Volume 61 - Number 3 - Fall 1995

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

61:30381 Audinarayana, N. Determinants of female age at marriage in rural Andhra Pradesh: multivariate analysis. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1993. 169-74 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt is made to see the influence of some selected variables on age at marriage and also on the gap between menarche and marriage (excluding the age at menarche)....Data were collected from 600 eligible couples [in rural Andhra Pradesh, India] during 1984....It is evident that age at menarche, educational status and work status of women make the maximum contribution in determining...age at marriage in rural areas of Andhra Pradesh. On the other hand, the educational status and work status of women have played [a] greater role in influencing the gap between age at menarche and age at marriage."
Correspondence: N. Audinarayana, Bharathiar University, Department of Population Studies, Coimbatore 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30382 Badaruddoza; Afzal, M. Effects of inbreeding on marriage payment in north India. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jul 1995. 333-7 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the relationships between consanguineous marriages and marriage payment, using data from two Muslim qaums living in urban and rural areas in Aligarh District, Uttar Pradesh, North India. Qaum and locality were found to have no significant association with the dowry system. Marriage payment is less common in consanguineous than in non-consanguineous marriages. However, the association between marriage payment and the type of marriage is significant....The dowry system is more prevalent among the higher socioeconomic groups, while the bride-wealth system is more common among the lower socioeconomic groups."
Correspondence: Badaruddoza, Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Zoology, Section of Genetics, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh 202 001, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30383 Barbara, Augustin. Mixed marriages. Some key questions. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 4, 1994. 571-86 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author discusses various aspects of intercultural or mixed marriage. Factors considered include trends in different countries; determinants of mixed marriage; cultural and social class differences; and mate selection.
Correspondence: A. Barbara, Universite de Nantes, Departement de Sociologie, 1 quai de Tourville, BP 1026, 44035 Nantes Cedex 01, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30384 Bullough, Vern L.; Ruan, Fang Fu. Marriage, divorce, and sexual relations in contemporary China. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 25, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 383-93 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Customs and attitude about marriage, divorce, and sexual practices are undergoing change in China. Some of the changes have been encouraged by the government while others have occurred almost in spite of government efforts to redirect policy. Getting information on changes is not an easy task, even in this period of Chinese willingness to be more open. The resulting overview is based on available sources as well as the personal experiences of the authors...."
Correspondence: V. L. Bullough, 17434 Mayall Street, Northridge, CA 91325. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30385 Darsky, Leonid; Scherbov, Sergei. Marital status behaviour of women in the former Soviet republics. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1995. 31-62 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper uses the most recent data and life table analysis to describe the marital behaviour of women in the republics of the former USSR. For the first time a multistate life table analysis was used to describe the marital careers of women from all the 15 republics....The analysis shows that despite 70 years of influence by Soviet ideology and lifestyle, the institution of marriage was little subject to rapid change, and retained its traditions for each culture and its ethnic features."
Correspondence: L. Darsky, State Committee of Russia on Statistics, Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies, Department of Demography, 51 Malaya Gruzinshaya, 123557 Moscow, Russia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30386 Desjardins, Bertrand. Bias in age at marriage in family reconstitutions: evidence from French-Canadian data. Population Studies, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 1995. 165-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Age-at-marriage estimates from family reconstitutions may be biased downward when they are based only on marriages of people who continue to live in their parish of birth, because when the probability of migrating rises with age, younger people are selected in preference to older ones. Micro-simulations show that the bias can have dramatic effects. In this paper French-Canadian data are used to investigate the importance of the bias and to verify empirically the micro-simulation results. Although a high proportion of people moved between birth and marriage, the bias had virtually no effect, given the specific characteristics of the migrations."
Correspondence: B. Desjardins, Universite de Montreal, Programme de Recherche en Demographie Historique, C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30387 Desrosiers, Helene; Le Bourdais, Celine; LaPlante, Benoit. The break-up of marital unions in reconstituted families: the experience of Canadian women. [Les dissolutions d'union dans les familles recomposees: l'experience des femmes canadiennes.] Recherches Sociographiques, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1995. 47-64 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
The duration of second and subsequent marriages in Canada is analyzed using data from a 1990 survey undertaken by Statistics Canada. The relative fragility of such unions is noted, particularly the unions of those not entering into formal marriage. However, the presence of children, and the birth of children to the new couple, reduces the risk of union break-up.
Correspondence: H. Desrosiers, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique--Urbanisation, 3465 rue Durocher, Montreal H2X 26C, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30388 El-Hamamsy, Laila S. Early marriage and reproduction in two Egyptian villages. Occasional Paper, 1994. 52 pp. Population Council: Cairo, Egypt; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study explores the socio-cultural factors that influence the age at marriage and encourage teenage marriages among girls in rural Egypt. Early marriage deserves special attention for two equally important reasons: its demographic implications and its repercussions on women's role, development and health." Factors which propel rural girls into marriage at very young ages include "family resistance to girls' education, schools that are not oriented to rural needs, lack of employment opportunities for village girls, and the hardships of poverty that help to define unmarried daughters as an economic burden."
