Volume 62 - Number 2 - Summer 1996

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

62:20459 Assadian, Afsaneh. Fiscal determinants of migration to a fast-growing state: how the aged differ from the general population. Review of Regional Studies, Vol. 25, No. 3, Winter 1995. 301-15 pp. Knoxville, Tennessee. In Eng.
"This paper utilizes 1980-89 data on Florida's metropolitan areas to test the hypothesis that fiscal variables have differing influences on the in-migration of the aged as compared to the general population. The model, which is based on the Tiebout hypothesis, tests the role of variables which represent public school-related finances and public assistance....Consistent with the Teibout theory, the general population is found to prefer high public school-related spending and low taxes. The elderly, in contrast, choose locations where school spending and taxes are low. Nonschool-related taxes positively impact the migration of both groups. Contrary to previous studies, there is evidence of a role, albeit a mostly negative one, for the economic determinants of elderly migration. The possible importance of quality of life influences is also suggested by the findings."
Correspondence: A. Assadian, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20460 Burda, Michael C. Migration and the option value of waiting. Economic and Social Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Oct 1995. 1-19 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
"Migration is an investment: it involves fixed, unrecoverable costs and uncertain future returns. If migration can be postponed, the option value of doing so may have positive value. Migration may not occur for a range of individuals who would otherwise migrate on a net present value basis. This paper models the migration decision using ideas developed by Pindyck (1991) and Dixit (1992). The option value of waiting is related to the interest rate, fixed costs, and especially uncertainty governing the evolution of income at home and abroad. The `bad news principle' predicts that only unfavourable states of the world will affect the value of the migration option. In a rational intertemporal equilibrium of two regional labour markets, low migration rates may coexist with large or even increasing current wage differentials."
Correspondence: M. C. Burda, Humboldt-Universität, 1080 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20461 Courgeau, Daniel. From the group to the individual: what can be learned from migratory behaviour. Population: An English Selection, Vol. 7, 1995. 145-62 pp. Paris, France. In Eng.
"Depending on whether the human sciences deal with group or individual behavior, the assumptions, objectives, formulations and characteristics considered will be very different. In [this] paper, we...look at the [modeling] of those behaviour patterns which help clarify the problems encountered when passing from one level to the other. These problems will first be presented in a general form, and then more fully explained using the example of migratory behaviour....So as to examine in greater detail how these two levels are intertwined, we shall first define the models which are most often applied to each of them separately. These models will then be simplified, as they will be used initially to analyse out-migrant streams. [They] will then be reformulated using the same characteristics for the two levels and a theoretical comparison will be undertaken of the results they produce. We shall apply these formulae to data from the [1981 French] `Family, occupational and migration histories'...survey...."
For the original French version of this article, see 60:30395.
Correspondence: D. Courgeau, Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20462 Dey, Chhonda; Chakraborty, Debesh. Migration in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands during 1901-1981: trend and pattern. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 167-82 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to present an overall picture of migration in the entire group of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1901-1981....It also indicates the social, economic and other forces responsible for the movement of the population and brings to light the nature of population redistribution in the Territory." Results indicate that "the migrants in the Islands formed an important constituent of population. In 1981, 58% of the total population were migrants....It is observed that 90% of the migrants from countries other than India were displaced migrants. The movement of these migrants was rather forced in nature. The rest of the migrants from other countries largely came to the Islands for employment and other services."
Correspondence: C. Dey, Jadavpur University, Department of Economics, Calcutta 700 032, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20463 Gordon, I. R.; Molho, I. Duration dependence in migration behaviour: cumulative inertia versus stochastic change. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 27, No. 12, Dec 1995. 1,961-75 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper a new theoretical framework and supporting empirical evidence on the relationship between movement probabilities and length of stay are presented. Individuals' evaluations of the relative value of alternative locations are assumed to evolve stochastically, with a possible tendency either to cumulative inertia or to cumulative stress. In general this yields a nonmonotonic duration function, with probabilities of movement starting at zero, rising and then falling--a pattern consistent with either cumulative tendency, or neither. A version of the model fitted to data on household movement intentions, from the U.K. General Household Survey, confirms the hypothesised form of this function and indicates a dominance of cumulative stress over cumulative inertia."
Correspondence: I. R. Gordon, University of Reading, Department of Geography, Reading RG6 2AB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:20464 Gorenflo, L. J.; Levin, Michael J. Changing migration patterns in the Federated States of Micronesia. ISLA: A Journal of Micronesian Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1995. 29-71 pp. Mangilao, Guam. In Eng.
"This article traces the changing role of migration in the Federated States of Micronesia during the twentieth century. We begin with a brief geographical, historical, and cultural overview of each state in the country, summarizing demographic change over the past 70 years and providing a foundation for understanding much of the area's past and present human mobility. Attention then turns to migration within the Federated States, focusing on data from censuses conducted in 1930, 1973, and 1980 and using supplemental information when possible. Emigration to destinations outside the country is examined briefly. Finally, we discuss potential causes and impacts of mobility in this emerging island nation."
Correspondence: L. J. Gorenflo, Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Assessment Division, 955 L'Enfant Plaza SW, Suite 6000, Washington, D.C. 20024-2168. Location: Stanford University Library, Stanford, CA.

62:20465 Hampl, Martin; Kühnl, Karel. Migratory trends in former Czechoslovakia. Acta Universitatis Carolinae: Geographica, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1993. 53-72 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Eng. with sum. in Cze.
The authors analyze migration trends in the former Czechoslovakia. "Most attention is focused on the search for specificities of two sorts. On the one hand this is the peculiarity of the geographical organization of the migratory relationships in a concrete territory as a secondary specification of a general pattern (the effect of the peculiarities in the location and hierarchical differentiation of the centres, the positional exposure of the regions, etc.) and on the other hand...about the peculiarities resulting from the distorted control of the society." Sections are included on macroregional differentiation, the position of Prague, and the prospective development of migration.
Correspondence: M. Hampl, Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Prague, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20466 Kane, Hal. What's driving migration? World Watch, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 23-33 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author briefly reviews worldwide changes in the cause of migration over time. Patterns since 1500 and projections through 2050 are discussed.
Correspondence: H. Kane, Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20467 Mueser, Peter R.; Graves, Philip E. Examining the role of economic opportunity and amenities in explaining population redistribution. Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 37, No. 2, Mar 1995. 176-200 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper develops a model of migration integrating equilibrium and disequilibrium components in which individuals and firms form rational expectations about future opportunities. Levels of migration are derived as functions of variations in factors influencing migrant labor demand (`economic opportunity') and migrant labor supply (`residential amenities'). The model is used to estimate the extent to which migration in the United States over the period 1950-1980 is determined by these two classes of exogenous factors."
Correspondence: P. R. Mueser, University of Missouri, Department of Economics, 188 Professional Building, Columbia, MO 65211. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20468 Tcha, MoonJoong. Altruism, household size and migration. Economics Letters, Vol. 49, No. 4, Oct 1995. 441-5 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper considers the effect of altruism on the relationship between the size of households and the migration decision. It is shown that when the parent has higher altruism toward her children, (i) the household is more likely to migrate, and (ii) the marginal gain from migration increases as the size of the household increases."
Correspondence: M. Tcha, University of Western Australia, Department of Economics, Nedlands, Western Australia 6907, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20469 Tobler, Waldo. Migration: Ravenstein, Thornthwaite, and beyond. Urban Geography, Vol. 16, No. 4, May-Jun 1995. 327-43 pp. Palm Beach, Florida. In Eng.
"Over one hundred years have passed since Ernst Georg Ravenstein published his `Laws of Migration'. This paper addresses the question of how these laws have withstood the test of time. Ravenstein's 1885 paper also includes a map of `Currents of Migration', not mentioned in the text, which this article examines for its impacts on the study of migration. Warren Thornthwaite (1934) also compared migration to currents, but did not pursue this analogy in subsequent work. Others have used similar terminology, and examination of more recent migration studies suggests that they may yield new laws."
Correspondence: W. Tobler, University of California, Department of Geography, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4060. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:20470 Zajonckovskaja, Zana. Migration in post-Soviet Russia: a glimpse of the past and a reflection of current changes. [Les migrations dans la Russie post-soviétique: reflet du passé et miroir des changements en cours.] Revue d'Etudes Comparatives Est-Ouest, Vol. 26, No. 4, Dec 1995. 81-99, 198 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This article explores the impact on migration of recent political changes following the collapse of the Soviet Union. "Thus the first period was marked by a new direction in the migratory processes, and the appearance in 1990-92 of massive waves of refugees, reflecting the upheaval which the disintegration of the Union caused in the population. Subsequently, the resumption of `normal' migratory trends, and the return to evolutionary trends show that Russia is well on the way to a market economy, compared with most of the former republics. The further one distances oneself from the date of the collapse of the USSR, the more apparent the gulf among the new states which took shape on its territory, in respect of their political systems, the pace of economic reform, the drop in production and in populations' living standards, and in social stability. We are witnessing a re-definition of socio-economic alignments within the former USSR."
Correspondence: Z. Zajonckovskaja, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Economic Forecasting, Leninsky Pr. 14, 117901 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

