Volume 61 - Number 2 - Summer 1995

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

61:20746 Alam, Iqbal; Tan, Boon Ann. Population policies in low fertility countries of East and Southeast Asia. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 253-66 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"The countries of East and Southeast Asia, economically dynamic and in the forefront of Asia's demographic transition, have implemented a wide range of policies to solve their population problems over the past few decades....This chapter gives an overview of the policies that they have implemented to help solve their various population problems, and identifies areas that will need attention in the future."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20747 Ashford, Lori S. New perspectives on population: lessons from Cairo. Population Bulletin, Vol. 50, No. 1, Mar 1995. 44 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This Bulletin reviews the evolution of international population policy within the context of the global demographic trends that increasingly drew the attention of scientists, activists, and finally policymakers throughout the world. Until recently, policies to deal with consequences of explosive population growth in the world's poorest countries revolved around family planning programs. The [1994 International Conference on Population and Development] ICPD meeting in Cairo signaled international acceptance of a broader approach to dealing with population issues. The consensus was that no single solution will slow population growth and mitigate the rapid effects of rapid population growth on society. The broader policies to be pursued include responsible economic development, the education and empowerment of women, and high-quality health care, including family planning services. The author examines each of these issues as well as the constraints to achieving the goals identified by so many of the world's nations at the ICPD in Cairo."
Correspondence: Population Reference Bureau, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20009-5728. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20748 Ford, Nicholas. The effect of population programmes upon quality of life and sustainable development. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1-2, Jul-Jan 1992-1993. 39-50, 122 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng. with sum. in Tha.
"This short paper reviews the main lines of thinking upon the following topics: global and regional trends in population growth; the links between rapid population growth and development; the key factors influencing fertility decline; the concepts of quality of life and sustainable development; and the ways in which population programmes may be considered to have an impact upon them....It is...argued that there has been much more progress made towards formulating population policies to enhance economic, rather than (ecologically-defined) sustainable, development;."
Correspondence: N. Ford, University of Exeter, Institute of Population Studies, Hoopern House, 101 Pennsylvania Road, Exeter EX4 6DT, Devon, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20749 Gauthier, Anne H. Population and family policies in low fertility countries: Western Europe, North America, Australasia. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 233-52 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This chapter compares how governments [in Western Europe, North America, and Australasia] have perceived recent demographic trends, how they have responded to them, and what types of policies they have adopted....Section 1 outlines the differences across countries in the attitudes of governments towards population issues....Section 2 examines the types of policies which have been adopted by governments, while section 3 focuses on specific policy measures. Section 4 examines some further issues related to population and family policies, and section 5 concludes by discussing the relevance of these policies for Asia."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20750 Leisinger, Klaus M.; Schmitt, Karin. All our people: population policy with a human face. ISBN 1-55963-292-5. LC 93-50647. 1994. xiii, 267 pp. Island Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study presents the case for the need to slow the rate of global population growth, and asserts that this can only be achieved by the concerted efforts of individuals and institutions in both rich and poor countries. Chapters are included on the facts of population growth, the determinants of high fertility, the effects of rapid population growth, demographic transition theory, and the requirements for an ethically acceptable population policy. The authors conclude that "it is possible to lower population growth with appropriate approaches to development policy and with international development cooperation. The satisfaction of basic needs and social and economic equality for women are the two most important single elements of such a policy."
Correspondence: Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20751 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Institutional impediments to population policy in Australia. Working Papers in Demography, No. 53, 1995. 21 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The reasons why Australia does not have a coherent population policy are reviewed. The author notes that "the potential constituent parts of one, particularly on immigration, family, and environment, are firmly enmeshed in separate political domains and responsive to separate clusters of interests. Vague, demographically ill-informed, and mutually inconsistent views of a desired population size or trajectory for Australia co-exist, with no arena for systematic engagement and considered debate among them....Population policy may well be one of the issues that modern liberal democracies find peculiarly difficult to deal with."
