Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.
Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.
Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.
62:30615 Bengtsson, Tommy; Gunnarsson,
Christer. Population, development, and institutional
change: summary and analysis. In: Population, economic
development, and the environment, edited by Kerstin Lindahl-Kiessling
and Hans Landberg. 1994. 1-23 pp. Oxford University Press: New York,
New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Here the interplay between population and development will be considered in greater detail, especially the significance of institutions for development....In Section 1 we discuss general links between population and development. Section 2 considers what distinguishes poor societies from rich. Section 3 discusses how the transition from poverty to prosperity was accomplished in various parts of the world and Section 4 looks at how institutional development contributed to this process. Finally, in Section 5, we discuss what we have learnt from the past."
Correspondence: T. Bengtsson, University of Lund, Department of Economic History, P.O. Box 7083, 220 07 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30616 Galor, Oded; Weil, David N.
The gender gap, fertility, and growth. American Economic
Review, Vol. 86, No. 3, Jun 1996. 374-87 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In
"This paper examines a novel mechanism linking fertility and growth. There are three components to the model: first, increases in capital per worker raise women's relative wages, since capital is more complementary to women's labor input than to men's. Second, increasing women's relative wages reduces fertility by raising the cost of children more than household income. And third, lower fertility raises the level of capital per worker. This positive feedback loop generates a demographic transition: a rapid decline in fertility accompanied by accelerated output growth."
Correspondence: O. Galor, Brown University, Department of Economics, Box B, 64 Waterman Street, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).
General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.
62:30617 Chang, Kyung-Sup. Birth
and wealth in peasant China: surplus population, limited supplies of
family labor, and economic reform. In: China: the many facets of
demographic change, edited by Alice Goldstein and Wang Feng. 1996.
21-45 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"As an effort to understand the Chinese experience of rural reform in a more concrete way, we touch upon the complex relationship between population change and economic development as it is shaped by the production and welfare functions of the peasant family. We have theoretically argued and empirically shown that the family-reliant strategy of economic reform fundamentally undercuts the effectiveness of population control programs. The main implication of our analysis is that sustained industrialization with high labor absorption appears to be the ultimate solution for the burdensome contradiction between China's demographic and economic changes and also for the uneasy tension plaguing the otherwise highly symbiotic relationship between the state and peasant society."
Correspondence: K.-S. Chang, Seoul National University, Department of Sociology, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30618 Crook, Nigel. Population
and poverty in classical theory: testing a structural model for
India. Population Studies, Vol. 50, No. 2, Jul 1996. 173-85 pp.
London, England. In Eng.
"This paper develops a simple structural model to investigate the relationship between population growth and poverty [in India] testing a series of hypotheses developed from the work of Marx and Malthus. The data are analysed at state level, and attention is drawn to the problems that this might cause as behaviour is typically determined at the individual household level. The results show that agricultural productivity and the process of landlessness are better predictors of poverty at a state level than the population growth rate. It is argued that the results fit better with the views of Marx than those of Malthus."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30619 Durand, Jorge; Parrado, Emilio A.;
Massey, Douglas S. Migradollars and development: a
reconsideration of the Mexican case. International Migration
Review, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer 1996. 423-44 pp. New York, New York. In
"Economic arguments, quantitative data, and ethnographic case studies are presented to counter popular misconceptions about international labor migration and its economic consequences in Mexico. The prevailing view is that Mexico-U.S. migration discourages autonomous economic growth within Mexico, at both the local and national levels, and that it promotes economic dependency. However, results estimated from a multiplier model suggest that the inflow of migradollars stimulates economic activity, both directly and indirectly, and that it leads to significantly higher levels of employment, investment, and income within specific communities and the nation as a whole. The annual arrival of around $2 billion migradollars generates economic activity that accounts for 10 percent of Mexico's output and 3 percent of its Gross Domestic Product."
Correspondence: J. Durand, University of Guadalajara, Center for Research on Social Movements, Avenida Juarez 974, Sector Juarez, 44100 Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30620 Goldstein, Alice; Wang,
Feng. China: the many facets of demographic change.
Brown University Studies in Population and Development, ISBN
0-8133-9002-8. LC 96-17781. 1996. xv, 214 pp. Westview Press: Boulder,
Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The eleven chapters in this volume center around three themes. First is the extent to which socioeconomic changes affect demographic behavior [in China]. Specifically, what has been the role of development, including urbanization, mass education, non-familial employment, and public health programs in fertility and mortality decline? Second is the interaction between the state and society. Faced with a strong state and a stringent policy of population control, how do individuals cope, and how does the response [from] individuals in turn affect government decisions in policy implementation? Finally, to what extent will demographic changes affect China's socioeconomic development?"
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30621 Gule, Gugulethu.
Population growth and development in Swaziland. UNISWA
Research Journal, Vol. 8, Feb 1994. 1-6 pp. Kwaluseni, Swaziland. In
"This paper discusses issues pertaining to population and development in Swaziland, particularly focusing on the dire consequences of the country's rapid and accelerating rate of population growth....It further suggests strategies that could be adopted for abating Swaziland's population problem."