Correspondence: Population Council, Regional Office, P.O. Box 115, Dokki Giza, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30389 Feldman, Kerry D. Socioeconomic structures and mate selection among urban populations in developing regions. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 25, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 329-43 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This is a cross-cultural analysis of the mate-selection process among urban populations in developing countries. "In this paper mate selection practices by groups which have migrated to urban settings in the developing world are examined in the diverse settings of squatter settlements in Turkey and the Philippines, caste systems in India, tribal societies of Africa, matrilineal and patrilineal societies and among peasant societies of Peru and Mexico. The differential impact of socioeconomic urban conditions on men and women is emphasized regarding mate selection practices. It is argued that cultural factors...or psychological factors are not sufficient explanations alone for the diverse response of migrants to these urban settings regarding what occurs in them to traditional mate selection practices. It is argued that the structure of the socioeconomic system these groups depend on in an urban setting must be analyzed as a major factor influencing the trends toward continuity or change in mate selection."
Correspondence: K. D. Feldman, University of Alaska, Department of Anthropology, 3211 Providence Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30390 Finnas, Fjalar. Entry into consensual unions and marriages among Finnish women born between 1938 and 1967. Population Studies, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 1995. 57-70 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study, based on a survey undertaken in 1989, clearly illustrates the dramatic changes in family formation behaviour that have occurred in Finland. Whereas only about one-tenth of the first unions of women born between 1938 and 1942 began as consensual unions, after the cohort of 1962 only one-tenth were formal marriages....In Finland, up to the present, most consensual unions have constituted a temporary state which precedes proper family life. Most couples married in connection with the birth of the first child. Consensual union as a permanent lifestyle is generally connected with a low level of education of women."
Correspondence: F. Finnas, Institutet for Finlands Svensk Samhallforskning, 65100 Vasa, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30391 Fratczak, Ewa; Paszek, Barbara. An examination of family and migration career correlation--an application of non-parametric and semi-parametric analysis methods to the results of the retrospective study--life course (family, occupational and migratory biography), 1988. Polish Population Review, No. 5, 1994. 32-55 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"The main goal of the analysis was to precisely explain the intensity of transition between [marriage and migration] states....The model applied for the analysis was a piecewise constant hazard intensity model....The study covered women [in Poland] born in the years 1909-1943...."
Correspondence: E. Fratczak, Warsaw School of Economics, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Al. Niepodleglosci 162, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30392 Hall, David R.; Zhao, John Z. Cohabitation and divorce in Canada: testing the selectivity hypothesis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 57, No. 2, May 1995. 421-7 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Findings from various countries indicate that premarital cohabitation is linked to a higher risk of first marriage dissolution. A number of recent studies have argued that this 'cohabitation effect' reflects the fact that cohabitors are a select group in ways that predispose them to divorce. This hypothesis was investigated using data on 8,177 ever-married individuals collected from a major Canadian survey. We found that premarital cohabitation was associated with a greater risk of divorce even after the effects of four sociodemographic factors that differentiate cohabitors--the presence of stepchildren, marital status of first spouse, parental divorce, and age heterogamy--were specified in a model of marital dissolution."
Correspondence: D. R. Hall, University of Western Ontario, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30393 Hionidou, Violetta. Nuptiality patterns and household structure on the Greek island of Mykonos, 1849-1959. Journal of Family History, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1995. 67-102 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The focus of the study is the population of the Cycladic island of Mykonos, Greece, from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. An overwhelming preponderance of nuclear households was found there in the mid-nineteenth century. The inheritance system facilitated the observed rules of neolocality. At the same time, the marriage pattern was clearly Mediterranean, i.e. with rather low age at first marriage for females, high for males, and low levels of permanent celibacy. Over the period of the study a gradual move away from this pattern was observed, mainly due to an increase in the female age at marriage. These findings are in line with other evidence from southern Mediterranean Europe, and indicate the strong influence of common socioeconomic and probably cultural elements."
Correspondence: V. Hionidou, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30394 Hong Kong. Census and Statistics Department (Hong Kong). Marriage and divorce trends in Hong Kong 1981-1993. Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics, Nov 1994. 111-24 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
Marriage and divorce trends in Hong Kong are analyzed for the period 1981-1993. "During the period 1981 to 1993, men and women in Hong Kong showed a tendency towards delayed marriage. The number of re-marriages was on the rise, echoing an increasing number of divorces in the same period. This article examines the marital condition of the population, tendency to marry and certain socio-economic characteristics of brides and bridegrooms in the past 13 years. The number of divorces and the divorce rates are also discussed."
