Volume 62 - Number 3 - Fall 1996

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

62:30433 Baker, Jonathan; Aina, Tade A. The migration experience in Africa. ISBN 91-7106-366-8. 1995. 353 pp. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet: Uppsala, Sweden. Distributed by Almqvist and Wiksell International, P.O. Box 4627, 116 91 Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
This collective work is a product of a conference on migration in Africa. The conference was held in Kristiansand, Norway, in September 1991. "Broadly speaking, the contributions in this book are organized around four main concerns. These are: (a) the preoccupation with conceptual and methodological questions; (b) the presentation of broad overviews of current work and findings on the subject both at the regional and subregional levels; (c) the discussions of the wide range of migration experiences; and (d) a focus on gender issues both as a methodological and substantive concern."
Correspondence: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Box 1703, 751 47 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30434 Brown, Judith M.; Foot, Rosemary. Migration: the Asian experience. ISBN 0-333-60100-9. LC 93-47025. 1994. xi, 262 pp. Macmillan Press: Basingstoke, England; St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This collective work contains 10 studies by various authors on migration by different Asian populations. The studies were presented at a seminar series held at St. Anthony's College, Oxford, England. Aspects considered include migration from South Asia; the Chinese population overseas; the modern Zoroastrian diaspora; Indians in the United States; Pakistanis in Manchester, England; the regional and long-distance migration of Gujarati Jains; Indian Muslim migration to West Pakistan after 1947; illegal migrant workers in Japan; relocation and immigration from Viet Nam; and migration in China to Tibet and Qinghai.
Correspondence: Macmillan Press, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 2XS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30435 Champion, Tony. Population review: (3) Migration to, from and within the United Kingdom. Population Trends, No. 83, Spring 1996. 5-16 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is the third article in a planned series reviewing the changing composition of the British population. "Monitoring migration trends and patterns is not a straightforward task given the absence of a compulsory United Kingdom-wide system for recording domestic changes of address. Nevertheless, data extracted from the available sources offer a valuable insight into the diverse and complex phenomenon of migration. This article examines international and internal migration...in the 1980s and 1990s, and looks at the geographical impact of the two in combination on the population of the United Kingdom."
For the second article in this series, by Karen Dunnell, see 62:20702.
Correspondence: T. Champion, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30436 Clark, Andrew F. Internal migrations and population movements in the upper Senegal valley (West Africa), 1890-1920. Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne des Etudes Africaines, Vol. 28, No. 3, 1994. 399-420 pp. Toronto, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
This is an analysis of migration patterns during the colonial period in the upper Senegal valley, now part of Senegal, Mali, and Mauritania. The author notes that, in addition to labor migration out of this region, there was a considerable level of migration within the region for a variety of economic, environmental, and political reasons.
Correspondence: A. F. Clark, University of North Carolina, Department of History, Wilmington, NC 28403-3297. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30437 Courbage, Youssef. Refining the measure of migration in Northern Ireland. [Affiner la mesure de la migration en Irlande du Nord.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1996. 468-81 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Migration, and emigration in particular, is a major demographic factor in Northern Ireland. Previous studies examining the effects of migration on Northern Ireland from 1971-1991 have come to differing conclusions concerning the numbers of Protestant versus Catholic emigrants. Following a critique of previous studies, the author sets out to construct more precise estimates of Catholic and Protestant emigration between 1971 and 1991, taking into account factors such as undeclared religious affiliation and differing mortality levels. He concludes that since 1968, slightly more Protestants than Catholics have been emigrating from Northern Ireland, a reversal of previous patterns.
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30438 Courgeau, Daniel. Migration theories and behavioural models. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 1, No. 1, Sep 1995. 19-27 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This review presents a probabilistic formulation of the decision making process, leading to a rigorous treatment of migration behaviour for projection purposes....Aggregate-level models may be applied to migration flows for which the objectively measured characteristics of areas of department and destination act as subjectively measured characteristics and stimuli....Individual-level models use event history methods of analysis to introduce a great variety of characteristics of the subject on the decision to move. They lead to projections using microsimulation models. A further step is taken in integrating macro- and microbehavioural models. The use of aggregate and individual characteristics simultaneously leads to more efficient and sophisticated projection models: the factors affecting behaviour at the micro-level cannot be inferred from aggregate studies and conversely."
Correspondence: D. Courgeau, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30439 Huguet, Jerrold W. Data on international migration in Asia: 1990-1994. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1995. 519-29 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
The author reports on a project to compile and publish a comprehensive source of data on migration in Asia. The project "is the result of cooperation among editors in identifying correspondents and in designing the tables that they would ideally provide." Information is provided on workers deployed, 1990-1994; intra-regional migration flows; number of nationals abroad; foreign population; occupations of international migrants; and limitations and improvements of data collection.
Correspondence: J. W. Huguet, UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30440 Makinwa, Paulina; Afolayan, A. A. Migration and women's status in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Women's position and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Paulina Makinwa and An-Magritt Jensen. 1995. 253-69 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to analyse the phenomenon of female migration in sub-Saharan Africa and to provide further insight into changes in the position of women relative to that of men, both when women migrate and when they do not. In this regard, this paper emphasizes the economic and social consequences of migration to individual women and their households."
Correspondence: P. Makinwa, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, PMB 5, University Post Office, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

62:30441 Adepoju, Aderanti. Emigration dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 1995. 315-90 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author discusses emigration dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on "interactions between the demographic, economic, ecological, political, and socio-cultural dimensions....The economic block in this article outlines relevant aspects such as income per capita, taken as a function of economic development, income distribution and the resource base of an economy as important elements that influence emigration dynamics. The demographic block focuses on population size, growth rate, distribution and the stage of demographic transition. The political block emphasizes issues relating to democratization and human rights, while the socio-cultural block outlines the ever pervasive notion of ethnicity, norms and value systems that impact intricately on migration dynamics and decision-making processes."
Correspondence: A. Adepoju, African Institute for Economic Development and Planning, B.P. 3186, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30442 Alba, Francisco. Urban aspects of labor migration: the situation in the countries of origin. [Aspectos urbanos de la migración laboral: la situación en los países de origen.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1994. 629-56, 785 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"A bibliographical review serves to analyze the role of urban growth in patterns of international labor-force migration, as well as the effect of this migration on the development of the countries of origin, especially on their cities. While the review confirms the general idea that international migrants are either peasants or highly qualified personnel, it also shows that qualified workers are increasingly involved in international labor movements and that a great part of them come from large cities. It is to be expected that in these circumstances large cities of the countries of origin will become more integrated to international migratory systems."
Correspondence: F. Alba, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30443 Amery, Hussein A.; Anderson, William P. International migration and remittances to a Lebanese village. Canadian Geographer/Géographe Canadien, Vol. 39, No. 1, Spring 1995. 46-58 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A number of hypotheses concerning remittances from foreign emigrants are developed and tested using questionnaire survey data from Lala, a Lebanese village. According to the theory, a rural family engages in an implicit insurance-type contract with the potential migrant because both are averse to risk....Results from testing the hypotheses are somewhat consistent with the proposition that, after a period of adjustment, migrants do begin to remit, thereby providing their families with an insurance against the uncertainties of life in the country of origin. However, the level of remittances does not appear to depend on the potential to inherit from a family's wealth. Moreover, families do not seem to invest in their migrants so as to improve their farm lands and to undertake risky agricultural techniques. The long-term remittance commitment of migrants to their residual families suggests that migrants' altruism may be a more significant motivating factor than self-interest."
Correspondence: H. A. Amery, Bishop's University, Department of Geography, Lennoxville, Quebec J1M 1Z7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30444 Appleyard, Reginald. Emigration dynamics in developing countries. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 1995. 289-782 pp. International Organization for Migration [IOM]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This special (double) issue of International Migration contains the papers, revised and edited, presented at a conference held at the Rockefeller Study and Conference Center, Bellagio, Italy, during October 1994. The occasion was a mid-term review of research being undertaken for the IOM/UNFPA project, Emigration Dynamics in Developing Countries."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: International Organization for Migration, 17 route des Morillons, Case Postale 71, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30445 Azam, Farooq-i. Emigration dynamics in Pakistan. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 1995. 729-65 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Pakistan has had substantial experience of overseas migration and is counted among the world's leading manpower exporting countries....At the individual level, migration overseas is a mixed experience bringing prosperity to the family but also affecting both the family and the migrant during prolonged periods of separation. At the macro level, overseas migration is viewed as generally positive, generating substantial foreign exchange for government and relieving some unemployment pressure. In the process, however, Pakistan has come to depend on a few countries to regularly absorb the bulk of its migrant labour. The political consequences of such dependencies could be disastrous, as Yemen learned in the wake of the Gulf crisis in 1990. Further, as shown by recession in the mid-1980s, overseas migration is a fragile and unpredictable phenomenon and cannot form the basis of a longer term policy for development."
Correspondence: F. Azam, Overseas Pakistanis Foundation, Welfare Services Division, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30446 Beaverstock, Jonathan V. Re-thinking skilled international labour migration: world cities and banking organisations. Geoforum, Vol. 25, No. 3, Aug 1994. 323-38 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration has become an important facet of the contemporary world economy. The operations of transnational corporations have created more opportunities for skilled migrants to work abroad....There is a growing interest amongst economic geographers to examine this form of migration through an appreciation of global economic restructuring, labour market change and world cities. Consequently, this paper introduces a new conceptual framework...[which] is based on the rationale that world cities, and the patterns of labour market demand that exist within them, are of paramount importance in influencing highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration within the world economy. The author uses an example of highly skilled labour migration within the transnational banking sector [in London] to illustrate this new conceptual framework."