Correspondence: G. Gule, University of Swaziland, Department of Statistics and Demography, Private Bag 4, Kwaluseni, Swaziland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
62:30622 Hu, You-Hwey. Dependency
structure of the elderly: an examination of women's social position in
Taiwan. Journal of Population Studies, No. 17, Apr 1996. 83-112
pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of the paper is to examine the nature and the structure of elderly women's dependency [in Taiwan] and the underlying socio-cultural-political forces. From the social constructive perspective, we focused on three constructive forces--the Chinese patriarchal/patrilocal family system, the gender role, and the state policy on elderly welfare. Three types of dependency--economic dependency, dependency for personal and health care, and living arrangement--were examined."
Correspondence: Y.-H. Hu, National Yang-Ming University, Graduate Institute of Health and Social Policy, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30623 Martin, Jean. Population
growth, resources and health: challenges for public health
professionals. Sozial- und Präventivmedizin/Médecine
Sociale et Preventive, Vol. 40, No. 4, 1995. 270-4 pp. Basel,
Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
The implications of current global trends in population growth and resource depletion are assessed, with particular reference to impacts on public health. The author notes that resource depletion is, at present, primarily a problem for developed countries, whereas the problem of population growth is confined to selected developing countries. The role that public health professionals might play in increasing awareness of these problems is discussed.
Correspondence: J. Martin, Service de la Santé Publique, 1014 Lausanne, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30624 Tesfaye, Kebede. The
impact of development projects on population dynamics. Population
and Development Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1994. 37-45 pp. Addis
Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
"Given the fact that about 70 per cent of the population of the world are rural, poor and agriculturally based, it makes a great deal of sense to focus on development projects targeted to this segment of the population. Thus, in an effort to improve incomes and living conditions and to minimize rural out-migration of the population sector, governments have initiated and implemented several projects and programs including integrated rural development, community development activities, rural employment promotion projects, and farm settlement schemes. These and other projects affect demographic patterns by influencing the size and density of population, characteristics and structure of population, fertility and mortality behaviour, and migration. The focus of this paper will, therefore, be to examine these impacts."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30625 Tian, Xueyuan. On
sustainable development of population and national economy.
Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1995. 201-12 pp.
New York, New York. In Eng.
"The author of this article holds that sustainable development of the population and sustainable development of the national economy lay the foundation for all sustainable development, and that the essence of this foundation is to achieve sustainable development in such areas as the total population and the means of subsistence, the working-age population and the means of production, population quality and economic and technological progress, aging population and pension systems, population urbanization and the rationalization of industrial structures, as well as the population's geographic distribution and the rationalization in the allocation of productive forces. Taking into consideration China's specific conditions, the article proposes a basic strategy regarding sustainable development of the population and the national economy."
Correspondence: X. Tian, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30626 Tolts, Mark.
Modernization of demographic behaviour in the Muslim republics of
the former USSR. In: Muslim Eurasia: conflicting legacies, edited
by Yaacov Ro'i. 1995. 231-53 pp. Frank Cass: London, England. In Eng.
"Analysis of demographic processes can be very useful for understanding the level of modernization as a whole among the Muslim populations of Azerbaijan and ex-Soviet Central Asia including Kazakhstan, and can offer a perspective on the development of the newly independent Muslim states. The present chapter aims...to make such an analysis. The traditional approach to an analysis of demographic processes in the former USSR would compare the populations of the Muslim and non-Muslim republics. However, for a better understanding of ex-Soviet Muslim demographic indicators, it is more useful and appropriate to compare them with the Muslim populations of the Middle East and Northern Africa, and this is the approach we have chosen."
Correspondence: M. Tolts, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Gaster Building, Mount Scopus Campus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30627 West, Loraine A.
Vietnam: subnational demographic and socio-economic variation.
IPC Staff Paper, No. 79, Feb 1996. x, 96 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census,
International Programs Center: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Vietnam announced its program of restructuring known as Doi Moi in 1986 and accelerated the pace of reforms in 1989. This study seeks to better understand the dynamics of reform by examining subnational data to identify regional variation in growth and development and to determine the magnitude of the disparity across regions. Statistics on migration also are reviewed to discern whether uneven growth is stimulating labor flows. In addition, this study addresses the question of the extent and effect of deterioration in rural health and education."
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.
62:30628 Henripin, Jacques. The
financial consequences of population aging. Collection de
Tirés à Part, No. 347, [1994?].  pp.
Université de Montréal, Département de
Démographie: Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) the measurement of public expenditures--on children, health and pensions--per employed worker, in relation to the future age composition of the population; [and] (2) the estimation of possible reductions in public expenditures that could result from different levels of women's labour force participation, retirement age, fertility, and productivity of two sectors of the economy....It is argued that: (1) population aging can have significant financial consequences, especially if a low level of fertility is combined with an increase in life expectancy; (2) immigration has little impact on population aging and its financial implications; (3) the financial consequences could be large with respect to health care and pensions; (4) given increases of productivity in the domain of health care...substantial increases in health costs per employed worker seem likely; and (5) significant reductions in the financial burden could be obtained by a return to replacement level fertility." The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: Université de Montréal, Département de Démographie, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30629 Meijdam, Lex; Verbon, Harrie A.
