Volume 61 - Number 3 - Fall 1995

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

61:30720 Bartlett, Albert A.; Lytwak, Edward P. Zero growth of the population of the United States. Population and Environment, Vol. 16, No. 5, May 1995. 415-28 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper begins with the assumption that the United States should stop its population growth immediately so as to have and maintain a population that is unchanging in size. Our purpose is to examine the options that would allow us to achieve this goal....This paper is intended to increase understanding of the immigration issue by exploring the simple mathematical relationships between immigration and [other] factors which all act together to determine the growth rate of a population."
Correspondence: A. A. Bartlett, University of Colorado, Department of Physics, Boulder, CO 80309-0390. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30721 Cassen, Robert; Bates, Lisa M. Population policy: a new consensus. Policy Essay, No. 12, ISBN 1-56517-017-2. LC 94-28294. 1994. ix, 93 pp. Overseas Development Council: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This essay examines the current thinking and policy debate on the effects of population growth on economic development in the developing countries. The [authors review] what the developing countries and the international community have done to address population and its related concerns and [present] recommendations for appropriate policies for international action in the coming years, taking the view that development and population policies are mutually reinforcing."
Correspondence: Overseas Development Council, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 1012-PE, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30722 Eberstadt, Nicholas. Population issues. Assumptions: accurate or not. American Enterprise, Vol. 5, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1994. 36-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The favor that population policy enjoys today in the corridors of government derives from the presumption that it is a tested and scientifically grounded instrument at the disposal of the modern statesman. Five premises underlie this belief. None is demonstrably true."
Correspondence: N. Eberstadt, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1150 17th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:30723 Eberstadt, Nicholas. What is population policy? Society, Vol. 32, No. 4, May-Jun 1995. 26-9 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author challenges the five basic assumptions on which population policies are generally based. These are that there is a body of population science capable of explaining the relationship between population and socioeconomic change, that overpopulation exists, that there is an unmet demand for modern contraceptive services in developing countries, that meeting this demand would lead to fertility decline, and that active population policy can achieve worldwide lowering of birth rates through entirely voluntary means. "None of these premises is demonstrably true. To the extent than any of these premises can be empirically tested, each one appears to be demonstrably false."
Correspondence: N. Eberstadt, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1150 17th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30724 Moors, Hein; Beets, Gijs; van den Brekel, Hans. Opinions and attitudes on population issues, 1983-1990. [Opvattingen over en acceptatie van bevolkingsbeleid, 1983-1990.] NIDI Rapport, No. 41, ISBN 90-70990-52-0. 1995. 139 pp. Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This study reports on the results of a mail survey among the Dutch population in the age range 20-64 years old carried out in 1990....The survey is mainly focused on the relationship between individual behaviour and government policy, in particular those policies related to family and work arrangements. Topics dealt with include child allowances, maternity leave, child-care facilities and part-time work arrangements. Special attention is given as well to attitudes and opinions regarding other relevant demographic categories [such] as elderly people and migrants, including policy aspects. The findings are compared with those from the previous surveys in the 1980s. The results indicate that young couples as well as parents express an increasing need for government support be it in different forms depending on the phase of family formation. At the same time, the acceptance of favourable policies for special groups in society receives less and less support from those who are not benefitting from it themselves."
Correspondence: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, P.O. Box 11650, 2502 AR The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30725 Okazaki, Yoichi. On population policy in Japan. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 18, May 1995. 1-12 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"In this paper, the author presents his idea on the concept of population policy, emphasizing the importance of indirect measures. As an example the child allowance system in Japan is explained and evaluated by comparing [it] with those in Western countries."
Correspondence: Y. Okazaki, Nihon University, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

61:30726 Pearce, Tola O. Population policies and the "creation" of Africa. Afrique et Developpement/Africa Development, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1994. 61-76 pp. Dakar, Senegal. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper will look at the ways in which population policies have played an important role in the ongoing debate about African identities and culture....In dealing with the construction of Africa, this paper will be limited to the impact of the population discourse on Africans. Three groups will be considered. These are: the target population of (largely rural) women; males (representing the patriarchal dimension); and African intellectuals. Even though membership in each group is not mutually exclusive, each will be dealt with separately for ease of analysis."
