Volume 61 - Number 3 - Fall 1995

L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and noneconomic factors. Relations affecting a single demographic variable are coded under the variable concerned and not in this division. Studies concerned equally with economic and social factors are coded under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population .

L.1. General Social Development and Population

Studies on interrelations with education, religion, social change, and socioeconomic status.

61:30676 Cowart, Marie E.; Serow, William J. Caregiving needs for 2020: implications for Hong Kong and other newly industrialized countries. Hong Kong Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 8, No. 2, Dec 1994. 3-8 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the policy questions that arise with population aging in Hong Kong, Singapore, the Republic of Korea (South) and the Republic of China (Taiwan) using Japan as a basis for comparison. After presenting and analyzing the magnitudes of population aging from 1990 to 2020, data is presented concerning dependency ratios and the age structure for each country. The discussion centers on the needs for income security of the aged, assessing the care needs of the elderly, and recommendations for designing policies for developing a system of formal services to supplement the informal care provided by families. Special emphasis on the policies of Hong Kong are considered."
Correspondence: M. E. Cowart, Florida State University, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30677 Cowart, Marie E.; Serow, William J. The demography of aging in the industrializing portion of the Pacific rim: a case for gender justice. Bold, Vol. 5, No. 3, May 1995. 5-12 pp. Valletta, Malta. In Eng.
The authors examine the impact of probable future trends in demographic aging on women's roles in the newly industrializing countries of the Pacific Rim (in Southeastern and east Asia). They also suggest that women will in all probability be expected to cope with additional household and family responsibilities due to demographic aging at a time when they are trying to change gender status and improve gender equity, and that these growing responsibilities could severely handicap women's efforts to play a larger role in the economy and in policy making.
Correspondence: M. E. Cowart, Florida State University, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Tallahassee, FL 32306. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30678 Mhloyi, Marvellous. Status of women, population and development. IUSSP Distinguished Lecture Series on Population and Development, ISBN 2-87108-043-7. 1994. 23 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author discusses "the importance of [the] status of women in determining the two most important components of population growth, size and quality--fertility and mortality. An effort is also made to show how development interventions need not only to take care of women's conditional needs, but also to invest significantly in both women's and men's empowerment for it to be worthwhile."
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30679 Naguib, Nora G.; Lloyd, Cynthia B. Gender inequalities and demographic behavior: Egypt. ISBN 0-87834-081-5. 1994. iv, 71 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one of a series of three reports on the relationships among gender equity, family structure and dynamics, and reproductive choice. This report concerns Egypt, and includes chapters on gender inequalities within the family, in public life, and the provision of reproductive health services. "The objectives of this report are to examine the legal, social, and policy context in which gender relations operate in Egypt and to better understand the links between gender dynamics and reproductive behavior."
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30680 Oppong, Christine; Wery, Rene. Women's roles and demographic change in Sub-Saharan Africa. IUSSP Policy and Research Paper, No. 5, ISBN 2-87108-036-4. 1995. 36 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors attempt "to identify and highlight evidence which points to some of the major aspects of women's changing roles and status attributes--which appear to be critically pertinent to the documentation and explanation of demographic change and lack of change--and to the design and development of national population policies and programs." The geographical focus is on Sub-Saharan Africa.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30681 Peters, Wolfgang. Public pensions, family allowances and endogenous demographic change. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 2, May 1995. 161-83 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"A tax-transfer system deals with redistribution among generations and corrective taxation at the same time. Since such a policy is a government's task, we take a normative approach and pose the question: Which tax-transfer system should a government apply to maximize social welfare? The framework we consider allows for endogenous demographic aspects...: first, fertility has a great impact on a PAYG [pay-as-you-go] financed pension insurance; and second, through education human capital is accumulated....We analyzed the optimal extent of a public pension scheme in the presence of external effects of fertility and education on the net domestic product." Pension schemes in Germany and the United States are compared.
Correspondence: W. Peters, University of Bonn, Department of Economics, Adenauerallee 24-42, 53113 Bonn, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30682 Russell, Kathryn. A value-theoretic approach to childbirth and reproductive engineering. Science and Society, Vol. 58, No. 3, Fall 1994. 287-314 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper explores an analogy between childbearing and social labor, arguing that the labor theory of value gives insight into the social functions of childbirth under capitalism. The valorization of childbearing is consistent with other ways of socializing the reproduction of labor power despite the capitalists' need for an autonomously functioning private household sector. A value-theoretic approach is necessary to reveal how childbearing is being placed in material relation with other forms of labor under capitalism. Neither reproductive engineering nor biological difference are themselves sources of oppression for women, but when found in a historical context where value can be extracted, childbearing can become a form of alienated labor."
Correspondence: K. Russell, State University of New York, State University College at Cortland, Department of Philosophy, P.O. Box 2000, Cortland, NY 13045. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:30683 Seltzer, Mildred M. The impact of increased life expectancy: beyond the gray horizon. Springer Series on Life Styles and Issues in Aging, ISBN 0-8261-8760-9. LC 94-36331. 1995. xvi, 237 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This is a collection of studies that examines the consequences of increasing life expectancy, with particular reference to the United States, and is a product of a symposium held in 1992 at a meeting of the Gerontological Society of America. Contributors were asked to consider the specific consequences of a life expectancy of 100 years, and how this would affect their research agendas. The approach is interdisciplinary, with emphasis on the social and behavioral sciences.
Correspondence: Springer-Verlag, 536 Broadway, New York, NY 10012. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30684 Shen, An'an. Impact of the family educational models on women's status. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1995. 55-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Based on the data obtained from [a 1991] sample survey on the status of today's Chinese women conducted in the City of Shanghai and Guangdong, Shandong and Shaanxi Provinces, this study analyzes through comparison the characteristics of the family educational models in the families in the urban areas of those four regions where 20-54-year-old women were living with their husbands, in order to demonstrate the status of women under different family educational models and in different regions in China."
Correspondence: A. Shen, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population and Development, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30685 Stolnitz, George J. Social aspects and country reviews of population aging. UN/ECE Economic Studies, No. 6, Pub. Order No. GV.E.94.0.24. ISBN 92-1-100687-2. 1994. x, 377 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the second of two volumes presenting background papers prepared as part of an Economic Commission for Europe project on population aging. The papers are designed to "spread knowledge about population aging as one of the most important phenomena of the world at the turn of the third millennium and to inspire policy makers to respond more actively to the problem not only in Europe and North America but also in other regions, including the developing countries." Chapter 1 contains nine papers on social and health aspects of aging. Chapter 2 contains country reviews for Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East and West Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia.
For the first volume in this set, published in 1992, see 59:10598.
Correspondence: United Nations, Sales Section, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30686 Toubia, Nahid; Bahyeldin, Amira; Hijab, Nadia; Abdel-Latif, Heba. Arab women: a profile of diversity and change. 1994. 64 pp. Population Council: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
This report presents information on the status of women in 21 Arab countries, using data from UN and World Bank sources. Separate consideration is given to women's health, education, work, and rights.
Correspondence: Population Council, Regional Office, P.O. Box 115, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.2. Demographic and Political Factors