A. Aging and political decision making on public
pensions. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 2, May
1996. 141-58 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"In this paper decision making on public pensions in a representative democracy is modeled within the framework of the well-known two-overlapping-generations (OLG) general-equilibrium model with rational expectations. The model is used to analyze the effects of aging on the economy in general and on the evolution of public pension schemes in particular, where aging is interpreted as a combination of a decrease in the rate of population growth and an increase in the political influence of pensioners. Analytical results are derived for the long run as well as for the short run by the method of comparative statics and comparative dynamics respectively. It appears that an increase in transfers to the old is not guaranteed if due to aging their political power increases."
Correspondence: H. A. A. Verbon, Tilburg University, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.
62:30630 Abernethy, Virginia.
First do no harm. Current World Leaders, Vol. 36, No. 6, Dec
1993. 1,125-34 pp. Santa Barbara, California. In Eng.
Many traditional societies, which have long survived in balance with the carrying capacity of their local environments, have recently experienced rapid rates of population growth that threaten their survival. In examining the reasons for these deleterious trends, the author notes that they have occurred despite international technological assistance, improved health care, increased literacy, democratization, and liberal immigration and refugee policies favoring developing countries. "She argues that well meant programs and policies work at cross purposes with their stated goals when they dispel motivation to exercise caution and restraint. Family size targets stay high or rise when people think that limits which formerly operated have been relieved; so a windfall of resources or emigration opportunity frequently results in a population explosion in the region supposedly being helped."
Correspondence: V. Abernethy, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Nashville, TN 37235. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
62:30631 Ahmad, Alia. Population
growth, poverty and environment in Bangladesh. In: Demography,
economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 366-78 pp. Lund
University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In
The author analyzes the interactions among population growth, depleting natural resources, and poverty in Bangladesh. "This paper...stresses the need for environmentally sound poverty alleviation measures as an essential component of [the] family planning programme. The paper is organised in three sections. The first section is devoted to changes in agricultural practices in response to population growth and their effects on output, poverty and the environment. The second section analyses reproductive behaviour under poverty and extreme environmental distress. The last section contains conclusions and policy issues."
Correspondence: A. Ahmad, University of Lund, Department of Economics, P.O. Box 117, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30632 Brown, Lester R.; Kane, Hal.
Full house: reassessing the earth's population carrying
capacity. Worldwatch Environmental Alert Series, ISBN
0-393-03713-4. 1994. 261 pp. W. W. Norton: New York, New York/London,
England. In Eng.
This study discusses the prospects for feeding the world's continually growing population. The authors note that improvements in technology and crop yields have enabled food output to keep even pace with the growth of population in most parts of the world to date. However, they argue that most of the available improvements have already been made, and that the chances of a new quantum leap in food output is minimal. In some areas of food production, such as fishing, stocks and yields are already in decline from overharvesting. The authors point out that the only available strategy for feeding the growing number of people is to continue to overuse existing resources.They then describe the ecological and environmental consequences of this course of action.
Correspondence: W. W. Norton, 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
62:30633 Clarke, John I. People
in deserts. Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1,
1996. 23-8 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The relation between population and environment in arid regions is examined. "Although the population of the arid world, now 15 per cent of the world total on 37 per cent of the earth's surface, is growing rapidly, population pressure is not always the prime factor in the phenomenon of desertification, which varies greatly in time and space. Population distribution is increasingly concentrated in cities localised in small areas of arid countries, which, as in the case of Jordan, are beginning to introduce policies for the sustainable development of their arid regions."
Correspondence: J. I. Clarke, University of Durham, Department of Geography, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30634 Collomb, Philippe.
Feeding the world's population in 2050. [L'alimentation de la
population mondiale en 2050.] Population et Sociétés, No.
312, Apr 1996. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques
[INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
In the light of an upcoming global food conference organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization in 1996, the author examines aspects of the global food supply question. He discusses the current situation, estimates what will be needed to feed the world's population in 2050, and describes the changes in diet associated with development.
Correspondence: Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30635 Dasgupta, Partha; Folke, Carl;
Mäler, Karl-Göran. The environmental resource
base and human welfare. In: Population, economic development, and
the environment, edited by Kerstin Lindahl-Kiessling and Hans Landberg.
1994. 25-50 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford,
England. In Eng.
"Certain dynamic effects tend to be ignored (and often, not even perceived) when economists attempt to aggregate values derived from partial observations of expenditure patterns in the wake of some change in the level of ecological resources or services. In the remainder of this overview, we will try to identify the implications of these observations for economic policy in poor countries." Sections are included on the resource base and human welfare; land and water needs; institutional failure and poverty as causes of environmental degradation; population and the local resource base; global externalities; and product evaluation and the measurement of net national product.
Correspondence: P. Dasgupta, University of Cambridge, Department of Economics, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30636 Duchin, Faye. Population
change, lifestyle, and technology: how much difference can they
make? Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jun 1996.
321-30, 410, 412 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Spa; Fre.
