Volume 62 - Number 3 - Fall 1996

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

62:30714 Avramov, Dragana. Solidarity as a component of population policy. [Solidarnost kao cinilac populacione politike.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 33, No. 1-4, Jan-Dec 1995. 21-39 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The author analyses results of the Population Policy Acceptance Survey undertaken in nine European countries and relevant results from multidisciplinary research on altruism and institutional solidarity. She addresses the issue of personal wellbeing and cooperation in a modern society through three questions: what is the level of expectation towards the state, what is the responsibility of the Government for the delivery of services and to what extent are citizens willing to share the costs of family friendly policies. Findings indicate that...integrated social policy with a strong welfare component could result in a fertility increase. However, the explicit formulation of pro-fertility goals would not be well received."
Correspondence: D. Avramov, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30715 Dordevic, Dejan. Population in physical planning: spatial organization and public participation. [Stanovnistvo u prostornom planiranju: teritorijalna organizacija i ucesce javnosti.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 33, No. 1-4, Jan-Dec 1995. 119-34 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"Population studies not only provide the means for scaling total space needs for selected land use categories at different periods of time in the future, but also give an indication as to how these total space needs should be allocated to different parts of the planning area at any particular time. On the other hand, public participation implies legal entitlement and represents a right of all citizens to be involved in the political decision-making process. In theory, this requires public discussion of goals and alternative courses of action but, in practice, participation varies from voting for politicians at elections in a representative democracy to full citizen control."
Correspondence: D. Dordevic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Geografski Fakultet PMF, Studentski trg 1, 11001 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30716 Guest, Philip; Jones, Gavin W. Policy options when population growth slows: the case of Thailand. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 2, Apr 1996. 109-30 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Thailand reached replacement-level fertility almost a decade ago, although there has been a lag in measuring and recognising the implications of this benchmark event. Fertility could well sink still lower....Population policy in Thailand since 1970 has had two major planks: to reduce fertility through an active family planning program, and to distribute population away from the large primate city of Bangkok. The paper discusses whether these policies may need to be modified as a result of the major demographic and socio-economic changes that have been taking place. It also discusses the limits to population policy in terms of the likely efficacy of various measures that could be adopted, based on both an assessment of the Thailand situation and the experience of other low-fertility countries."
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, Demography Programme, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30717 Haberkorn, Gerald. Prioritising priorities: Pacific Island population developments and their implications for public policy. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 21, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1995. 1-26 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"The paper describes the current state of population policy [in the Pacific Islands], and discusses national perceptions of priorities relative to the Cairo Plan of Action. A review of country documents and ministerial speeches prepared for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo last year shows that the widespread absence of population policies does not equate with a lack of concern about population and development issues. To the contrary, Pacific Island countries are quite clear about their immediate priorities, which are not always synonymous with the policy agendas of some of their development partners."
Correspondence: G. Haberkorn, South Pacific Commission, Population Programme, B.P. D5, 98848 Noumea Cedex, New Caledonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30718 Leoprapai, Boonlert. An optimum population for Thailand. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1-2, Jul-Jan 1993-1994. 85-122, 129 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Tha. with sum. in Eng.
"In Thailand to date, the systematic analysis to determining an appropriate size of the population using economic, social, political and cultural criteria has not been attempted, let alone conducting a research on an optimum population. What have been made to date are analyses indicating that the rate of population growth at certain [periods] tends to be too low or too high...thus leading to the policy to increase or reduce the rate of population growth. Difficulties in determining an optimum population [are] due to the dynamic nature of population development and the fact that all other factors affecting the welfare of population are always changing, [thus] it is not cost effective to conduct research for determining an optimum population for the purpose of policy formulation."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30719 Pôldma, Asta. Social and population-related policy in Estonia 1991-1994. Rahvastiku-Uuringud/Population Studies Series B, No. 26, 1995. 39 pp. Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre: Tallinn, Estonia. In Eng.
"The present paper concentrates on changes in [marriage] and family, childcare, family planning and abortion, taxation and housing policies. All these spheres are examined from the viewpoint of the demographic development of the Estonian population. It mostly concentrates on the aspects of the relevant policies seen from the international viewpoint."