Studies on the political aspects of population growth, including the demographic impact of war.

61:30687 Clark, William A. V.; Morrison, Peter A. Demographic foundations of political empowerment in multiminority cities. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 2, May 1995. 183-201 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"As U.S. cities accommodate increasing ethnic and racial diversity, political choices may unify or divide their local populations. Those choices pull communities toward two different modes of pluralism: traditional 'melting pot' assimilation or a complex mosaic of racial and ethnic assertiveness. Central to this issue is equity and empowerment, which may be accentuated by minority populations' size, structure, and spatial concentration. We examine two potential modes of local empowerment: 'dominance,' whereby each group is the majority of voters in single election districts (reinforcing separative tendencies), and 'influence,' whereby a group gains 'influential minority' status in several districts (reinforcing unifying tendencies)."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: W. A. V. Clark, University of California, Department of Geography, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1524. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30688 Morrison, Peter A. Demographic perspectives on the Voting Rights Act. RAND Paper, No. P-7905, 1995. 17 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"This paper examines several demographic constraints on implementing the [U.S.] Voting Rights Act and explores their implications. Increasingly, cities and other local jurisdictions will become multiethnic in population makeup, introducing new concerns with (1) the new arithmetic of minority empowerment; (2) the characteristics of single-member districts for remedying vote dilution; and (3) the official designations of race and ethnicity and the ethnic balkanization they may invite. The paper outlines these concerns and examines the technical demographic issues behind them, drawing upon actual local illustrations."
Correspondence: RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30689 Pryor, Edward T. The cultural partitioning of Canada: demographic roots of multinationalism. In: Population, ethnicity, and nation-building, edited by Calvin Goldscheider. 1995. 201-22 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Canada, a nation-state for some 125 years, has evolved around a considerable array of concepts, often contradictory, that are intended to accommodate the diverse origins of its people. These concepts have developed as conquest and various sources of immigrants forced the sharing of the country by factions and regional parties along language and ethnic lines. Complicating the formation of Canada as a single nation-state was the regionalism that arose from the marked diversity in the demographic and economic evolution of different parts of the country....The central theme of this paper is that understanding the demographic roots and evolution of Canada is fundamental to comprehending the particular brand of nationalism portrayed by Canada."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.3. Demographic Factors and Health