Correspondence: T. O. Pearce, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:30727 United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Population policies in Latin America and the Caribbean: some reflections on the threshold of the twenty-first century. [Las politicas de poblacion en America Latina y el Caribe: algunas reflexiones en el umbral del siglo XXI.] CELADE Serie E, No. 42, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.150. Mar 1995. 141 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
This volume contains four studies on aspects of population policy in Latin America and the Caribbean that were developed in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The first paper, by Omar Arguello, examines the relationships among economic development, social policy, and population. The next, by Miguel Villa, reviews population policies in general. The third, by Ana Sojo, examines aspects of population policy that are unique to Latin America and the Caribbean. The final paper, by Valeria Ramirez, looks at institutional and administrative factors relevant to the development of population policies and programs in the region.
Correspondence: UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30728 United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Population Division (New York, New York). Results of the Seventh United Nations Population Inquiry among Governments. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/140, 1995. xi, 169 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the seventh in a series of surveys carried out by the United Nations on government attitudes and policies concerning population issues. "The present report provides a statistical summary of the responses of Governments to the Seventh Population Inquiry. Part I contains frequency distributions for each variable. Part II provides a copy of the coding manual. Part III reproduces a copy of the questionnaire, in order to facilitate interpretation of each variable, and Part IV contains a copy of the data dictionary." Topics covered include population size, growth, and age structure; mortality; fertility and the family, including family planning, contraception, sterilization, and abortion; population distribution and internal migration; international migration; and the integration of demographic factors into development planning.
For the results from the sixth survey in this series, published in 1990, see 56:30710.
Correspondence: UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

61:30729 Hayashi, Kenji. How has international population policy been formulated? The role and positioning of family planning. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 18, May 1995. 53-63 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"After 1945...under the leadership of the U.S., international population policy focusing on family planning programs was formulated." The author reviews international population policy up to the present day. Aspects considered include changes in policy aims and priorities, international aid and economic development, types of programs and targets, and Japanese funding of developing country programs.
Correspondence: K. Hayashi, Institute of Public Health, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

61:30730 Kurzynowski, Adam. Family policy in 1990-1994. Polish Population Review, No. 5, 1994. 5-21 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The paper discusses the goals and means of realization of family policy [in Poland] and its place in the social policy of the state....The conclusions contain proposals concerning a wider consideration of the family in social and economic policy, and the conditions for creating general conditions favourable for family creation, its development and functioning."
Correspondence: A. Kurzynowski, Warsaw School of Economics, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30731 Lu, Zuo. Performance of population policies in China and India. China Report, Vol. 30, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1994. 19-27 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"China and India are two countries with not only long histories of civilisation but also the largest populations in Asia and the world....Although they have different social systems, and have adopted different policies and measures in controlling population growth, both have achieved appreciable results which have attracted world attention. This paper is intended to present a comparative analysis of the situation of population growth in both the countries and the effectiveness of their policies in this respect."
Correspondence: Z. Lu, Guizhou People's University, Population Research Centre, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30732 O'Connor, Robert E.; Berkman, Michael B. Religious determinants of state abortion policy. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 76, No. 2, Jun 1995. 447-59 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"The research explores the impact of Roman Catholic and conservative Protestant churches on state abortion policy [in the United States]." The results indicate that "religion is a significant factor in abortion policy, but not in simple ways....While there is one Roman Catholic church, with a diverse membership but unified leadership and doctrine on the abortion issue, there are many conservative Protestant churches with no unified leadership. The authors suggest that these structural differences account for the different ways conservative Protestants and Roman Catholics influence state abortion policy."
Correspondence: R. E. O'Connor, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Political Science, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30733 Raina, B. L. The population challenge. ISBN 81-7018-763-X. 1994. vii, 239 pp. B. R. Publishing: Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study brings up to date a previous study on population policies and programs in India. In it, the author describes the objectives of the Eighth Five Year Plan for the period 1992-1997, focusing on population issues and on the new role of the Planning Commission, and describing in detail the health and family welfare programs described in the plan. The achievements of the national family welfare program to date are also outlined.
For the previous study, published in 1988, see 55:40640.
