Sisay; Huang, Wei-Chiao. Human capital and economic
development. ISBN 0-88099-147-8. LC 94-22612. 1994. 163 pp. W. E.
Upjohn Institute for Employment Research: Kalamazoo, Michigan. In Eng.
This book contains six essays by various authors, based on presentations made at a lecture series sponsored by the Department of Economics at Western Michigan University in 1992-1993. "The essays in the present volume explore the various national and international dimensions of human capital and development ranging from the economic implications of demographic trends in the United States (Richard A. Easterlin), the effect of population growth and human capital on development (D. Gale Johnson and Julian L. Simon), the relationship among human capital, the family, and economic development (Mark R. Rosenzweig), and the crucial issue of workplace training in the United States (Peter B. Doeringer and Ann P. Bartel)."
Correspondence: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 300 South Westnedge Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49007-4686. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
61:30646 Lim, Lin
Lean. Immigration and economic development in Eastern
Asia. [Immigration et developpement economique en Asie de l'Est.]
Politique Etrangere, Vol. 59, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 761-81 pp. Paris,
France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"No firm conclusion can be made as to whether the overall impact of immigration is positive or negative for the East Asian countries. Much will depend on the perspective adopted--economic or social, short-term or long-term, from the point of view of employers or workers. The implications of importing labour will also have to be weighed against other alternatives for dealing with labour shortage situations. Such alternatives have to be considered in a context in which the national interests of independent countries are juxtaposed against the realities of growing international interdependence. A much more rigorous research agenda is called for."
Correspondence: L. L. Lim, International Labour Office, Employment Planning and Population Branch, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).
Cynthia P. Sustainable development: population and the
environment. ISBN 0-89492-104-5. 1994. 214 pp. Academy for
Educational Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a Workshop titled Sustainable Development in Sub-Saharan Africa, held in Baltimore, Maryland, May 19-21, 1993. "The purpose of the meeting was to examine the linkages between population dynamics and the environment in sub-Saharan Africa and to discuss their implications for USAID policies and programs." The workshop concluded that "key interventions needed to achieve sustainable development fall into two categories: (1) human resource development, including female education, efforts to improve women's status, family planning, and maternal and child health care; and (2) environmental programs, including agriculture, forestry, wildlife conservation, and water. In addition, economic development programs that raise incomes among low-income groups enable them to invest in conservation measures to protect soils, forests, water supplies, and other resources."
Correspondence: Academy for Educational Development, Washington, D.C. 20523. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Jeff; Pritchett, Lant. Where in the world is population
growth bad? Policy Research Working Paper, No. 1391, Dec 1994. 37
pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors attempt to reconcile conflicting views concerning the relationship between population growth and economic development. In particular, they attempt to identify the conditions under which population growth hurts economic performance by allowing interactive terms for specific country conditions. "The empirical results do not give confirmation to any of the plausible distinctions across country conditions--the impact of population growth is not worse in poor countries and is not worse in land-scarce countries." The primary geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.
Toshio; Okazaki, Yoichi; Cho, Lee-Jay; Kim, Won Bae; Wang, Shengjin;
Fan, Lida; Nagayama, Toshikazu. Industrial transition and
population in Asia. Population and Development Series, No. 17, LC
93-242537. Mar 1993. 124 pp. Asian Population and Development
Association: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This is a selection of six studies by different authors on aspects of the demographic transition and industrialization process in the developing countries of Asia. Following two papers on the experience of Japan, the remaining four papers examine the situation in East and Southeast Asia. Particular attention is given to labor migration, both in China and in Asia as a whole.
Correspondence: Asian Population and Development Association, Nagatacho TBR Building, Room 710, 10-2 Nagatacho 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Jiang. Changing kinship structure and its implications for
old-age support in urban and rural China. Population Studies, Vol.
49, No. 1, Mar 1995. 127-45 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study explores the ramifications of China's imminent population ageing at the family and kinship level--by simulating China's evolving family and kinship structure. Results from such simulations suggest that the burden of supporting old parents is likely to increase tremendously, quadrupling for urban families and doubling for rural families by the year 2030, when China's baby-boomers will enter their old age....Public assistance, especially to rural families, is urgently needed to ensure that the family will not be overstrained by the burden of old age support. The results of this study also point out the potential of tapping the resources among the elderly population to compensate for the loss in support from children."