Correspondence: Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 0090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30720 Pugh, Cedric. Urbanization in developing countries: an overview of the economic and policy issues in the 1990s. Cities, Vol. 12, No. 6, Dec 1995. 381-98 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Urban policy development for developing countries is increasingly significant within overall economic and social development policies. For example, the World Bank's post-1988 strategic policy reviews in urban and housing policies mark a `quantum leap' in approach and aims compared with the project by project activities in the 1972 to 1983 period. Accordingly, it is appropriate to provide exposition, explanation, and evaluation of the changes in process and in prospect. These are the purposes of this article."
Correspondence: C. Pugh, Sheffield Hallam University, School of Urban and Regional Studies, Pond Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:30721 Söderström, Lars; Meisaari-Polsa, Tuija. Swedish family policy: economic aspects. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 178-99 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on Swedish family policy. For the most part we confine ourselves to consider laws and regulations providing for economic measures in favor of the family....It is fair to say...that Swedish family policy has been reasonably successful in terms of the merits claimed for this policy. This policy has been assigned three objectives: first, to promote equality between men and women; second, to avoid that unwanted babies are being born; and third, to make sure that all children enjoy a reasonable level of well-being with respect to housing, nutrition, schooling etc. We...briefly comment on each of these objectives."
Correspondence: L. Söderström, Göteborg University, School of Economics and Commercial Law, Department of Economics, Vasaparken, 411 24 Gothenburg, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30722 Stoto, Michael A. Setting objectives for preventable mortality and promoting healthful behaviours: experience from the United States. In: Adult mortality in developed countries: from description to explanation, edited by Alan D. Lopez, Graziella Caselli, and Tapani Valkonen. 1995. 327-46 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"On 6 September 1990 the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) unveiled Healthy People 2000: National Objectives for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention....This chapter draws on the experience of Healthy People 2000 to analyse how mortality data and analyses have been used to guide health policy in the United States. The first part of the chapter describes and analyses the U.S. experience with quantitative national health objectives, including the history leading up to Healthy People 2000, the intended use of these objectives, and their strengths and weaknesses. The chapter also considers two other issues raised in the development of Healthy People 2000: the development of comprehensive health status measures and the concept of preventable mortality."
Correspondence: M. A. Stoto, National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

62:30723 Cosio-Zavala, Maria-Eugenia. Fertility change and population policy in Mexico. [Changements de fécondité au Méxique et politiques de population.] Recherches et Documents Amériques Latines, ISBN 2-7384-2669-7. 1994. 256 pp. L'Harmattan: Paris, France; Institut des Hautes Etudes de l'Amérique Latine: Paris, France. In Fre.
This study examines the relationship between the demographic transition that has occurred in Mexico in recent years and the country's population policies. It also examines the demographic impact of the adoption of modern methods of contraception, the programs of the Social Security Institute and the National Population Council, and the country's policy of population redistribution. In Part 1, the author describes fertility trends from 1895 to 1981, and the decline in fertility after 1970. In Part 2, she specifies how the country's population policy was developed centrally, and then regionalized after 1982. The author concludes that, although there has been a dramatic decline in fertility, the population will continue to grow in the near future. The author predicts that this growth will be due to a built-in demographic inertia; she estimates that the size of the population will probably double again before stability can be achieved. The solutions to Mexico's problems must therefore be found in the area of solving social and economic development problems, not in the area of population policy.
Correspondence: L'Harmattan, 5-7 rue de l'Ecole Polytechnique, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30724 Gauthier, Anne H. The measured and unmeasured effects of welfare benefits on families: implications for Europe's demographic trends. In: Europe's population in the 1990s, edited by David Coleman. 1996. 297-331 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The chapter has two objectives: (a) to review the assumptions which underlie the theoretical relationship between welfare benefits and demographic behaviour, and (b) to examine the empirical studies which have addressed this question [in Europe]. In particular, a large part of the chapter will be devoted to a discussion of the methodological and substantive limitations of studies on the effects of welfare benefits....More precisely, I will argue that empirical analyses carried out so far have failed to acknowledge the heterogeneity among the population in terms of entitlement to, and actual receipt of, welfare benefits." The emphasis is on the effects of such benefits on fertility, female employment, and family structure.
Correspondence: A. H. Gauthier, University of Oxford, Department of Applied Social Studies and Social Research, Barnett House, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2ER, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30725 Heymann, Jody. Labor policy: its influence on women's reproductive lives. In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 43-57 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Social constraints which prevent women from being able to bear and rear children, and degrade the quality of women's lives if they do, need to be examined as carefully as those which prevent women from limiting their own childbearing. While some government programs were debated publicly prior to enactment, in many instances, the choice to bear and rear children has been limited inadvertently or in the absence of public consensus. This is the case for conditions under which women are employed. These conditions will be explored in detail in this chapter; the United States will be used as a case study."