Correspondence: B. R. Publishing, 29/9 Nangia Park, Shakti Nagar, Delhi 110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30734 Rhein, Eberhard. The decline in the population growth rate--a priority issue in international politics. [Die Verlangsamung des Bevolkerungswachstums--eine vordringliche Aufgabe der internationalen Politik.] Europa Archiv, Vol. 49, No. 16, Aug 25, 1994. 479-83 pp. Bonn, Germany. In Ger.
The need for policies to slow the rate of global population growth is discussed. Topics considered include the importance of family planning programs in developing countries, the need for financial assistance from industrialized countries, and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development.
Correspondence: E. Rhein, Commission of European Communities, Generaldirektion fur Auswartige Beziehungen, 1049 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30735 Scribner, Susan. Policies affecting fertility and contraceptive use: an assessment of twelve Sub-Saharan countries. World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 259, ISBN 0-8213-2994-4. LC 94-29410. Apr 1995. xiii, 82 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper reviews multisectoral policies that affect the demand for children and contraceptive use in twelve Sub-Saharan countries. The countries are chosen from among those that have had recent Demographic and Health Surveys or Living Standards of Measurement Surveys. Three sets of policies affecting the demand for children are addressed--girls' schooling, child health and women's legal status--and a review is offered of each country's family planning program activities. The author then ranks the countries according to the strength of their policies in three of the four areas. Not surprisingly, the three countries with the strongest policies in girls' schooling, child health and family planning program activities--Botswana, Kenya and Zimbabwe--are also those where fertility has already begun to decline."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30736 Serbanescu, Florina; Morris, Leo; Stupp, Paul; Stanescu, Alin. The impact of recent policy changes on fertility, abortion, and contraceptive use in Romania. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 26, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 76-87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A national household survey of 4,861 women aged 15-44 on reproductive health issues was conducted in Romania in 1993. The survey provided the opportunity to study the impact of policy changes by comparing selected aspects of fertility, abortion, and contraceptive use before and after the December 1989 revolution, when the laws restricting abortion and contraceptive use were abolished. After abortion became legal, the total fertility rate dropped to below replacement level, while the induced abortion rate doubled. Contraceptive prevalence increased 20 percent, but augmentation of the use of traditional methods, rather than the change in legislation, accounted for 70 percent of the increase. Limited sex education and contraceptive information, mistrust and misinformation about modern methods, a lack of adequately trained providers, and a shortage or uneven distribution of contraceptive supplies are major reasons for the continued high rates of unintended pregnancy."
Correspondence: F. Serbanescu, World Health Organization, Collaborating Center in Perinatal Care Health Research, Mailstop K-35, DRH/CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30737 Tuladhar, Jayanti. Population policies and programme in Nepal. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1993. 175-89 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author discusses the development of population policies and programs designed to address persistent high fertility in Nepal. Aspects considered include the difficulty of estimating fertility levels and trends; policy and program issues such as marriage age, breast-feeding, abortion, women's status, demand for family planning, maternal and child health, and contraception; and the role of nongovernmental organizations.
Correspondence: J. Tuladhar, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30738 Zavala de Cosio, Maria E. Fertility change in Mexico and population policies. [Cambios de fecundidad en Mexico y politicas de poblacion.] ISBN 968-16-3922-7. LC 93-153940. 1992. 326 pp. El Colegio de Mexico, Fondo de Cultura Economica: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This is a study of the relationship between fertility trends and population policies in Mexico over the course of the twentieth century. The author first describes fertility changes for the period 1895 to 1981 using data from a variety of published sources, including the census and surveys. Particular attention is given to the period of declining fertility from 1970 to 1981. The second part examines population policy developments, from the pronatalist policies initiated in the 1930s to the family planning policies and programs of the late 1970s and 1980s. An attempt is made to evaluate the demographic impact of policies and programs developed since 1977.
Correspondence: El Colegio de Mexico, Fondo de Cultura Economica, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

61:30739 Zhang, Junsen; Quan, Jason; Van Meerbergen, Peter. The effect of tax-transfer policies on fertility in Canada, 1921-88. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 29, No. 1, Winter 1994. 181-201 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper estimates the effect on fertility of the personal tax exemption for children, child tax credit, family allowances, and maternity leave benefits in Canada using time-series data from 1921 to 1988. It is found that the exemption, child tax credit, and family allowances all have significant and positive effects on fertility; the results are robust to a variety of specifications including first-differencing. While the three tax-transfer programs seem to be very distinct, the null hypothesis that they have no differential effects on fertility can hardly be rejected. All the results also hold for the cumulative effect of the three tax-transfer programs. The estimates predict that a large increase in the value of the tax-transfer programs would be needed to increase fertility to the replacement level."