Correspondence: J. Lin, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Rong. Economic patterns, migration, and ethnic
relationships in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China. In:
Population, ethnicity, and nation-building, edited by Calvin
Goldscheider. 1995. 37-75 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/Oxford,
England. In Eng.
"To understand the impact of social and economic structures on ethnic relations, we examine the Tibet Autonomous Region's economy, past and present, and place ethnic migration issues and the Han-Tibetan relationship in this economic context." The focus is on characteristics of the modern Tibetan economy, relations between Tibet and Han regions, the impact of economic changes in Tibet on migration and Han-Tibetan relations, and the role of the central government and the Han in Tibet's economy since 1959.
Correspondence: R. Ma, Beijing University, Institute of Sociology, Hai Dian, Beijing 100871, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
61:30652 Ngondo a
Pitshandenge, Seraphin. Population growth and factors
associated with underdevelopment in Africa. [Croissance
demographique et facteurs du sous-developpement en Afrique.]
Zaire-Afrique, Vol. 33, No. 278, Oct 1993. 469-86 pp. Kinshasa, Zaire.
Factors associated with Africa's lack of progress in achieving socioeconomic development are explored. The author suggests that the solution does not lie in tackling the population problem, but in resolving the structural factors causing underdevelopment, such as the export of wealth, the burden of debt, and the unfavorable balance of payments. The need to replace inappropriate models of development based on Western experience with African models is also suggested.
Correspondence: S. Ngondo a Pitshandenge, Universite de Kinshasa, Departement de Demographie, B.P. 176, Kinshasa XI, Zaire. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Alan M. Debt, dependence and the demographic transition:
Latin America in to the next century. World Development, Vol. 23,
No. 5, May 1995. 869-79 pp. Tarrytown, New York/Oxford, England. In
"In the decades ahead, world demographic trends indicate that our planet's share of the population of working age will be gradually diminishing. The regional incidence of the trends, however, shows a marked bias. Thus, the general equilibrium of the world saving-investment nexus may be fundamentally realigned in the years to come via dependency effects. For example, favorable demographic prospects in Latin America (and elsewhere in the developing world) offer poorer countries the chance to use the potential of their own demographic transitions to propel financial transitions to domestically financed accumulation, even capital export."
Correspondence: A. M. Taylor, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).
Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York).
Population growth and economic development. ISBN
0-89714-187-3. 1993. iv, 112 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report describes the proceedings of the Consultative Meeting of Economists on the Relationship of Population Growth and Economic Development, convened by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) from 28-29 September 1992 in New York." The conference was designed around four themes: "population growth and economic development; population growth and economic growth--specific linkages; cost-benefit analysis of family planning; and government responses to high population growth." The primary geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Herve. Reunification: the impact of migration on
potential West German growth. [Reunification: l'impact des
migrations sur la croissance potentielle ouest-allemande.] Economie et
Statistique, No. 279-280, Sep-Oct 1994. 151-8, 183, 187, 191 pp. Paris,
France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
"Using a certain number of hypotheses on labour efficiency, it is possible to evaluate the impact of reunification on West Germany's growth from 1988 to 1993. The additional growth generated by this increase in the labour force is approximately six points of GDP over the period. From 1989 to 1991, years during which immigration was at its height, the annual growth rate was 1.2 to 1.5 points higher than it would have been had reunification not taken place. Since 1991, this potential growth has been on the downturn and should become moderate in coming years."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Wolfgang. On the demographic and economic effects of
migration to the Federal Republic of Germany in the past and in the
future. [Zu den demographischen und okonomischen Auswirkungen der
Zuwanderung in die Bunderespublik in Vergangenheit und Zukunft.]
Mitteilungen aus der Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung, Vol. 26, No. 4,
1993. 477-94, 542 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng;
"The aim of this paper is to provide a survey of the previous and possible future global effects of net immigration on economic growth and the labor market from a macroeconomic point of view....First, some fundamentals relating to the expected economic effects of migration are briefly examined. There follows--in the first main section--a retrospective view of the development of economy and immigration in...[Germany] based on a statistical comparison and existing simulations with macroeconomic models. In the second main section the effects of further migration are discussed on the basis of population and labor market projections."