Correspondence: J. Heymann, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30726 Johansson, Annika; Hoa, Hoang Thi; Lap, Nguyen The; Diwan, Vinod; Eriksson, Bo. Population policies and reproductive patterns in Vietnam. Lancet, Vol. 347, No. 9014, Jun 1, 1996. 1,529-32 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this study was to analyse fertility and abortion rates and the timing of marriages and births among women [in Viet Nam] born between 1945 and 1970, and to see to what extent recent government policies were reflected in women's reproductive patterns." The data are from "reproductive histories...recorded in a random sample of 1,432 married women aged 15-49 in a rural province in northern Vietnam....Later-born women married and had their first child at a younger age than women born earlier. Birth intervals had increased among later-born women but 25% still had only a 1-year interval between first and second child. Fertility had gradually decreased while abortion ratios had increased rapidly. Childbearing patterns had become `earlier, longer, and fewer' rather than `later, longer, and fewer' as stipulated by the policies. The results also show that women with more schooling married and had their first child later. Women involved in farming had shorter spacing between children."
Correspondence: A. Johansson, Karolinska Institutet, Unit of International Health Care Research, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

62:30727 Johnson, Kay. The politics of the revival of infant abandonment in China, with special reference to Hunan. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 77-98, 202, 204 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Drawing primarily on investigative reports from Hunan civil affairs departments, this article discusses the growing problem of female infant abandonment in the late 1980s and the relationship between this phenomenon and China's population-control efforts. The article also discusses the direct and indirect complicity of local cadres in mishandling this problem, the bureaucratic conflicts and obstacles confronted in providing care and finding adoptive homes for abandoned children, and central government efforts since 1993 to improve conditions in orphanages. Finally, it explores the possible contribution of abandonment to the phenomenon of the `missing girls'."
Correspondence: K. Johnson, Hampshire College, School of Social Science, Amherst, MA 01002. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30728 Kaseta, Suzanne. The ethics of population policy: emphasizing female sterilization in the third world. Einstein Quarterly Journal of Biology and Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1994. 15-20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"It is widely recognized that the rapid population growth rate in the Third World is a major social and economic problem. Attempts have been made to reduce this rapid growth rate through national family planning programs. The policies employed by these family planning programs, especially those concerning female sterilization, need to be examined to determine whether they are ethically acceptable. An ethical analysis of these family planning policies raises awareness of not only the population problem, but of the potential that exists for violating human rights when attempts are made to reduce population growth. This analysis also points out the need that exists in the Third World to create family planning programs that protect basic human rights."
Correspondence: S. Kaseta, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461. Location: University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA.

62:30729 Mumford, Stephen D. NSSM 200 and the world population explosion. Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 1995. 35-63 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This paper was published in the wake of Pope John Paul II's encyclical Evangelicum Vitae, which condemns abortion and contraception. The author describes how, in the mid-1970's, the Vatican blocked the implementation of President Nixon's National Security Study Memorandum 200, which was intended to combat global overpopulation. The author explains that excessive population growth is considered threatening to U.S. security interests, and concludes that "papal security-survival along with the influence of fundamentalist Protestant opposition to birth control is now pitted against the U.S. and world security-survival."
For a book by this author on the same subject, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: S. D. Mumford, Center for Research on Population and Security, P.O. Box 13067, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

62:30730 Mumford, Stephen D. The life and death of NSSM 200: how the destruction of political will doomed a U.S. population policy. ISBN 0-937307-02-5. 1994. 384 pp. Center for Research on Population and Security: Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. In Eng.
This book describes the National Security Study Memorandum 200, an interagency study requested by President Nixon in the early 1970s on the implications of worldwide population growth for U.S. security and overseas interests. The study focused on the negative aspects of global population growth. The author describes how opposition by the Roman Catholic Church to the conclusions of the study resulted in the report's suppression. According to the author, the long-term consequence of the Church's opposition to NSSM 200 was the U.S. government's retreat from an activist policy in the area of population after 1975. The book describes the contents of both the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future and NSSM 200 and how their respective recommendations were subsequently ignored. The author accuses the Vatican of having interfered in the American democratic process and suggests that the Vatican's efforts to preserve the doctrine of papal infallibility have had a negative impact on the ability of the United States to help manage problems caused by global population growth.