Correspondence: J. Zhang, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

61:30740 Zimakova, Tatiana. A fragile inheritance: family policy in a changing Eastern Europe. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 94-311, May 1994. 39 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examines family policy [in Eastern Europe] from a comparative perspective in four areas: systems of paid maternity and child care leaves; public child care; financial aid to families; and government expenditures for families with children....The research is based on official statistics of international and national agencies, documents and scientific analyses of national studies on family policies in Central and Eastern European countries...,as well as on information derived from interviews with practitioners and policy-makers...during 1988 to 1993."
Correspondence: University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

61:30741 Birrell, Robert. Immigration control in Australia. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 534, Jul 1994. 106-17 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
Developments in Australian policy concerning immigration are reviewed. The author notes that Australia's physical isolation has limited illegal migration, but that increasing numbers of those holding short-term visas as visitors or students have overstayed and applied for permanent resident status. Since the 1980s, the government has introduced a series of tough legislative and administrative measures that have significantly diminished this problem.
Correspondence: R. Birrell, Monash University, Centre for Population and Urban Research, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30742 Borras, Alegria; Areste, Pedro; Gonzalez, Cristina; Martinez, Antonio; de la Mata, Fernando; Miquel, Jose A.; Sagarra, Eduard. Ten years of the Law Concerning Foreigners: balance and perspectives. [Diez anos de la Ley de Extranjeria: balance y perspectivas.] Itinera Libros, ISBN 84-88130-10-4. Apr 1995. 250 pp. Fundacion Paulino Torras Domenech: Barcelona, Spain. In Spa.
This is a review of events in Spain over the course of the 10-year period since the current immigration law came into force. The work is in five chapters, which look at Spanish immigration law in the international context, the constitutional position of foreigners in Spain, the prosecution of illegal migrants, administrative developments in the law's application, and changes in the social conditions of foreigners.
Correspondence: Fundacion Paulino Torras Domenech, Passeig de Gracia 58, 2o 2a, 08007 Barcelona, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30743 Bouvier, Leon. What if...? Immigration decisions: what could have been, what could be. Oct 1994. 37 pp. Federation for American Immigration Reform [FAIR]: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author "examines how different immigration policies in the past would have given us a different America today and how changes in immigration policy today would give us a different future. [He] examines nine scenarios: scenarios I through IV focus on how changes in the past would have changed our present; scenarios V through IX focus on how various levels of immigration now would affect our future."
Correspondence: Federation for American Immigration Reform, 1666 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 400, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30744 Brou, Kouadio; Charbit, Yves. The migration policy of the Ivory Coast. [La politique migratoire de la Cote-d'Ivoire.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1994. 33-59 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper deals with the policy of internal and international migration [in the Ivory Coast,] especially its determinants, instruments and results. The authors...identify demographic, economic and historical factors. Then they analyse internal migration with special emphasis on the instruments used, selective regional allocation of jobs and passing of landholding rights....Finally, the most recent trends are examined: internal and international migration policy evolved under the constraints of the economic and political crisis [of] the 1980s."
Correspondence: K. Brou, Universite Rene Descartes Paris V, 12 rue Cujas, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30745 Chambovey, Didier. Policies relating to aliens and quota systems for immigrants: the example of Switzerland. [Politique a l'egard des etrangers et contingentement de l'immigration: l'exemple de la Suisse.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 357-84 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The author assesses the efficiency of quantitative [immigration] controls (quota systems) and their effect on the labour market [in Switzerland]. These had only a small impact on immigration, and thus on the numbers of permanent foreign residents in Switzerland. A policy which allowed foreigners who had been admitted to facilitate family reunification to settle in Switzerland, and the conversion of seasonal into permanent permits, reduced the effect of quantitative restrictions. Policies failed to achieve an optimum balance in employment and led to an economy which was more vulnerable in times of crisis, and to higher unemployment."