Correspondence: W. Klauder, Institut fur Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung der Bundesanstalt fur Arbeit, Regensburger, Strasse 104, 90327 Nuremburg, Germany. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.
Lester R. Reassessing the Earth's population.
Society, Vol. 32, No. 4, May-Jun 1995. 7-10 pp. New Brunswick, New
Jersey. In Eng.
The author argues the case that "unabated rapid population growth, which once slowed the rise in living standards, is now lowering living standards for large segments of humanity." He suggests that "new information on the carrying capacity of both land and oceanic food systems argues for a basic rethinking of national population policies, and accelerated international response to fill unmet family planning needs, and a recasting of development strategies to address the underlying causes of high fertility."
Correspondence: L. R. Brown, Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
61:30658 Cohen, Joel
E. Population growth and Earth's human carrying
capacity. Science, Vol. 269, No. 5222, Jul 21, 1995. 341-6 pp.
Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author reviews various methods used to measure the Earth's human carrying capacity, then describes "idealized mathematical models for the race between the human population and human carrying capacity...[which] focus attention on, and provide a framework in which to interpret, quantitative empirical studies of the relation between rapid population growth and changing human carrying capacity."
Correspondence: J. E. Cohen, Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Populations, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021. Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).
Hiroyuki. A literature review on the relationship between
population and global environment. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of
Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 3, Oct 1994. 67-73 pp. Tokyo, Japan.
The global literature on the relationship between population growth and the environment is briefly reviewed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Alan; Pearson, Ben. The Hawkesbury-Nepean region: has the
optimum population size been exceeded? People and Place, Vol. 3,
No. 1, 1995. 29-35 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
"The main objective of this paper is to analyse environmental impacts in the Hawkesbury-Nepean River system [in Australia], the role of population growth in these impacts, and the costs of modifying this role. Prior to this, brief comments are made on two questions: linkages between population size and environmental degradation; and the use of freshwater ecosystems as key indicators of environmental degradation."
Correspondence: A. Jones, Australian Museum, Department of Marine Ecology, P.O. Box A285, Sydney South 2000, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Digby J. Population and the utopian myth.
Ecodecision, No. 9, Jun 1993. 59-63 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with
sum. in Fre.
"Due to continuing acceleration in the number of births, in resource use and in many aspects of environmental rundown, the planet's carrying capacity has long been exceeded, and with it any immediate prospect of sustainability. Nearly half the population of the world is below breeding age and, although growth rates are falling in some regions, rates are stable in other regions. Family planning has been effective in limited areas of the world, but for most areas, any prospect of demographic transition to lower fertility is far from realization. Future scenarios depend on how quickly education of women, family planning (including contraception) and health support programs can be introduced. The costs of such activities would be about 1 per cent of current global military expenditures."
Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.
Samuel H. Population and environment: from Rio to
Cairo. IUSSP Distinguished Lecture Series on Population and
Development, ISBN 2-87108-040-2. 1994. 20 pp. International Union for
the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"This paper provides a brief review of what is known about the effect of population growth on environmental quality in various settings, and concludes with some comments about population policy." Sections are included on land transformation and food production, industrial pollution, and pollution policy.
Correspondence: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 34 rue des Augustins, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Mary; Mortimore, Michael. Population growth and natural
resource use: do we need to despair of Africa? Outlook on
Agriculture, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1993. 241-9 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors make the case that population growth can lead to increases in agricultural output per head on a sustainable basis. This argument, originally developed by E. Boserup, is "illustrated by a study of Machakos District, Kenya during 1930-1960, which shows that, if policies are supportive, agricultural and non-farm incomes grow faster than even the rapid population growth rate experienced in Africa. Land use capability is not fixed, but can be transformed by investment, new technologies and good management. Lack of investment and consequent degradation are most likely at low population densities. While the study cannot foretell the future, Java illustrates a similar theme at even higher densities."