"The note describes a line of inquiry into social, economic, and environmental interactions as a basis for avoiding undesirable outcomes and pursuing promising ones. First it reports empirical results suggesting that the recommendations of the Brundtland Report (which popularized `sustainable development' as a social objective), contrary to the document's intentions and claims, would put increasing pressure on the environment over the next several decades. Based on this conclusion, the note argues that: (1) The choice of technology in production facilities and the lifestyle choices of different kinds of households are two areas in which changes can actually be made. (2) If we are able to provide new alternative strategies for changes in lifestyles and technologies, the analytic framework that is described can be used to examine the likely consequences. New concepts and methods are proposed for the systematic description of lifestyles and lifestyle alternatives."
Correspondence: F. Duchin, New York University, Institute for Economic Analysis, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30637 Hern, Warren M. Has the
human species become a cancer on the planet? A theoretical view of
population growth as a sign of pathology. Current World Leaders,
Vol. 36, No. 6, Dec 1993. 1,089-124 pp. Santa Barbara, California. In
The author describes current global population trends as being similar to the development of a cancer in the living body. "The human species, through the instrument of culture, has become the dominant force of planetary ecological change. Our adaptations have become maladaptive. Moreover, the human species as a whole now displays all four major characteristics of a malignant process: rapid, uncontrolled growth; invasion and destruction of adjacent normal tissues (ecosystems); metastasis (distant colonization); and dedifferentiation (loss of distinctiveness in individual components). We have become a malignant ecopathologic process. If this diagnosis is true, what is the prognosis? The difference between us and most forms of cancer is that we can think, and we can decide not to be a cancer."
Correspondence: W. M. Hern, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Boulder, CO 80309-0233. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
62:30638 Holling, C. S. An
ecologist view of the Malthusian conflict. In: Population,
economic development, and the environment, edited by Kerstin
Lindahl-Kiessling and Hans Landberg. 1994. 79-103 pp. Oxford University
Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author discusses problems caused by population growth "from the perspective of ecology--particularly from those fields of ecology that deal with populations of organisms. I will do so by exploring three questions: 1. Why are ecologists so gloomily Malthusian?...2. Why, then, has the world not collapsed long ago?...3. Why, then, worry about the negative impacts of growth in human populations and activities?"
Correspondence: C. S. Holling, University of Florida, Department of Zoology, Arthur R. Marshall Ecosystem Laboratory, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30639 International Union for Conservation
of Nature and Natural Resources [IUCN] (Gland, Switzerland); Bangladesh
Rural Development Board (Dhaka, Bangladesh). People,
development and environment: complex interlinkages in Bangladesh.
ISBN 2-8317-0192-9. 1993. iv, 170 pp. Gland, Switzerland. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, November 3-4, 1992. The conference examined the relationships among population, development, and environmental issues in Bangladesh. The report from the conference "emphasised the need for models, for sustainable resource use, for the participation of people throughout the community in discussions about their own future, for legal reforms to ensure protection of the environment and the safeguarding of human rights, and for monitoring and the continuing adjustment of policies and actions, as the development process unfolds. It avoided the over-simplification which so often characterizes discussions of population issues today."
Correspondence: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Conservation Services Division, Rue de Mauverney 28, 1196 Gland, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30640 James, K. S.
Sustainability in the midst of scarcity: a case of Travancore,
Kerala. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1995. 23-32 pp.
Delhi, India. In Eng.
"How did the population of Travancore [in Kerala State, India] manage to sustain a high growth rate of population despite a situation of worsening land-man ratio? This is the basic question that is addressed...in this paper....The first section is mainly an attempt to understand the magnitude of population growth and the related food situation in Travancore. The second section exposes the government interventions and their impact on the economic life of the people of Travancore particularly during periods of scarcity. The final section proposes [an]...explanation [of] the theory of sustainable growth of population."
Correspondence: K. S. James, Centre for Development Studies, Prasantanagar Road, Ulloor, Trivandrum 695 011, Kerala State, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30641 Lindahl-Kiessling, Kerstin; Landberg,
Hans. Population, economic development, and the
environment. ISBN 0-19-828950-2. 1994. xxii, 284 pp. Oxford
University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The chapters that make up this volume have sprung from the conviction that we need a deeper understanding of the complex interactions between the social systems and the physical, chemical, and biological interactive processes that regulate the earth system and, consequently, also provide the unique environment that makes human life as we know it today possible....The material...is based on a series of seminars [held in Sweden] at which seven distinguished scholars from different fields of study delivered public lectures, the aim of which was to illuminate the population, environment, development nexus from a number of interrelated perspectives."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30642 Najam, Adil. A
developing countries' perspective on population, environment, and
development. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No.
1, Feb 1996. 1-19 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The subject of this paper is the political behavior of developing states (the South) on issues of population, environment and development. It attempts to understand why the South is so weary of international population policy in the name of the environment. It argues that the South's response is shaped by five inter-related concerns about responsibility, efficiency, efficacy, additionality, and sovereignty....It is maintained that these concerns have historically guided the positions of the South and remain valid and relevant today....It is proposed that although a grand North-South bargain around population-environment-development issues remains unlikely, both sides can gain much from trying to understand--even where they do not agree with--the other's concerns. The purpose of this study is not as much to defend the South's position, as to present it and the rationale behind it."