62:20471 Allen, James P.; Turner, Eugene. Spatial patterns of immigrant assimilation. Professional Geographer, Vol. 48, No. 2, May 1996. 140-55 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This research compares the contemporary areal patterning of cultural and economic assimilation [of U.S. immigrants] with patterns expected from a model of urban spatial assimilation described by Massey and modified by us. Using 1990 census data (PUMS) for 12 immigrant groups in the greater Los Angeles area, we locate the ethnic concentrations of each group and identify two additional zones based on distance from the concentration. The zones represent varying degrees of spatial assimilation. This method allows us to compare the distribution of immigrant cohorts over time and the degree of cultural and economic assimilation of residents of the different zones. Our findings confirm most geographical aspects of the modified model."
Correspondence: J. P. Allen, California State University, Department of Geography, Northridge, CA 91330-8249. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

62:20472 Barrett, Alan. Did the decline continue? Comparing the labor-market quality of United States immigrants from the late 1970s and late 1980s. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 1, Feb 1996. 55-63 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The issue addressed in this paper is whether or not the decline in immigrant labor-market quality in the U.S. observed in the late 1960s and 1970s continued in the 1980s." The data are from the Immigration and Naturalization Service and are provided for the years 1979-1980 and 1989-1990. "Given the rise in earnings inequality that has occurred in the United States over the 1980s, the returns to immigration for the more highly skilled will have increased relative to the low skilled, ceteris paribus. For this reason, it is possible that the skill decline of immigrants may have halted in the 1980s as immigrants of differing skill levels respond to the altered circumstances they would face in the United States. The empirical results show that the skill decline did indeed halt...."
Correspondence: A. Barrett, Economic and Social Research Institute, 4 Burlington Road, Dublin 4, Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20473 Berthomière, William. The migration of Jews from the former Soviet Union: a new challenge for Israel? [L'immigration des Juifs d'ex-URSS: un nouveau défi pour Israël?] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1995. 19-41 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article is a contribution to the knowledge on the migratory results stemming from the collapse of the communist bloc. Since 1989, more than half a million...Jews have left the former Soviet Union for Israel. Thus, the Jewish state [has become] one of the major countries [to feel] the effects of this important geopolitical event. So, in this contribution, we will try to expose, with the first results of research, the patterns of this migration and to answer the inherent questions in this kind of [problem]: who are these migrants and what are their motives? and what are the effects of this migration for this area...."
Correspondence: W. Berthomière, 95 avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20474 Brezis, Elise S.; Krugman, Paul R. Immigration, investment, and real wages. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 1, Feb 1996. 83-93 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to offer a simple model that is suggestive of the mix of difficulties and opportunity presented by large-scale immigration. It shows why immigration may well have a negative effect on real wages in the short run but a positive effect in the long run. It also suggests the possibility that the outcome of waves of immigration is not predetermined: the question of whether the immigrants are successfully absorbed may depend crucially on both policy and expectations."
Correspondence: E. S. Brezis, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics, 52900 Ramat Gan, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20475 Briggs, Vernon M.; Moore, Stephen. Still an open door? U.S. immigration policy and the American economy. American University Press Public Policy Series, ISBN 1-879383-31-4. LC 94-19180. 1994. xi, 167 pp. American University Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors of this volume examine the relative merits of immigration to the United States. In particular, they attempt to provide answers to two basic questions concerning immigration: "Do immigrants hurt or help us economically? And, have large numbers of immigrants enhanced our economic well-being or taken jobs from American workers and lowered our standard of living, and will this continue to be the case? Stephen Moore argues that immigrants always have been, and will continue to be, good for our economy. Vernon Briggs warns that, unlike in earlier times, immigrants arriving today have and will continue to have adverse effects on our economy, mostly because our industrial and occupational patterns have changed dramatically since the early part of the century."
Correspondence: American University Press, 4400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20016. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20476 Brimelow, Peter. Alien nation: common sense about America's immigration disaster. ISBN 0-679-43058-X. LC 94-12478. 1995. xix, 327 pp. Random House: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author argues that current rates of immigration to the United States are causing a radical change in the nature of the country's population. Specifically, he maintains that the Immigration Act of 1965 has triggered a mass immigration consisting of migrants who are significantly different in ethnic origin from the resident population; this migration is causing a radical change in the demographic composition of the population, which will lead to a breakdown in the ties that bind the nation together. Furthermore, he suggests that this migration policy, which is designed to be free of any trace of racism or xenophobia, is not only creating an alien nation, but is doing so despite the wishes of the majority of the current resident population. The author also makes the case that immigration is, and always has been, of much less importance to American economic growth than is conventionally assumed.
Correspondence: Random House, 201 East 50th Street, 31st Floor, New York, NY 10022. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

62:20477 Cazorla, José. Moroccan migration to Spain. Data, opinions, and predictions. [La inmigración marroquí en España. Datos, opiniones y previsiones.] Revista Internacional de Sociología, Vol. 3, No. 12, Sep-Dec 1995. 117-44 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article, the author analyzes the migration flows between Spain and [Morocco] within the most general context of relations between European Union (EU) and the Maghrebian countries. Since the beginning of the eighties the migration flows toward and from Spain changed [dramatically], so...Spanish society has shifted toward an inmigration country. [The author analyzes] where such inmigrants come from and their motivations to choose Spain [as a] destination. The results of a survey financed partly by the EU...[for] institutions related directly with the migration problem from [Morocco] to Spain are the base of the information included in this article."
Correspondence: J. Cazorla, Universidad de Granada, Hospital Real, Calle Cuesta del Hospicio s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20478 Clark, Rebecca L.; Passel, Jeffrey S.; Zimmerman, Wendy N.; Fix, Michael E.; Mann, Taynia L.; Berkowitz, Rosalind E. Fiscal impacts of undocumented aliens: selected estimates for seven states. Sep 1994. xiv, 191, [9] pp. Urban Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report is concerned with the fiscal impacts of undocumented aliens in the United States. It estimates the cost of supplying three types of services and assesses the revenues generated by three types of taxes in the seven states with the largest numbers of undocumented aliens. The services considered are prisons, schools, and emergency medical care, and the taxes are state income tax, state sales tax, and state and local property tax. The lack of suitable data for studies of this nature is noted and recommendations are made for improving the situation.
Correspondence: Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20479 Collicelli, Carla; Salvatori, Franco. Immigration to Italy from Eastern Europe. [L'immigrazione in Italia dall'Europa dell'Est.] Politica Internazionale, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1993. 155-81 pp. Florence, Italy. In Ita.
This article analyzes immigration to Italy from Eastern Europe and the countries that were part of the former Soviet Union. The authors conclude that, in Italy--as opposed to in other Western countries such as Austria and Germany--the total number of immigrants from these countries is not large, and that it is unlikely to grow significantly. However, they also suggest that illegal immigration is likely to become an issue of increasing concern.
Location: Cornell University Library, NYSSILR Extension, New York, NY.

62:20480 Corti, Paola. Italian emigration: historiography, anthropology, and comparative research. [L'émigration italienne: historiographie, anthropologie et recherche comparatiste.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1995. 5-18 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ita; Spa.
"This brief paper identifies the most important moments and the most significant studies of Italian historiography on emigration. These range from the first formulation of economic and national models of the Italian exodus to their subsequent fragmentation into a mosaic of regional and local historical and anthropological studies. Ultimately, this will allow a much needed conceptual synthesis, aiming at new comparative research objectives, and a less specialized and sectorial analysis of emigration. Such an approach would also help us to tackle the migrational phenomena in contemporary society with a greater historical awareness and with more adequate cultural comprehension."
Correspondence: P. Corti, Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Storia, Via Sant'Ottavia 20, 10124 Turin, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20481 de Tapia, Stéphane. Turkish migration in Europe. A dynamic definition of a migration network: circulation and diasporas. [Migrations turques en Europe. Définition dynamique d'un champ migratoire: circulation et diasporas.] Cahiers d'Etudes sur la Méditerranée Orientale et le Monde Turco-Iranien, No. 18, Jul-Dec 1994. 233-62 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Current migration trends of Turks in Europe are analyzed. In particular, the author examines the extent to which Turkish migration represents an example of a circulatory migration system, and the extent to which the Turkish population overseas is a diaspora.
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