Correspondence: J. V. Beaverstock, Loughborough University of Technology, Department of Geography, Loughborough LE11 3TU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30447 Borjas, George J. Assimilation and changes in cohort quality revisited: what happened to immigrant earnings in the 1980s? NBER Working Paper, No. 4866, Sep 1994. 32, [2] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper uses the 1970, 1980, and 1990 Public Use Samples of the U.S. Census to document what happened to immigrant earnings in the 1980s, and to determine if pre-1980 immigrant flows reached earnings parity with natives. The relative entry wage of successive immigrant cohorts declined by 9 percent in the 1970s, and by an additional 6 percent in the 1990s. Although the relative wage of immigrants grows by 10 percent during the first two decades after arrival, the relative wage of post-1970 immigrants will remain 15 to 20 percent below those of natives throughout much of their working lives."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30448 Borjas, George J.; Hilton, Lynette. Immigration and the welfare state: immigrant participation in means-tested entitlement programs. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 111, No. 2, May 1996. 575-604 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper documents the extent to which immigrants [in the United States over the past 30 years] participate in the many programs that make up the welfare state. The immigrant-native difference in the probability of receiving cash benefits is small, but the gap widens once other programs are included in the analysis: 21 percent of immigrant households receive some type of assistance, as compared with only 14 percent of native households. The types of benefits received by earlier immigrants influence the types of benefits received by newly arrived immigrants. Hence there might be ethnic networks that transmit information about the availability of particular benefits to new immigrants."
Correspondence: G. J. Borjas, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30449 Borjas, George J. Immigration and welfare, 1970-1990. NBER Working Paper, No. 4872, Sep 1994. 31 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper used the 1970, 1980, and 1990 Public Use Samples of the U.S. Census to trace the evolution of immigrant participation in welfare programs during the past two decades. The data indicate that immigrant participation in welfare programs is on the rise, and that the dollar costs associated with this trend are rising even faster. By 1990, immigrant households received a disproportionately high share of the cash benefits distributed in the United States."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30450 Brunetta, Giovanna; Rotondi, Graziano. Foreign migration into the Veneto: from precariousness to stabilization? [L'immigration étrangère en Vénétie: de la précarité à la stabilisation?] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1996. 131-6 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The immigrant repartition in Veneto [Italy] follows the local productive system, characterized by industrial firms of small and middle size, diffused on the territory. Although this phenomenon is rather recent and limited, on the basis of some empirical observations, it is showing some aspects of stabilization. On the one hand, the peculiar pattern of the immigrants' local presence avoids those problems which are typical of metropolitan areas, but on the other one, it could hinder the execution of proper policies aiming at the satisfaction of foreigners' needs."
Correspondence: G. Brunetta, Università degli Studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Geografia, via del Santo 26, 35123 Padua, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30451 Cinti, Francesco. The emigration of population groups from the newly independent states in recent years: some new trends in internal migration and in migration policies in the main countries of destination. [L'emigrazione dalla comunità degli stati indipendenti negli anni recenti: nuova mobilità interna e politiche migratorie dei principali paesi di accoglienza.] Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 05/95, [1995]. 57, [14] pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This study is concerned with emigration from the states that formed the former USSR to the countries of Western Europe. The first part examines the situation in the countries of origin. It analyzes migration trends within the USSR before its breakup and the push factors influencing emigration. The second part discusses the characteristics of emigrants from the post-Soviet states since 1989 and the migration policies of the receiving countries. The third part concerns the characteristics of those migrants who chose Italy as their country of destination.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30452 Cockerton, Camilla M. Less a barrier, more a line: the migration of Bechuanaland women to South Africa, 1850-1930. Journal of Historical Geography, Vol. 22, No. 3, Jul 1996. 291-307 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The history of female migration from Bechuanaland (modern Botswana) to South Africa is explored. The paper "challenges some pervasive assumptions and misconceptions in the regional literature on migrant labour and agrarian transformation. It rejects the depiction of women as simply passive victims of the migrant labour system, and instead stresses Tswana women's migration strategies, motives, and agency. It challenges the common assumption that women passively waited behind, then followed their husbands to towns....[It] argues that the first period of Tswana women's migration stretched from 1850 to 1930, characterized by various social and economic causes, slowly accelerating volumes, return movements, and predominantly rural western Transvaal destinations. It goes on to distinguish three overlapping spatial patterns--short-distance movements, migration streams, and step migrations--which corresponded to particular categories of female migrants with very specific reasons for migrating."
Correspondence: C. M. Cockerton, University of Waikato, Department of Geography, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30453 Cohn, Raymond L. A comparative analysis of European immigrant streams to the United States during the early mass migration. Social Science History, Vol. 19, No. 1, Spring 1995. 63-89 pp. Durham, North Carolina. In Eng.
"In this study, the same data source is used to provide identical numerical information on various characteristics of individual immigrants [to the United States from 1836-1853] and the groups in which they migrated. This paper furnishes more detailed information on immigrants coming from Britain, Ireland, and Germany, who together comprised about 80% of all immigrants during the 1836-53 period. The numerical information provided is used to make quantitative comparisons among the different European immigrant streams....More importantly, this study examines how the demographic and occupational characteristics of these streams changed during this important time period....The data used are acquired from port records, commonly called the Passenger Lists, filed by ship captains upon arrival in New York City."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30454 Durand, Jorge; Kandel, William; Parrado, Emilio A.; Massey, Douglas S. International migration and development in Mexican communities. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 2, May 1996. 249-64 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"The theoretical and empirical literature generally regards international migration as producing a cycle of dependency and stunted development in sending communities. Most migrants' earnings are spent on consumption; few funds are channeled into productive investment. We argue that this view is misleading because it ignores the conditions under which productive investment is likely to be possible and profitable. We analyze the determinants of migrants' savings and remittance decisions, using variables defined at the individual, household, community, and macroeconomic levels. We identify the conditions under which U.S. earnings are repatriated to Mexico as remittances and savings, and indicate the factors leading to their productive investment."
Correspondence: J. Durand, Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Estudios sobre los Movimientos Sociales, Avenida Alcalde y Maestros, Puerto No. 1, Guadalajara, 44160 Jalisco, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30455 Ellis, Mark; Conway, Dennis; Bailey, Adrian J. The circular migration of Puerto Rican women: towards a gendered explanation. International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1996. 31-64 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The purpose of this paper has been to outline a theoretical framework for the explanation of the circulation of Puerto Rican women that brings gender relations to the fore, but frames the island-mainland pattern of mobility in the context of core-periphery capitalist relations. We have argued that gender relations in the home and workplace are vitally important for understanding women's moves to the [United States] and return trips to Puerto Rico. Specifically, we posited that most Puerto Rican women move as tied-migrants or because of their obligation or desire to meet gender responsibilities. In addition, we also viewed migration as an action with the potential to modify gender relations and alter future migration decision-making, as women gain experience in the labour market and exposure to new social and cultural environments."
Correspondence: M. Ellis, University of California, Department of Geography, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1524. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30456 Erickson, Charlotte. Leaving England: essays on British emigration in the nineteenth century. ISBN 0-8014-2820-3. LC 93-40633. 1994. xv, 272 pp. Cornell University Press: Ithaca, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a selection of seven essays, five of which have previously been published. They concern aspects of immigration from the United Kingdom to the United States over the course of the nineteenth century. The focus is on the migration of the English, as opposed to the other peoples of Britain. In the introduction, attention is given to the data sources available for this type of research.
Correspondence: Cornell University Press, Sage House, 512 East State Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30457 Espenshade, Thomas J.; Hempstead, Katherine. Contemporary American attitudes toward U.S. immigration. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer 1996. 535-70 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article aims to contribute to an understanding of contemporary American attitudes toward immigration....The paper uses data from a CBS News/New York Times poll conducted in June 1993. Respondents were asked whether they would like to see the level of immigration to the United States increased, decreased or kept the same. We test several hypotheses about factors influencing respondents' attitudes, including the importance of previously unexamined predictors. These new hypotheses relate to views about the health of the U.S. economy, feelings of social and political alienation, and isolationist sentiments concerning international economic issues and foreign relations. One important discovery is the close connection between possessing restrictionist immigration attitudes and having an isolationist perspective along a broader array of international issues."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30458 Fausto, Boris; Grün, Roberto. Immigration to Brazil. [La immigración en Brasil.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 10, No. 29, Apr 1995. 245 pp. Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
This special issue contains nine articles on aspects of immigration to Brazil. The emphasis is on the different experiences of various ethnic migrant groups in the process of assimilation in the country of destination.
Correspondence: Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Independencia 20, 1099 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30459 Findley, Sally; Traoré, Sadio; Ouedraogo, Dieudonné; Diarra, Sekouba. Emigration from the Sahel. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 1995. 469-520 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors investigate trends in emigration from the Sahel. Sections are included on ecological, ethnic, and political contexts of migration; agricultural economy and migration; urban economic potential; the macro-economic context; and female migrants. A case study of emigration from Mali is included. A historical overview is also given.
Correspondence: S. Findley, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur la Population pour le Développement, Réseau de Migration et Urbanisation en Afrique de l'Ouest, B.P. 1530, Bamako, Mali. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30460 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). Aliens and international migration, 1994. [Ulkomaalaiset ja siirtolaisuus, 1994.] Väestö/Befolkning/Population, No. 1996:6, ISBN 951-727-188-3. 1996. 60 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Fin. with sum. in Eng.
"This publication presents statistics on aliens living in Finland and on international migration in 1994. Most series in the publication were compiled from the period 1990-1994. The publication includes the main demographic data and basic employment statistics."
Correspondence: Statistics Finland, Sales Services, P.O. Box 3B, 00022 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30461 Galt, M. N. Who came to New Zealand? New light on the origins of British settlers, 1840-1889. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 21, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1995. 50-71 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"Surprisingly little is yet known about the origins of New Zealand settlers, other than that they were British. This study examines the geographical and occupational backgrounds of a large subsample of the settlers, to reveal the differing migration flows in the several decades. The predominance of migrants from the Far North and the Far South of the British Isles is explored and explained, as is the prominence of settlers with roots in the declining economic sectors of mid and late nineteenth century Britain."