Correspondence: Census and Statistics Department, 19/F Wanchai Tower I, 12 Harbour Road, Wan Chai, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30395 Jones, Gavin W.; Asari, Yahya; Djuartika, Tuti. Divorce in West Java. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 25, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 395-416 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper traces trends in divorce rates in West Java [Indonesia] over the past 40 years. West Java's divorce rate was among the highest in the world in the 1950s and 1960s; by the mid-1980s, it was about one fifth as high as that in the United States. Regional differentials were, and still are, quite pronounced. The differentials appear to be related more to cultural than to socio-economic differences. The sharp declines have been related to social and economic changes, prominent among which were rising levels of income, expanded education and work opportunities for girls, and a breaking down of traditional attitudes through improved transport and communications. Concurrent with, and largely consequent on these changes has been a rising age at marriage of females and decline in arranged marriage....Ideology and legal changes also played a part in the decline in divorce...."
Correspondence: G. W. Jones, Australian National University, Demography Department, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30396 Le Bourdais, Celine; Desrosiers, Helene; Laplante, Benoit. Factors related to union formation among single mothers in Canada. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 57, No. 2, May 1995. 410-20 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using data on 1,257 women from the 1984 Family History Survey, our study attempts to identify the factors that are associated with union formation among single mothers in Canada. Particular attention is given to disentangling the impact that three factors--the event at the origin of the episode of single parenthood, its time of occurrence, and the parental responsibilities borne by single mothers--exert on their propensity to start living with a partner. The analysis is carried out using proportional hazards models."
Correspondence: C. Le Bourdais, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique--Urbanisation, 3465 rue Durocher, Montreal, Quebec H2X 2C6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30397 Lefebvre, Pierre; Merrigan, Philip. Determinants of marriage and union separation in Quebec: an economic model of duration. [Les determinants des ruptures de mariage et d'union au Quebec: un modele economique de duree.] Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1995. 1-30 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors use data from Statistics Canada's 1990 General Social Survey on Family and Friends to "piece together the matrimonial and conjugal life history of a sample of Canadian women. A parametrical statistical model of duration...,taking into account non-observable heterogeneity, describes the evolutionary laws of marriages and unions....The empirical modelling is mostly focused on estimating the impact of couples' earned incomes and of the provincial welfare program on the dissolution of marriages and unions, based on a sub-sample of Quebec women who have already been in a first marriage or a common-law marriage. According to the estimation results, on the one hand, models of marriage-cohabitation duration are more efficiently estimated when they incorporate economic variables, and on the other hand, welfare benefits do not seem to have an impact on the probabilities of union dissolution, while earned incomes have a positive effect on conjugal stability."
Correspondence: P. Lefebvre, Universite du Quebec, C.P. 8888, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30398 Li, Jianxin. Marital status and mortality differentials in the Chinese population. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1995. 101-10 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article conducts analyses on Chinese population's marital status and the related mortality differential...using the country's fourth population census and the 1% census sample data...."
Correspondence: J. Li, Beijing University, Population Research Institute, Hai Dian, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30399 Lichter, Daniel T.; Anderson, Robert N.; Hayward, Mark D. Marriage markets and marital choice. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 16, No. 4, Jul 1995. 412-31 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article presents a search model of marital choice. We tested the hypothesis that demographic shortages of suitable marital partners not only lower the probability of marriage, but increase the likelihood that never-married women will either: (a) marry men with characteristics dissimilar to their own or (b) marry men with low socioeconomic status. This analysis was accomplished using data from the 1979-1986 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, merged with various local-area sex ratios from the 1980 decennial U.S. Census. We found that a favorable marriage market, measured in terms of the relative number of men to women, increases the odds of marrying a high-status man compared with a low-status man (as measured in terms of education and occupation). It also increases the chance of forgoing marriage rather than marrying low-status men. At the same time, we found little evidence that mate surpluses or deficits in the local marriage market affect patterns of homogamy or assortative mating. The implication is that market conditions--good or bad--have little to do with women's willingness to marry heterogamously."
This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. T. Lichter, Pennsylvania State University, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30400 McLaughlin, Diane K.; Lichter, Daniel T. Marriage markets and marital bahavior among low-income women. In: American Statistical Association, 1993 Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1993]. 484-93 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used to analyze marital behavior among low-income women in the United States. "First, we evaluate the process of first marriage transitions among poor and nonpoor women during the 1980s....Second, we assess the effects of women's employment and the local pool of economically-attractive men on first marriage transitions among poor women."
Correspondence: D. K. McLaughlin, Pennsylvania State University, 503 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30401 Meekers, Dominique. Combining ethnographic and survey methods: a study of the nuptiality patterns of the Shona of Zimbabwe. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 25, No. 3, Autumn 1994. 313-28 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"While ethnographic studies are invaluable in identifying and understanding the changes in marriage customs, they have not been able to assess the prevalence of these deviations from the normative pattern. Existing large-scale surveys, on the other hand, are not sufficiently detailed to capture these changes. The survey of union formation used in this paper differs from large-scale surveys because it contains information on a series of events that may occur during the formation of a Shona marital union....[These] data are used...to examine the extent to which the contemporary union formation practices of the Shona-speaking peoples deviate from the traditional normative marriage customs." The data concern 173 women and were collected in 1986.