62:20482 Dicke, Hugo; Glismann, Hans H. Migration: the welfare calculus of immigrant countries. Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, Vol. 214, No. 3, May 1995. 342-57 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
"The welfare calculus of migration of the recipient country is tackled at the level of macro- and of microeconomics, using the technical apparatus of the welfare economics of international trade. It turns out that--as opposed to the international-trade case--in order to exploit positive welfare effects accruing to an economy which opens its labour markets to immigrants, interventions are necessary. The design of migration policy has to take into account, among others, the degree of homogeneity of preference patterns as well as the functioning of regulated labour markets, and the strain on the national resource base."
Correspondence: H. Dicke, Institut für Weltswirtschaft an der Universität Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 120, 24105 Kiel, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20483 Espenshade, Thomas J. Fiscal impacts of immigrants and the shrinking welfare state. OPR Working Paper, No. 96-1, Feb 1996. 40 pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author explores "prospective changes in fiscal consequences of U.S. immigrants, especially those embodied in Congressional proposals to reform immigration policy and to revise the legal rules for program use (otherwise known as welfare reform). In combination, these proposed changes have the effect of reducing the public costs of immigration, both by reducing the number of immigrants legally admitted to the United States and by either eliminating or restricting immigrants' access to public benefits."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20484 Esveldt, Ingrid; Kulu-Glasgow, Isik; Schoorl, Jeannette; van Solinge, Hanna. Motives for migration, migration networks, and the choice of partners among Turks and Moroccans in the Netherlands. [Migratiemotieven, migratienetwerken en partnerkeuze van Turken en Marokkanen in Nederland.] NIDI Rapport, No. 43, ISBN 90-70990-57-1. 1995. 249 pp. Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This study reports on the results of a survey (1993) and qualitative interviews (1994) among the population of Turkish or Moroccan descent aged 18-67 years in the Netherlands. The survey and the interviews focus on certain aspects of the migration process and their implications for future migration. Topics dealt with include motives to leave the home country and motives to choose the Netherlands as the country of destination; functions of migration networks such as assistance received just before and/or after migration, assistance given to new migrants and ties and contacts with the country of origin; and factors related to partner choice of migrants, such as the ethnic origin of the spouse, the country where the partner lived before marriage, characteristics of marriage partners, and opinions of parents as well as young, single Turks and Moroccans or partner choice and marriage."
Correspondence: Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut, Postbus 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20485 Fassmann, Heinz; Münz, Rainer. East-West migration in Europe (1918-1993). [La migration d'Est en Ouest en Europe (1918-1993).] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1995. 43-66 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper analyses available demographic data on international migration within and to Europe during the period 1918-1939 and 1945-1993. The main focus is on the east-west dimension of this migration. In the inter-war period some 9.2 million people either left their countries as labour migrants or were displaced....In the post-war period (1945-1950) some 15.4 million people fled or were displaced within Europe....Between 1950 and 1992 another 14 million people migrated from a country in East-central and Eastern Europe to the West....In recent times the wars in Croatia and Bosnia as well as ethnic cleansing have led to the largest wave of refugees and displaced persons since 1945....Our paper concludes that push and pull factors causing massive migration cannot only be contained by erecting new legislative barriers and deploying more armed border guards against newcomers."
Correspondence: H. Fassmann, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Regional and Urban Studies, Postgasse 7, 1010 Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20486 Foot, David K. Canada's unemployment-immigration linkage: demographic, economic, and political influences. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie, Vol. 19, No. 4, Fall 1994. 513-23 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper rejects Veugelers and Klassen's initial suggestion that greater concern with demographic considerations might provide a useful explanation for their empirical finding of a post-1989 change in the unemployment-immigration linkage [in Canada] and offers alternative explanations consistent with economic and, especially, sociological-political theories. It shows how elements of Hawkins's (1988) `bureaucratic control' and Simmons and Keohane's (1991) `political legitimacy' theories can be combined to explain both continuity and change in Canada's postwar immigration policy."
For the article by Veugelers and Klassen, also published in 1994, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: D. K. Foot, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M52 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20487 Hamilton, Kimberly A. Migration and the new Europe. Significant Issues Series, ISBN 0-89206-214-2. LC 93-32176. 1994. xx, 95 pp. Center for Strategic and International Studies: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The five papers included in this volume were commissioned for a conference held in Taormina, Sicily, in April 1993. "The volume focuses on the steps necessary to anchor migration and immigration policies to a responsive and consistent framework. In addition to suggesting policy revisions, the authors have carefully outlined the impediments of crafting such policies, the challenges posed by global trends such as the internationalization of labor markets, and the limitations to the actions taken by sovereign nations. Although their emphases differ, all contributors define the security dimension broadly, appreciating the dynamics of economic, political, and social reactions as well as interventions." The primary geographic focus is on the countries of the European Community, but the concluding paper draws comparisons with the United States.
Correspondence: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1800 K Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20006. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20488 Helly, Denise. Quebecers, foreigners or citizens? The basis of the sense of belonging of immigrants to Quebec. [Québécois, étranger ou citoyens? Les fondements de l'appartenance des immigrés au Québec.] Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1995. 67-78 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In light of information concerning the issues of immigration in Quebec, gathered in [the] course of semi-directed interviews, I have identified three overriding viewpoints. The first attributes to the State the role of consolidating a Francophone Quebec, [and] it suggests that the imposition of linguistic and territorial references is the only manner by which one can define a Quebecer and a Quebec nation....The second viewpoint, by contrast, wants to superimpose linguistic, territorial, cultural and historical references when defining a Quebecer, and by so doing, excludes the immigrants from the nation-State it wants to construct. The third viewpoint, radically opposed to aforementioned approaches, refuses all State intervention imposing a definition of a national collectivity, whether it be based upon language, history or culture; from its perspective, the State has but one role: the protection of liberties and...redistribution."
Correspondence: D. Helly, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Culture et Société, 306 place d'Youville B-10, Montreal, Quebec H2Y 2B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20489 Hiebert, Daniel. Focus: immigration to Canada. Canadian Geographer/Géographe Canadien, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1994. 254-70 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng.
This is a special section containing four articles on aspects of immigration in Canada. The first article, by Daniel Hiebert, examines current migration policy at both federal and regional levels and the impact of these policies on the distribution of immigrants and on regional inequalities. The second article, by Alan Nash, looks at the incompatibility between regulations pertaining to business and refugee migration. The final two papers look at the specifics of acculturation among Italian and Caribbean immigrants in Toronto.
Correspondence: D. Hiebert, University of British Columbia, Department of Geography, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20490 Hugo, Graeme. Environmental concerns and international migration. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 1, Spring 1996. 105-31 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article focuses on international migration occurring as a result of environmental changes and processes. It briefly reviews attempts to conceptualize environment-related migration and then considers the extent to which environmental factors have been and may be significant in initiating migration. Following is an examination of migration as an independent variable in the migration-environment relationship. Finally, ethical and policy dimensions are addressed."
Correspondence: G. Hugo, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20491 Hugo, Graeme. The economic implications of emigration from Australia. Pub. Order No. 93-2356-X. ISBN 0-644-32666-2. 1994. xviii, 152 pp. Bureau of Immigration and Population Research: South Carlton, Australia. In Eng.
"This report studies the number and characteristics of emigrants from Australia, and analyses the causes and the social and economic consequences of emigration. An important relationship is shown to exist between the level of immigration and the level of emigration. In Australia the highs and lows in the level of immigration are duplicated, albeit at considerably lower levels, three to five years later in emigration. About two-thirds of the outflow of emigrants from Australia is made up of former settlers, many of whom return to their country of origin. The report argues that return migration should be seen as a normal rather than abnormal outcome of an immigration that was always intended to be circular."
Correspondence: Australian Government Publishing Service, Commonwealth Information Services, G.P.O. Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20492 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). 1993 immigrants from former USSR by last republic of residence and by selected demographic characteristics. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 46, No. 2, Suppl., Feb 1995. 21-54 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
"The purpose of this supplement is to present the demographic characteristics of the immigrants from the (former) Soviet Union, who arrived in Israel in 1993, by last republic of residence....It attempts to answer the question whether there are demographic and social differences between immigrants from the various republics."
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20493 King, Russell. Migration and development in the Mediterranean region. Geography, Vol. 81, No. 350, Jan 1996. 3-14 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
International migration trends in the Mediterranean region are reviewed. The author notes that "the Mediterranean Sea is a migration frontier which concentrates some of the sharpest economic and demographic gradients in the world. Across this `Mediterranean Rio Grande', northward migration flows have escalated in recent years, especially into the newly prosperous southern EU [European Union] countries which were themselves sources of mass emigration a few decades ago. In the post-communist era the Mediterranean has also become a sharpened geopolitical frontier, for it is around the Mediterranean that democratic Europe faces the less democratic world of Islam. In migration policy terms the EU emphasises `closure' towards immigrants from the southern Mediterranean but a more sensitive understanding of the politics, economic problems and migration processes of North Africa (and beyond) is necessary."
Correspondence: R. King, University of Sussex, School of European Studies, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20494 King, Russell. The geopolitics of international migration in Europe. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1996. 62-123 pp. Institute of British Geographers: London, England. In Eng.
This special section contains four papers on geopolitical aspects of current international migration trends in Europe. They were presented at a special session during the Annual Conference of the Institute of British Geographers held at the University of Northumbria in January 1995.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Institute of British Geographers, 1 Kensington Gore, London SW7 2AR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20495 Knights, Melanie. Bangladeshi immigrants in Italy: from geopolitics to micropolitics. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1996. 105-23 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Bangladeshis are one of a wide variety of recently established immigrant groups in Italy, analysed here as an example of the interaction of geopolitics, employment and survival strategies, and the micropolitics of the community's organization in Italy. The geopolitics involves events in Bangladesh (change of government), Italy (the Martelli Law and other legislation), Europe (EU and other European policies, and the opening of eastern Europe as a routeway) and the Gulf. The micropolitics concerns mechanisms of immigration, migration sponsorship, connections to Italian political groups and clientelistic relationships within the community. Micropolitics also governs to a large extent the types of mostly informal work done by Bangladeshis in Rome."
Correspondence: M. Knights, University of Sussex, School of African and Asian Studies, Falmer, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20496 Kurthen, Hermann. Germany at the crossroads: national identity and the challenges of immigration. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, Winter 1995. 914-38 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"In Germany the discussion [of immigration] is taking place between two extreme positions, one that denies Germany is de facto an immigration country...and one that compares Germany with traditional immigration societies like the United States, Canada, or Australia. As will be demonstrated, both arguments are too simplistic....To illustrate the importance of migration movements for Germany's national fabric, first an overview of the history of pre- and postwar migrations and refugee movements as well as their effects on the domestic situation in Germany are presented. Next, the origins of the contradictory nature of the current asylum, citizenship and naturalization regulations and the need to redefine Germany's legal framework, immigration policy, and national identity after unification are discussed."
Correspondence: H. Kurthen, University of North Carolina, P.O. Box 2688, Chapel Hill, NC 27515-2688. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20497 Latuch, Mikolaj. Contemporary international migrations and migration policy. [Wspólczesne migracje miedzynarodowe i polityka migracyjna.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 38, No. 1-2, 1995. 51-67 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
With a focus on Poland, the author examines the following aspects and questions regarding international migration: "The intensification of spatial mobility in Poland as well as in other countries; the necessity for modernisation of migratory policy; socio-economic implications of out-migration and migratory policy; Poland--a country of transit, political asylum or immigration?; the phenomenon of transit migration in Poland; stability or flexibility of migratory policy? [and] migration as a focus of world population conferences."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20498 Lebon, André. Migration and nationality in France in 1994. [Migrations et nationalité en France en 1994.] ISBN 2-11-089245-5. Nov 1995. 91 pp. Ministère de l'Aménagement du Territoire, de la Ville et de l'Intégration, Direction de la Population et des Migrations: Paris, France. Distributed by Documentation Française, 29-31 quai Voltaire, 75334 Paris Cedex 07, France. In Fre.
This is the latest in a series of annual reports on the immigration situation in France. This report has sections on in-migration, whether permanent, temporary, or seasonal; the out-migration of immigrants back to their countries of origin; and the acquisition of French nationality by immigrants in France. There are appendixes on immigrants in the labor force and on the international aspects of immigration policy.
Correspondence: Ministère de l'Aménagement du Territoire, de la Ville et de l'Intégration, Direction de la Population et des Migrations, 1 place de Fontenoy, 75350 Paris 07 SP, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20499 Leiner, Nadine; Meckl, Jürgen. International migration and income redistribution: a trade-theoretic analysis. [Internationale Migration und Einkommensverteilung: eine außenhandelstheoretische Analyse.] Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, Vol. 214, No. 3, May 1995. 324-41 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"We analyze the income-redistribution effects of international migration in the host and source country in a general equilibrium framework. The well-known result that marginal migration leaves the welfare of nonmigrants unaffected is discussed in more detail with regard to shifts in national income distributions. With endogenous goods' prices the consequences for the income distribution are in general ambiguous--we show possibilities for an estimation of their magnitude. As long as wage disparities determine the direction of migration it increases world efficiency. However, redistributive policies may generate migration towards the low-wage country."
Correspondence: N. Leiner, Universität Konstanz, SFB 178, Postfach 55 60, 78434 Constance, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20500 Lequin, Yves. The history of foreigners and of immigration in France. [Histoire des étrangers et de l'immigration en France.] ISBN 2-03-720264-4. 1992. 493 pp. Larousse: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a collective work that describes the history of immigration to France from the Middle Ages to the present day. In particular, the contributing authors examine changing attitudes toward foreigners over time and analyze the reasons why anti-immigrant views and xenophobia tend to flourish in times of crisis.
Correspondence: Larousse, 17 rue du Montparnasse, 75298 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20501 Loveless, Stephen C.; McCue, Clifford P.; Surette, Raymond B.; Norris-Tirrell, Dorothy. Immigration and its impact on American cities. ISBN 0-275-94500-6. LC 95-40580. 1996. xvi, 179 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
"This book is about how immigration affects American cities and how local government decision makers can effectively manage immigration's impacts....The book has three purposes. First, the book expands the current literature examining impacts of immigration....The second purpose of the book is to introduce an impact model as an analytical tool for determining immigration effects....The book's third purpose is to assist local government decision makers in planning, managing, and, to some degree, controlling immigration in a given jurisdiction. The book uses the City of Miami, Florida, as a case study for illustrating the model and its utility for decision making."
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20502 Martin, Philip. Mexican-U.S. migration: policies and economic impacts. Challenge, Mar-Apr 1995. 56-62 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses political and economic aspects of Mexico-to-U.S. migration. He focuses on the following questions: "What are the current dimensions of Mexico-to-U.S. migration? What are the likely impacts of NAFTA on this? Most important, what are the prospects for U.S.-Mexican cooperation on migration issues?"
Correspondence: P. Martin, University of California, Department of Agricultural Economics, Davis, CA 95616-8512. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20503 Martiniello, Marco; Poncelet, Marc. Migration and ethnic minorities in Europe. [Migrations et minorités ethniques dans l'espace européen.] L'Homme/L'Etranger, ISBN 2-8041-1790-1. 1993. 217 pp. De Boeck Université: Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
This book contains nine papers by various authors on aspects of migration to the European countries. The papers examine the implications of the growing desire by immigrants to come to Europe at a time of increasing economic and political difficulties; the growth of cultural and ethnic diversity as a consequence of immigration; and the possibility of absorbing immigrants into the social and political structures of the countries they have settled in. The focus of the collection is on the political aspects of immigration, and on the need to develop appropriate policies that concern the assimilation of immigrants and the control of migration flows.