Correspondence: Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Division of Demography and Sociology, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20752 Meil Landwerlin, Gerardo. Trends in Spanish family policy: from family incomes to policies against poverty. [L'evolution de la politique familiale en Espagne: du salaire familial a la lutte contre la pauvrete.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1994. 959-83 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In this article, the motivations, instruments, and importance of family policy [in Spain] are analyzed during different periods, and the factors which produced specific developments are outlined. During the 1940s and 1950s, family policy was used to compensate for the wage freezes required for the rapid accumulation of capital, whilst the capitalist modernization of the 1960s required more rational family protection, geared to economic needs. Since 1976, political democratisation and the fiscal crisis of the welfare state, together with other cultural factors, have relegated family policy to obscurity."
Correspondence: G. Meil Landwerlin, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20753 Mercer, David. The House of Representatives' inquiry into Australia's carrying capacity: a review of submissions. People and Place, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1994. 14-20 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
The author reports on government hearings to investigate community views on carrying capacity, population size, and policy options in Australia. The inquiry was held in 1994 by the House of Representatives Standing Committee for Long Term Strategies.
Correspondence: D. Mercer, Monash University, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20754 Micklin, Michael. Population policies in the Caribbean: present status and emerging issues. Social and Economic Studies, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jun 1994. 1-32 pp. Kingston, Jamaica. In Eng.
"This paper examines the evolution of population policies in the Caribbean region. Superficial examination of socioeconomic and demographic conditions and trends in the Caribbean may suggest that population policies are not critical for improvements in social and economic well being. However, serious demographic impediments to development exist, including high rates of teenage fertility, youthful age structures with a rising proportion of people aged 65 and older, high population densities, and significant emigration. National population policies in the region are highly variable, but generally reflect insufficient recognition of problematic demographic conditions and trends typical of microstates."
Correspondence: M. Micklin, Nanjing University, Hopkins-Nanjing Center, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, China. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20755 Phyormyont, Phayap. Population policy in Thailand. Journal of Population and Social Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1-2, Jul-Jan 1992-1993. 1-37, 125 pp. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Tha. with sum. in Eng.
The author reviews the history of population policy in Thailand, with a focus on objectives, policy conflicts, effectiveness, and future options.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20756 Serow, William J.; Sly, David F. Population policies in industrialized nations: reactive or proactive? Genus, Vol. 49, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1993. 147-63 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper considers policy shifts regarding demographic behaviors in the industrialized nations of the world in light of both trends in these behaviors over the recent past as well as projections of these behaviors over the next thirty five years according to the United Nations' mid-range assessments as prepared in 1988. The paper begins with a summary of recent trends in and projections of population change and its components for the industrialized world, grouped into four regions. Next, the paper considers current perceptions and recent shifts in perceptions regarding demographic parameters for these nations, as reported by the United Nations, and links these to current policies and recent policy shifts regarding demographic behavior. Finally, the paper integrates this material through a consideration of the appropriateness of policies and policy change in light of perceptions and swings in perceptions and considers future policy directions in light of projected demographic change."
Correspondence: W. J. Serow, Florida State University, Center for the Study of Population, P.O. Box 4063, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4063. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20757 Short, Roger. Australia: a full house. People and Place, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1994. 1-5 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
The author states that "Australia cannot cope with the population that recent projections imply it will have to carry in the twenty-first century without serious environmental damage. How then should Australia respond to the world population crisis?...If Australia is to survive as a sovereign state in the coming century, our political masters must face the population problem in a more realistic way than they have done heretofore."
Correspondence: R. Short, Monash University, Department of Physiology, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

61:20758 Chandrasekhar, S. A new population policy for India. Population Review, Vol. 38, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 11-29 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
The author discusses current and future population trends in India, with a focus on the need to find solutions to the country's population problem. Aspects of the present anti-natalist policy are described and evaluated.