Correspondence: Center for Research on Population and Security, P.O. Box 13067, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30731 Peil, Iris. Acceptance of family policy measures in the Federal Republic of Germany--an East-West comparison. [Akzeptanz Familienpolitischer Maßnahmen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland--ein Ost-West Vergleich.] Materialien zur Bevölkerungswissenschaft, No. 85, 1996. [xii], 121 pp. Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger.
The acceptance of family policy measures in Germany is analyzed using data from the 1992 European Comparative Survey on Population Policy Acceptance. The German round of the survey covered a sample of 10,000 persons. Special emphasis is given to differences between the former East and West Germany. The demographic and policy background is first reviewed. Hypotheses concerning attitudes toward family policy are then outlined and tested against the survey data.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, 65180 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30732 Petrovic, Mina. Policy toward fertility: the Hungarian experience. [Politika prema fertilitetu: iskustvo Madarske.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 33, No. 1-4, Jan-Dec 1995. 55-69 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The article gives a detailed survey of measures which represented the backbone of [Hungary's] policy towards fertility: financial assistance, tax cuts, paid leave, child care and family planning. The analysis of the impact of measures applied shows notable fluctuations in total fertility rate, i.e., their time effect. The analysis of cohort fertility, however, shows that the positive effects of the measures applied can not be related to the timing of actual birth only. [Thus], discontinuation of the decline in completed fertility can be observed from the second half of the 1980s onward when fertility of women aged 45-49 stabilized at 1.85-1.90."
Correspondence: M. Petrovic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30733 Rasevic, Mirjana. Population policy acceptance among women who decided to terminate pregnancy. [Prihvatanje populacione politike na individualnom nivou: zene koje namerno prekidaju trudnocu.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 33, No. 1-4, Jan-Dec 1995. 41-54 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper represents a contribution to the analysis of the acceptance of population policy in the low-fertility zone of Serbia. The data analyzed were collected by means of a sample survey of...201 women under 40 selected from the Belgrade subpopulation who decided to terminate their pregnancies....The survey has shown that more or less all women, regardless of age, marital status, education, occupation or other social, psychological or cultural characteristics, resort to termination of pregnancy. Moreover, half of those who book a termination are either childless or have one child only though the survey has shown that the ideal average number of children is 2.70."
Correspondence: M. Rasevic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Narodnog Fronta 45, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30734 Ravenholt, R. T. A commentary on the book by Stephen Mumford. Population and Environment, Vol. 17, No. 4, Mar 1996. 343-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author, who was the director of USAID's Office of Population from 1966 to 1979, reviews the recent National Security Study Memorandum 200. He describes how the activist U.S. policy to control population growth in developing countries, created during the 1960s and early 1970s under his own leadership, was curtailed through the active opposition of the Vatican.
For the book by Mumford, published in 1994, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: R. T. Ravenholt, Population Health Imperatives, P.O. Box 85120, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30735 Renne, Elisha P. Perceptions of population policy, development, and family planning programs in northern Nigeria. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 27, No. 3, May-Jun 1996. 127-36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, local perceptions of family planning programs and federal population policy are examined, based on responses to a childbirth survey and on interviews with a range of individuals in one northern Nigerian town. The respondents' differing perceptions of the relationship between population and national development reflect distinctive ideas about political authority, population policy, and family planning programs, about development, and about domestic and international political affairs. Local suspicions about the Nigerian population policy and family planning programs suggest that they cannot be implemented in isolation from broader political and economic concerns. This distrust has ramifications for current family planning programs and reproductive health initiatives undertaken by Western-sponsored aid projects."
Correspondence: E. P. Renne, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30736 Schwarz, Karl. Fertility trends and family policy in the former German Democratic Republic: example of a pronatalist policy. [Geburtenentwicklung und Familienpolitik in der (früheren) DDR: Beispiel einer pro-natalistischen Politik.] Zeitschrift für Familienforschung, Vol. 4, 1992. 248-62 pp. Munich, Germany. In Ger.
An attempt is made to determine whether pronatalist population policies in the former East Germany were successful in achieving their goal of ensuring population replacement. Data on the fertility of women born after 1930 are analyzed, and comparisons are made with statistics for West Germany.