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. Meekers, Pennsylvania State University, Department of Sociology, 211 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30402 Menniti, Adele; Palomba, Rossella. Trends in marital instability in Italy in the 1980s. Labour, Vol. 8, No. 2, Summer 1994. 303-15 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The authors describe the most recent trends in separation and divorce in Italy using ISTAT [official] data for the 1980-1991 period. The analysis shows a rising instability of marriage and thus a lessening of the gap between Italy and other western countries. The total divorce rate rose from three percent in the early 1980s to eight percent at the end of the 1980s. The analysis shows that the increasing breakdown of marriages is not due to 'changes in timing' but to a real trend of ending marriages. Older couples have contributed more than younger couples to more unstable marriages over the past decade. Other variables continue today, as in the past, to be closely related to the instability of marriage in Italy."
Correspondence: A. Menniti, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Rome, Italy. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:30403 Nakano, Eiko; Watanabe, Yoshikazu. Attitudes on marriage among unmarried youths in contemporary Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 3, Oct 1994. 18-32 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to describe [attitudes on] marriage among unmarried youths in contemporary Japan, using the unmarried respondents' part of the Tenth Japanese National Fertility Survey carried out in July 1992." Aspects considered include the desirability of arranged marriage; desired age at marriage; desired characteristics of future spouse; women's attitudes on marriage and employment; and the desirability of residing with parents after marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30404 Nakonezny, Paul A.; Shull, Robert D.; Rodgers, Joseph L. The effect of no-fault divorce law on the divorce rate across the 50 states and its relation to income, education, and religiosity. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 57, No. 2, May 1995. 477-88 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using a quasiexperimental pre-post treatment design and archival data from the National Center for Health Statistics, we examined the effect of no-fault divorce law on the divorce rate across the 50 states. Also, education and income data from the United States Bureau of the Census and religiosity data from the Glenmary Research Center were used to assess the relation of education, median family income, and religiosity to the post-no-fault divorce rate. Results revealed that no-fault divorce law had a significant positive effect on the divorce rate across the 50 states. Of the moderators that we considered, median family income was the only significant predictor of the change in divorce rate; the adjusted post-no-fault divorce rate increased as median family income increased."
Correspondence: P. A. Nakonezny, University of Oklahoma, Department of Communication, 610 Elm Avenue, Room 101, Norman, OK 73019-0335. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30405 Padez, Christina; Abade, Augusto. Influence of industrialisation on marital behaviour in Beduido (Estarreja), Portugal. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 2, Apr 1995. 207-14 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"From marriage records of a Northern Portuguese parish for 1900-80, endogamy and exogamy rates were calculated for birthplace and residence in order to analyse the effect of industrialisation on the population structure after 1940. Marriages that were endogamous relative to birthplace decreased between 1940-49 (58.9%) and 1988 (20.5%), while exogamy increased. Exogamous marriages in which people came from outside the municipality (51.92%) were greater than those of the surrounding region (42.04%). After industrialisation, the pattern of marriages changed for residence, with an increase in the number of individuals who came from the district to work in the factories and married. Industrialisation advanced the start of exogamy which, for most Portuguese populations, began later, in the 1960s."
Correspondence: C. Padez, Universidade de Coimbra, Department of Anthropology, Paco das Escolas, 3000 Coimbra, Portugal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30406 Petrovic, Mina. Marriage and divorce by educational status. [Sklapanje i razvod braka prema skolskoj spremi.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 32, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 65-85 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
"The author analyses the impact of educational status on marriage and divorce of the population in Central Serbia based on the demographic statistics for 1971, 1981 and 1991. The paper confirms the initial assumption on marriage homogamy by educational status, i.e. that the spouses are most often of equal or similar educational status....The analyses of the link between the educational status of the spouses and the incidence of...divorce shows that the highest divorce rate is recorded for the least educated persons."
Correspondence: M. Petrovic, Institut Drustvenih Nauka, Centar za Demografska Istrazivanja, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30407 Rydzewski, Pawel. Divorce in the family life cycle. Polish Population Review, No. 5, 1994. 56-72 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"We present the results of [a] study conducted in the years 1986-1988 in three big cities in Poland....The sample population consisted of persons who divorced in the years 1983-1984....[The focus is on] a detailed evaluation of the sources of divorce and a discussion of the determinants, in relation to the family life cycle. The paper constitutes an attempt at an interdisciplinary approach to the phenomenon of divorce; the approach combines demographic and sociological perspectives."