Correspondence: M. N. Galt, 11 Lever Street, Karori, Wellington, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30462 Gardner, Katy. Global migrants, local lives: travel and transformation in rural Bangladesh. ISBN 0-19-827919-1. LC 94-29636. 1995. [xv], 301 pp. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. In Eng.
This anthropological study examines the impact of international migration on the Sylhet region of Bangladesh. From this region, many individuals have migrated overseas, particularly to the United Kingdom. Data are from field trips carried out in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The study focuses on the economic and social changes that emigration and remittances from abroad have led to in the society of origin.
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30463 Goto, Junichi. The impact of migrant workers on the Japanese economy: trickle vs. flood. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper, No. 749, Jan 1996. 43 pp. Yale University, Economic Growth Center: New Haven, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the economic impact of temporary and unskilled migrant workers in Japan, who are illegal according to the current Japanese immigration law but who have been dramatically increasing in recent years. The analysis, using a simple CGE model, reveals the quadruple impact of the admission of migrant workers on the welfare of the host country which has often been neglected in the orthodox theory: (i) cheaper foreign labor effect; (ii) trade barrier effect; (iii) nontradable income effect; and (iv) nontradable consumption effect. Moreover, it is shown that, if Japan is to benefit from admitting foreign labor, the scale of admission should be large and the admission should be accompanied by trade liberalization."
Correspondence: Yale University, Economic Growth Center, P.O. Box 208269, 27 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520-8269. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30464 Guha Roy, S.; Datta, P. Nepali migration to West Bengal. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1995. 211-23 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this study we discuss spatial variation, sex ratio, economic activities and some estimations of Nepali migrants in West Bengal [India] using mainly 1951-81 censuses."
Correspondence: S. Guha Roy, Indian Statistical Institute, Population Studies Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30465 Guillon, Michelle. Inertia and residential location of immigrants within the Paris region. [Inertie et localisation des immigrés dans l'espace parisien.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1996. 55-63 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"When one reads a map locating today's various immigrant populations [in the Paris region of France], it is helpful to keep in mind which were the settling areas that the first immigrants of a group adopted depending on employment and housing opportunities...on their arrival. That historical background also allows [us] to understand the development process of new incomers' settling areas in which the various migratory waves keep succeeding."
Correspondence: M. Guillon, Université de Poitiers, CNRS MIGRINTER, 95 avenue du Recteur-Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30466 Gunatilleke, Godfrey. The economic, demographic, sociocultural and political setting for emigration from Sri Lanka. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 1995. 667-97 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"During the colonial period under British rule, South Asia provided a significant supply of migrant labour to the colonies. The global economy under the colonial system created an international labour market in which persons in the workforces of colonies at relatively higher levels of development found economic opportunities in less developed colonies which did not have an adequate supply of literate and educated manpower. Compared with India, Sri Lanka participated in migration to the colonies on a very limited scale and mainly to one destination (Malaysia--then the Federated Malay States) by one ethnic group (the Sri Lanka Tamil community). Immediately after independence, members of the small community descended from Portuguese and Dutch settlers emigrated to Australia, and in the 1960s many Sri Lankans settled in the U.K., U.S., Canada, Australia and New Zealand."
Correspondence: G. Gunatilleke, Marga Institute, P.O. Box 601, 93/10 Dutugemunu Mawatha, Colombo 6, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30467 Heer, David M. Immigration in America's future: social science findings and the policy debate. ISBN 0-8133-8739-6. LC 95-52167. 1996. xi, 244 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study reviews current data and trends in immigration in the United States. It attempts to demonstrate how social science findings can help the informed citizen make rational choices about future immigration legislation designed to influence those trends. The author begins by identifying five classes of values that could be affected by immigration. They are "(1) the standard of living in the United States, (2) equity, (3) the preservation or modification of existing American culture, (4) ethnic and class conflict, and (5) the power of the United States in international affairs." Next, he discusses how social science findings can influence policy decisions. This is followed by a history of U.S. immigration law and a discussion of recent patterns of international migration affecting the United States. The determinants of immigration are then analyzed, and the author examines the means by which immigration laws can be enforced. The book concludes with some proposals for changes in immigration laws.
Correspondence: Westview Press, 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO 80301-2877. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30468 Ho, Elsie S. Chinese or New Zealander? Differential paths of adaptation of Hong Kong Chinese adolescent immigrants in New Zealand. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 21, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1995. 27-49 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"The concept of cultural pluralism, which assumes that immigrants can integrate into the dominant host society without surrendering their own cultural identity, has been advocated in New Zealand since the Immigration Policy Review in 1986. This paper investigates the change in cultural identity among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents entering New Zealand between 1987 and 1992. The analysis shows that integration is a more preferred adaptation than is assimilation. However, half of the adolescents under study still identified as either predominantly Chinese or even culturally marginalised at four years after migration. The need to enhance the social integration of new Chinese immigrants into New Zealand's increasingly multicultural society is discussed...."
Correspondence: E. S. Ho, University of Waikato, Department of Geography, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30469 Hof, Bernd. Europe marked by migration: scenarios of population and labor market trends in the European Community up to 2020. [Europa im Zeichen der Migration: Szenarien zur Bevölkerungs- und Arbeitsmarktentwicklung in der Europäischen Gemeinschaft bis 2020.] DIV Sachbuchreihe, Vol. 58, ISBN 3-602-34862-8. 1993. 368 pp. Deutscher Instituts-Verlag: Cologne, Germany. In Ger.
International migration and labor market trends in Germany since 1961 are reviewed, and the current migration pressures on Western Europe are discussed. Three alternative projections of population and labor market trends are then presented for the European Community up to the year 2020. Assumptions concerning migration, fertility, life expectancy, and employment are discussed.
Correspondence: Deutscher Instituts-Verlag, Gustav-Heinemann-Ufer 84-88, Postfach 51 06 70, 50942 Cologne, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30470 Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette. Gendered transitions: Mexican experiences of immigration. ISBN 0-520-07513-7. LC 93-33289. 1994. [xxviii], 258 pp. University of California Press: Berkeley, California/London, England. In Eng.
This study examines factors that shape migration and settlement of undocumented Mexican immigrants in a northern Californian community. The data are from in-depth interviews with 44 individuals from 26 families. The interviews were conducted over an 18-month period from 1986 to 1988. Chapter 1 reviews the relevant literature and Chapter 2 provides a historical overview. Chapter 3 describes the barrio in which the research was undertaken. "Chapter 4 focuses on how gender relations in families and social networks shape diverse migration patterns for women and men....Chapter 5 examines how immigrant women and men in the U.S. reconstitute gender relations. Immigration and resettlement patterns tend to weaken familial patriarchy, as indicated by changes in the gender division of household labor, decision-making power within the family, and women's and men's spatial mobility....Chapter 6 examines how women engage in activities--employment, securing public and private forms of assistance for their families, and building a social nexus of community--that ultimately serve to consolidate family settlement."
Correspondence: University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30471 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Immigrant population from former USSR 1993. Immigrants who immigrated since 1990: demographic trends. Central Bureau of Statistics Special Series, No. 1008, Aug 1995. [xliv], 34, xxiii pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
This is an analysis of demographic trends among members of the Jewish population of Israel who have migrated from the former Soviet Union since 1990. "This publication presents data collected for 1993 on a wide variety of demographic subjects: population movement (immigration, fertility, mortality, internal migration) as well as the development of the population and its distribution by sex, age, family status and geographic [location]."
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, P.O. Box 13015, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30472 Jasso, Guillermina. Deriving implications of comparison theory for demographic phenomena: a first step in the analysis of migration. Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 1, Winter 1996. 19-57 pp. Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"This article describes the use of comparison theory to generate testable implications about demographic phenomena, and, to illustrate, derives some implications of comparison theory for migration behavior. Using two strategies for deriving predictions, known as the micromodel and macromodel strategies, we obtain a variety of theoretical results for the three types of actors in migration situations--the migrant, others in the origin country, and others in the destination country--for bilateral relations between origin and destination countries, and for the effects of the societal valued goods and the income distribution and its inequality on the differential propensity to emigrate among rich and poor."
Correspondence: G. Jasso, New York University, Department of Sociology, New York, NY 10003-0831. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30473 Korkiasaari, Jouni. Statistics on migration and foreigners. [Siirtolaisuus- ja ulkomaalaistilastot.] Väestö/Befolkning/Population, No. 1993:8, ISBN 951-47-7582-1. 1993. 82 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Fin.
In 66 statistical tables and 15 figures, this guide provides recent data and a few longer time series on migration to and from Finland, foreign residents, the foreign-born and foreign-language populations, refugees, and asylum seekers; Finnish emigrants, nationals, and missionaries abroad; and foreign students in Finland and assisted Finnish students abroad. The offices and institutions that collect and handle the relevant data are listed.
Correspondence: Tilastokeskus, P.O. Box 3B, 00022 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30474 Le Bras, Hervé. International migration: from colonization to invasion, or the rhetoric of communicating vessels. [Migrations internationales: de la colonisation à l'invasion ou la rhétorique des vases communicants.] Revue Tocqueville/Tocqueville Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1995. 83-108 pp. Downsview, Canada. In Fre.
This article offers a historical explanation for current negative perceptions of immigration. The author notes that even at a time when immigration to the countries of the European Community is relatively low and stable, there is a continuing outcry among many politicians, the media, and certain experts, including some demographers, regarding the dangers of immigration. He suggests that such fears are not supported by the facts, and that they stem from historical attitudes toward the movement of people. Such attitudes classified emigration as colonization, or as a spreading of the values of civilization to the less fortunate. Within this rhetorical framework, immigration was perceived as an invasion of the national territory by foreigners.