Correspondence: M. Tiffen, Overseas Development Institute, Regent's College, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London NW1 4NS, England. Location: U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD.
Andrew R. Outmigration, economic dislocation, and
reassessment of the labor resource in the Russian far north.
Post-Soviet Geography, Vol. 35, No. 5, May 1994. 299-305 pp. Silver
Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
The impact of changes in policies involving wage supplements and cost of living bonuses for those living in areas of the far north of Siberia associated with current political and economic changes in Russia is examined. Separate consideration is given to the impact on the population that moved to these regions in response to incentives and on the native population.
Correspondence: A. R. Bond, V. H. Winston and Son, 7961 Eastern Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).
Leon F.; Simcox, David. Foreign-born professionals in the
United States. Population and Environment, Vol. 16, No. 5, May
1995. 429-44 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the foreign-born professional population of the United States as enumerated in the 1990 census. The data come from the 1990 Census PUMS File A, the five percent national sample....The future composition, distribution, educational attainment, performance and earnings of foreign-born professionals will depend largely on future education and immigration policy: the willingness and ability of the schools and universities to accept, motivate and train gifted members of needy native-born minorities for the professions...;and the flexibility of U.S. policy makers to reverse the decline in immigrants' skills by selecting more newcomers for the human capital they will bring."
Correspondence: L. F. Bouvier, 803 Cortez Avenue, Lady Lake, FL 32159. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Carl. Women and part-time work in New Zealand. New
Zealand Population Review, Vol. 20, No. 1-2, May-Nov 1994. 150-8 pp.
Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
The author reports on "a research initiative which examined the reality of part-time work for women in New Zealand....While the research uncovered a group of women who fit with the older stereotype of women working part-time to earn a little disposable income or make social connections, a more significant finding was the size of the group who worked part-time because other commitments prevented them from working full-time, or because it was the only paid employment they could find."
Correspondence: C. Davidson, Massey University, Albany Campus, Department of Sociology, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Reiner H.; Lebok, Uwe. The long-term development of labor
force potential using alternative assumptions of (net) migration to
Germany. [Die langfristige Entwicklung des
Erwerbspersonenpotentials bei alternativen Annahmen uber die
(Netto)Zuwanderung nach Deutschland.] Mitteilungen aus der
Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung, Vol. 26, No. 4, 1993. 495-506, 543
pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Rus.
"Using model calculations to the year 2050, this paper shows the decisive role that assumptions on future (net) migration to Germany will play in the long-term development of the labor force potential. The particular focus of this paper is to point out the importance of (net) migration not only in terms of absolute figures, but more importantly in terms of the age and gender structure. The annual net migration of 500,000 or 250,000 persons leads, depending on the assumption of its age structure, to extreme differences in the long-term development of the labor force potential."
Correspondence: R. H. Dinkel, Universitat Bamberg, Feldkirchenstrasse 21, 8600 Bamberg, Germany. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.
Lorraine; Laurin, Nicole. Career paths of nuns in Quebec
from 1922 to 1971. [Les trajectoires professionnelles des
religieuses au Quebec de 1922 a 1971.] Population, Vol. 50, No. 2,
Mar-Apr 1995. 385-413 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Nuns in Quebec follow proper professional careers that reflect a collective, rather than an individual strategy. This paper begins by providing a summary of the characteristics of this group, such as the total number of nuns, the proportion they form of the active female labour force, their age at entry to the labour force etc. The authors describe the distribution of nuns by type and size of the communities they belong to, their social origins, and their educational qualifications at entry to the labour force, their first jobs, and the jobs they held....Finally, the nuns' career paths are considered: the relation between their educational levels and social origins and their employment in different communities....The authors conclude that by withdrawing from the 'world', (i.e. from salaried employment, family and marital ties), nuns can avoid some of the constraints associated with their social origin and their sex through the collective organisation of their work."