Correspondence: P. Rydzewski, Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Raclawickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30408 Sivaram, M.; Richard, J.; Rao, P. S. S. Early marriage among rural and urban females of south India. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jul 1995. 325-31 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data on 2,972 marriages in rural areas and 1,180 marriages in urban areas of North Arcot Ambedkar district of South India, during 1982-88, were analysed....Univariate analysis revealed an association between early age at marriage and the socioeconomic variables religion, caste, consanguinity, marital distance, spousal age difference, education and occupation of both bride and bridegroom, and socioeconomic status of the family. Multivariate analysis showed an independent relationship of marital distance and bridegroom's occupation with early age at marriage of females in the rural area alone and the bridegroom's education in the urban area alone. Consanguinity, spousal age difference and bride's education were found to be independently related with early age at marriage of females in both rural and urban areas."
Correspondence: M. Sivaram, Christian Medical College, Department of Biostatistics, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30409 South, Scott J. Do you need to shop around? Age at marriage, spousal alternatives, and marital dissolution. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 16, No. 4, Jul 1995. 432-49 pp. Thousand Oaks, California. In Eng.
"This article attempts to shed light on the oft-observed relationship between age at marriage and marital dissolution by first deriving a hypothesis from marital search theory that relates both variables to the supply of spousal alternatives in the local marriage market. This hypothesis states that, relative to people who marry later in life, persons who marry at comparatively young ages will be especially susceptible to divorce when confronted with abundant alternatives to their current spouse. Marital history data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were then merged with aggregated data from the Public Use Microdata Samples of the 1980 U.S. census to test this hypothesis." The author finds that "discrete-time event history analyses offer no support for this hypothesis. Although the risk of marital dissolution is highest where either husbands or wives chance numerous spousal alternatives, the impact of age at marriage on divorce is significantly weaker in marriage markets containing abundant remarriage opportunities. Some of the effect of age at marriage on marital dissolution is attributable to the detrimental impact of early marriage on educational attainment."
Correspondence: S. J. South, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30410 Visser, H. Strong increase in unmarried couples: some main results from the Annual Household Statistics, 1988-1994. [Sterke groei van niet-gehuwd samenwonenden: enkele belangrijke uitkomsten van de Jaarlijkse Huishoudensstatistiek, 1988-1994.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 4, Apr 1995. 13-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The [Netherlands] Annual Household Statistics are based on the Labour Force Survey. Since 1988 the main trends show an increase of not-married couples who live together (with or without children), an increase of married couples without children and an increase of one-person households. Households consisting of married couples with children are on the decrease."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

61:30411 Baranyai, Istvan. Different kinds of households and their occupants in 1990. [A haztartasok es nepesseguk haztartastipusok szerint 1990-ben.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 73, No. 4-5, Apr-May 1995. 293-308 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"The study analyses the different kinds of households and their occupants [in Hungary] by younger and older aged people. In elaborating the classification scheme for the households, the author used demographic as well as socio-economic approaches."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30412 Behrman, Jere R.; Pollak, Robert A.; Taubman, Paul. From parent to child: intrahousehold allocations and intergenerational relations in the United States. Population and Development, ISBN 0-226-04156-5. 1995. viii, 313 pp. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois/London, England. In Eng.
This book consists of a number of essays, many of them previously published as journal articles, that analyze the factors affecting the allocation by U.S. parents of human capital, and resource allocation among children with different genetic endowments. The authors use the model they develop "to investigate issues such as parental bias in resource allocations based on gender or birth order; the extent of intergenerational mobility in income, earnings, and schooling in the United States; the relative importance of environmental and genetic factors in determining variations in schooling; and whether parents' distributions offset the intended effects of government programs designed to subsidize children. In allocating scarce resources, parents face a trade-off between equity and efficiency, between the competing desires to equalize the wealth of their children and to maximize the sum of their earnings."
Correspondence: University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30413 Brynin, Malcolm; Smith, Rachel. Mapping the household. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1995. 127-44 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This article describes the development of a new form of household enumeration for use in the British Household Panel Survey. We first briefly describe the data-collection methods tested to fix household membership, and then their value as data-processing tools. Finally, a household relationship variable derived from these new methods is included in a multivariate analysis of financial allocative arrangements within the household. This shows distinctive patterns for households containing step-children, or other non nuclear extensions."
Correspondence: M. Brynin, University of Essex, British Household Panel Study, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

61:30414 Camps Cura, Enriqueta; Perez-Fuentes Hernandez, Pilar. Family economies from a historical perspective. [Las economias familiares desde una perspectiva historica.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 12, No. 2-3, 1994. 341 pp. Asociacion de Demografia Historica: Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This special issue contains a selection of the papers presented at a meeting held in Bilbao, Spain, in December 1993 on family economies and strategies. The 14 papers are divided into sections on family strategies, female employment and family economies, and social security, poverty, and aging. The primary focus is on nineteenth-century Spain.