Correspondence: De Boeck-Wesmael, Rue des Minimes 39, 1000 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20504 Massey, Douglas S. The new immigration and ethnicity in the United States. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 3, Sep 1995. 631-52, 707, 709 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The article assesses the prospects for the assimilation of new immigrant groups and judges their likely effects on the society, culture, and language of the United States. It places the new immigration in historical perspective and indicates the distinctive features that set it apart from earlier influxes. It appraises the structural context for the incorporation of today's immigrants and argues that because of fundamental differences, their assimilation will not be as rapid or complete as that achieved by European immigrants in the past. The article concludes by suggesting how the nature of ethnicity will change as a result of a new immigration that is linguistically concentrated, geographically clustered, and temporally continuous into an American society that is increasingly stratified and unequal."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6297. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20505 Michel, Philippe; Perrot, Anne; Thisse, Jacques-François. Interregional equilibrium with heterogeneous labor. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 9, No. 1, Feb 1996. 95-113 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"The impact of labor migration on interregional equilibrium is studied when workers are heterogeneous in productivity and regional mobility. The skilled respond to market disequilibrium by moving into the most attractive region. The unskilled are immobile in the short-run and move with the skilled in the long-run. Both regions have a neoclassical production function affected by an externality depending on the number of skilled. Workers move according to the utility differential when regional amenities vary with population or according to the wage differential. The equilibrium pattern depends on the unskilled's mobility and on migration incentives. Typically, regional imbalance characterizes the equilibrium which is often suboptimal."
Correspondence: P. Michel, GREQAM-LEQAM, Château La Farge, Route des Milles, 13390 Les Milles, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20506 Muller, Tobias. Immigration, income distribution, and social welfare. [Immigration, distribution des revenus et bien-être social.] Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/Revue Suisse d'Economie Politique et de Statistique/Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 131, No. 3, Sep 1995. 517-33 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger.
"This paper explores the consequences of immigration for aggregate income and income distribution. On the one hand, immigration generally increases the residents' aggregate income, on the other hand, it makes income distribution more unequal if immigrants bring little capital with them. These two effects can be analyzed jointly using a measure of social welfare. In general, the arrival of immigrants owning little capital lowers social welfare of residents and immigration of capital-rich persons increases it."
Correspondence: T. Muller, Université de Geneve, 3 Place de l'Université, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20507 Poot, Jacques. Information, communication and networks in international migration systems. Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1996. 55-73 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the role of information and communication in international migration by means of a survey which covers economic and broader perspectives, both at the micro and macro levels. The human capital model of migration is reviewed and the likely impact of recent and anticipated developments in telecommunications technology is noted. The job search model is reformulated in the context of international migration but extensive modification is required to describe the potential sampling of job offers and other informational needs of international migrants. It is argued that spatial selectivity is to a large extent influenced by migration networks in which information flows play a critical role. This is further elucidated by offering an analytical framework based on the systems approach to migration."
Correspondence: J. Poot, University of Tsukuba, Institute of Socio-Economic Planning, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20508 Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. Resisting migration: wage rigidity and income distribution. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 1091, Jan 1995. 18 pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
"Like any trade activity, migration tends to generate gains to all parties involved--the migrants as well as the native-born population. With a mal-functioning labour market, however, migration will exacerbate the imperfections in the market. Consequently, it may lead to losses to the native-born population which are typically quite sizeable. Another economic problem raised by migration is the additional toll imposed on the welfare-state income-distribution institutions. Being unable to exclude migrants from the various entitlement programmes and public services, the modern welfare state can find migration rather costly. These two economic considerations may help explain the resistance to migration despite the pure gains-from-trade benefits created by it. Immigration could be more beneficial to the native-born population when labour markets are better functioning and the welfare programmes are less comprehensive."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20509 Rodriguez, V.; Aguilera, M. J.; Gonzalez-Yanci, M. P. Foreign minorities from developing countries in Madrid. GeoJournal, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jul 1993. 293-300 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Spain, which has always been a land of emigrants, is currently a centre of attraction for immigrants, as are other countries in Mediterranean Europe. The proportion is not as high as in other countries with a longer tradition of immigration. In this survey we selected the six nationalities which provide the highest numbers of immigrants from the developing world, and which have the greatest racial or cultural contrast to the native population. We analyse their structural features, whether or not immigrants from the same country...collect in the Madrid Metropolitan Area, the recent mobility of the immigrant population, and the evolution of immigration since the Administration carried out a regularization process, as well as Spaniards' opinion of foreign immigrants."
Correspondence: V. Rodriguez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Centro de Ciencias Sociales, Pinar 25, 28006 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20510 Sanfilippo, Matteo. Ecclesiastical sources for the history of emigration and ethnic groups in North America: United States (1893-1922). [Fonti ecclesiastiche per lo storia dell'emigrazione e dei gruppi etnici nel Nord America: gli Stati Uniti (1893-1922).] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 32, No. 120, Dec 1995. 604-775 pp. Centro Studi Emigrazione: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This is an inventory of Italian ecclesiastical archives containing data on emigration from Italy to the United States from 1893 to 1922. The primary focus is on the Vatican archives, but information on other Roman ecclesiastical archives is also included.
For a related study concerning emigration to Canada, see 61:30496.
Correspondence: Centro Studi Emigrazione, Via Dandolo 58, 00153 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20511 Sanfilippo, Matteo. New studies on population of the North American colonies from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century and some reflections on migration in the modern age. [Nuovi studi sul popolamento delle colonie nordamericane nei secoli XVII-XIX e qualche riflessione sulle migrazioni in età moderna.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 32, No. 119, Sep 1995. 505-17 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"In recent years, many authors worked on modern era population movements between 1492 and 1870. American scholars stressed that the settlement of the North American colonies, during [the] 17th and 18th centuries, should be considered a form of migration and should be analysed with the same tools used for the study of the great migration of the 19th century. Instead European scholars tried to pinpoint when `old regime' migrations developed into the `great migration'....This review aims at presenting the most important European and American publications on this topic and points to the subjects to be developed."
Correspondence: M. Sanfilippo, Università degli Studi della Tuscia, Via San Giovanni Decollato 1, 01100 Viterbo, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20512 Sarrible, Graciela. The Mediterranean. Prospects for migration. [El Mediterráneo. Expectativas de migraciones.] Revista Internacional de Sociología, Vol. 3, No. 12, Sep-Dec 1995. 97-115 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author notes that data on migration in the Mediterranean region are largely inadequate. She views this inadequacy as due primarily to the illegal nature of a large number of the international migrations that occur. She analyzes migration trends from the standpoint of natural increase and the family. Four distinct regions are identified: Northern Africa, Western Asia, European Community countries, and other countries of Southern Europe including Israel. The growing demographic contrast between countries to the north and south of the Mediterranean is noted and its consequences for future migration are assessed.
Correspondence: G. Sarrible, Universidad de Barcelona, Gran Vía de Les Cortes Catalanes 585, 08007 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20513 Sprangers, A. H. Labor migration, 1960s vs. 1990s. [Arbeidsmigratie, jaren zestig en jaren negentig.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 12, 1995. 16-21 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews labor migration trends in the Netherlands in the 1960s and the 1990s. "In the 1960s and early 1970s foreign labourers were recruited from Mediterranean countries. The number of immigrants from these countries, for the major part employed in industry, exceeded 30 thousand in some years. In the early 1990s labour migrants were less numerous. [In] the past few years most labour migrants came from Western European countries and other economically developed countries, like the United States and Japan."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20514 Stupp, Paul W. Estimates of net migration by age at migration from pairs of enumerations of the foreign born: United States, 1880-1930. Genus, Vol. 51, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1995. 229-51 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Ita; Fre.
"This paper describes a new method for indirectly estimating age schedules of net migration. The method is illustrated with historical data for the United States. The analysis employs a recently developed technique--iterative intracohort interpolation--to estimate age schedules of net migration from pairs of enumerations of the foreign born by age. The data required for this application are enumerations of the foreign born (or more generally of those born outside the enumeration area) by age in two successive censuses, a life table presumed to reflect the mortality experience of the foreign born during the intercensal period, and, optionally, data on variations in the overall level of migration during the intercensal period. The procedure provides estimates of the average annual number of foreign born net migrants during a decade by their age at the time of entry/exit."
Correspondence: P. W. Stupp, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Reproductive Health, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 31341-3724. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20515 Sukhatme, Suhas P. The real brain drain. ISBN 0-86311-451-2. 1994. ix, 78 pp. Orient Longman: Bombay, India. In Eng.
The extent of the brain drain from India to the developed countries of the West is analyzed using data collected at the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay. The author suggests that the real problem concerns quality rather than quantity: the point at issue is not the annual loss of some 5,000 professionals each year, but rather the loss of a few hundred of India's most gifted individuals whose talents the country needs. A program of action to resolve this problem is outlined.
Correspondence: Orient Longman, Kamani Marg, Ballard Estate, Bombay 400 038, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20516 Sullivan, Teresa A. Immigration and the ethics of choice. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 1, Spring 1996. 90-104 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This paper begins by developing a language for ethical discourse on immigration and then examining the extent to which choices may be made at the micro-level and at the macro-level. States and individuals are examined as actors who are variously described as making choices or being choiceless. The concepts of cultural distance, reciprocity, the role of the individual and of the state and their interrelationships are evaluated in the perspective of choice. Whether an ethics of immigration can be successfully developed hinges on the degree of choice that individuals and state have or perceive themselves to have."
Correspondence: T. A. Sullivan, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20517 Todd, Emmanuel. The destiny of immigrants: assimilation and segregation in the western democracies. [Le destin des immigrés: assimilation et ségrégation dans les démocraties occidentales.] ISBN 2-02-017304-2. Oct 1994. 391 pp. Editions du Seuil: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a comparative analysis which offers an anthropological and historical perspective on the process of immigrant assimilation in four western societies: the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. The consequences of the failure to absorb immigrant communities successfully are described. The author also notes that the populations of the European countries considered have very different attitudes and practices concerning the assimilation of immigrants. The author perceives these differences as likely to cause problems in the movement toward greater European unity.
Correspondence: Editions du Seuil, 27 rue Jacob, Paris VI, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20518 Todisco, Enrico. Immigration: from needs to rights, and from marginalization to integration. [Immigrazione: dai bisogni ai diritti, dall'emarginazione all'integrazione.] 1995. 219 pp. Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Facoltà di Economia, Sede di Latina: Latina, Italy. In Ita.
This publication contains nine papers presented at a conference held in 1993 on aspects of the immigrant presence in Italy, with particular reference to experiences in the province of Latina. The focus is on the problems associated with the integration of immigrants into the labor force, as well as into the local society in general.
Correspondence: Università degli Studi La Sapienza, Facoltà di Economia, Sede di Latina, Viale Le Corbusier, 04100 Latina, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20519 Tomasi, Silvano M. Ethics, migration, and global stewardship. International Migration Review, Vol. 30, No. 1, Spring 1996. 393 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"In a period of perhaps systematic transformation--and certainly epochal change--in which international migration increasingly affects order and disorder, it seemed imperative to examine the roots of ethical norms and values pertaining to aliens and refugees. Hence, this [special issue] begins with assessments of Christian, Jewish, Islamic and Confucian religious traditions....Connections between ethics and international migration are then examined through a number of additional perspectives--the environment, state sovereignty, cultural pluralism and minority rights, and refugee policy. The resultant disaggregation reveals the complexity and broader significance of ethical dilemmas and challenges posed by international migration."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20520 Veugelers, John W. P.; Klassen, Thomas R. Continuity and change in Canada's unemployment-immigration linkage (1946-1993). Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie, Vol. 19, No. 3, Summer 1994. 351-77 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Between 1946 and 1976, variation in unemployment rates strongly affected the number of immigrants allowed into Canada. Implementation of the Immigration Act of 1976 should have weakened the effect of unemployment on immigration, for the Act requires that immigration levels be set after consideration of demographic as well as labour market conditions. Our analysis shows the unemployment-immigration linkage actually strengthened after 1978, and only weakened significantly after 1989. Since the government's annual immigration projections are excellent predictors of immigration landings, we conclude the Canadian state is highly capable of controlling immigration levels and thus the tightening of the unemployment-immigration linkage from 1978 to 1989 reflected the choice of regulators. Discussing future research in this area, we argue that if the immigration policymaking process was not restructured in the late 1980s, an adequate model of state-society relations in this area must account for both continuity and change. However, if the process was restructured, a revised or new theoretical framework is needed."
Correspondence: J. W. P. Veugelers, University of Toronto, Department of Sociology, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20521 Visser, H. Migration in the countries of the European Economic Area. [Migratie in de landen van de Europese Economische Ruimte.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 44, No. 2, Feb 1996. 10-5 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"During the last decade the number of migrants entering the European Economic Area has increased considerably. The governments in many countries have responded to this increase by implementing restrictive immigration policies. Most countries forecast a decline in net migration." Information is provided on push and pull factors, net migration, and asylum applications, and forecasts are made for the years 2000 to 2010.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20522 Voets, Saskia; Schoorl, Jeannette; de Bruijn, Bart. The demographic consequences of international migration. NIDI Rapport, No. 44, ISBN 90-70990-58-X. 1995. 430 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This volume contains a selection of papers presented at an international symposium on the demographic impact of international migration in Western Europe (September 1990), organised by the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences (NIAS) and the NIDI. The aim of the symposium was to further research into the dynamics and consequences of international migration and to stimulate scientific discussion, against the background of the socio-political relevance of the issue. The contributions in Part I deal with a variety of aspects related to international migration in a comparative perspective: the (in)comparability of data, definitions, registration procedures, as well as trends in size and composition of stocks and flows, fertility, mortality, nuptiality, and naturalisations among immigrant populations. Part II deals with the effects of international migration on the size, age structure, and distribution of the population in receiving countries, against the light of prevailing processes of ageing and dejuvenation, and associated problems for the labour market and social security systems. Acknowledging the policy relevance of these issues, papers on immigration policies and on the methodological aspects of projecting migration have also been included in this section. Part III expands the scope of the comparative perspective to three major immigration countries overseas." These are the United States, Australia, and Canada.
Correspondence: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20523 Weyerbrock, Silvia. Can the European Community absorb more immigrants? A general equilibrium analysis of the labor market and macroeconomic effects of East-West migration in Europe. Journal of Policy Modeling, Vol. 17, No. 2, Apr 1995. 85-120 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper, we analyze the labor market and macroeconomic effects of immigration of 3.5 and 7 million workers from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union into the European Community (EC) in a six-region, 14-sector computable general equilibrium model. Our experiments show that labor immigration does not lead to the catastrophic conditions in EC labor markets feared by EC citizens. This result holds even when ignoring capital stock growth. Experiments that include capital stock and labor force growth in the EC show that the EC can absorb 3.5 million immigrants. Seven million immigrants, however, cause some unemployment and a small loss in per capita income. Other experiments show that cuts in the order of 1 percent in fixed urban wages contribute to easing adjustment problems on EC labor markets substantially. The EC is found to benefit from immigration if wages are flexible."
Correspondence: S. Weyerbrock, Columbia University, Department of Economics, 420 West 118th Street, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20524 Wooden, Mark; Holton, Robert; Hugo, Graeme; Sloan, Judith. Australian immigration: a survey of the issues. 2nd ed. Pub. Order No. 93 23355 8. ISBN 0-644-32665-4. 1994. xv, 407 pp. Bureau of Immigration and Population Research: South Carlton, Australia; Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This is a revised edition of a general review of immigration in Australia. "It summarises and reviews the research on immigration and evaluates the impact of immigration on Australia's society, economy and population. The authors assess the quality of the research and identify gaps in the literature and future research needs. A summary and review of the improvements in data sources will be a useful reference tool for researchers. The book is divided into five chapters dealing with the demographic and spatial aspects of immigration to Australia, its economic impact, social aspects, the labour-market experience of immigrants after arrival, and immigration policy."
For a previous edition, published in 1990, see 58:30515.
Correspondence: Australian Government Publishing Service, Commonwealth Information Services, G.P.O. Box 84, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20525 Zimmermann, Klaus F. Migration and economic development. Population Economics, ISBN 3-540-55557-9. 1992. x, 264 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This is a collection of eight studies on aspects of international migration from developing countries to the most developed countries of the world. The book "addresses the following crucial questions: What causes migration in a rational framework of decision making? How well do immigrants do in terms of savings and remittances? What is the impact on sending countries? What are the options of migration policy? The book discusses new methods to model these problems, provides empirical findings and gives policy recommendations."
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, 1000 Berlin 33, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