Correspondence: A. Najam, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30643 Newman, Peter.
Australia's population carrying capacity: an analysis of eight
natural resources. ISBN 0-86905-347-7. LC 96-118168. [1994?]. 109
pp. Murdoch University, Institute for Science and Technology Policy:
Murdoch, Australia. In Eng.
"This report will examine Australia's population carrying capacity from a range of perspectives--water, food and fibre, forests and timber, marine resources and energy....[It] will look at each of the resources outlined above and make an estimate of the population carrying capacity based on its use alone. Each chapter will estimate the carrying capacity based on present consumption and technology. Each chapter will then look at the affluence and technology factors to see how much more room they may possibly provide if we were to reduce consumption per capita and reduce the impact for each unit of consumption. Finally for each of these resources there will be a discussion of the `Stupidity Factor'. This is the way that the resource is put under pressure, not from population, not from affluence, not from inadequate technology, but just plain stupidity....A final chapter will then draw the separate population carrying capacity estimates together to see how they reveal our vulnerabilities and the implications for population policy."
Correspondence: Murdoch University, Institute for Science and Technology Policy, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30644 Preston, Samuel H. The
effect of population growth on environmental quality. Population
Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 2, Apr 1996. 95-108 pp.
Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper summarizes research on the effect of population growth on environmental quality. Land transformations induced by the spatial expansion of agriculture are probably the major route by which population growth has affected features of the natural environment. These transformations are not automatic and their extent is influenced by social institutions. Intensification of agricultural land use is an alternative response with its own set of environmental implications. These are especially salient in the case of expanded irrigation. In contrast to relations in the agricultural sector, a new version of the conventional I=PAT equation is introduced to suggest that population growth is a minor influence on the extent of industrial pollution. Nevertheless, population policy may play a useful role in strategies to reduce industrial pollution."
Correspondence: S. H. Preston, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30645 Royle, Stephen A.
Population and resources in Mauritius. Geography Review, Vol.
8, No. 5, May 1995. 35-41 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The island of Mauritius was facing a crisis by the 1950s as the relationship between its population and resources became unbalanced....A two-pronged strategy was set in place to change the relationship between population and resources. Firstly, an aggressive family-planning policy was established, reducing population growth. Secondly, the economy was diversified with tourism, financial services and, especially, manufacturing in the Mauritius Export Processing Zone, creating extra finance and resources. The changes have not been cost-free but Mauritius ends the century, not as a classic case of overpopulation, but more [as] a model micro-state that has overcome many population and resource problems, largely through its own efforts."
Correspondence: S. A. Royle, Queen's University, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.
62:30646 Srinivasan, T. N.; Robinson, James
A. Long-term consequences of population growth:
technological change, natural resources, and the environment.
Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 748, Nov 1995. iii, 131
pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In
"This paper studies the processes of population growth, technological progress, the utilization of natural resources and their impact on the environment more generally....Contrary to past Malthusian predictions, economic growth has raised per-capita welfare in conjunction with the `demographic transition'." The authors conclude that it is theoretically possible to achieve economic growth and improved population welfare without negative effects on the environment, but that this involves an alignment of private and social objectives that has not yet been achieved.
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, P.O. Box 208269, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520-8269. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30647 St Leger, Selwyn. The
APHEA project. Short term effects of air pollution on health: a
European approach using epidemiological time series data. Journal
of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 50, Suppl., No. 1, Apr 1996.
80 pp. BMJ Publishing: London, England. In Eng.
This special issue is a product of the European Commission's APHEA project. "Its main objective was to provide quantitative estimates, using standardised methods, of the short term effects of air pollution in Europe, with data from 15 large cities representing various social, cultural, environmental, and air pollution situations. This supplement contains a description of the APHEA project and a major part of its results." The papers examine both mortality and morbidity associated with air pollution in some of Europe's larger cities.
Correspondence: BMJ Publishing Group, BMA House, Tavistock Square, London WC1H 9JR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30648 Tiffen, Mary; Mortimore, Michael;
Gichuki, Francis. More people, less erosion: environmental
recovery in Kenya. ISBN 0-471-94143-3. LC 93-2192. Jul 1994. xii,
311 pp. John Wiley and Sons: New York, New York/Chichester, England. In
This study "examines the interactions between people and the environment of the semi-arid Machakos District, Kenya, over a period of sixty years, from 1930 to 1990. In the 1930s the district was considered an environmental disaster with famine relief and food imports needed between 1942 and 1962. Over the sixty years between 1930 and 1990 the population of the District increased more than five-fold, however the environment in 1990 was in a much better condition than in the 1930s. Soil erosion had declined, due to terraces in place to protect arable land, and predictions of a wood fuel crisis were not fulfilled because of a larger number of farmed and protected trees. Additionally, agricultural production...was higher, and new technologies and farming systems had been introduced....This study combines the findings of physical and social scientists from the Overseas Development Institute, London and the University of Nairobi, Kenya. It uses conventional data, oral history and photographic records....The study concludes with an explanation of the positive contribution that population growth in low density areas can have on economic and social development, technology change and environmental sustainability, under the right policies."
Correspondence: John Wiley and Sons, Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).
Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.