Correspondence: H. Le Bras, 26 rue Vavin, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30475 Lee, Sharon M. Issues in research on women, international migration and labor. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1996. 5-26 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This paper discusses several themes that are useful in organizing research on women, migration, and work, and consists of four parts. It begins with a review of types of migration systems and highlights the importance of specifying migration systems when examining women migrants and work. The main theoretical approaches in migration and labor are discussed in the second part of the paper. This is followed by a section on several dimensions critical for research on women migrants. In particular, it shows that the effects of gender, race and ethnicity, social class, cohort, and history should be explicitly considered because the migration and labor market experiences of women migrants profoundly differ from that of men. The paper concludes with a discussion of some research and policy implications."
Correspondence: S. M. Lee, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30476 Lim, Lin Lean; Oishi, Nana. International labor migration of Asian women: distinctive characteristics and policy concerns. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1996. 85-116 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The feminization of women in international labor migration has been most pronounced in the case of Asia, with women moving in their own right as economic migrants and faced with regulatory and social constraints, gender discrimination and exploitation in countries of origin and destination. Asian countries, both sending and receiving, have been experimenting with gender-sensitive migration policies and programs. This paper describes the characteristics of Asian female labor migration, examines policy dimensions and suggests action to bridge the gaps between policy dimensions and implementation."
Correspondence: L. L. Lim, International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30477 Ljungmark, Lars. Swedish exodus. ISBN 0-8093-2047-9. LC 79-10498. 1996. xii, 165 pp. Southern Illinois University Press: Carbondale, Illinois. In Eng.
This is a revised and updated version of a study originally published in Swedish in 1965 and in English in 1979. It describes the history of migration from Sweden to the United States over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Analyzing the characteristics of migrants, the author provides information on where migrants settled in America and on the process of assimilation. Finally, he examines the consequences of emigration for Sweden. Data are provided for both immigration and return migration for each year from 1851 to 1940.
Translated from Swedish by Kermit B. Westerberg.
For the original English-language version, see 47:2583.
Correspondence: Southern Illinois University Press, P.O. Box 3697, Carbondale, IL 62902-3697. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30478 Mahmood, Raisul A. Emigration dynamics in Bangladesh. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 1995. 699-728 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Trends in international migration in Bangladesh are examined, with a focus on movements to the United Kingdom, the Middle East and North Africa, and Japan. Aspects considered include socioeconomic background of migrants, channels of migration, occupations, economic development, quality of life, population size and distribution, labor force, literacy, urbanization, internal migration, and sociopolitical factors.
Correspondence: R. A. Mahmood, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Adamjee Court, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30479 Makinwa-Adebusoye, P. K. Emigration dynamics in West Africa. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 1995. 435-67 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author investigates emigration dynamics in Western Africa. Sections are included on historical patterns; regional economic and demographic situations; the brain drain; regional social, cultural, and political aspects; ECOWAS and migration; and inter-ethnic upheaval and refugee flows.
Correspondence: P. K. Makinwa-Adebusoye, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, Population Division, PMB 5, University Post Office, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30480 Martin, Philip; Widgren, Jonas. International migration: a global challenge. Population Bulletin, Vol. 51, No. 1, Apr 1996. 48 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This publication explains that most people never move from their home country, and explores the reasons why some people decide to emigrate and the factors that help them make the journey to another country. It reviews the upsurge in the number of refugees since the 1970s, and looks at the major immigration trends in each geographic region today. The authors also consider the ways that national governments can control or manage migration, in particular through trade, investment, aid, and intervention. The authors stress the need for countries to cooperate with each other to manage international migration flows and to integrate the immigrants within their borders."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30481 Michalowski, Margaret. A contribution of the Asian female immigrants into the Canadian population. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1996. 53-83 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"In Canada, the proportion of women among immigrants fluctuates around 50 percent, with a slight increase in recent years. Another important characteristic of immigration...is a radical change in the composition of origin of flows in the past three decades--European-dominated streams have been replaced by those originating mostly in Asia. This paper focuses on female Asian immigrants in Canada....Major Asian source countries of female immigrants (Hong Kong, Philippines, India, China, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Lebanon and Iran) give evidence to the growing importance of political push factors and sending countries' policies-facilitation factors as crucial determinants of international migration."
Correspondence: M. Michalowski, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30482 Milazi, Dominic. Emigration dynamics in Southern Africa. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 1995. 521-56 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author discusses emigration dynamics in Southern Africa. "This section focuses on migrant workers from Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland and emphasizes transition from the mass migration of a hitherto peasant population to a depressed temporary proletariat class of the capitalist social system....Not only are sending countries among the poorest in Southern Africa, but a correlation was found between landlessness (Lesotho), surplus labour (Botswana and Swaziland), political and economic underdevelopment (Mozambique, and to a lesser extent, Zimbabwe and Malawi) and the tendency to emigrate....Flows of `economic' refugees, which constitute the main stream, have been caused by declining land quality, low per capita income and food production as well as demographic imbalances."
Correspondence: D. Milazi, University of Bophuthatswana, Department of Sociology, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 8681, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30483 Mont, Daniel. Welfare and immigrants: restricting the eligibility of legal immigrants for welfare programs. Migration World, Vol. 24, No. 1-2, 1996. 20-8 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The [U.S.] Congress and the Administration are currently proposing to revamp the nation's welfare system. As a result, increasing attention has focused on the participation of legal immigrants in welfare programs. Out of that scrutiny has come a debate about whether legal immigrants should be eligible for public assistance. Several members of Congress have offered proposals that would eliminate or at least seriously curtail the eligibility of legal immigrants for welfare benefits. This paper analyzes the participation rates of legal immigrants in major welfare programs as well as several such proposals."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30484 Oberai, A. S. International labour migration statistics: use of censuses and sample surveys. World Employment Programme Working Paper, No. 75.E, ISBN 92-2-109022-1. 1993. iv, 45 pp. International Labour Office [ILO], World Employment Programme: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to provide a critical review of the adequacy of current sources of data on international migration. Second, to discuss the conceptual and analytical issues related to the measurement of stocks and flows of international migrants and the problems related to international comparability of migration data. Third, to examine the role of national population censuses and specialized sample surveys in generating relevant data for migration policy analysis."
Correspondence: International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: East-West Center Library, Honolulu, HI.

62:30485 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (Paris, France). Migration and the labour market in Asia: prospects to the year 2000. OECD Documents, ISBN 92-64-14775-6. 1996. 270 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
This document contains a selection of the papers prepared for a seminar on the impact of economic growth on Asian labor markets and on international migration. The seminar was held in Tokyo, Japan, January 19-20, 1995. It "presents recent developments in migration in Japan, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. It analyses the major structural changes in the labour markets of several Asian countries and their impact on the scale, nature and direction of migration flows. It examines the orderly movement of workers, the status of immigrants, and the forms of international co-operation that would help to generate more job opportunities in sending countries, the only adequate response to increasing migration."
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Manpower Policy Division, 2 rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30486 Ortiz, Vilma. Migration and marriage among Puerto Rican women. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 2, Summer 1996. 460-84 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effect of family indicators on migration from, and return migration to, Puerto Rico among women in the 1980s. It appears that women use migration to gain independence as single women and mothers since unmarried women were more likely to migrate from Puerto Rico than married women. On the other hand, we see evidence of a traditional route in which women follow men in the migration stream since women recently married were more likely to migrate from, and return to, Puerto Rico. Women married for longer periods of time are the least likely to migrate. Finally, it appears that women use migration to counter limited marriage opportunities in Puerto Rico since unmarried women were less likely to return there and since there were more changes in marital status after women migrated to New York than after returning to Puerto Rico."
Correspondence: V. Ortiz, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30487 Oucho, John O. Emigration dynamics of Eastern African countries. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 1995. 391-434 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author discusses emigration dynamics in Eastern Africa. Sections are included on temporal, spatial, and structural perspectives; types of emigration; measurement issues; the demographic-economic setting; and possible future trends.
Correspondence: J. O. Oucho, University of Nairobi, Population Studies and Research Institute, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30488 Pedersen, Lars. Immigrants in Denmark--a register-based study. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 119-26 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"Statistics on immigrants have traditionally been estimated by means of statistics on foreign nationals and statistics on persons born abroad. This paper gives a summary on how data stored in the Danish population register have been combined to derive the information required. The method used was to include data on parents' place of birth and citizenship as a [way] to estimate the person's citizenship at time of birth. This paper also presents some of the debate the study caused in the Danish newsmedias."
Correspondence: L. Pedersen, Grønlands Statistik, Nuuk, Greenland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30489 Premi, Mahendra K.; Mathur, M. D. Emigration dynamics: the Indian context. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 1995. 627-66 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors investigate emigration dynamics in India. Aspects considered include demographic and sociocultural settings; emigration to industrialized countries and to the Middle East; characteristics of emigrants; return migration; financial flows; community, family, and individual factors; and the political setting.
Correspondence: M. K. Premi, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Centre for the Study of Regional Development, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30490 Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. Resisting migration: the problems of wage rigidity and the social burden. NBER Working Paper, No. 4903, Oct 1994. 16 pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Just like any trade activity in well-functioning markets, migration tends to enhance the efficiency of the allocation of resources. With non-distortionary income distribution policy instruments which can compensate losers, migration generates income gains. But the gains tend to be typically rather small. However, when the labor market is malfunctioning and wages are rigid, migration exacerbates imperfections in the market. Consequently, it may lead to losses to the established population which can be quite sizable."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30491 Salt, John. Migration pressures on Western Europe. In: Europe's population in the 1990s, edited by David Coleman. 1996. 92-126 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The chapter begins by demonstrating that immigration pressures on Western Europe continue to grow. It then reviews the demographic and economic backgrounds to emigration from the east and south, together with some of the main characteristics of the movement that occurs. Finally, it reviews briefly some of the main features of the migration of skills."