62:20526 Aubert, Claude. Rural exodus, agricultural exodus in China, the great change? [Exode rural, exode agricole en Chine, la grande mutation?] Espace, Populations, Sociétés, No. 2, 1995. 231-45 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Controls imposed on the population of China have long resulted in a delayed process of urbanization; in the last decade, economic reforms have led to renewed rural migrations. First, professional mobility has been encouraged by the development of township and village enterprises. Seasonal migrations towards the cities are now taking momentum. Do they announce the major urban mutation implied by the economic development of China?"
Correspondence: C. Aubert, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Economie et Sociologie Rurales, 63-65 Boulevard de Brandebourg, 94205 Ivry-sur-Seine, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20527 Birg, H.; Flöthmann, E.-J. Migration of the elderly in North Rhine-Westphalia and its influence on the demographic aging of the population. [Migration älterer Menschen in Nordrhein-Westfalen und ihr Einfluss auf die demographische Alterung der Bevölkerung.] IBS-Materialien, Vol. 36, ISBN 3-923340-30-3. 1995. 110 pp. Universität Bielefeld, Institut für Bevölkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik [IBS]: Bielefeld, Germany. In Ger.
Migration of the elderly population in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, is analyzed using official data for the period 1977-1991. Regional differences are examined, and the consequences for the process of demographic aging are assessed.
Correspondence: Universität Bielefeld, Institut für Bevölkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20528 Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Archavanitkul, Kritaya; Richter, Kerry; Guest, Philip; Thongthai, Varachai; Boonchalaksi, Wathinee; Piriyathamwong, Nittaya; Vong-Ek, Panee. National migration survey of Thailand. IPSR Publication, No. 188, ISBN 974-588-140-6. 1995. xii, 87 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng.
Results are presented from a 1992 national survey of migration involving 7,537 households throughout Thailand. Following introductory chapters on survey methodology, there are chapters on levels and spatial patterns of migration, migration differentials, determinants and consequences of migration, and conclusions and policy implications. The primary focus is on internal migration.
Correspondence: Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, Puthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20529 Chan, Kok Eng. Internal migration in a rapidly developing country: the case of Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Tropical Geography, Vol. 25, No. 2, Dec 1994. 69-77 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the patterns and trends in internal territorial mobility in Peninsular Malaysia from 1957 [to] the 1980s, focussing specially on the period of the 1980s." Data are from Peninsular Malaysian Labour Force Migration Sample Surveys.
Correspondence: K. E. Chan, University of Malaya, Department of Geography, Lembah Pantai, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