Elizabeth. Women, population growth and commercialization
of fuelwood in northern Ghana. In: Women's position and
demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and
An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 351-61 pp. International Union for the
Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Throughout Africa the life of about 80 per cent of rural women has been affected by the deterioration in environmental conditions. In such rural household economies, where basic survival is dependent to a large extent on environmental factors like water and forest resources, women who live in environmentally degraded areas are identified as belonging to the vulnerable groups of the continent. Besides, most of these women are also the ones who depend on the forest environment for their energy needs for household, commercial and industrial purposes. Sweeping generalizations are often made about women fuelwood producers. Sometimes they are mentioned in passing, but who they are, the extent of their participation in the use and management of fuelwood and other forestry products have not been well researched into. This paper, therefore, attempts to contribute to the growing literature on the subject and to shed more light on the status of women in the fuelwood business." The geographical focus is on northern Ghana.
Correspondence: E. Ardayfio-Schandorf, University of Ghana, P.O. Box 25, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30650 Borjas, George J.; Freeman, Richard
B.; Katz, Lawrence F. Searching for the effect of
immigration on the labor market. NBER Working Paper, No. 5454, Feb
1996. 9,  pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]:
Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"We compare two approaches to analyzing the effects of immigration on the labor market and find that the estimated effect of immigration on U.S. native labor outcomes depends critically on the empirical experiment used. Area analyses contrast the level or change in immigration by area with the level or change in the outcomes of non-immigrant workers. Factor proportions analyses treat immigrants as a source of increased national supply of workers of the relevant skill....The different effects of immigration on native outcomes in the area and factor proportions methodologies appear to result from the diluting effect of native migration flows across regions and failure to take adequate account of other regional labor market conditions in area comparisons."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).
62:30651 Chakravarty, Satya R.; Chakravarty,
Sumita. On employment segregation by sex. Demography
India, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1995. 269-74 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The increasing consciousness about the earning inequality between men and women [has] motivated economists to pay some attention to the problem of employment segregation by sex....The purpose of this paper is two-fold. Firstly, we characterize the well-known Duncan-Duncan index using economically interesting axioms. Such an axiomatization enables us to understand the most popular measure of segregation from a deeper perspective. Next, we employ the Duncan-Duncan measure to analyze employment segregation by sex in India during the years 1981 and 1991."
Correspondence: S. R. Chakravarty, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30652 Chien, Wen-Yin; Hsueh,
Cherng-Tay. The employment of married women in Taiwan: its
patterns and causes. Journal of Population Studies, No. 17, Apr
1996. 113-34 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"This research attempts to explore the modes of women's job careers in Taiwan. Using the 1991 wave of `Taiwanese Social Change Surveys' data, we adopt the information regarding married female respondents' job history since their marriage and found four major modes of job careers in terms of family life cycles: never-stop, stop-after-marriage, stop-after-birth, and never on job....We further explore the explanatory factors (including individuals' traits, family background factors, and current family statuses) with multi-nominal logistic models."
Correspondence: W.-Y. Chien, National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Sociology, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30653 Fang, Di. Japan's
growing economic activities and the attainment patterns of foreign-born
Japanese workers in the United States, 1979 to 1989. International
Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer 1996. 511-34 pp. New York, New
York. In Eng.
"This study examines the impact of the economic activities of Japan in the United States on the socioeconomic attainments of foreign-born Japanese male workers in 1979 and 1989. It demonstrates that working in wholesale trade, finance and manufacturing industries, three major sectors of Japanese investment in America, provided foreign-born male Japanese workers with the highest likelihood of assuming managerial positions. Moreover, the managerial occupation in turn provided the Japanese workers with the highest earnings returns. This pattern is consistent over time and by length of residence. The results suggest the importance of Japan's economic globalization since the 1970s in explaining the socioeconomic attainment patterns of foreign-born Japanese workers in the United States."
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. Fang, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30654 García Guzmán,
Brígida. Measuring the economically active
population in Mexico in the early 1990s. [La medición de la
población económicamente activa en México al
inicio de los años noventa.] Estudios Demográficos y
Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1994. 579-608, 784 pp. Mexico City,
Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper refers to problems of definition and measurement of the economically active population in the early nineties in different Mexican sources of information, considering in particular the 1990 Population Census and the 1991 National Survey on Employment. The study analyzes in detail the questions, reference periods, and coding systems of these two and other previous surveys and censuses. Its findings allow us to state that the 1990 Population Census is an adequate source of information for analyzing [the] national full-time salaried work force."
Correspondence: B. García Guzmán, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30655 Green, Anne E. The
geography of dual career households: a research agenda and selected
evidence from secondary data sources for Britain. International
Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 1, No. 1, Sep 1995. 29-50 pp.
Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Amongst the key dimensions of population and labour market change in most parts of western Europe and other similar economies in the 1990s are low fertility rates, rising numbers of smaller households, increasing female participation rates, growth in higher level non-manual occupations and the spread of flexible employment patterns. This paper explores how these trends have led to an increase in the number and significance of one particular subgroup: dual career households. An overview from available secondary sources of the geography and socio-economic characteristics of such households in Britain is presented, and directions for possible future research on dual career households are outlined."