Correspondence: J. Salt, University College London, Department of Geography, Migration Research Unit, 26 Bedford Way, London WC1H 0AP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30492 Shah, Nasra M. Emigration dynamics from and within South Asia. International Migration, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 1995. 559-625 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper is a synthesis of current knowledge of the dynamics that govern emigration from and within the South Asia region, defined here as Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. An attempt is made to outline some of the main reasons why observed flows are occurring, and how the future might be envisaged, especially in view of governmental programmes, policies and priorities. Analysis covers permanent migration, labour migration, refugees, asylum seekers, illegal and/or undocumented migration. In the context of South Asia, contract labour migration has become the predominant type and has therefore been given special attention."
Correspondence: N. M. Shah, Kuwait University, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 24923, Safat, Kuwait. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30493 Shu, Jing; Hawthorne, Lesleyanne. Asian student migration to Australia. International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1996. 65-95 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience."
Correspondence: J. Shu, Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research, Melbourne, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30494 Silvestrini, Angela. The population of Albania and migration to Italy. [La popolazione dell'Albania e le migrazioni verso l'Italia.] Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione Working Paper, No. 04/95, [1995]. 41 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione [IRP]: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This monograph uses data from a variety of sources to analyze the impact of the political changes in Albania on population trends, and particularly on migration. The author notes that the surge of emigration that occurred in 1991 has resulted in the presence of many Albanians in Italy. Due to the lack of relevant data, however, it is difficult to estimate their exact numbers, both in Italy and in other countries of destination. Results from a survey of the living conditions of Albanian migrants in Italy are also presented. These show a continuing flow of in- and out-migration between Italy and Albania that is associated with economic difficulties in Albania.
Correspondence: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30495 Simmons, Alan B. International migration, refugee flows and human rights in North America: the impact of free trade and restructuring. ISBN 0-934733-91-0. LC 95-45597. 1996. viii, 335 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
This volume contains revised versions of papers presented at a conference held in Toronto, Canada, in the fall of 1992. The conference focused on aspects of international migration in North America. Particular attention is given to regional trade agreements, such as NAFTA, and the implications for international migration in the region. The 17 papers are organized under four main themes: social and political aspects of restructuring, new trends in international migration, the emerging international division of labor, and refugees and asylum in the Western Hemisphere. Attention is given to the policy implications of these developments.
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30496 Simon, Gildas. North African migration 25 years after. [La migration maghrébine 25 ans après.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1996. 29-35 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews migration trends concerning North Africa from the early 1970s onward. "Starting from a study on the North African migration written in conjunction with Daniel Noin (1972), the author endeavours to review the most significant changes which have affected this important migratory movement since this date."
Correspondence: G. Simon, Université de Poitiers, U.M.R. CNRS MIGRINTER, 95 avenue du Recteur-Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30497 Simon, Julian L. Public expenditures on immigrants to the United States, past and present. Population and Development Review, Vol. 22, No. 1, Mar 1996. 99-109, 202, 204 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Good data show that in the 1970s immigrants to the United States contributed more to the public coffers than they received in public services. The data, displayed here in fuller detail than in an earlier article in this journal, confirm the conclusion set forth by the author more than a decade earlier. This conclusion is corroborated by Canadian studies for the 1980s and 1990s and by the crude U.S. data available for the most recent period. Any excess in welfare expenditures on immigrants relative to natives is probably limited to the narrowly defined category of welfare payments, which are relatively insignificant compared to expenditures on schooling and social security, and probably occurs only among older immigrants."
Correspondence: J. L. Simon, University of Maryland, College of Business and Management, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30498 Spøhr, Hanne. Immigrants in Denmark--possible future trends. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 453-65 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
The author examines trends in immigration to Denmark from developing countries and discusses possible future scenarios. "If the net immigration from the less developed countries continues at the same level as in the last five or ten years, the number of immigrants from these countries will account for 4-6 per cent of the population in Denmark in thirty years. The descendants will account for 2-3 per cent of the total population."
Correspondence: H. Spøhr, Danmarks Statistik, Sejrøgade 11, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30499 Suro, Roberto. Remembering the American dream: Hispanic immigration and national policy. A Twentieth Century Fund Paper, ISBN 0-87078-194-4. LC 94-3744. 1994. x, 125 pp. Twentieth Century Fund Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study concerns current immigration to the United States. It particularly discusses the implications of large-scale Hispanic immigration, primarily from Mexico. This migration is analyzed in the context of the history of immigration to the United States in general and in the framework of the evolution of public policy concerning immigrants. The author considers both the similarities with past migrations and the special features that are present in the current socioeconomic conditions in the United States. The author also reviews the evidence regarding the economic impact of immigration and offers recommendations for changes in policy, including a tax on immigrants. The main conclusion of the study is that emphasis should be placed not on the control of entry, but on assimilating those immigrants who succeed in reaching the United States into the economy and the social life of the country.
Correspondence: Twentieth Century Fund Press, 41 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30500 Tribalat, Michèle. Chronicle of immigration. [Chronique de l'immigration.] Population, Vol. 51, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1996. 141-93 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Immigration trends in France for the years 1993 and 1994 are analyzed using data from the Office de Migrations Internationales and the Office pour la Protection des Réfugiés et Apatrides. Specific attention is given to family migration, requests for asylum, and the relationship between marriage and immigration, using data from the survey on geographic mobility and social integration carried out in 1992 by INED. The data on married and unmarried immigrants are analyzed separately.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30501 Truong, Thanh-Dam. Gender, international migration and social reproduction: implications for theory, policy, research and networking. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1996. 27-52 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This paper aims to contribute to the development of an analytical framework that provides the space for the understanding of female migrants as reproductive workers in a cross-national transfer of labor. It will first provide some hypothetical guidelines for the explanation of female migration in the context of reproductive labor. Based on accessible data, a discussion on the case of Japan will be presented to highlight the main issues and problems concerning female migrants as reproductive workers. Finally, implications on policy-making and networking at the international and national level will be analyzed and discussed, taking into account the specific ideological, political and socioeconomic constraints."
Correspondence: T.-D. Truong, Institute of Social Studies, P.O. Box 90733, 2509 LS The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30502 van de Kaa, Dirk J. International mass migration: a threat to Europe's borders and stability? PDOD Paper, No. 36, Mar 1996. 21 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author discusses the impact on European countries of mass migration. The theoretical foundations of international migration are briefly reviewed. A distinction is made between immigration from third-world countries and intra-European flows. Consequences for Western Europe are outlined, and the possibility of developing a migration policy for Europe is considered.
Correspondence: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Planologisch en Demografisch Instituut, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30503 van der Veer, Peter. Nation and migration: the politics of space in the South Asian diaspora. South Asia Seminar Series, ISBN 0-8122-3259-3. LC 94-28888. 1995. vi, 256 pp. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
This book contains nine papers by various authors on aspects of migration from South Asia to other parts of the world. The focus is on the study of populations of South Indian origin in their current countries of residence. The papers were originally presented at seminars held at the University of Pennsylvania during the academic year 1991-1992. The countries covered include Fiji, Trinidad and Tobago, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Both historical and contemporary aspects of this migration are explored.
Correspondence: University of Pennsylvania Press, P.O. Box 4836, Hampden Station, Baltimore, MD 21211. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30504 Viladesau, Tomás P. Modifications in migration patterns and transborder mobility in Paraguay. [Modificación de patrones migratórios y movilidad transfronteriza en el Paraguay.] Revista Paraguaya de Sociología, Vol. 31, No. 90, May-Aug 1994. 113-29 pp. Asuncion, Paraguay. In Spa.
The author investigates migration patterns from border areas of Paraguay to Argentina and Brazil, with a focus on economic and noneconomic causes. Factors considered include changes in the Argentinean wage structure; the crisis in the Paraguayan economy, especially the agricultural sector; and the Argentinean government's facilitation of illegal migrant assimilation.
Location: New York University Library, New York, New York.

62:30505 Waldorf, B. The internal dynamics of international migration systems. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 28, No. 4, Apr 1996. 631-50 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper I provide a conceptualization of international migration networks, which can be used to identify and integrate the internal components of migration systems, and formalize the relationships in an analytic model of the internal network dynamic. With the use of the operationalized model, and microlevel and macrolevel data for guestworkers in Germany during the period 1970 to 1989, we can empirically test the relative influence of internal network variables versus external forces on the attraction of immigrants over time. The empirical results suggest that--as the system matures--network variables have an increasing impact on the attraction of immigrants, while the impact of economic factors declines. The research is concluded with a series of simulations that further highlight the internal dynamic of international migration systems."
Correspondence: B. Waldorf, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:30506 Wilson, W. R.; Samuel, T. J. India-born immigrants in Australia and Canada: a comparison of selected characteristics. International Migration, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1996. 117-42 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article examines the Indian component of Asian immigration to Canada and Australia, reviews briefly the historical background of Indian immigration, discusses the characteristics of India-born immigrants and explores their social impact upon both nations. A comparative approach is adopted to highlight similarities and differences."
Correspondence: W. R. Wilson, University of Western Sydney, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, P.O. Box 555, Campbelltown, NSW 2560, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30507 Wong, Diana. Foreign domestic workers in Singapore. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1996. 117-38 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the regulatory and economic context of Filipina migration into domestic waged labor in Singapore. It places this migration in the history of female rural-urban migration as well as the history of domestic labor in Singapore. Finally, it raises the question as to why domestic waged labor has persisted in the global capitalist economy."