Correspondence: D. Chambovey, Universite de Neuchatel, Avenue du 1er Mars 26, 2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30746 Convey, Andrew; Kupiszewski, Marek. Migration and policy in the European Union. School of Geography Working Paper, No. 94/5, Mar 1994. 37 pp. University of Leeds, School of Geography: Leeds, England. In Eng.
The authors discuss differences in migration policies toward internal European Community (EC) migration and toward non-Community citizens moving into EC member countries.
Correspondence: University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30747 Dale, Suzanne M.; LeMay, Michael C.; Mariam, Al G. Breaching the barriers: migrating ethnic groups and immigration policy. Southeastern Political Review, Vol. 22, No. 4, Dec 1994. 729-52 pp. Statesboro, Georgia. In Eng.
"Immigration receiving nations around the world have been raising barriers. This article looks at the newest such barriers contained in recent United States immigration laws. The dichotomy poses a dilemma for persons and groups--such as refugee groups--who are seeking to migrate but have few options for coping with increased barriers to their entrance. Potential immigrant groups may simply ignore the laws and enter illegally. They may seek to amend the laws by special exemptions for themselves. Finally, they may seek redress from the harsher policy via the courts. This article exemplifies each of those strategies for coping with immigration barriers by high-lighting the cases of Mexicans, Irish, and Haitians."
Correspondence: A. G. Mariam, California State University, 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA 92407. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:30748 Freeman, Gary P. Can liberal states control unwanted migration? Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 534, Jul 1994. 17-30 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
The author disaggregates migration policy into four parts: "managing legal immigration, controlling illegal migration, administering temporary worker programs, and processing asylum seekers and refugees. A review of the experiences of the liberal democracies with each of these migration challenges indicates that although there are numerous instances of policy failure, there is also considerable capacity to regulate migration." He also suggests that this capacity is growing over time.
Correspondence: G. P. Freeman, University of Texas, Department of Government, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30749 Jupp, James. From 'White Australia' to 'part of Asia': recent shifts in Australian immigration policy towards the region. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring 1995. 207-28 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the impact on Australia of population movements in the Asia-Pacific region since 1945, with special reference to the period since 1975 that marked the termination of the restrictive 'White Australia Policy.' That policy, which had its origins in racist theories popular at the end of the nineteenth century, isolated Australia from its immediate region and kept it tied to its European and, more specifically, British origins....It is concluded that the generation which has grown up since 1945 and which is now starting to dominate politics and intellectual life will find it easier to reorient Australia than did the previous generation, despite continuing ambivalence in public attitudes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30750 Kuptsch, Christiane; de Beijl, Roger Z. International labour migration. Policy options for sending and receiving countries. Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 32, No. 118, Jun 1995. 226-46 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The policy options open to labor-exporting and labor-receiving countries are examined and compared. "Whereas the section on the receiving countries gives an overview and categorization of past policies and assesses their effects, the section on the sending countries focuses on policy options in the light of stated policy aims. Government policies are in the centre of attention, as [are] other important actors such as individual migrants, employers and trade unions in sending and receiving countries or NGOs militating in favour of migrant workers. Also governments' policy options can be limited by pressures from all these actors and by human rights considerations."
Correspondence: International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30751 Livi-Bacci, Massimo. "Us" and "them": European and North American attitudes to immigration. ["Nous" et "eux": l'Europe et les Etats-Unis face a l'immigration.] Politique Etrangere, Vol. 59, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 661-70 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author analyzes the historical reasons for the differences that have developed between immigration policies in North America and Western Europe, which primarily concern a closed-door policy in Europe and a progressive opening-up toward immigration in America. "The reason for this evolution lies in the differences between the simplistic European conception of immigration as a short-term solution to labour market problems and the American approach which treats immigrants as full members of the society."