Correspondence: A. E. Green, University of Warwick, Institute for Employment Research, Coventry CV4 7AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30656 Gurak, Douglas T.; Kritz, Mary
M. Social context, household composition and employment
among migrant and nonmigrant Dominican women. International
Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer 1996. 399-422 pp. New York,
New York. In Eng.
"The effects of household composition on the employment of female immigrants from the Dominican Republic residing in New York City and women residing in the Dominican Republic are examined. The analysis indicates that context is more important than group culture in explaining the labor force participation of Dominican women. Dominican women residing in New York with children and no spouse present are less likely to be employed than are either women who have spouses or who have neither spouses nor children....The reverse pattern holds in the Dominican Republic, where women living in households with spouse present are least likely to be employed. The presence of adult men other than the spouse in the household has effects consistent with those for spouse in both contexts....Structural factors in the Dominican Republic and New York City contexts that might account for the differing dynamics are discussed."
Correspondence: D. T. Gurak, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30657 Kahn, Joan R.; Whittington, Leslie
A. The labor supply of Latinas in the U.S.A.: comparing
labor force participation, wages, and hours worked with Anglo and Black
women. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Feb
1996. 45-73 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study explores the determinants of labor supply patterns among Latinas in the U.S.A. We use recent microeconomic data from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics/Latino National Political Survey (PSID-LNPS) to estimate models of labor force participation, wages, and hours worked for a sample of Cuban, Mexican, and Puerto Rican women. We estimate the same models for Anglo and Black women in order to explore ethnic differences in the impact of characteristics affecting both the reservation and the market wage. We find that differences exist in the return to characteristics, such as education, but that there are also substantial differences in the levels of those characteristics across ethnic groups. The low wage rates and labor market activity of Latinas relative to Anglo and Black women are thus likely to be the combined result of lower investments in human capital and larger family size, the greater negative impact of macroeconomic conditions, and a stronger responsiveness to wages."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: L. A. Whittington, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 2200 Symons Hall, College Park, MD 20742-5535. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30658 Kee, Peter.
Native-immigrant wage differentials in The Netherlands:
discrimination? Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 47, No. 2, Apr 1995.
302-17 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the presence of discrimination in wage offers for Antillean, Surinam, Turkish, and Moroccan immigrants in The Netherlands. The empirical findings indicate that discrimination is present against Antilleans and Turks, but not against Surinamese and Moroccans. The Antillean treatment disadvantage accounts for 34% and the Turkish for 14% of the wage gap with natives. Of the differences in observed characteristics, that in experience is most important for Antilleans and Surinamese and that in education for Turks and Moroccans. For all immigrants, the major separate contribution comes from the relatively low number of school years acquired in The Netherlands."
Correspondence: P. Kee, University of Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Roetersstraat 11, 1018 WB Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).
62:30659 Mitchell, William. Why
high levels of net migration present problems for unemployment and
external debt stabilisation. People and Place, Vol. 4, No. 1,
1996. 40-5 pp. Clayton, Australia. In Eng.
"Unemployment [in Australia] is affected by two factors: increases in the productivity of labour and increases in its supply. Both of these factors could, in principle, be offset by strong economic growth. But, if the economy grows fast enough to accommodate both productivity gains and the addition of migrants to the labour force, it will draw in more imports and the balance of trade will deteriorate. Economic growth of around two per cent per annum may be all that we can sustain without increasing our foreign debt. This level of economic growth is not enough to reduce unemployment in the face of any net immigration (or any growth in labour productivity)."
Correspondence: W. Mitchell, University of Newcastle, Department of Economics, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30660 Mitchneck, Beth; Plane, David
A. Migration and the quasi-labor market in Russia.
International Regional Science Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1995. 267-88 pp.
Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"This paper explores the twin concepts of labor demand and labor mobility during the Soviet and post-Soviet periods. The study uses a detailed data set on labor stock, industrial labor demand, and labor flows for the 1980s in the Yaroslavl' Oblast, and data on migration and regional labor markets for all Russian regions in the 1990s. Contextual features, such as the social contract, full employment, methods of labor allocation, and a generally low rate of geographic mobility, distinguish the centrally planned quasi-labor market from the labor market in capitalist democracies. The findings suggest that net in-migration induces employment change in the current period rather than in a future period. The job creation effects appear concurrent with migration during the Soviet period. In the post-Soviet period, migration and employment relationships are not predictable based on the same relationships during the Soviet period."
Correspondence: B. Mitchneck, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).
62:30661 Portes, Alejandro; Zhou,
Min. Self-employment and the earnings of immigrants.
American Sociological Review, Vol. 61, No. 2, Apr 1996. 219-30 pp.
Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We examine the question of the economic returns to immigrants engaged in self-employment....Based on samples of four entrepreneurial immigrants plus control samples of Blacks and Whites from the 1980 [U.S.] Public Use Microdata Sample, we find large differences in the net effect of self-employment, depending on the use of a linear (absolute dollar values) or loglinear (relative returns) form. We examine various explanations for the discrepancy and identify the role of outliers as significant. The loglinear form fits the data better, but at the cost of obliterating substantively important information, namely the preponderance of the self-employed among positive outliers. Effects of excluding the latter from the linear form and the theoretical and policy implications of alternative specifications of the earnings equation are examined."