Correspondence: D. Wong, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Heng Mui Keng Terrace, Pasir Panjang, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30508 Wong, Lloyd L. Chinese capitalist migration to Canada: a sociological interpretation and its effect on Canada. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1995. 465-92 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article examines Chinese capitalist migration from Hong Kong and Taiwan to Canada which took place under the auspices of the Canadian Business Immigration Program. It begins by setting the context of this migration of Chinese capitalists and their capital through a description of the Program and applying sociological theory to explain the process. More specifically, structural models of migration, world systems, political economy and transnationalism are applied which provide an insight and explanation for this migration. Then the role of the state is examined in relation to mediation and social reproduction. The article ends with a trend analysis of this Chinese capitalist migration and its effect on class, cultural transformation, and race and ethnic relations in Canada."
Correspondence: L. L. Wong, Okanagan University College, Okanagan, British Columbia, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30509 Woodrow-Lafield, Karen A. Emigration from the USA: multiplicity survey evidence. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 15, No. 2, Apr 1996. 171-99 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper reports on a way to compensate for the gap in government statistical systems on emigration of U.S. residents. Instead of measuring at point of departure, the approach emphasizes measures of the emigrant population....First this paper describes network sampling and multiplicity adjustment in application to estimating two groups of persons identified as living abroad and having ever lived in the USA--Americans living abroad temporarily...and emigrants. The second section presents these estimates by selected characteristics....The next section discusses possible sources of coverage error and compensating strategy....With alternative assumptions of undercoverage, estimates for total and recent annual emigrants are presented."
This article is partially based on a paper presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: K. A. Woodrow-Lafield, 33 Overbrook Road, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

62:30510 Bandyopadhyay, Sabari; Chakraborty, Debesh. Inter district migration in West Bengal during 1971-81 pattern and causes: an exploratory study. Demography India, Vol. 24, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1995. 133-46 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The paper [is concerned] with the pattern of inter-district migration in the State of West Bengal [India] and intends to establish the fact that the inter-district migration took place from the less developed districts." Data are from the 1981 census.
Correspondence: S. Bandyopadhyay, Jadavpur University, Department of Economics, Calcutta 700 032, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30511 Bengtsson, Tommy; Johansson, Mats. The new migration transition--the case of post-industrial Sweden. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 217-35 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"Today, the long distance migration in Sweden has slowed down. A transition from a society with high flows of long distance migration to a society with low flows has taken place during the past decades. This phenomenon, which is largely unknown to a wider audience, is analysed in this paper. We argue that the main reason for the new migration transition is that people find it easier to find jobs in traditional outmigration areas mainly because of the expansion of the public sector and increased public transfers, but also as a result of changes in the age composition of the population. First, we analyse the structural transformation of the Swedish economy and its regional patterns. Secondly, the regional migration is analysed. Finally we discuss the factors behind the new migration transition."
Correspondence: T. Bengtsson, University of Lund, Department of Economic History, P.O. Box 117, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30512 Bolan, Marc. The mobility transition and neighborhood attachment. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 96-7, 1995. 32, [3] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
"In this study I consider the role of a unique set of determinants associated with an individual's move into his/her current residence in explaining patterns of neighborhood attachment [in the United States]. Using the 1978-1979 Seattle Community Attachment Survey, I found that elements of this mobility transition such as an individual's past history of migration, the motivations for moving, the amount of time involved in the move, and the distance traveled during the move have an effect on short and long term attachment patterns independent of residential stability and social investment predictors."
Correspondence: University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30513 Carrington, William J.; Detragiache, Enrica; Vishwanath, Tara. Migration with endogenous moving costs. American Economic Review, Vol. 86, No. 4, Sep 1996. 909-30 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"We study a dynamic model of labor migration in which moving costs decrease with the number of migrants already settled in the destination. This assumption is supported by sociological studies of migrant networks. With endogenous moving costs migration occurs gradually over time. Once it starts, it develops momentum, and migratory flows may increase even as wage differentials narrow. In addition, migration tends to follow geographical channels, and low-moving-cost individuals migrate first. These patterns are consistent with historical evidence from the Great Black Migration of 1915-1960 [in the United States], much of which cannot be reconciled with existing migration models."
Correspondence: W. J. Carrington, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Economics, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30514 Creedy, John. The economics of ageing. International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, No. 51, ISBN 1-85278-827-5. LC 94-49066. 1995. xxii, 623 pp. Edward Elgar Publishing: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England. In Eng.
"This volume collects 32 journal papers concerned with a variety of economic aspects of individual and population ageing. They have been arranged under four main headings as follows: individual ageing and the life cycle; population ageing; ageing and social insurance; and macroeconomic effects. The...Introduction...aims to set the context and discuss some of the major issues. In view of the central role of population dynamics, it seems useful to provide a discussion of the systematic demographic changes that have taken place over time, along with an examination of the basic analytics of population change. The implications for social expenditure are then discussed." The primary geographical focus is on the developed industrialized countries.
Correspondence: Edward Elgar Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hampshire GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30515 Ekberg, Jan. Internal migration among immigrants in Sweden: a longitudinal study. In: Demography, economy and welfare, edited by Christer Lundh. 1995. 236-46 pp. Lund University Press: Lund, Sweden; Chartwell-Bratt: Bromley, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this article is to compare the migration rates and patterns of immigrants and native Swedes. The results presented are basically descriptive....[We investigate] whether immigrants' contribution to the attainment of the macro-economic goals in any way differs from that of native Swedes....The investigation is based on longitudinal data concerning foreign-born persons living in Sweden at the time of the 1970 Census. Their internal migration is studied for the period 1970-1985."
Correspondence: J. Ekberg, Växjö University, School of Management and Economics, 351 95 Växjö, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30516 Ellis, M. The postdiagnosis mobility of people with AIDS. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 28, No. 6, Jun 1996. 999-1,017 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper is an analysis of the postdiagnosis mobility of people diagnosed with AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in Florida. I infer intrastate mobility by comparing the county of diagnosis on an individual's AIDS case report with that on the matched death certificate; this allows the measurement of migration within the state of Florida for 4,393 people through October, 1989--46% of the total cases by that time. Out-migration rates in rural counties are very high, approximately 50%, whereas those in large metropolitan counties are less than 10%; however, these rates depend on race. The data show that migrants moved to places with concentrations of health-care facilities, and that there is a flow of migrants from rural to urban places, particularly to large metropolitan areas. The results suggest that the spatial distribution of people with AIDS changes in the period after diagnosis, becoming more concentrated in places where there are good health-care facilities."
Correspondence: M. Ellis, University of California, Department of Geography, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1524. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:30517 Faus-Pujol, Maria C. Half a century of internal migration in Spain. [Un demi-siècle de migrations internes en Espagne.] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 1, 1996. 111-20 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The great mobility of the population in the second half of the 20th century is probably the most important socio-economic phenomenon of the century in Spain. For this study we have made a distinction between three stages according to the socio-political and socio-economic circumstances which, in our judgement, have given rise to the great internal migratory movements in the second half of the century: firstly, the postwar period between 1940 and 1960; secondly, the period of the [development plans] from 1960 to 1975, and finally, the period of European integration when a new model of population distribution is consolidated."
Correspondence: M. C. Faus-Pujol, Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Geografía y Ordenación del Territorio, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30518 Frey, William H. Immigration impacts on internal migration of the poor: 1990 census evidence for U.S. states. International Journal of Population Geography, Vol. 1, No. 1, Sep 1995. 51-67 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"This article presents newly-available migration data from the 1990 U.S. census to assess immigration and internal migration components as they affect state poverty populations. New immigrant waves are heavily focused on only a few `port-of-entry' states. It is suggested that these immigrants have begun to impact upon internal migration into and out of these `high immigration states', and have also altered the national system of internal migration patterns. This article addresses three questions: How do the magnitudes of poverty population out-migration from high immigration states compare with those of other states? Is this out-migration selective on particular social and demographic groups? Is immigration a significant determinant of internal migration of the poor population? The results of this analysis are consistent with the view that recent, focused immigration is associated with out-migration among a state's poor longer-term residents."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30519 Fuguitt, Glenn V.; Beale, Calvin L. Recent trends in nonmetropolitan migration: toward a new turnaround? Growth and Change, Vol. 27, No. 2, Spring 1996. 156-74 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
An attempt is made to review migration trends in the United States over the past 30 years. The emphasis is on changes in migration patterns between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. "Annual net migration estimates are examined, considering the changing metropolitan-nonmetropolitan differential, and differences across geographic and functional county types in nonmetropolitan areas. Some differences stand out across the 24-year period, but the most notable finding is the widespread nature of the turnaround, the reversal, and the current recovery. There are differences between the present and the 1970s, but a trend toward greater retention and/or acquisition of people in rural and small town areas is clear."
Correspondence: G. V. Fuguitt, University of Wisconsin, Department of Rural Sociology, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30520 Goldstein, Alice; Goldstein, Sidney. Migration motivations and outcomes: permanent and temporary migrants compared. In: China: the many facets of demographic change, edited by Alice Goldstein and Wang Feng. 1996. 187-212 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Fuller understanding of migration...requires attention to the many forms of movement, to take into account both temporal and geographic factors--streams of migration, types of mobility, and conditions at places of origin and destination, and to the characteristics of the migrants. Using data from a survey undertaken in Hubei Province, [China], this paper explores some of these factors, especially to assess the level of satisfaction with place of destination of men and women who are the temporary or permanent migrants."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: A. Goldstein, Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30521 Graizbord, Boris; Mina, Alejandro. The geographic scope of migration in Mexico City. [Los ámbitos geográficos del componente migratorio de la ciudad de México.] Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1994. 609-28, 784 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper reports some results of analyzing migratory dynamics in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, which ever since the 1970-1980 decade have affected other regions of the country, mainly the State of Mexico. The analysis describes different types and modes of migratory movement: metropolitan (from Mexico City), inter-county (within each state), and interstate (between Mexico City and other states). Data was provided by the XI Population and Household Census of 1990."