Correspondence: Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Universitat d'Alacant, Campus Sant Joan, Ap. de Correus 374, 03080 Alicante, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30415 Corrigan, Carmel. Household structure in early twentieth century Ireland. Irish Journal of Sociology, Vol. 3, 1993. 56-78 pp. Kildare, Ireland. In Eng.
"This paper aims to provide a count of households by structural type in Ireland in the early twentieth century. In doing so it addresses some of the issues which have been raised in the debate on the structure of Irish households at that time. The question of the classification of households by structural type is also addressed and attempts made to clarify some of the more ambiguous definitions. Some commonly accepted and some modified definitions are then applied to a national sample of 2,495 households drawn from the 1911 Census of Ireland. The paper concludes that the nuclear or simple household was the dominant form of household in Ireland at that time and that while the extended and multiple household certainly existed, its prevalence has largely been overstated in previous writings."
Correspondence: C. Corrigan, WRC Social and Economic Consultants, Dublin, Ireland. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:30416 de Jong, A. H. Households are becoming smaller. [Huishoudens worden steeds kleiner.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1995. 16-7 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The number of households [in the Netherlands] will increase from 6.4 million in 1995 to 2.0 million in 2010. Average household size will decrease from 2.36 in 1995 to 2.25 in 2010. The number of one-person households will increase by about a quarter and the number of two-person households by one third."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30417 Ekert-Jaffe, Olivia. Standards of living and families: observation and analysis. [Familles et niveau de vie: observation et analyse.] Congresses et Colloquia, No. 14, ISBN 2-7420-0056-9. 1994. xxv, 365 pp. John Libbey Eurotext: Montrouge, France; Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Eng; Fre.
This volume contains papers presented at a seminar held in Barcelona, Spain, October 29-31, 1990 on families and standard of living. The approach was interdisciplinary, and the papers included here are in English or French. The focus is on the impact of having children on the standard of living of the family concerned. Further, the concept of equivalence scales to allocate to each household member a specific weight corresponding to the share of household income he or she takes up is analyzed. "The first part of this work is dedicated to concepts and theoretical approaches:...They constitute a veritable calling into question of the methods used traditionally in estimating an equivalence scale and put into perspective the evaluations calculated further on....In the second part, the authors explain, criticise and construct the more common models used for elaborating the scales. Finally, a last section is dedicated to the use of scales in making a diagnosis of social and fiscal policies and/or of inequalities in income." The geographical focus is on developed countries, primarily in Europe.
Correspondence: John Libbey Eurotext, 127 avenue de la Republique, 92120 Montrouge, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30418 Evans, V. Jeffery. The frontiers of multidisciplinary research on the family. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 16, No. 5, Sep 1995. 517-686 pp. Sage Periodicals Press: Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
This special issue is devoted to articles derived from the Family and Child Well-Being Research Network, created by NICHD in 1993. The network is a multidisciplinary research effort based on analyses using secondary data. "The articles typically involve theories, measurement schemes, and methodological approaches that are shared among demographers, economists, sociologists, psychologists, medical researchers, and family scientists....A major objective of the network is to make research on families and children accessible to the pubic policy process."
Correspondence: Sage Publications, 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:30419 Fukawa, Tetsuo. Future trends of Japanese households through micro-simulation model--an application of INAHSIM. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 18, May 1995. 13-27 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"INAHSIM (Integrated Analytical Model for Household Simulation) is a micro simulation model, which was first developed in 1984-85 by using actual initial population and a set of transition probabilities derived from vital statistics and other national sample surveys....This paper is based on a new application of INAHSIM, where initial population of the model has been prepared by using the simulation model itself. In this way, it is confirmed that INAHSIM is applicable to countries where initial population is not available from census or national household surveys....New simulations were executed for [Japan for] the period of 1991-2040."
Correspondence: T. Fukawa, Institute of Public Health, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

61:30420 Hirosima, Kiyosi. How to survey household change. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 3, Oct 1994. 42-53 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Ways to analyze changes in household structure over time are explored.
Correspondence: K. Hirosima, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30421 Ignatczyk, Walentyna. Family values system of Polish single youth in the 1980s. Polish Population Review, No. 5, 1994. 93-115 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
"We have presented the selected results of [a] family attitude (to marriage and procreation) survey, viewed against the Polish single youth's value system....The empirical data...consists of 4,316 questionnaires answered by youth, aged 18-34, who were single in 1986. We focussed on selected elements of a hypothetical model of the future family: pattern of marital values and pattern of procreational values. Moreover, we identified the Polish youth's system of family values, taking into account the motivation for entering marriage, marital life values and evaluation of marital success."