Correspondence: L. Duchesne, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Harriet O.; Sanders, Seth. Empirical regularities across
cultures: the effect of children on woman's work. Journal of
Human Resources, Vol. 29, No. 2, Spring 1994. 328-47 pp. Madison,
Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Not conditioning on previous employment, we find large differences in the apparent effects of children on married women's labor supply among American-born white women and three ethnically distinct groups of newly arrived immigrants to the United States. When we account for labor supply in the previous year, differences in current employment rates narrow dramatically and similar child status-work relations emerge. Both for women who worked and for those who did not work in the previous year, number of children is not associated with the propensity to start or to continue working and, with the exception of a 'baby effect' for women who worked previously, the age of the youngest child has little effect on the propensity to start or to continue working. Information about work experience prior to the previous year yields additional valuable information for predicting current labor supply."
Correspondence: H. O. Duleep, 4417 Yuma Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20016. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
John. Demographic developments and European labour
markets. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 42, No. 3,
Aug 1995. 331-46 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This paper examines two contemporary demographic factors affecting European labor markets: the aging of the labor force and the possibility of large-scale migration into and within Europe. The author concludes that the aging of the labor force will not have major impacts, and that whereas the prospects for significant labor migration within Europe are slight, the prospect of large-scale immigration from outside Europe will depend on migration policies adopted by the European countries.
Correspondence: J. Ermisch, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).
Robert. A longitudinal analysis of activity data: a
typology of career profiles of French birth cohorts 1911 to 1935.
Population: English Selection, Vol. 6, 1994. 35-58 pp. Paris, France.
"The complexity of women's career profiles and their association with family formation have attracted the attention of researchers for many years now, and have led to original methods of data collection and treatment. Less research has been conducted on men's more straightforward working lives. Yet these are also of longitudinal interest: working years may vary substantially cohortwise as a result of unemployment rates, war, etc. But, more importantly, continuous activity is associated with mobility, in particular occupational mobility; as a result, the different work categories have age profiles that are as contrasted as for females. Men's activity data can thus fruitfully be analysed using methods such as those which [the author] develops here and applies to the results of the Triple Biography survey [for France]."
For the French version of this article, see 60:10603.
Correspondence: R. Kasparian, Central Administration of Statistics, Beirut, Lebanon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Hiromi. Migrant workers and labor market segmentation in
Japan. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1994.
619-38 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Segmentation of the migrant work force in Japan is determined largely by institutional factors put in place by the 1990 Immigration Law Reform. In contrast to conventional discussions which compare migrant workers with native workers, this discussion focuses on the segmentation of the labor market among migrant workers themselves. These workers form an ethnically diverse mass in the Japanese labor market today....This discussion describes the nature of labor market segmentation among migrant workers and examines the reasons for differentiated working conditions."
Correspondence: H. Mori, Hosei University, 17-1, Fujimi 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
61:30673 van der
Laan, Lambert. Participation and regional disparities of
labour markets in the European Union. Tijdschrift voor Economische
en Sociale Geografie/Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 86,
No. 1, 1995. 88-92 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The European Union (EU) is committed to social and economic cohesion and aims to reduce disparities between regions. A failure to achieve this reduction of regional disparities undermines the cohesion process....The central question posed here is how the commitment to cohesion is related to major changes which have occurred in the labour participation rates of the EU regions."
Correspondence: L. van der Laan, Erasmus University, Institute for Economic Geography, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Christabel. Do immigrants have higher or lower
labour-force participation rates than the Australian-born? People
and Place, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1995. 36-42 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
"Before the mid 1980s aggregate labour-force participation rates of migrants were higher than those of Australian-born people. They are now lower. Is this trend an artefact of differences in the age structure of the two populations? [The author's] analysis shows that it is not. The deterioration in the labour-force participation of migrants is real."
Correspondence: C. Young, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).
Yves. Urban unemployment and migration in developing
countries: a theoretical approach. [Chomage urbain et migration
dans les pays en developpement: une approche theorique.] Revue
d'Economie Politique, Vol. 105, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 293-314 pp. Paris,
France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This article surveys the literature of urban unemployment with migration in developing countries and discusses policy implications. The focus is on the seminal papers of Todaro and Harris-Todaro where rural-urban migration is associated with the probability of obtaining an urban job." The author proposes a new approach that would give more emphasis to the ability of the informal sector of urban economies to absorb available urban labor.
Correspondence: Y. Zenou, Universite de Paris II (Universite Pantheon-Assas), 12 place du Pantheon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).