 Smailes, Peter J. Demographic response to rural restructuring and counterurbanisation in South Australia, 1981-1991. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 2, No. 3, Sep 1996. 261-87 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Using South Australia as a case study, this paper seeks to trace and demonstrate two processes (counterurbanisation and rural restructuring) whose effects overlap to differentiate and characterise the population geography of...two zones, separated by a transition along the outer fringe of Adelaide's urban field....In the demographic core zone [rural restructuring] has been partly offset by continued counterurbanisation, resulting in demographic mixing and rural dilution. The 1981-91 population growth in rural communities is shown to be more a function of population density at the outset of the period than of initial population size. Demographic growth...is shown to conform to a simple unidimensional scale, allowing the production of a clear, easily interpretable typology of rural demographic change with few non-conforming statistical areas. At a local level within individual rural communities, demographic decline is shown to be accompanied by increased concentration of the population into small towns, while demographic growth is associated with deconcentration."
Correspondence: P. J. Smailes, University of Adelaide, Department of Geography, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

Copyright © 1996-1997, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.