62:20530 Cooke, Thomas J.; Bailey, Adrian J. Family migration and the employment of married women and men. Economic Geography, Vol. 72, No. 1, Jan 1996. 38-48 pp. Worcester, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This research reconsiders the human capital hypothesis that married women have a lower probability of employment after family migration. The empirical analysis focuses on a sample of married parents in the economically active population residing in the midwestern United States in 1980. Our analysis establishes that, after controlling for the effects of migration self-selection bias, family migration increases the probability of employment among married women by 9 percent but has no effect on the probability of employment among married men. This research demonstrates the limitations of the human capital model of family migration and indicates the need for reconceptualizing family migration behavior."
Correspondence: T. J. Cooke, University of Connecticut, Department of Geography, Storrs, CT 06269. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20531 de Haan, Arjan. Migration in eastern India: a segmented labour market. Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1995. 51-93 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This article compares different migration streams in eastern India in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and the different forms of labour recruitment, and describes the causes behind the segmentation of these streams....The article focuses on one stream within this complex, migration towards the industrial area of Calcutta....The first section gives an overview of migration into Bengal and the various forms of recruitment. The second discusses the replacement of local labour in the industry, and it is argued that local labour was not forced out of the industry. In the third section, the methods of recruitment in the jute industry are discussed....The fourth part describes the predominant mode of migration which was and has remained circular, and the fifth part describes how even the labour process in the industry has been segmented. The sixth part forms the conclusion."
Correspondence: A. de Haan, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QN, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20532 Dribe, Martin. Long-range migration in Sweden, 1961-1992. A study of changes in interregional movements of men between 20 and 29 years of age. [Långväga flyttningar i Sverige 1961-1992. En studie av förändringarna i de interregionala flyttningarna for man i aldern 20-29 år.] Lund Papers in Economic History, No. 38, 1994. 48 pp. Lund University, Department of Economic History: Lund, Sweden. In Swe.
In Sweden, as in many other countries, a reduction in interregional labor migration has occurred since the early 1960s. The purpose of this working paper is to describe the different economic mechanisms behind this phenomenon in Sweden. A leveling out of interregional salary differences since the beginning of the 1960s is interpreted as an important reason for the drop in migration numbers.
Correspondence: Lund University, Department of Economic History, P.O. Box 7083, 220 07 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20533 Fan, C. Cindy. Economic opportunities and internal migration: a case study of Guangdong Province, China. Professional Geographer, Vol. 48, No. 1, Feb 1996. 28-45 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Economic opportunities are considered a primary determinant of human migration, but their explanatory power in Communist China has been limited because of strong government intervention in controlling migration and in planned population transfers. Since the late 1970s, however, economic reform has brought about changes in China's regional economies and generated new push and pull forces for migration, and the relaxation of migration restrictions has created greater opportunities for nongovernment-induced migration. Using data primarily from the 1990 census, I review the spatial patterns of migration and the characteristics of the new migrants. A case study of Guangdong Province reveals that its attractiveness to migrants from other provinces and its intra-provincial migration patterns are attributable to differentials in per capita output and foreign investment. The findings support the argument that China has entered a new era of migration in which present and expected economic opportunities are important explanations for the volume and directions of population movement."
Correspondence: C. C. Fan, University of California, Department of Geography, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1524. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