Studies on nutrition and health, including psychological aspects and sex behavior. Studies that are concerned with the impact of these factors on fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

61:30690 Aaby, Peter. Assumptions and contradictions in measles and measles immunization research: is measles good for something? Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 5, Sep 1995. 673-86 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author challenges some basic assumptions concerning the impact on child mortality of immunization against measles, and particularly the assumption that the weaker children saved by immunization will be more prone to die from other infections. He notes that evidence from developing countries indicates that "transmission factors, in [particular] intensity of exposure and cross-sex transmission, may be more important determinants of measles mortality than the host factors usually emphasized. Consistent with these observations and in contrast to assumptions about 'weak' children dying, immunization is associated with a major reduction in mortality....It has therefore been suggested that measles immunization may prevent the persistent immunosuppression and delayed mortality assumed to be associated with measles....Contrary to current assumptions, children who survive the acute phase of measles infection may have a survival advantage....Hence, both disease and immunization may be associated with non-specific beneficial effects, presumably due to some form of immunostimulation....Should these observations be reproducible, they question the culture of 'eradication' and have major implications for future immunization policies."
Correspondence: P. Aaby, Apartado 861, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30691 Aaby, Peter; Samb, Badara; Simondon, Francois; Coll Seck, Awa M.; Knudsen, Kim; Whittle, Hilton. Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries. British Medical Journal, Vol. 311, No. 7003, Aug 19, 1995. 481-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is an analysis of results from several studies in developing countries to examine whether the reduction in mortality after measles immunization can be explained simply by the prevention of that disease. "Protective efficacy against death after measles immunisation ranged from 30% to 86%. Efficacy was highest in the studies with short follow up and when children were immunised in infancy....Vaccine efficacy against death was much greater than the proportion of deaths attributed to acute measles disease....These observations suggest that standard titre measles vaccine may confer a beneficial effect which is unrelated to the specific protection against measles disease."
Correspondence: P. Aaby, Statens Seruminstitut, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Epidemiology Research Unit, Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