Correspondence: S. Chandrasekhar, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20759 Concepcion, Mercedes B. Population policies and family-planning in Southeast Asia. In: The future population of the world. What can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1994. 99-113 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria; Earthscan Publications: London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the population policies and FP programs in selected Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam) and attempts to draw from their experience the critical preconditions for family-planning program success." The author suggests that the success of programs in this region is associated with making contraceptives easily available, the development of integrated, high-quality outreach services, testing alternative approaches to service delivery, and political support.
Correspondence: M. B. Concepcion, University of the Philippines, Population Institute, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20760 Courbage, Youssef. Population policy in Egypt and its evaluation: what do we learn from recent surveys? [La politique demographique en Egypte et son evaluation: que nous apprennent les enquetes recentes?] Population, Vol. 49, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1994. 1,041-55 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article attempts an evaluation of the population policy [in Egypt which]...has favoured modern contraception as a means of reducing the birth rate." The author notes that the experience of other Maghrib countries indicates that fertility reduction is unlikely in the context of early marriage. "Raising the age at marriage is linked to the more general issue of women's status in Egyptian society, which seems to be deteriorating, as shown by excess mortality of females in childhood, excisions, unequal education for boys and girls, and low employment rates for women."
Correspondence: Y. Courbage, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20761 Debavalya, Nibhon. Fertility policies in Thailand. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 289-304 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"Thailand is often cited as one of the few developing countries that has successfully controlled its population growth through voluntary measures....The impact of Thailand's social and economic change and that of government programmes on actual behaviour is mediated through the cultural setting. This chapter will, therefore, briefly touch upon several important issues related to policies, programmes, implementation, the major factors underlying Thailand's reproductive revolution and its future directions."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20762 Drakakis-Smith, David; Graham, Elspeth; Teo, Peggy; Ling, Ooi Giok. Singapore: reversing the demographic transition to meet labour needs. Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol. 109, No. 3, Dec 1993. 152-63 pp. Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
"Concern about the quantity and quality of its labour force has been one of the major factors in bringing about a reversal of Singapore's population policy from anti-natal to pro-natal. In addition, the new policy has sought to enhance the quality of the workforce by offering incentives to encourage larger families amongst the more educated Singaporeans. After five years, responses have been muted, partly because of a growing sense of resentment amongst the younger adults towards interference in what are regarded as family decisions."
Correspondence: D. Drakakis-Smith, University of Keele, Department of Geography, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20763 Goodkind, Daniel M. Vietnam's one-or-two-child policy in action. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 1, Mar 1995. 85-111, 217-8, 220 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"After many years of encouraging family planning, Vietnam formally instituted a comprehensive policy in 1988 that called upon most parents to limit themselves to one or two children. This article explores the background of the Vietnamese policy, the extent of its implementation, and response at the local level....Policy enforcement includes strong social pressures, the imposition of modest fines and, for government cadres, loss of jobs, although such measures are not universally enforced and policy violations persist despite them. As occurred in China during the 1980s, Vietnam's recent free-market reforms have contributed to greater peasant independence from state control and a weakened authority of local cadres, both of which have rendered enforcement of the national fertility policy more difficult."
Correspondence: D. M. Goodkind, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20764 Jiang, Zhenghua; Zhang, Lingguang; Chang, Ming Cheng; Hong, Moon Sik; Hayashi, Kenji. Fertility policies in China, Taiwan, Republic of Korea and Japan. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 267-88 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This chapter summarises...the status of fertility policies in four East Asian countries: China, Taiwan, Republic of Korea and Japan."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20765 Kojima, Hiroshi. The effects of family policy in France. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, Vol. 49, No. 4, Jan 1994. 43-56 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author analyzes the impact of family policy on fertility in France in the modern era.
Correspondence: H. Kojima, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20766 Leete, Richard. Emerging issues and policy considerations in low fertility countries in East and Southeast Asia. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 367-80 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"The papers presented at the Seoul seminar held at the end of 1993, on which this book is based, focussed on the socio-economic and cultural consequences of East and Southeast Asia's rapid fertility decline, the nature of population policies and sought to define a direction and role for family planning programmes in the context of the new demographic situation. This final chapter reviews some of the main findings of the previous chapters, considers some of the newly emerging issues and their implications for population policy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20767 Li, Xicheng; Qu, Haibo; Tang, Yitian. The chaos theory and population planning. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1994. 293-301 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors "examine the utility of the chaos theory in mathematics, which provides a theoretical basis for population planning and control....In this study, the chaos theory is first used to explain population changes, and then the application of the theory in population planning and control is examined."