62:20534 Ghatak, Subrata; Levine, Paul. A note on migration with borrowing constraints. Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1994. 19-26 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This note examines an important conflict between the theory and evidence on migration in LDCs. While the Harris-Todaro class of models explain the phenomenon of migration mainly by expected income differential between the economically advanced and the backward regions, the actual evidence in some cases suggests that migration could actually rise following a rise in income in backward areas. We resolve this puzzle by analysing migration in the context of the existence of imperfect credit markets in LDCs. We show that under certain plausible conditions, the rate of migration from the rural to the urban areas may actually rise when rural wages rise, as they ease the constraints on borrowing by potential migrants."
Correspondence: S. Ghatak, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

62:20535 Gibson, James R. Interregional migration in the USSR, a final update. Canadian Geographer/Géographe Canadien, Vol. 38, No. 1, Spring 1994. 54-61 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng.
"This research note is a follow-up to a comparative study of Soviet interregional migration during the years 1971-75 and 1981-85....The recent publication of the last (and scarce) statistical yearbook for the U.S.S.R....makes it possible to calculate regional net migration balances for the final five-year period of the Soviet Union's existence (1986-1990)...on the basis of the residual method, and to compare the results with those for 1981-85 in the original study. This will be the last such update, not only because the U.S.S.R. no longer exists and no more Soviet statistical yearbooks will be issued, but also because the amount of error entailed by the residual method as a result of increased emigration would be unacceptable."
Correspondence: J. R. Gibson, York University, Department of Geography, North York, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20536 Gordon, Ian. Migration in a segmented labour market. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1995. 139-55 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Current research in migration is moving on from neo-classical and behavioural perspectives to a more structural approach relating to wider processes, issues of power and the particular role of employers. Within this programme a key issue for investigation is the interaction between spatial mobility and the structuring of labour markets. This paper focuses on the significance of labour market segmentation--in terms both of job stability and gender--for migration, both theoretically and through an empirical analysis of data from the UK Labour Force Survey on sponsored and unsponsored moves."
Correspondence: I. Gordon, University of Reading, Department of Geography, Whiteknights, P.O. Box 227, Reading RG6 2AB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20537 Huntoon, Laura. Return migration when savings differ. Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1995. 219-39 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"Continuing immigration of low wage and low skill workers to more developed countries from less developed regions of the world has become an issue of policy debate. Host countries which do not view themselves as countries of immigration are eager to develop incentives which forestall migrants from becoming permanent residents. This paper reports that return migrants with savings have a higher probability of settling in birth place regions, which tend to be lagging and less developed regions. Policies which encourage savings among migrants are likely to encourage return migration which is spread across regions of outmigration rather than concentrated in major urban areas. Without savings, the rate of return to less developed regions would be extremely low, demonstrating the importance of savings to a pattern of balanced return migration."
Correspondence: L. Huntoon, Indiana University, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Business/SPEA Building 4066, 801 West Michigan Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5152. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:20538 Inaba, Hisashi; Mita, Fusami. Trend analysis for interprefectural migration in Japan, 1954-1993. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 51, No. 2, Jul 1995. 1-19 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper, our main aim is to examine long-term trends of Japanese interprefectural migration after the War by using a Markov migration model....We observed dependence of in- and out-migration on the size of populations by prefecture....Major findings based on the time-series observation of stationary distributions by year are as follows: First from [the 1950s] to 1970 migrants tended to concentrate [on] densely populated industrialized prefectures (Tokyo, Osaka and Aichi), but after that during [the 1970s] populations have redistributed to provincial prefectures. Reconcentration of population to [the] Tokyo area again occurred around [the mid-1980s, but] it ceased at the beginning of the [1990s] in accordance with economic recession....It can be concluded that [the] recent Japanese interprefectural migration system has lost its potential power to redistribute populations."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20539 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Internal migration in Israel, 1993. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 46, No. 1, Suppl., Jan 1995. 183-230 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
Data are presented on internal migration in Israel in 1993. The data concern the internal migration of Jews during the period 1984-1993, and internal migration of both Jews and non-Jews in 1993. Information is included separately on the internal migration of recent immigrants.
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20540 Kouaouci, Ali. Female migration and fertility in Algeria. [Migrations des femmes et fécondité en Algérie.] Revue du Monde Musulman et de la Méditerranée, No. 65, 1992-1993. 165-73 pp. Aix-en-Provence, France. In Fre.
Using data from a national fertility survey carried out in 1986-1987, this article examines the relationship between migration and fertility in Algeria. The survey involved 5,360 households. The focus of the study is on female migration associated with marriage. The data indicate that one out of every two women experiences migration in her lifetime, and that most of these migrations are associated with marriage. The high rate of rural-to-rural migration is one reason for the continuation of high levels of fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

62:20541 Manson, Gary A.; Groop, Richard E. Ebbs and flows in recent U.S. interstate migration. Professional Geographer, Vol. 48, No. 2, May 1996. 156-66 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Interstate migration exchanges in the United States are temporally and spatially transitory. Both the early and mid-1980s exhibited significant fluctuations in the origins and destinations of U.S. migrants, while the late 1980s and early 1990s were even more unstable. Regions once favored by interstate movers such as the West and the South, while remaining attractive, showed evidence of declining favor in the early 1990s. Meanwhile, numerous states in the national interior regained their attractiveness, including several that gained net migrants for the first time in decades. California exhibited a major turnaround in its migration, perturbing the entire U.S. migration system."
Correspondence: G. A. Manson, Michigan State University, Department of Geography, East Lansing, MI 48824. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

62:20542 Meszaros, Arpad. Regional population shifts and settlement concentration. [A nepesseg teruleti atrendezodese es telepulesi koncentracioja.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 73, No. 7, Jul 1995. 533-42 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes migration and settlement patterns in Hungary during the past three decades. "Migration beyond the borders of the counties has been directed towards mainly Budapest and its conurbation....Significant population increase took place in Budapest's conurbation due to migration surplus and high natural increase....In the inter-county migration the most frequent form was the movement into the neighbouring counties. Both intra-county migration and that crossing the border of counties have been directed towards mainly towns and larger communities."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20543 Molho, Ian. Migrant inertia, accessibility and local unemployment. Economica, Vol. 62, No. 245, Feb 1995. 123-32 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A labour-markets model is constructed in which migration may exhibit `distance deterrence' and `cumulative inertia'. (Migration probabilities fall with distance and length of residence, respectively.) The combination of these two processes yields higher equilibrium unemployment rates in remote areas. Fewer out-migration opportunities in remote areas generate longer residence durations which become self-perpetuating (via cumulative inertia). Such areas accumulate net in-migrants until the local unemployment rate rises sufficiently to balance inflows and outflows. In equilibrium, local unemployment rates compensate for (endogenous) variations in residence duration. Some evidence is presented for Britain which supports the prediction of higher unemployment in remote areas."
Correspondence: I. Molho, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20544 Narayana, M. R. Continuity of inter-regional migration of workers in India: a spatio-temporal analysis. Demography India, Vol. 23, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 183-202 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author develops "a simple dynamic migration model for the purpose of estimating the spatio-temporal continuity of [the] migration process. Also, this paper estimates the dynamic model by standard econometric techniques and obtains the continuous path of migration for selected years by the technique of econometric simulation analysis....Estimates of results of the economic determinants of inter-regional migration of workers in India are given [and] estimates of the path of spatio-temporal migration for the period 1971-74 [are provided]."
Correspondence: M. R. Narayana, Institute of Social and Economic Change, Population Research Centre, Nagarabhavi, P.O. Bangalore 560 072, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20545 Newbold, K. Bruce; Liaw, Kao-Lee. Return and onward migrations in Canada, 1976-1981: an explanation based on personal and ecological variables. Canadian Geographer/Géographe Canadien, Vol. 39, No. 1, Spring 1995. 16-30 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper applies a three-level nested logit model to the micro data of the 1981 Canadian census to explain the 1976-81 interprovincial migration choices of the non-natives (those whose province of residence was different from province of birth), aged 20 to 44, by personal factors and provincial attributes. Important personal factors include mother tongue, level of education, family type, and age. Influential provincial attributes include economic variables (income level, employment growth, and unemployment), distance, and cultural similarity. The main finding is that not only onward migrants but also return migrants were sensitive to the interprovincial variation in economic opportunities."
Correspondence: K. B. Newbold, University of Illinois, Department of Geography, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20546 Nicolaas, H. High number of removals within the Netherlands in 1994. [Record aantal verhuizingen binnen Nederland in 1994.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 12, Dec 1995. 6-15 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The number of persons moving home within the Netherlands increased from 1.629 million in 1993 to 1.684 million in 1994. Compared with 1987, the highest point of the eighties, the 1994 level was 1% higher. During 1994, 788 thousand persons changed address in family context, whereas 896 thousand persons moved individually. The moving families counted on average 2.94 persons. For five provinces internal migration in the period 1990-1994 resulted in net arrivals of which Felvoland had the highest surplus (33.9 thousand). The other provinces showed net departures, [ranging] from 1,800 for Overjissel to 24,300 for Zuid Holland."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20547 Polasek, Vladimir; Pospisil, Miloslav. Population of the Czech Republic according to place of birth and of residence. [Obyvatelstvo Ceske Republiky podle mista bydliste pri narozeni.] Demografie, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1995. 173-83 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors investigate long-term results of migration flows in the Czech Republic. Differences are examined according to age, sex, region, and place of birth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20548 Rogers, Andrei; Wilson, Robin T. Representing structural change in U.S. migration patterns. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan 1996. 1-17 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the identification of three sets of relationships exhibited by a time series of age-specific national migration rates and multiregional transition probability matrices: the relationship across time for the same age group, as defined by period (temporal) transformation coefficients or matrices; the relationships across age at a particular moment in time, as defined by age transformation coefficients or matrices; and the relationships across time and age, as defined by cohort transformation coefficients or matrices. Given any two of these relationships one can solve for the third. This feature of age-period-cohort relationships has a practical application in the development of improved methods for representing structural change in migration patterns over time and for indirectly estimating migration patterns using inadequate data."
Correspondence: A. Rogers, University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, Population Program, Campus Box 484, Boulder, CO 80309-0484. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