61:30692 Akeroyd, Anne V. HIV/AIDS in eastern and southern Africa. Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 21, No. 60, Jun 1994. 173-84 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
"This article reviews some recent key books on HIV/AIDS in Africa. It does so by examining the debates relating to the extent and possible future development of HIV/AIDS referring to the discussions about demographic, economic and social impacts in especially eastern and southern Africa. It explores the so-called doomsday scenarios and addresses themes linked to the important and increasing attention being paid to the gendered aspects of HIV/AIDS."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:30693 Anarfi, John K. HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: demographic and socio-economic implications. African Population Paper, No. 3, Nov 1994. 39 pp. African Population and Environment Institute [APEI]: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
The author analyzes the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa and the socio-cultural factors associated with this growth, such as poverty and gender relations. Separate consideration is given to the epidemic's demographic and socioeconomic impact. "Demographic impacts include changes in population growth rate, increased mortality which is already noticeable, reversal of life expectancy at birth which is evident, and changes in age-sex pattern of population which are already underway. Socio-economic impacts include instability of economic growth and development; the social costs of the disease; deleterious effects on the family structure and its socio-economic base and on the community as well as the national economy."
Correspondence: African Population and Environment Institute, P.O. Box 14405, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30694 Berer, Marge; Ravindran, T. K. Sundari. Pregnancy, birth control, STDs and AIDS: promoting safer sex. Reproductive Health Matters, No. 5, May 1995. 153 pp. Reproductive Health Matters: London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This special issue is about safety with regard to pregnancy, birth control, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV and AIDS. It includes a selection of short feature articles, issues concerning current policy, and a selection of notes concerning law and policy, service delivery, research, and publications. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: Reproductive Health Matters, 29-35 Farringdon Road, London EC1M 3JB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30695 Cleland, John; Way, Peter. AIDS impact and prevention in the developing world: demographic and social science perspectives. Health Transition Review, Vol. 4, Suppl., 1994. i, 367 pp. Australian National University, Health Transition Centre: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This volume is based on a selection of papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), the Fondation Marcel Merieux and the Centre Jacques Cartier. The meeting was held in Annecy, France from December 5-9, 1993....[The aim] was to bring diverse perspectives from the realm of demography and the social sciences, to bear on the issue of HIV-AIDS in less developed countries."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Australian National University, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Health Transition Centre, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30696 Cramer, James C. Racial and ethnic differences in birthweight: the role of income and financial assistance. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 2, May 1995. 231-47 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to explain the differences in birthweight observed between [U.S.] blacks, white Anglos, Chicanos, and other racial and ethnic groups. The analysis focuses on the role of income and financial assistance from relatives and public programs. Using data from the NLS [National Longitudinal Survey] Youth Panel, I construct a causal model of birthweight containing exogenous social and demographic risk factors and intervening proximate determinants of birthweight. A substantial part of the gap in birthweight between white Anglos and other ethnic groups (especially blacks) can be explained by the unfavorable socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the latter. On the other hand, blacks and other minorities smoke less and have other favorable proximate characteristics that depress differences in birthweight. When these proximate determinants are controlled, large ethnic differences in birthweight remain unexplained by income and other sociodemographic factors."
Parts of this paper were originally presented at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: J. C. Cramer, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30697 Ding, Ye. Computing back-calculation estimates of AIDS epidemic. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 14, Jul 30, 1995. 1,505-12 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
This article is about the computation of back-calculation estimates of the number of HIV infections using AIDS incidence data, and the projection of future AIDS incidence. "In Section 2, we review the back-calculation method and describe the conditional likelihood estimation approach. In Section 3, we consider the asymptotic normal distribution of the estimates for computing confidence intervals of the parameters. In Section 4, we use the underlying multinomial distributions to compute variances of the estimated numbers of infections and projected numbers of AIDS cases. In Section 5, we illustrate the methods with AIDS data in the United States. Section 6 presents a discussion."
Correspondence: Y. Ding, New York State Department of Health, Bureau of Biometrics, Empire State Plaza, Concourse, Room C-144, Albany, NY 12237. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30698 Erickson, Pennifer; Wilson, Ronald; Shannon, Ildy. Years of healthy life. NCHS Statistical Notes, No. 7, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 95-1237. Apr 1995. 14 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"The sources and methods used for calculating years of healthy life are described in this issue of Statistical Notes. Estimated years of healthy life measures for 1990 for the total U.S. population and for selected subgroups are presented and discussed."