Correspondence: M. Livi-Bacci, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Department of Political Science, Piazza San Marco 4, 50121 Florence, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

61:30752 Marie, Claude-Valentin. From the campaign against illegal migration to the campaign against illegal work. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 534, Jul 1994. 118-32 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
In this article, translated from the original French, the author notes that "the French effort to curb illegal immigration, which began in earnest in the mid-1970s, had become increasingly subsumed under a broader campaign to prevent and punish illegal employment by the early 1990s. Illegal alien employment remains a significant concern, but most illegal work involves French citizens. Over the past two decades, France has fine-tuned and reinforced a panoply of laws punishing illegal employment, but socioeconomic trends have tended to exacerbate it. Nonetheless, the government's ability to punish and deter illegal work, including illegal alien employment, is more considerable and credible today than it was two decades ago."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30753 Martin, Philip L. Good intentions gone awry: IRCA and U.S. agriculture. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 534, Jul 1994. 44-57 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
The impact of the 1986 U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act on the U.S. agricultural sector is examined. "By legalizing the farm workforce, it was hoped that legal workers who did not have to compete with a continuing influx of illegal aliens could force farmers to improve wages and working conditions. Farmers, in turn, would stop planting labor-intensive crops in remote areas and expect the U.S. government to admit or tolerate the entry of immigrant workers to harvest them. The immigration reforms have proven to be a case of good intentions gone awry. Instead of a legal farm workforce, 20-40 percent of today's farm workers are unauthorized. Most farm employers did not make adjustments to retain newly legalized farm workers; instead, more farmers sought newly arrived and often unauthorized immigrant workers."
Correspondence: P. L. Martin, University of California, Department of Agricultural Economics, Davis, CA 95616-8512. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30754 Miller, Mark J. Strategies for immigration control: an international comparison. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 534, Jul 1994. 219 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
This issue contains a selection of 12 papers that examine strategies for the control of immigration from an international perspective. "Serious doubts have arisen as to the ability of governments, particularly Western democratic ones, to regulate international migration at a time when global migratory propensities are on the rise. The articles in this volume address various facets of what looms as a principal foreign and domestic policy issue worldwide in the foreseeable future."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Sage Publications, 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30755 Mitchell, Christopher. U.S. Policy toward Haitian boat people, 1972-1993. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 534, Jul 1994. 69-80 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
The U.S. policy response from the 1970s through the early 1990s to the unauthorized migration from Haiti to south Florida by sea is examined. The author notes the development of a more restrictive policy over time, culminating in the policy adopted in May 1992, under which intercepted vessels were escorted back to Haiti without allowing passengers to request political asylum. The relationship between criticism of this policy and U.S intervention to try and restore democracy in Haiti is considered. The author concludes that "as both U.S. political leaders and the general public become more restrictionist, the policy of returning Haitian boat people may, unfortunately, come to seem normal rather than anomalous."
Correspondence: C. Mitchell, New York University, Washington Square, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30756 North, David S. Enforcing the minimum wage and employer sanctions. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 534, Jul 1994. 58-68 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
The impact of the employer sanctions on the hiring of illegal immigrants, initiated in the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act, on the minimum wage is examined in Los Angeles County, California, a region with large-scale immigration, both legal and illegal. "The roles of four groups of agencies are examined: unions, community-based organizations, employment standards agencies, and the Immigration and Naturalization Service. The expected inter-agency cooperation to raise wages for those at the bottom of the labor market was not found. Further, resources for enforcing the minimum wage turned out to be minimal, with social service agencies and foundations much more interested in a more fashionable, if less pervasive, labor market problem, namely, sanction-caused discrimination against foreign-appearing workers."
Correspondence: D. S. North, New TransCentury Foundation, Arlington, VA. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30757 Perotti, Rosanna. Employer sanctions and the limits of negotiation. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 534, Jul 1994. 31-43 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
"This article provides an overview and assessment of the implementation of the Immigration Reform and Control ACT (IRCA) of 1986, the major U.S. law intended to curb illegal migration. Enforcement of employer sanctions, protection against possible discrimination linked to employer sanctions, and legalization of alien workers are considered. IRCA should be viewed as a first step in coping with illegal immigration, but much more will have to be done to achieve an optimal balance between hospitality and control."
Correspondence: R. Perotti, Hofstra University, Department of Political Science, Hempstead, NY 11550. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30758 Schuck, Peter H.; Wang, Theodore H. Continuity and change: patterns of immigration litigation in the courts, 1979-1990. Stanford Law Review, Vol. 45, No. 1, Nov 1992. 116-83 pp. Stanford, California. In Eng.