Correspondence: K. Schwarz, Klopstockstraße 14, 65187 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30737 Sen, Gita. Reproduction: the feminist challenge to social policy. In: Power and decision: the social control of reproduction, edited by Gita Sen and Rachel C. Snow. Mar 1994. 5-17 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts; Harvard University, School of Public Health, Department of Population and International Health: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper will argue that, state welfare policies, both historically and contemporaneously, are themselves a resultant of political forces, and have often reinforced the gender, class and race/ethnic disparities in societies through the ways in which they have addressed or not addressed reproduction....By reinforcing gender-, class- and race-based divisions of labor, policies impose significant costs on many women, and constrain their options. Ironically, but perhaps not surprisingly, these constraints operate even in cases where the general entitlements of the poor have expanded. The paper draws selectively from the history of Western Europe and North America, and from state policies in the contemporary Third World, to illustrate these points. Its focus is on the child- and adult-care aspects of human reproduction, rather than on the bearing of children per se."
Correspondence: G. Sen, Indian Institute of Management, Bannerghatta Road, Bangalore 560 076, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30738 Singh, K.; Fong, Y. F.; Ratnam, S. S. The impact of new population programmes and incentives on fertility in Singapore. Singapore Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 26, No. 1, Mar 1995. 9-12 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
"A more liberal population policy of `three children or more if you can afford it' coupled with several attractive income tax incentives, mandatory abortion counselling and support from the government have shown definite positive increase in the level of fertility in Singapore. This paper traces the demographic changes in Singapore as a result of these measures over the last eight years."
Correspondence: K. Singh, National University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30739 Thomas, Neil. The ethics of population control in rural China, 1979-92. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 1, No. 1, Sep 1995. 3-18 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"In recent years...there has been a sharp decline in support for [China's population] programme amongst the global community....This paper is an attempt to discover whether this change of perception is grounded in a proper understanding of the relevant facts and in a consistent application of ethical principles to the changing population policy. It brings together evidence on trends in fertility, population policy, the provision of family planning services, and socio-economic influences on the demand for children....It then examines the conflict between policy and reproductive aspirations....An ethical framework is then presented, and the consistency of two major critics of the policy/programme are examined through it. It is concluded that the One-Child Family Policy, as it operated in the early 1990s, led to widespread adoption of out-of-plan babies and sex-selective abortion. However, arguments against the need for any form of population control are unconvincing, and there is little evidence to suggest that alternative population control policies would be demographically effective or receive widespread popular support within China."
Correspondence: N. Thomas, University of Wales, Department of City and Regional Planning, P.O. Box 906, Cardiff CF1 3YN, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30740 Wang, Feng. A decade of the one-child policy: achievements and implications. In: China: the many facets of demographic change, edited by Alice Goldstein and Wang Feng. 1996. 97-120 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter reviews the evolution of the one-child policy [in China] and evaluates its success using survey data. It attempts to explain why fertility, after a decade of impressive decline, leveled off during the 1980s, even in the presence of the one-child policy, and what the consequences of the policy may be, given its performance during the last decade. To understand why the one-child policy came into being after an already remarkable fertility decline in China and why the policy has been kept in place even after strong resistance from rural people, it is necessary to understand the context of the modernization drive in the late 1970s and the economic and political reforms of the 1980s."
Correspondence: F. Wang, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Sociology, 2444 Dole Street, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

62:30741 Chiswick, Barry R. Immigration policy for a post-industrial economy. American Enterprise, Vol. 6, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 46-50 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author offers suggestions for changing U.S. immigration policy. Aspects considered include family reunification, skill-based point systems, and refugee assistance.
Correspondence: B. R. Chiswick, University of Illinois, Department of Economics, 601 South Morgan Street, Room 2013, Chicago, IL 60607-7121. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30742 Duleep, Harriet O.; Regets, Mark C. Family unification, siblings, and skills. Program for Research on Immigration Policy Discussion Paper, No. PRIP-UI-39, Sep 1995. 31 pp. Urban Institute, Program for Research on Immigration Policy: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) data on admissions criteria matched to 1990 [U.S.] Census data, we examine the effect of family admissions on immigrant education, self-employment, and earnings. Of particular relevance to the current debate, we also examine the effect of one of the family-based admission categories recommended for elimination--the preference category that admits the siblings of U.S. citizens."