Correspondence: W. Ignatczyk, University of Economics, Ul. Niepodleglosci 10, 60-967 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30422 Kojima, Katsuhisa; Oe, Moriyuki. Household projections by prefectures of Japan: 1920-2010. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 50, No. 3, Oct 1994. 54-66 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Estimates and projections of households in Japan are presented for the period 1920-2010.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30423 Kulcsar, Rozsa. Statistics on children. [Statisztikak a gyermekekrol.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 73, No. 4-5, Apr-May 1995. 309-23 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
"The study...[presents] data which are available at the national level about the population [of Hungary] between 0 and 14 years....Due to the lack of specific data the author uses in her analysis mainly the data broken down by age groups [from the] population census, labour force statistics, health statistics and vital...statistics to delineate the living conditions of this age group."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30424 La Novara, Pina. A portrait of families in Canada: target groups project. Pub. Order No. 89-523E. ISBN 0-660-15167-7. Nov 1993. 56 pp. Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
This report, which is also available in French, examines recent changes in family characteristics in Canada, based on official statistical data sources. There are sections on family characteristics, family labor force characteristics, income and expenditures, housing and household amenities, time allocation, and family violence.
Correspondence: Statistics Canada, Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division, 7th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30425 Lichter, Daniel T.; Landale, Nancy S. Parental work, family structure, and poverty among Latino children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 57, No. 2, May 1995. 346-54 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This article evaluates the extent to which differences in the economic well-being of Latino and non-Latino White children reside in divergent parental work patterns and/or family living arrangements. This is accomplished using recently released data from the 5% Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 U.S. Census. The results indicate that group differences in family structure undermine efforts to eliminate racial and ethnic inequalities in children's economic well-being. Among Puerto Ricans and African Americans, the high proportions of children living in female-headed families account for over 50% of the difference in poverty from non-Latino Whites. Parental work patterns are more important among Latinos than Blacks in accounting for the high poverty rates of children....Overall, our analysis indicates that policies narrowly designed to 'strengthen the family' or to promote maternal employment without regard to wage levels will neither eliminate inequality nor have similar ameliorative effects on child poverty across racial and ethnic groups."
Correspondence: D. T. Lichter, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30426 Locoh, Therese. African families, population, and the quality of life. [Familles africaines, population et qualite de la vie.] Les Dossiers du CEPED, No. 31, ISBN 2-87762-073-5. Mar 1995. 48 pp. Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This study examines the role played by the family in Africa. The author notes that "in Africa more than anywhere else, the influence on family groups does not limit itself to biological reproduction and to solidarity among generations but extends also to production units and largely contributes to social control through the transmission of norms and values which determine behaviour. African families, as institutions, play a mediating role between the behaviours of individuals and the interventions of the community in three main domains: demography, economics and social control." The emphasis is on the way families are coping with the rapid changes affecting Africa, particularly those associated with rapid population growth and deteriorating economic conditions.
Correspondence: Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement, 15 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30427 Lye, Diane N.; Kelpinger, Daniel H.; Hyle, Patricia D.; Nelson, Anjanette. Childhood living arrangements and adult children's relations with their parents. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 2, May 1995. 261-80 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We examine the relationship of childhood living arrangements to adult child-parent relations [in the United States]. Compared with adult children raised in intact families, adult children whose parents divorced have less frequent contact with their parents and report a lower-quality relationship with their parents. We observe these negative effects for both custodial and noncustodial parents, although the effects are larger for noncustodial parents. Remarriage of the custodial parent tends to offset the negative impacts of divorce on relations with the custodial parent and to amplify the negative impacts on relations with noncustodial parents. Further, the longer the adult child lived apart from the parent, the weaker are relations with noncustodial parents."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: D. N. Lye, University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Box 353340, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30428 Majumder, Amita. Measuring child cost--an intermediate situation between the Engel and Rothbarth measures. Journal of Quantitative Economics, Vol. 10, No. 16, Jan 1994. 213-8 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper examines the structure of cost functions underlying the Engel and Rothbarth measures [of measuring child costs]. A generalised cost function, based on these cost functions, is proposed here. The cost of [a] child, according to this cost function, lies between the Engel and Rothbarth measures."
Correspondence: A. Majumder, Indian Statistical Institute, Economic Research Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:30429 Mosk, Carl. Household structure and labor markets in postwar Japan. Journal of Family History, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1995. 103-25 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper argues that the demand for labor having certain characteristics (related to skilling, monitoring costs, and the capacity to signal trainability to prospective employers) has played an important role in shaping household structure and size in prewar Japan both through its indirect impact upon the vital rates and through its direct impact on who stays in the household and who goes out on a temporary and/or permanent basis. The diffusion of rice cultivation agriculture and by-employments during the Tokugawa period changed the demand from farm household labor and led to a regime of moderate sized stem family households. Analysis of a data set with economic and demographic data for approximately 1,000 towns and villages circa 1930 bears out the importance of the demand for labor in conditioning household size and structure in prewar Japan."