Correspondence: U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30699 Ford, Nicholas; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat. UK/Thai collaborative research development in reproductive and sexual health: proceedings of the symposium on the Mahidol-Exeter British Council link. IPSR Publication, No. 187, ISBN 974-588-016-7. Nov 1993. 156 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a seminar held in Bangkok, Thailand, November 9, 1993, part of a cooperative, interdisciplinary research arrangement between Exeter and Mahidol universities. The papers describe projected, on-going, or completed research projects. "The contributions are arranged in three sections the first section comprises a diverse range of papers concerning health, family planning and ageing issues. The second section comprises a fairly coherent series of papers concerned with different aspects of the sexual culture, involving an elaboration of the gender structuring of sexuality in Thailand. The third section outlines some developments in curriculum design."
Correspondence: Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Putthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30700 Frenk, Julio; Lozano, Rafael; Bobadilla, Jose L. The epidemiological transition in Latin America. [La transicion epidemiologica en America Latina.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 22, No. 60, Dec 1994. 79-101 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The changes in health conditions that have occurred in most of the countries of Latin America in the second half of the twentieth century are analyzed. "This paper analyzes the main mechanisms involved in the epidemiologic transition, which are: changes in risk factors, fertility decline and improvements in health care technology." The authors use a mortality profile ratio, obtained by dividing the mortality rate due to infectious and parasitic diseases over the mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, to analyze trends in 15 countries. "Three distinct groups can be recognized. Each of them represents a different transitional experience. Such experiences are discussed in detail, including a new 'protracted polarized model' of the epidemiologic transition, which characterizes several Latin American countries. Finally, evidence is provided to illustrate the relationship among economic development, fertility change, and mortality profiles."
Correspondence: J. Frenk, Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Cuernavaca, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30701 Goldberg, Howard; Velebil, Petr; Stembera, Zdenek; Tomek, Ivan; Kraus, Jaroslav. 1993 Czech Republic Reproductive Health Survey: final report. Mar 1995. xxii, 195, 37 pp. Czech Statistical Office: Prague, Czech Republic; U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This report describe the 1993 Czech Republic Reproductive Health Survey (CRRHS) and its major findings." The survey involved a nationally representative sample of 4,497 women aged 15-44. Following chapters on survey methodology, there are chapters on childbearing and abortion; family planning; pregnancy, delivery, and infant health; young adult sexual behavior; reproductive health knowledge and attitudes; women's health; and transmission of HIV.
Correspondence: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30702 Kaplan, Edward H.; Brandeau, Margaret L. Modeling the AIDS epidemic: planning, policy, and prediction. ISBN 0-7817-0164-3. LC 93-23684. 1994. xxix, 624 pp. Raven Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This book contains 30 papers on AIDS modeling research, many of which were originally presented at the 34th Joint National Meeting of the Operations Research Society of America and the Institute of Management Sciences, held in San Francisco, November 1-4, 1992. The focus is on AIDS modeling research that can directly or indirectly improve decision-making for planning, resource allocation, and public health policy. The papers are organized under the topics of AIDS policy modeling, models for AIDS backcasting and forecasting, modeling infectivity and disease progression, and modeling the social organization of risky behavior.
Correspondence: Raven Press, 1185 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30703 Lavy, Victor; Strauss, John; Thomas, Duncan; De Vreyer, Philippe. The impact of the quality of health care on children's nutrition and survival in Ghana. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper, No. 106, ISBN 0-8213-2997-9. LC 94-41226. 1995. xi, 49 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the effect of quality and accessibility of health services and other public infrastructure on the health of children and adults in Ghana....We...also analyze the determinants of the probability of child survival, a measure considered to be an alternative indicator of health status. The results presented here suggest an important role for public health policy in eliminating the rural-urban disparities in health status and particularly in improving the health status of rural children and reducing their mortality rates."
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30704 Leisch, Harald. Demographic disparities between Thai and Karen as a result of the development of the medical infrastructure and population policies: a geomedical study in Changwat Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. Trierer Geographische Studien, No. 10, ISBN 3-921-599-21-0. 1994. 96 pp. Universitat Trier, Geographische Gesellschaft Trier: Trier, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
This doctoral dissertation analyzes the main demographic differences between the Thai and Karen hill tribal populations in northern Thailand. The focus is on differences between highland and lowland populations, access to health facilities, and on different disease patterns, hygienic conditions, living standards, cultural factors, and levels of education, and how different disease patterns affect demographic trends, particularly fertility. Data were collected during field studies in 1992 and 1993.
Correspondence: Universitat Trier, Geographische Gesellschaft Trier, 54286 Trier, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30705 Mantorska, Teresa. The impact of environment on human health: the Polish case. Polish Population Review, No. 5, 1994. 222-31 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
This is a brief section of an unfinished manuscript by the author, recently deceased. "The author attempted a broad investigation into the impact of environmental factors on [the Polish] population's health condition, mainly from the viewpoint of its demographic consequences."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30706 Mathers, Colin; McCallum, John; Robine, Jean-Marie. Advances in health expectancies. ISBN 0-644-42733-7. Dec 1994. ix, 450 pp. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Canberra, Australia; Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of the seventh international meeting of the Network on Health Expectancies (REVES), held in Canberra, Australia, in February 1994. The focus of the Network, and of the meeting, is on the concept of healthy life expectancy. "The papers present new estimates of health expectancies for a number of countries, and discuss the possible compression or expansion of morbidity (are we living longer but in worse health?); socioeconomic and other inequalities in health expectancies; methodological issues and the use of longitudinal data for health expectancy calculations; and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)."