"This study represented an effort to learn more about contemporary immigration litigation in the [U.S.] courts. It sought to: (a) establish a profile of the immigration caseload; (b) discern some of the effects of certain immigration policy reforms on that caseload; (c) emphasize the growing importance of affirmative challenge litigation, especially impact cases, in the immigration area; and (d) determine what occurs when federal courts remand immigration cases to the INS [Immigration and Naturalization Service] and the administrative immigration court. The study was meant to be descriptive, not normative."
Correspondence: P. H. Schuck, Yale University, School of Law, Box 208269, Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30759 van Amersfoort, Hans; Penninx, Rinus. Regulating migration in Europe: the Dutch experience, 1960-1992. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 534, Jul 1994. 133-46 pp. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, California/London, England. In Eng.
Recent trends in international migration to the Netherlands are described. "Since 1960, three migration flows in particular have contributed to the migration surplus: labor migration from the Mediterranean area, migration from former Dutch colonies, and migration of international refugees. In each case, the measures taken by the Dutch government to regulate the migration have not been successful. This article analyzes why it is so difficult, if not impossible, to effectively implement migration regulations. A very important reason seems to be the contradictory aims of the welfare state that, on the one hand, tries to keep immigrants out but, on the other hand, seeks to ensure full civil rights for the immigrant population settled in the country."
Correspondence: H. van Amersfoort, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:30760 Wang, Yuesheng. A study on the migration policy in ancient China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1995. 27-38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In the history of Chinese feudal society, migration of the population, including the migration activity of ethnic groups, was incessant. The feudal dynasties, including those established by ethnic minorities, either adopted a policy against inter-ethnic migration, or permitted or even compelled migration. A study of these multifarious policies helps us understand the inter-ethnic relationships, distribution of ethnic groups, and the development of the Chinese race."
Correspondence: Y. Wang, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Population Research Institute, 5 Jianguomen Nei Da Jie 5 Hao, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30761 Weidenfeld, Werner; Hillenbrand, Olaf. EC immigration policy: challenges--options--consequences. [EG-Einwanderungspolitik: Herausforderungen--Optionen--Folgen.] Internationale Politik und Gessellschaft/International Politics and Society, No. 1, 1994. 31-9, 97, 99 pp. Bonn, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The rates of immigration into the Western European countries now exceed those experienced by the classical immigration countries. As a result, a sense of threat is felt by the public. A European immigration concept is needed because, on the one hand, the countries of Western Europe require immigration to offset an increasingly unfavourable age structure and, on the other, there are migratory pressures to be dealt with, especially from Central and Eastern Europe and North Africa....Without the proper channeling and curbing of immigration it is to be feared that excessive demands will be placed on the host societes."
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:30762 Weidenfeld, Werner. The European immigration concept. [Das europaische Einwanderungskonzept.] ISBN 3-89204-088-5. 1994. 200 pp. Bertelsmann Stiftung: Gutersloh, Germany. In Ger.
This book is a collection of five papers by various authors. The main focus is on developing recommendations for a European immigration law. Political and social problems of migration policy in the European Union are analyzed, the need for immigration to compensate for fertility decline is assessed, and the concept of an immigration policy for the European Union as a whole is presented.
Correspondence: Bertelsmann Stiftung, Carl-Bertelsmann-Strasse 256, 33311 Gutersloh, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30763 Weil, Patrick. French immigration policy. [La politique de la France.] Politique Etrangere, Vol. 59, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 719-29 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"French immigration policy is often presented as being incoherent. However, its rules were fixed in the edict of 2nd November 1945. From this date until 1974, France was officially a country looking for labour and family based immigration. From 1974 until 1984, French immigration policy fluctuated between the principle of granting foreigners rights regardless of their national, religious or racial origin or that based on ethnocentrism that is to say the existence of different degrees of assimilation of immigrants (depending on their origin) with the 'French ethnic group'. The egalitarian principle was finally confirmed by the law of July 1984 which created a single permit." The author suggests that all subsequent governments have acted in accordance with that principle, even if they did not state openly that they were so doing, but they have not always chosen the most effective strategies.
Correspondence: P. Weil, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Pierre Leon, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

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