62:20549 Sandor, Illes. Changes in the volume of regional mobility. [A teruleti mobilitas volumenenek valtozasai.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 73, No. 7, Jul 1995. 543-55 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"The study analyses changes in regional mobility in [Hungary over] approximately three decades. Different forms of population movement are taken not as separate phenomena but as [an indication] of their interrelations and correlations....The study is supplemented with an accurate bibliography of literature on the topic."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20550 Sharma, Hira L. Geographical mobility and mobility expectancy: trends in the United States of America, 1956-1987. Genus, Vol. 51, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1995. 133-46 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The objective of the present paper is to summarise trends in geographic mobility and expectancy in the U.S.A. between 1956-1987, using Current Population Survey (CPS) data and to determine the responsible factors that can affect mobility rates utilizing logistic regression based on 1979 and 1980 public use sample tapes data from the National Health Interview Survey....Mobility rates reveal a general downward trend in the U.S.A....Overall mobility rates remained rather constant at slightly less than 20 per cent from the mid fifties to the mid sixties. This has fallen steadily since 1970 to a relatively low current rate of about 17 per cent. This rate rose slightly from 1985 to 1987."
Correspondence: H. L. Sharma, JNKVV, College of Agricultural Engineering, Department of Maths and Statistics, Adhartal, Jabalpur 482 004, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20551 Wan, Guang Hua. Peasant flood in China: internal migration and its policy determinants. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1995. 173-96 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"Based on a set of micro-level survey data, this paper...aims at revealing and discussing the facts and patterns of internal migration in China. Cross-country comparisons will be made when appropriate. It will become clear that many features of the Chinese case are unique, and some may be surprising. In particular, rural-rural migration is found to be positively related to distance while out- and net migration is negatively related to education. Female participation in migration is found to be extremely low and the tails of the age distribution of migrants are remarkably thin. Considerable effort will be devoted to the explanation of the major findings, though our ability to do so is limited in some instances because of the absence of relevant literature and data."
Correspondence: G. H. Wan, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

62:20552 Collinson, Sarah. Visa requirements, carrier sanctions, "safe third countries" and "readmission": the development of an asylum "buffer zone" in Europe. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1996. 76-90 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper explores the development of a so-called asylum `buffer zone' around the eastern frontiers of the west European region as a result of the Schengen, EU and EFTA member states' introduction of more restrictive asylum policies during the first half of the 1990s. Restrictive policies in western Europe are forcing central and east European states into a `buffer role', obliging them to absorb asylum-seekers who fail to gain entry into western Europe and/or restrict asylum-seekers' access to the borders of potential `receiving' states. In addition to examining the mechanisms by which this `buffer zone' is developing and questioning what it might mean for future asylum trends and policies in Europe, the paper considers the wider questions raised by this development in relation to the changing geopolitical landscape of Europe, particularly in relation to the changing political and security relations between western, central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union."
Correspondence: S. Collinson, Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House, 10 St. James' Square, London SW1Y 4LE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20553 Kane, Hal. The hour of departure: forces that create refugees and migrants. Worldwatch Paper, No. 125, ISBN 1-878071-26-2. LC 95-060294. Jun 1995. 56 pp. Worldwatch Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A volatile cocktail of pressures has boiled over into wars, famine, and wrenching poverty to drive four million new refugees from their countries last year. These pressures also compel about 125 million people to live outside their countries of birth, and cause tens of millions to move from countryside to city inside their own countries every year....[The author] argues that...the underlying pressures that push people from their homes can be dealt with, and unwanted displacement reduced....[He] argues forcefully for, and gives examples of, enlightened economic and social policies around the world aimed at stemming the tide of the dispossessed."
Correspondence: Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036-1904. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20554 Richmond, Anthony H. The environment and refugees: theoretical and policy issues. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 39, 1995. 1-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The concept of `environmental refugee' is not included in the definition of refugee as established by the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol, which are the most widely used instruments providing the basis for granting asylum to persons in need of protection. Yet, it is increasingly being recognized that environmental factors interact with political, economic, social and biopsychological factors to generate mass movements of people which may require a humanitarian response by the international community. In order to improve our understanding of the role that environmental factors play in triggering migration, it is necessary to recognize the multivariate nature of the phenomenon under consideration, where the difference between internal and international migration is often accidental and there is a continuum between proactive and reactive migration."
Correspondence: A. H. Richmond, York University, Centre for Refugee Studies, 4700 Keele Street, North York, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

62:20555 Borjas, George J.; Bratsberg, Bernt. Who leaves? The outmigration of the foreign-born. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 78, No. 1, Feb 1996. 165-76 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the return migration of foreign-born persons in the United States. We argue that return migration may have been planned as part of an optimal life-cycle residential location sequence. Return migration also occurs because immigrants based their initial migration decision on erroneous information about opportunities in the United States. The study uses the 1980 Census and administrative data from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Immigrants tend to return to wealthy countries which are not too far from the United States. Moreover, return migration accentuates the type of selection characterizing the immigrant population left in the United States."
Correspondence: G. J. Borjas, Harvard University, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

62:20556 Byron, Margaret; Condon, Stephanie. A comparative study of Caribbean return migration from Britain and France: towards a context-dependent explanation. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1996. 91-104 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The currently dominant element in the labour migration from the Caribbean to Britain and France is a return flow of migrants. This paper focuses on the migrations from the Commonwealth and the French Caribbean to Britain and France respectively. While these migrations are historically similar in origin, subsequent differences in the colonial and immigration policies of Britain and France have resulted in divergent migration trends and experiences. New sources of data are drawn on in this comparative study of return migration to the Caribbean, providing up-to-date information on the size and demographic characteristics of the returnee populations. Equally important to this study is the section of the migrant population who are likely to remain in Europe. The authors argue that a comprehensive model of labour migration would need to incorporate the non-return situation in its dynamic entirety."
Correspondence: M. Byron, University of London, King's College, Department of Geography, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

62:20557 Dozio, Alessandro. 1990 federal population census. Everyday mobility in the five major urban agglomerations in Switzerland. [Recensement fédéral de la population 1990. La mobilité quotidienne dans les cinq grandes agglomérations suisses.] Statistique de la Suisse, ISBN 3-303-11155-3. 1995. 99 pp. Bundesamt für Statistik: Bern, Switzerland. In Fre. with sum. in Ger.
This report uses data from the 1990 census to examine commuting patterns in the five major urban areas of Switzerland. The author describes how commuting has grown and developed since 1950. The methods of transport chosen and the characteristics of commuters are analyzed.
Correspondence: Bundesamt für Statistik, Hallwylstrasse 15, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

62:20558 Dharmaraj, S. Migration and development. 1993. 191 pp. Emerald Publishers: Madras, India. In Eng.
This is a case study of the impact of an industrial estate in India on rural-urban migration. The study also examines the impact of such migration on the standard of living of the migrants concerned. The examples studied are the Guindy and Ambattur industrial estates in Madras.
Correspondence: Emerald Publishers, 135 Annasalai, Madras 600 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20559 Huq-Hussain, Shahnaz. Modernization of the migrant women in Dhaka, Bangladesh: analysis of some demographic variables. GeoJournal, Vol. 35, No. 4, Apr 1995. 531-8 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt [has] been made to analyze...demographic variables as signs of urban adaptation by poor females as a result of the influence of migration. In other words, it does not emphasise the demographic structure of migrant women but analyses their changing attitudes and adaption to selected demographic variables in the city of Dhaka [Bangladesh]....The present study relies entirely upon field data that [was] collected during 1988....It may be concluded from the findings of the present research that a higher proportion of the migrants in general and recent migrants in particular come from nuclear families....In terms of family size, the respondents showed their preference for smaller families."
Correspondence: S. Huq-Hussain, Dhaka University, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Location: University of Minnesota Library, Minneapolis, MN.

62:20560 Iwunor, Charles C. O. Estimation of parameters of the inflated geometric distribution for rural out-migration. Genus, Vol. 51, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1995. 253-60 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng.
"Several attempts have been made in the past at studying trends in rural-urban migration through the use of probability models....In this paper, an alternative method (based on maximum likelihood) of estimating the parameters of the inflated geometric distribution is proposed....Section 2 describes the model. The method of estimating the parameters and the associated variance-covariance matrix is contained in section 3. Section 4 gives an illustrative example. Section 5 contains the conclusion." Data are from a 1978 survey conducted in three types of villages in India.
Correspondence: C. C. O. Iwunor, University of Ibadan, Department of Statistics, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20561 Pandey, Himanshu. A study of probabilistic modeling in an out-migration system. [Studium modelowania probabilistycznego w systemie odplywów migracyjnych.] Biuletyn IGS, Vol. 38, No. 1-2, 1995. 145-8 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"In India where about 80 percent of people live in villages, the migration from rural areas has...a special significance. The author presents a probability model which can be used in the analysis of...out-migration."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20562 Vignikin, Kokou. Economic resources and the demographic behavior of agricultural households: the example of the Ewe of southern Togo. [Ressources économiques et comportements démographiques des ménages agricoles: le cas des Ewé du Sud-Togo.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 37, ISBN 2-87762-084-0. Mar 1996. 35 pp. Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This monograph uses data from a survey undertaken in southwestern Togo in 1988. The survey involved 244 rural agricultural households. The data are used to examine the relationships among agricultural activity, reproductive behavior, and migration to the city. "The empirical results show that the cumulation of small-scale farming, relatively large household sizes and a young age structure, together with the economic policy of the government in terms of agricultural prices, weaken households' ability to provide for their own needs. Migration of the young adults to the urban areas is largely explained by such factors."
Correspondence: Centre Français sur la Population et le Développement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Médecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

62:20563 Wegren, Stephen K. Rural migration and agrarian reform in Russia: a research note. Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 47, No. 5, Jul 1995. 877-88 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
This study focuses primarily on trends in rural-urban migration in Russia and the former Soviet Union. "New data suggest that a historic shift in migration patterns is underway in Russia, a change that may have profound long-term effects on agrarian reform and the nature of the Russian countryside. We begin with a short review of past rural migration trends and the rural demographic situation, in part using archival data for an oblast in central Russia. We will then present new data on rural migration. Finally, we assess the implications of rural migratory trends for agrarian reform in Russia."
Correspondence: S. K. Wegren, Southern Methodist University, Department of Political Science, Dallas, TX 75275. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

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