Correspondence: Urban Institute, P.O. Box 7273, Department C, Washington, D.C. 20044. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30743 Freeman, Gary P. Change or continuity in American immigration policy? People and Place, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1996. 1-7 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"The benefits of immigration are concentrated among the few while the costs are spread across the many. Consequently, beneficiaries lobby hard for larger intakes while the majority, though disaffected, fail to push for lower ones. Thus the `normal' politics of immigration are client-based and expansionary. But current immigration to the United States is now both large and concentrated; it has also been accompanied by a number of crises. These factors have led to moves for reform; though some reforms may be introduced, they are unlikely to produce dramatic cuts. Afterwards, immigration politics will return to `normal'."
Correspondence: G. P. Freeman, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30744 Huang, Yasheng. China's cadre transfer policy toward Tibet in the 1980s. Modern China, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr 1995. 184-204 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
"This article focuses on the personnel transfer policy of the Chinese government in the 1980s and on the politically and strategically sensitive personnel (i.e., cadres) transferred to Tibet....This article portrays various aspects of the government's transfer policy...by discussing the procedures and methods of transferring Chinese to Tibet as well as its explicit and implicit purposes. It also looks at transfers out of Tibet....China's cadre transfer policy with respect to Tibet in the 1980s seems to have been targeted and selective: it focused on educated and technical personnel, and purposely restricted the transfer of political functionaries and ordinary workers. Also in the 1980s, the Chinese government pursued an equally conscious and systematic policy of withdrawing a large number of Chinese cadres from Tibet, especially those who performed political functions."
Correspondence: Y. Huang, University of Michigan, Department of Political Science, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

62:30745 Jones, Richard C. Immigration reform and migrant flows: compositional and spatial changes in Mexican migration after the Immigration Reform Act of 1986. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 85, No. 4, Dec 1995. 715-30 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper poses a singular question: Has the stiffening of U.S. immigration policy (by the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 [IRCA], and subsequent policy decisions) reduced the volume and changed the composition and origins of Mexican undocumented migrants? Studies of national data show a reduction in such migration after IRCA. Using INS data on undocumented entrants to South Texas, this paper documents Post-IRCA increases in the proportions of migrants that are young, single, and male from metropolitan areas and from south central Mexico. These suggest that IRCA has served as a barrier inducing demographically selective migration and that changes in the Mexican economy since 1980 have favored the north versus the south--creating a `neo-employment frontier' in the northeastern border states and `neo-migration hearth' in the Mesa Central and southwards."
Correspondence: R. C. Jones, University of Texas, Division of Social and Policy Sciences, San Antonio, TX 78249-0655. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30746 Mahmood, Raisul A. Labour crunch, foreign workers and policy responses: the experience of Japan. International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1996. 97-116 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Japan has experienced labour shortages since the late 1960s....The present study is an attempt to analyse the Japanese government's response to circumvent labour shortages. It focuses on two aspects: perception of Japanese society towards the increasing presence of foreign workers in Japan and associated problems; and measures taken by the government to overcome labour crunch. These aspects are examined within the [framework of an] increasing flow of foreigners to Japan during the past decades."
Correspondence: R. A. Mahmood, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Adamjee Court, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30747 Martin, Philip. Increasing numbers of migrants challenge policymakers worldwide. Population Today, Vol. 24, No. 5, May 1996. 1-2 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author discusses regional worldwide migration trends, with a focus on the need to develop comprehensive migration policies and to encourage economic growth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30748 Vogelsang, Roland. Immigration in a country of immigration: the Canadian experience. [Einwanderungen in ein Einwanderungsland: die kanadische Erfahrung.] Erde, Vol. 123, No. 3, 1994. 197-212 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Until well after the Second World War, Canadian immigration policy favoured immigration in general, but it was characterised by ethnic and racial preferences and waves of discrimination. Only after 1962 was a less discriminatory point system...implemented which selected immigrants according to their standard of education and the demands of the Canadian labour market. This policy still indirectly favoured `old' immigration groups. Since 1978 a new immigration law has been the basis of an annual immigration plan taking into account social, humanitarian, and economic criteria. One of its consequences has been the shift towards a greater proportion of Asian immigrants. This change has led to various tensions in the Canadian public."
Correspondence: R. Vogelsang, Universität Augsburg, Institut für Kanada-Studien, Universitätsstraße 10, 86159 Augsburg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

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