Correspondence: B. Graizbord, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Demográficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico City, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30522 Kawabe, Hiroshi; Liaw, Kao-Lee. Selective effects of marriage migrations on the population redistribution in a hierarchical regional system of Japan. Geographical Review of Japan, Series B, Vol. 67, No. 1, 1994. 1-14 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"Based on the data on 11,470 household heads and spouses in a national survey [in Japan], this paper studies the selective effects of marriage migrations on five types of prefectures: (1) metropolitan core, (2) suburban, (3) regional growth pole, (4) peripheral non-kaso, and (5) peripheral kaso prefectures. The selective effects are examined in terms of five personal factors: sex, nativity, education, period of marriage, and sibling status....Primary and onward migrations were much more important than return migrations so that marriage migrations increased the non-native's share of the population of every type of [prefecture]. Marriage migrations resulted in further deterioration of the quality of human capital in peripheral prefectures. The transition from high to moderate economic growth in the early 1970s was accompanied by sharp reversals in the net transfers of marriage migrants in metropolitan cores and regional growth poles in opposite directions."
Correspondence: H. Kawabe, Senshu University, Tama-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa, Japan. Location: University of Florida Libraries, Tallahassee, FL.

62:30523 Moon, Bruce. Paradigms in migration research: exploring "moorings" as a schema. Progress in Human Geography, Vol. 19, No. 4, Dec 1995. 504-24 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"When considering where migration research interests may proceed, this article suggests much could be gained by considering theories of human motivation which, in the field of social psychology, represents a theoretical progression from the behavioural and cognitive approaches. The article suggests that combining theories of human motivation with the developing understanding of cultural influences may provide linkages between, on the one hand, the personal realm of migration and, on the other, the regional institutional framework of politicoeconomic structure within which people make their decisions....The focus is on the migrant who remains within the same broad cultural context (such as within the same nation or ethnic group), but travels away from the confines of the general area in which he or she previously resided. Thus a person undertaking intraurban relocation is not regarded here as a `migrant', and the schema proposed will probably not apply to international migration."
Correspondence: B. Moon, Queensland University of Technology, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30524 Newbold, K. B. Income, self-selection, and return and onward interprovincial migration in Canada. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 28, No. 6, Jun 1996. 1,019-34 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Estimated returns to migration based on comparison of individual migrants may be biased owing to self-selection in the migration process. Using data derived from the 1986 Canadian census, I will study the effects of expected wage differentials in determining the return or onward migration decision of nonnative adults aged 20 to 64 years. Evidence was found that return migrations were in the `right' direction, as they are observed to respond to provincial economic variables (that is, average employment growth and income levels) in a rational manner. After accounting for self-selectivity, I found that...return migrants...are negatively selected, and experience lower income levels, following the return migration, than onward migrants would have, had they chosen the return migration option. This drop in expected wages decreases the propensity associated with making a return migration. Despite this drop in income, the large proportion selecting the return migration option suggests the importance of the province of birth in the mental map of nonnative migrants."
Correspondence: K. B. Newbold, University of Illinois, Department of Geography, 220 Davenport Hall, 607 South Mathews, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:30525 Pandey, Himanshu. Modelling on rural out-migration system: a probabilistic approach. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 24, No. 2, Dec 1995. 343-8 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to develop a probability model describing the variation in...total out-migration [using] micro-level data. The parameters involved in the models are estimated with the help of [the] method of moment, proportion of zeroth cell and one'th cell respectively, [and] the suitability of [the] model [is] tested through observed demographic survey data [for India]."
Correspondence: H. Pandey, University of Gorakhpur, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Gorakhpur 273 009, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30526 Ram, Bali; Shin, Y. Edward; Pouliot, Michel. Canadians on the move. Focus on Canada, Pub. Order No. 96-309E. ISBN 0-13-310343-9. 1994. 74 pp. Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada; Prentice Hall Canada: Scarborough, Canada. In Eng.
"Using census data, this study attempts to present some recent trends and patterns of mobility of Canadians....Chapter 1 of this study examines the extent of Canadians' mobility and migration since 1961 at the national, provincial and territorial levels. Chapter 2 presents a discussion on the selective character of migration....The cultural dimensions of geographic mobility are discussed in Chapter 3....Chapter 4 examines two economic aspects of migration: unemployment and income....Interprovincial migration, both in terms of magnitude and direction of the movement, is the subject of Chapter 5....Chapter 6 presents some patterns of rural-urban and metropolitan-nonmetropolitan migration, and the final section presents some conclusions and implications."
Correspondence: Prentice Hall Canada, 1870 Birchmount Road, Scarborough, Ontario M1P 2J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30527 Stillwell, John; Duke-Williams, Oliver; Rees, Philip. Time series migration in Britain: the context for 1991 census analysis. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 74, No. 4, Oct 1995. 341-59 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"An administrative register, the National Health Service Central Register (NHSCR), is used by the Census Office (OPCS) to produce counts of NHS patients re-registering in different Family Health Service Authorities (FHSAs) in England and Wales. These movement data can be used to establish how unique or typical the migration occurring in the year prior to the Census was in relation to that for the whole decade. This paper examines national, regional and local examples of the information that can be extracted from a database system called TIMMIG that provides access to an NHSCR migration time series and a parallel series of mid-year population estimates. In advance of the publication of Special Migration Statistics, a preliminary comparison is made between the levels of in-migration to FHSA areas recorded in the NHSCR and in the 1991 Census."
Correspondence: J. Stillwell, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:30528 Tu, Jow-ching. Migration patterns on the Chinese mainland after the mid-1980s. Journal of Population Studies, No. 17, Apr 1996. 153-71 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper studies the inter- and intra-provincial migration patterns, major streams, the demographic characteristics of migrants and their reasons based on the 1990 100% China census. Under the government efforts [to move] to a market economy, the household registration system gradually loses its function. The social and economic impacts of [the] significant size of floating population [in] cities are addressed."
Correspondence: J.-c. Tu, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Division of Social Sciences, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30529 Warnes, Anthony M.; Ford, Reuben. Housing aspirations and migration in later life: developments during the 1980s. Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 74, No. 4, Oct 1995. 361-87 pp. Urbana, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper tests hypotheses concerning the differentiation of early and late old age in the United Kingdom with reference to housing preferences and requirements and their translation into migration. Evidence is drawn from the 1991...census and from a representative sample of elderly people in SE England. The sources demonstrate the continued elaboration of long-distance, metropolitan-decentralizing migrations around the age of retirement. Also shown are relatively high rates of residential mobility among people in their seventies and eighties. Most of their migrations are short distance, but nonetheless with a net redistributional effect that sustains urban decentralization at the oldest ages. There is no evidence of significant return migration to London at advanced ages. From the survey responses, distinctive housing dissatisfactions are identified in early and late retirement, but neither set exactly matches expressed motivations for moves."
Correspondence: A. M. Warnes, University of Sheffield, Department of Health Care for Elderly People, Sheffield S5 7AU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:30530 Yang, Xiushi. Economic reforms and spatial mobility. In: China: the many facets of demographic change, edited by Alice Goldstein and Wang Feng. 1996. 167-85 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Here we employ two perspectives to examine the relation between economic reforms and spatial mobility [in China], using Zhejiang province as a case study. First, the analysis focuses on how economic reforms in general affect the volume of internal migration and migrant characteristics; it is limited, however, to permanent migration because information on temporary migration was collected for 1986 only, and no comparison to pre-reform is possible. Second, the analysis will move to the interrelation between patterns of economic development and internal migration, both permanent and temporary, from rural and urban places."
Correspondence: X. Yang, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30531 Zhang, Qingwu. A survey of floating population in 50 townships in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1995. 229-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The survey on floating population in 50 townships [in China], conducted by the Ministry of Public Security and completed in January, 1991, is so far the only survey on floating population conducted [on] origins of emigration. The survey reveals basic and detailed information about the floating population survey areas--their total number, gender, age, occupation, education, marital status, time of emigration, occupation after emigration, income, and condition of residence--and offers a whole set of data for research on floating population from emigration origins."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

62:30532 Ales, Milan. The resettlement of Germans and statistics. [Odsun Nemcu a statistika.] Statistika, No. 5, 1996. 195-9 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper puts together and comments on available statistical data on the resettlement of Germans out of the area of today's Czech Republic after the year 1945. Available are only data of the then American and Soviet occupation administration in Germany and Czechoslovak statistics about food rations for Germans. These sources reveal that approximately 2.7 million Germans were removed out of the Republic in the period of 1945-1947 in the framework of organized resettlement."
Correspondence: M. Ales, Ceský Statistický Úrad, Sokolovská 142, 186 04 Prague, Karlin--8, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:30533 Eltigani, Eltigani E. War and drought in Sudan: essays on population displacement. ISBN 0-8130-1336-4. LC 94-34182. 1995. xii, 114 pp. University Press of Florida: Gainesville, Florida. In Eng.
This book contains nine studies by different authors on aspects of the population displacement that has occurred in Sudan over the past decade as a consequence of the ongoing civil war being waged in the country. It also "effectively documents the devastation that Sudan has experienced as a result of chronic civil war and natural disaster. The economic drain on the country as a result of the war represents a tremendous loss of precious potential development capital. And the loss in human terms is almost incalculable: the casualties of war; the children without families and without hope of education; the displacement of rural farmers and pastoralists and the disruption or destruction of their economy; the reduction in productivity of a country drained by war; the devolution of virtually every human service, from education and health to the availability of food and commodities; and the loss of Sudan's most precious resource--its people...who have been forced to flee the country by the hundreds of thousands as a result of economic hardship or political disturbance."
Correspondence: University Press of Florida, 15 Northwest 15th Street, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30534 Khraif, Rshood M. The elderly return-migration in the United States: role of place attributes and individual characteristics in destination choice. Geographical Bulletin, Vol. 37, No. 1, May 1995. 29-39 pp. Ypsilanti, Michigan. In Eng.