Correspondence: A. Portes, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Sociology, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30662 Puur, Allan. Labour
force participation trends in the Baltic states. In: Demography,
economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 321-35 pp. Lund
University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In
"In this paper an attempt is made to present an overview of postwar labour force participation trends in the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania." Aspects considered include labor force participation among working-age males and females and among older workers.
Correspondence: A. Puur, Estonian Interuniversity Population Research Centre, P.O. Box 3012, 200090 Tallinn, Estonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30663 Sanders, Jimy M.; Nee,
Victor. Immigrant self-employment: the family as social
capital and the value of human capital. American Sociological
Review, Vol. 61, No. 2, Apr 1996. 231-49 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We examine how self-employment among Asian and Hispanic immigrants is affected by family composition and human capital/class resources. Because of collective interests and strong personal ties, the family facilitates the pooling of labor power and financial resources. Enterprising immigrants draw on these resources when establishing and operating small businesses. Our findings also show the importance of human capital/class resources in accounting for immigrant self-employment. Although foreign-earned human capital is usually not highly valued in the host labor market, immigrants successfully use this human capital to achieve business ownership. Interethnic variation in personal human capital and family composition accounts for a substantial portion of the observed interethnic variation in self-employment....The data are drawn from the 1980 five percent PUMS for greater New York City and Los Angeles...."
Correspondence: J. M. Sanders, University of South Carolina, Department of Sociology, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30664 Schultz, Georg V.
Effects of demographic development on unemployment. [Die
Auswirkungen der demographischen Entwicklung auf die Arbeitslosigkeit.]
Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 20, No. 4,
1995. 485-96 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Empirical data for the years 1950 and 1989 indicate that a major cause of the current high level of unemployment has been the demographic development in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1975. This influence is examined in isolation in this article, because of the dramatic and unprecedented population development that has taken place during the past twenty years. However, a trend break is also evident in the mid-1970s for other variables as well. At this point the gap between the non-productive consumers and the economically actives begins to widen. If decisive measures are not taken, the age structure in the former federal territory, which is comparable to that of the EU as a whole, could lead to continuing high unemployment levels for the next 40 years."
Correspondence: G. V. Schultz, Görreshof 78, 53347 Alfter, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30665 Schultz, T. Paul. Aging,
immigration and women in the labor force: Japan compared to other OECD
countries. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 743, Nov
1995. 76 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven,
Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper explores immigration and alternative sources of growth in the Japanese labor force....The paper considers how other industrial nations have responded to economic pressures for immigration from low-income countries, and how developed and developing countries can contribute to achieve a more equitable international and intranational distribution of the benefits from growth, international trade, and growing world factor mobility."
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, P.O. Box 208269, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520-8269. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30666 Sheppard, Harold L.; Serow, William
J. The older American work force: 1960 to 1990.
Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. 96-130, .
21,  pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences,
Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"This document reviews and summarizes several features of the older American work force for the period from 1960 to 1990....Persons aged 55 or more years who were working or were seeking work declined by about one-third or by nine percentage points, from 39 to 30 percent. The decline was entirely due to reductions in labor force attachment by men, whose participation declined from 57 to 40 percent while the rate of participation among women remained at 22 percent....It appears that over time the relative difference in labor force participation rates according to education...has widened....The occupational mix of older workers continues to differ somewhat from that of their younger counterparts....Older persons who have neither pension nor earnings income are appreciably more likely to be impoverished than those with either or both of these income sources."
Correspondence: Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, 659-C Bellamy Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30667 Sullivan, Teresa A. The
cashier complex and the changing American labor force. In:
Demographic and structural change: the effects of the 1980s on American
society, edited by Dennis L. Peck and J. Selwyn Hollingsworth. 1996.
127-41 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
The concept of "the `cashier complex'--the tendency for labor force growth to be concentrated in a set of middle-level jobs that share some of the same characteristics as those of cashiers--is employed in this analysis. It is useful in understanding the types of employment that are projected to create the greatest number of new jobs in the American labor force during the 1990s....The cashier complex enhances the understanding of those labor force changes that are influenced by a continuing shift into a service market, substitution of capital for labor, the lessening of skill requirements for workers, and the shifting proportion of demographic groups among entry-level workers....The author examines the changes in labor demand that led to the cashier complex, characteristics of the cashier complex jobs, the effect of technology on these jobs, and the demographic implications of such change."
Correspondence: T. A. Sullivan, University of Texas, Department of Sociology, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
62:30668 Zhao, Min. A study on
immigrant labor in some enterprises in Shanghai. Chinese Journal
of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1995. 379-88 pp. New York, New
York. In Eng.
"This article conducts analyses of the demographic characteristics, working conditions, and welfare of the immigrant laborers currently employed in some of the enterprises in Shanghai [China], based on survey data collected on the immigrant population at the end of 1993 and a sample survey in five enterprises in Shanghai. The article also makes suggestions for the future management and utilization of immigrant labor in Shanghai."
Correspondence: M. Zhao, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Population and Development Research Institute, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).