For a previous conference held in 1993, see 59:40677.
Correspondence: C. Mathers, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, G.P.O. Box 570, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30707 Omar, M. M.; Hogberg, U.; Bergstrom, B. Maternal health and child survival in relation to socioeconomic factors. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1994. 107-12 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The aim of this study was to describe the female population of reproductive age in rural Somalia by its degree of anemia and malnutrition and relate that to socioeconomic factors, and child survival....The results of the survey reveal a high degree of anemia....Anemic women have a higher level of fertility than nonanemic women, and a higher rate of miscarriage, stillbirths, infant and toddler mortality....In the Somali setting anemia was also associated with a deprived socioeconomic situation and impaired child survival."
Correspondence: U. Hogberg, Umea University, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, 901 87 Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30708 Rashad, Hoda. Evaluation of the impact of health interventions. IUSSP Policy and Research Paper, No. 6, ISBN 2-87108-037-2. 1995. 25 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"Policy makers and health programmers are frequently faced with two conflicting positions in regard to health interventions. The first position links particular health interventions with significant anticipated reductions in mortality and morbidity. The second position reflects scepticism regarding the scope of health improvements that can be achieved from these interventions....This monograph reviews the main aspects of both positions and will present facts and interpretations allowing the clarification of the two conflicting positions."
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30709 Reichman, Nancy E.; Florio, Maryanne J. The effects of enriched prenatal care services on Medicaid birth outcomes in New Jersey. OPR Working Paper, No. 95-2, Jan 1995. 32 pp. Princeton University, Office of Population Research [OPR]: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This paper uses a health production function framework to evaluate the effects of participation in New Jersey's HealthStart program on birthweights and newborn hospitalization costs in 1989 and 1990. HealthStart provides enriched prenatal and health support services to pregnant women on Medicaid. Major emphasis is placed on two stage estimation in which the first stage regressions predict both prenatal care usage and participation in the HealthStart program. For blacks, the results reveal adverse selection in both HealthStart participation and prenatal care usage, as well as higher birthweights, lower newborn hospitalization costs, and reduced rates of low birthweight for those participating in HealthStart."
Correspondence: Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30710 Seeman, Melvin; Lewis, Susan. Powerlessness, health and mortality: a longitudinal study of older men and mature women. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 4, Aug 1995. 517-25 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Surveys for the period 1976-1982 are used to analyze the relationship between the sense of powerlessness and health and mortality among the elderly. The results indicate a direct relationship between powerlessness and health problems, and, among men, with accelerated mortality.
Correspondence: M. Seeman, University of California, Department of Sociology, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1551. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30711 Senderowitz, Judith. Adolescent health: reassessing the passage to adulthood. World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 272, ISBN 0-8213-3157-4. LC 94-48163. 1995. vii, 54 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper reviews current data on adolescent health, with an emphasis on sexual and reproductive activity. It assesses, by region, trends in sexual knowledge, contraceptive use, marriage, fertility, and sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. It also looks at related issues of sexual abuse and genital mutilation as well as nutritional needs and health problems stemming primarily from risk-taking behavior." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30712 Stanecki, Karen A.; Heaton, Laura; Way, Peter O. Sexually transmitted diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa and associated interactions with HIV. IPC Staff Paper, No. 75, Apr 1995. viii, 73 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center [IPC], Population Division: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study reviews the literature on the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Africa and on the relationship between STDs and HIV/AIDS. A summary of the available data on STD prevalence in Africa is included as an appendix, and the creation of an STD database is proposed.
Correspondence: U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Programs Center, Population Division, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30713 Stern, Steven. Estimating family long-term care decisions in the presence of endogenous child characteristics. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 30, No. 3, Summer 1995. 551-80 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper estimates the effects of various parent and child characteristics on the choice of care arrangement of the parent [in the United States] taking into account the potential endogeneity of some of the child characteristics. This potential endogeneity is controlled for by using an instrumental variables approach with panel data....The estimation procedure shows that, after controlling for endogeneity, potentially endogenous child variables have smaller effects. The estimates predict moderate effects of parent sex, age, race, and health and child sex and marital status, and large effects of parent marital status and child distance." Data are from the U.S. National Long-Term Care Survey conducted in 1982 with a follow-up in 1984.
Correspondence: S. Stern, University of Virginia, Department of Economics, Charlottesville, VA 22903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