Return migration of the aged in the United States is analyzed using data from the five percent Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1980 census. "Results indicate that a recently retired elderly person is likely to select his/her place (state) of birth if it has a pleasant climate and low living costs. Also the less wealthy and single people are more likely to select their places of birth than other migrants. In general, it has been found that place characteristics are influential in the decisions of return migration of the recently retired."
Correspondence: R. M. Khraif, King Saud University, Department of Geography, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:30535 Nickerson, Joshua B. Micro-enterprise development schemes as effective reintegration assistance programs for voluntarily-repatriated Vietnamese asylum seekers. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1995. 493-515 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"From the creation of the Comprehensive Plan of Action (CPA) in 1989 through December 1994, about sixty-eight thousand asylum seekers have voluntarily repatriated to Vietnam. In response to this reverse migration, the international community has funded numerous reintegration assistance programs to facilitate the asylum seekers' return. This article examines reintegration assistance programs currently operating in Vietnam and presents an argument that small scale income generation projects constitute the most effective and efficient use of scarce repatriation funding."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30536 Smith, Stanley K.; McCarty, Christopher. Demographic effects of natural disasters: a case study of Hurricane Andrew. Demography, Vol. 33, No. 2, May 1996. 265-75 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"In this paper we describe and evaluate a method for measuring the effects of Hurricane Andrew on the housing stock and population distribution in Dade County, Florida. Using information collected through sample surveys and from other data sources, we investigate the extent of housing damages, the number of people forced out of their homes, where they went, how long they stayed, and whether they returned to their prehurricane residences. We conclude that more than half the housing units in Dade County were damaged by Hurricane Andrew; that more than 353,000 people were forced to leave their homes, at least temporarily; and that almost 40,000 people left the county permanently as a direct result of the hurricane. We believe that this study will provide methodological guidance to analysts studying the demographic effects of other large-scale natural disasters."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: S. K. Smith, University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 221 Matherly Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-7140. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

62:30537 Borjas, George J.; Bratsberg, Bernt. Who leaves? The outmigration of the foreign-born. NBER Working Paper, No. 4913, Nov 1994. 30, [10] pp. National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER]: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the return migration of foreign-born persons in the United States. We argue that return migration may have been planned as part of an optimal life cycle residential location sequence. Return migration also occurs because immigrants based their initial migration decision on erroneous information about opportunities in the United States....Immigrants tend to return to wealthy countries which are not too far from the United States. Moreover, return migration accentuates the type of selection characterizing the immigrant population left in the United States."
Correspondence: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30538 Galvez, Janet; McLarty, Carol. Measurement of Florida temporary residents using a telephone survey. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1996. 25-42 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
Some problems concerning the estimation of levels of temporary migration in the United States are examined. "This paper examines methodologies reported in the literature and suggests an `add-on' telephone survey design that is replicable....Results from a cross section of a Florida telephone survey are compared to results obtained using a similar instrument in Arizona. The telephone survey promises both cost effectiveness and a design that can be repeated in different locations. This methodology, applied across states and areas, will provide a unified approach to collecting data on temporary migrants in the U.S. population."
Correspondence: J. Galvez, University of Florida, College of Business Administration, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, P.O. Box 7145, Gainesville, FL 32611-7145. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

62:30539 Wyman, Mark. Round-trip to America: the immigrants return to Europe, 1880-1930. ISBN 0-8014-2875-0. LC 93-18180. 1993. x, 267 pp. Cornell University Press: Ithaca, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This study concerns American immigrants who returned permanently to their countries of origin, primarily in Europe, between 1880 and 1930. The author examines four main questions: "How were immigrants who planned to return home different from those who expected to put down roots in America--especially in motivations for leaving Europe and expectations for life in the United States? How were these temporary immigrants different while living and working in America, and how did this experience change them? What were the temporary immigrants' influences on America? What did remigrants carry back (in their hands as well as in their heads), and how was the homeland affected by their return?" The study examines the impact of the returning immigrants on both the United States and their countries of origin.
Correspondence: Cornell University Press, Sage House, 512 East State Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

62:30540 Anyanwu, Sarah O. A quantitative analysis of major determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3, Nov 1992. 177-94 pp. Ibadan, Nigeria. In Eng.
"This paper discusses some major determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria using the logit estimation technique. It utilizes cross-sectional data generated from a national sample survey of internal migration conducted...between January and March 1988....The empirical results revealed that the significant determinants of rural-urban migration in Nigeria are income, contact, cost, spoken English, ability to speak two Nigerian languages, distance, marital status, sex and ethnicity. The results further suggest that rural-urban migration is selective of single people and males. Proximity to urban areas where prospective migrants have relatives, friends and townspeople is an important factor."
Correspondence: S. O. Anyanwu, Federal University of Technology, Department of Management Sciences, Yola, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:30541 Dione, Diène. Migration, urbanization, and development policy in Senegal. [Migration, urbanisation et politique de développement au Sénégal.] Annales de la Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines, No. 22, 1992. 175-89 pp. Dakar, Senegal. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The various studies focussing on human settlements in Senegal show that the share of population living in cities is ever increasing because of the massive and continuous flow from rural areas. The persistance of such migration trends from the country to cities deepens regional disparities, compounds the difficulties and cost of city management and development, specially in the case of Dakar, and runs counter to the goals of social and economic development plans....The growing importance of such phenomena calls for the designing of corrective measures in favour of rural areas and small towns in order to settle rural populations and halt the inordinate and chaotic geographical growth of large cities. Failing this, development efforts may well be compromised."
Correspondence: D. Dione, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Département de Géographie, Dakar-Fann, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30542 Patnaik, Ajay. Agriculture and rural out-migration in Central Asia, 1960-91. Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 47, No. 1, 1995. 147-69 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"This article seeks to analyse agrarian structure and policy in the Soviet period and discuss their effect on migration from rural to urban areas. In the case of [Soviet] Central Asia, neither the various steps to bring down labour intensity in the farm sector, nor the falling standard of living in rural areas, could bring about migration from rural to urban areas. This was because in traditional societies economic mechanisms are not effective unless they are complemented by appropriate social and cultural policies. All policies were oriented towards the state's goal of vertical integration of regions with the central economy. In Central Asia in particular this policy resulted in serious distortions in the social and economic spheres."
Correspondence: A. Patnaik, Jawaharlal Nehru University, School of International Studies, Centre for Soviet and East European Studies, 159 Uttarakhan, New Campus, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:30543 Sharma, H. L. Some observations on migration from rural areas: an evaluation of generalized inflated geometric distribution. Janasamkhya, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jun 1993. 51-6 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"Under certain simplifying assumptions relating to the migration process, generalized inflated geometric distribution for some observations on migration from rural areas has been evaluated. The parameters involved in the distribution are estimated by [the] maximum likelihood method. The elements of the information matrix are given for the determination of variances and covariances of the estimates. The distribution is applied to an example [for India] and provides an adequate fit to the data."
Correspondence: H. L. Sharma, College of Agricultural Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, JNKVV, Adhartal, Jabalpur 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30544 Tcha, MoonJoong. Altruism, conflict, and the migration decision. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1995. 289-312 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"This paper uses a dynastic model with intergenerational altruism to analyse rural-urban migration during times of high unemployment rates and low expected income, and to explain the higher mobility of young generations. Different dynastic utilities between generations lead to conflicts between generations on migration decisions, and predict the higher mobility of the young generation. In addition, the model explores how the degree of altruism affects the migration decision."
Correspondence: M. Tcha, University of Western Australia, Department of Economics, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:30545 Truong, Si Anh; Gubry, Patrick; Vu, Thi Hong; Huguet, Jerrold W. Ho Chi Minh City: from migration to employment. [Ho Chi Minh Ville: de la migration à l'emploi.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 40, ISBN 2-87762-090-5. Jun 1996. 52 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Vie.
"The urban agglomeration of Ho Chi Minh City functions as the main development pole of Vietnam....The main characteristics of migrants and the labour force in the city are analyzed, based on a survey undertaken in 1994. Some findings are similar to those in other countries of South-East Asia, such as the predominance of female migrants. Other results are more distinctive, such as the relatively high education level among the migrants, lower levels of unemployment than expected, the limited participation of migrants in the informal sector, and the relatively high income of migrants."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30546 Yadava, K. N. S.; Kushwaha, S. N. S.; Yadava, G. S. Some models for patterns of urbanization, migration and development. Janasamkhya, Vol. 10, No. 1-2, Dec 1992. 61-74 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This paper aims to study the pattern of urbanization and the evolution of [the] relationship between rural-urban migration and the degree of economic development taking Gross National Product...into consideration. Intercensal age-specific rural net out-migration rates are also estimated from [tabulations] of the proportion of rural population of India by age through a recently developed procedure based on generalized stable population by Stupp (1989). A comparative study is also made between [the] survival column of India with a developed nation like Japan."
Correspondence: K. N. S. Yadava, Banaras Hindu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Statistics, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:30547 Yadava, Surendar S.; Yadava, K. N. S. Migration, urbanization, and economic development in India. Journal of Population, Vol. 1, No. 2, Dec 1995. 157-73 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"An attempt has been made in this paper to quantitatively link the rural-urban net migration rate over time with the processes of urbanization and development [in India], especially economic development. For a number of rural-urban natural increase differentials the estimated values of urbanization, using the proposed models, are found quite close to the observed pattern of urbanization based on economic development. The estimates of rural-urban migration rates have also been computed. The paper also explores the application of the recently developed intercensal estimation technique of Stupp (1989) to estimate the age-specific rural net out-migration rate in India for males and females separately. A comparative study has also been made between India and Japan in terms of rural out-migration. It is observed that the probability of still being in the rural area up to the age of 15, given an individual was living in rural area at age 5, is 0.91 for males for India and 0.75 for Japan."
Correspondence: S. S. Yadava, University of Northern Iowa, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Cedar Falls, IA 50614-0401. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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