Correspondence: C. Mosk, University of Victoria, Department of Economics, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30430 Ramirez, Valeria. Changes in the family and in women's roles. [Cambios en la familia y en los roles de la mujer.] CELADE Serie E, No. 44, Pub. Order No. LC/DEM/G.153. Mar 1995. vi, 61 pp. UN Comision Economica para America Latina y el Caribe [CEPAL]: Santiago, Chile; UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
This is a review of recent changes concerning the family and the role of women in Latin America and the Caribbean, and describes both the region's heterogeneity as well as identifying some characteristics common to most of the region's countries. Separate consideration is given to family formation, family size and children's welfare, different family types, and divorce and remarriage.
Correspondence: UN Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30431 Roeske-Slomka, Iwona. Entropy of family structures in households. Polish Population Review, No. 5, 1994. 187-93 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Eng.
The author analyzes the characteristics of households in Poland using an entropy formula. Data are from the 1978 and 1988 censuses and are analyzed separately for urban and rural areas.
Correspondence: I. Roeske-Slomka, University of Economics, Ul. Niepodleglosci 10, 60-967 Poznan, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30432 Sorrentino, Constance. International comparisons of the family. In: American Statistical Association, 1993 Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1993]. 761-6 pp. American Statistical Association: Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
This article updates the author's previous study on changing family characteristics. "The article considers the major demographic and social changes directly influencing family composition in 10 developed countries--the United States, Canada, Japan, and seven Western European nations."
For the previous study, published in 1990, see 56:20370.
Correspondence: C. Sorrentino, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2 Massachusetts Avenue NE, Room 2150, Washington, D.C. 20212-0001. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30433 Stark, Oded. Altruism and beyond: an economic analysis of transfers and exchanges within families and groups. Oscar Morgenstern Memorial Lectures, ISBN 0-521-47419-1. 1995. x, 142 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This book employs economic methodology to study the motives for and the repercussions of transfers and exchanges within families, between generations, and within groups. The book shows how the allocative behavior and wellbeing of one family member depend on his altruistic link with another family member, how the timing of the intergenerational transfer of the family productive asset affects the recipient's incentive to engage in human capital formation, and how transfers from an adult to his parents impinge on future transfers to him from his own children. In addition, the book shows that under asymmetric information high-skill migrant workers make transfers to low-skill would-be migrants in order to lure them to stay put, and that under incomplete information a group-specific informational edge--lower recognition costs--results in a superior exchange outcome. Finally, altruism, which in the beginning of the book is assumed, is explained: the transmission to or probable acquisition by children of parental traits and the exchange between siblings are shown to result in a stable equilibrium wherein no agent behaves nonaltruistically."
Correspondence: Cambridge University Press, Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30434 Touliatos, John; Ralebipi, Matabole D. R. Inventory of marriage and family literature, 1993/94. Vol. 20, ISBN 0-916174-47-6. LC 67-63014. 1995. xv, 748 pp. National Council on Family Relations: Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
This inventory is one in a series that lists published studies on marriage and the family. This volume contains citations to 2,127 articles and 252 books published from December 1993 to December 1994. The emphasis is on studies published in English. The inventory takes the format of three indexes, which are subject, author, and Key Word in Title (KWIT) indexes. Abstracts are not provided, but are available through IMFL ONLINE, from CD-Plus, Dialog, and ETSI.
For Volume 18, published in 1993, see 59:20476.
Correspondence: National Council on Family Relations, 3989 Central Avenue NE, Suite 550, Minneapolis, MN 55421. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30435 van der Heijdt, J.; van Hoorn, W. D. Household situation and health of elderly people. [Huishoudenssituatie en gezondheid van ouderen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 4, Apr 1995. 6-12 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"As in other developed countries, the number of elderly people is growing rapidly in the Netherlands....Compared to younger people, little is known about household formation of the elderly people. Almost two thirds [are] still part of a family (with spouse and/or children). One third live alone. Only about 4.5% of the elderly people cohabit with other people (for instance relatives)....The analysis points out that the physical and mental health of people who live alone is worse than those of people who live with spouse or partner. It also shows that the health of people with a high level of education is better than the health of those with little education."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:30436 Weinick, Robin M. Sharing a home: the experiences of American women and their parents over the twentieth century. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 2, May 1995. 281-97 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Trends and determinants of daughter-parent coresidence over the twentieth century are examined by using the 1987-1988 [U.S.] National Survey of Families and Households. Young women from more recent birth cohorts leave their parents' homes for the first time at earlier ages, but are more likely to make return trips home than those born earlier. Thus cohorts show remarkable consistency in the proportion of life lived in the parental home. For the 1900-1929 birth cohorts, daughters' lifetime probability that a parent will move in with them is approximately 15%; younger cohorts show similar age-specific probabilities to date. Explanations for these trends are considered."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: R. M. Weinick, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 2101 East Jefferson Street, Suite 500, Rockville, MD 20852. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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