61:30714 Tata Institute of Social Sciences (Bombay, India). Sexual behaviour and AIDS in India. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 40, No. 4, Oct 1994. 499-646 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The papers in this volume were presented at a workshop on The Sexual Aspects of AIDS/STD Prevention in India sponsored by the Ford Foundation and hosted by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Bombay, November 23-26, 1993. These papers address several different research questions and are based on empirical research studies undertaken in India." An introductory paper, by Moni Nag, "presents the current state-of-the-art on sexual behaviour research in India. This information is supplemented by a review of some of the international research work on sexuality. Other papers focus on various different aspects of sexuality in India including the sexual behaviour of men who have sex with men, adolescents, young people, sex workers and others in the sex industry, clients of sex workers, truck drivers, poor slum women, and rural and urban populations. Important conceptual and methodological issues in research on sexuality and sexual behaviour [are also examined]."
Correspondence: Tata Institute of Social Sciences, P.O. Box 8313, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30715 Vallin, Jacques; Auvert, Bertran; Brouard, Nicolas; Chieze, Francois; Dozon, Jean-Pierre; Guillaume, Agnes. African populations and AIDS. [Populations africaines et SIDA.] Collection Recherches, ISBN 2-7071-2384-6. 1994. 223 pp. Editions La Decouverte: Paris, France; Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the AIDS epidemic in Africa. It includes chapters on the biomedical aspects of AIDS in Africa, epidemiological aspects, the demographic and other consequences of the epidemic, and the socioeconomic and other costs of AIDS.
Correspondence: Editions la Decouverte, 9 bis rue Abel-Hovelacque, 75013 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30716 Vigneron, Emmanuel. The geography of health in question. [La geographie de la sante en question.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1995. 148 pp. Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, UFR de Geographie: Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng; Fre.
This special issue is devoted to the geography of health, and represents the proceedings of a conference held in Dijon, France, September 16-17, 1994, organized by the French National Committee of the International Geographical Union. The geographical focus of the studies presented varies from global to country-specific.
Correspondence: Universite de Lille 1, U.F.R. de Geographie, Batiment 2, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30717 World Bank (Washington, D.C.). Chile: the adult health policy challenge. World Bank Country Study, ISBN 0-8213-3224-4. LC 95-8630. May 1995. lxii, 182 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng. with sum. in Spa.
"The primary objective of this study is to analyze the demographic, epidemiological, financial, and institutional aspects of the health transition in Chile and discuss alternative actions for addressing them." It includes a chapter that analyzes the demographic and health transition and its consequences.
Correspondence: World Bank, Office of the Publisher, Distribution Unit, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30718 Wright, Peter F. Global immunization: a medical perspective. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 5, Sep 1995. 609-16 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The global community is close to achieving universal childhood immunization against a group of important childhood diseases--measles, tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and polio. In addition, polio has been targeted for eradication by the year 2000 and neonatal tetanus for elimination by 1995. There are targeted reductions in mortality and cases of measles by the same year. This paper addresses the difficult issue of how optimally to integrate these public health initiatives into local health care practices and beliefs....The reliance on a largely technological approach to control of these childhood diseases which occur in all societies independent of social behavior is contrasted with efforts to control HIV infection in which social structure and practices predict the occurrence of the disease."
Correspondence: P. F. Wright, Vanderbilt University, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN 37235. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30719 Zurayk, Huda. Population and health. IUSSP Distinguished Lecture Series on Population and Development, ISBN 2-87108-041-1. 1994. 21 pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"The main aim of this paper is to critically examine how the international perspective on population and development has viewed the health dimension. We will adopt a historical view tracing gradually the emphasis given to intersections with health. We will see that the nature of the health focus has been affected by developments in the field both in terms of the ongoing debate on the relationship between population growth and development, and in terms of the body of knowledge cumulated on the interdynamics of population and health."
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics

Studies on consanguinity and isolates, inbreeding, and twinning.

No citations in this issue.

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