Correspondence: X. Li, Jilin University, 83 Jie Fang Road, Changchun, Jilin Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20768 Li, Yongping. Changes of the internal dependency rate and related childbearing strategies and policies for fertility rate at the replacement level. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1994. 345-54 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to discuss the significance of different [Chinese] population policies through analyzing patterns of change of the internal dependency rate when fertility rate arrives at the replacement level....By examining changes of the internal dependency coefficients and the two major schools of thought concerning fertility policy, we have discussed two general approaches China may choose under the new population condition....Embodied in the two approaches are three different fertility policies: the currently practiced one-child policy, strictly enforced two-children policy, and loosely implemented two-children policy....The analysis...demonstrates that the current fertility policy in China is a highly feasible choice."
Correspondence: Y. Li, Beijing University, Institute of Population Research, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20769 Teo, Peggy. Population planning and change in Singapore. Population and Environment, Vol. 16, No. 3, Jan 1995. 237-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Population planning in Singapore has always been linked to economic planning....The 'stop at 2' population policy of 1965-87 was designed to support the economic plans to improve the quality of life of the people....By 1983, however, Singapore switched from being antinatal to being pronatal. The environmental determinism school that influenced population planning gave way to environmental possibilism in which man is the main agent determining his own actions in the population-environment relationship....By concentrating on the high-end service sector, such as mercantile banking or currency markets, Singapore has used the new information age of computers to take advantage of the changing world market. The 'quality' population required to do this job is missing, thus the 'have 3 or more if you can afford it' policy."
Correspondence: P. Teo, National University of Singapore, Department of Geography, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore, 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20770 Winegarden, C. R.; Bracy, Paula M. Demographic consequences of maternal-leave programs in industrial countries: evidence from fixed-effects models. Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 61, No. 4, Apr 1995. 1,020-35 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"In the present paper, we try to measure the effects of paid maternity-leave on three demographic variables: infant mortality, labor-force participation of women in the prime childbearing ages, and fertility rates. For this purpose, we construct a simultaneous-equations model, using the individual fixed-effects method and a data set comprising 17 OECD countries and four time periods. The structural estimates provide substantial evidence in support of our predictions that lengthening the allowed duration of paid leave reduces infant mortality, while increasing both the labor-force participation of young women and the general fertility rate. However, the reduced-form analysis casts doubt on the long-run fertility effect."
Correspondence: C. R. Winegarden, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20771 Zuo, Xuejin. Socialist market economy and the family planning program in China: some theoretical issues reconsidered. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1994. 235-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper will first give a brief account of the special characteristics of a socialist market economy, followed by a general discussion about the conditions and basis for government intervention in the market. Then we will proceed to look at the externalities in reproductive behaviors in urban and rural areas [of China] and ways to eliminate these externalities. Finally, we shall examine government's administrative intervention in population reproduction as well as macro-level planning for population control."
Correspondence: X. Zuo, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Population and Development Research Institute, Shanghai, Guangdong Province, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

61:20772 Andreas, Peter. The making of Amerexico: (mis)handling illegal immigration. World Policy Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, Summer 1994. 45-56 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a critique of U.S. immigration policy, particularly with regard to migration from Mexico. The author suggests that, by "ignoring the basic forces of supply and demand that push and pull the movement of people, American policies have actually helped to create the very illegal immigration problem that U.S. officials are now struggling to solve. All too often, presumed cures have actually helped spread the disease. U.S. policies have shaped illegal immigration at three levels: on the supply side in Mexico, on the demand side domestically, and at the point of entry at the border."
Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

61:20773 Arp, William; Baver, Sherrie L. Implementation of Congressional intent: a study of amnesty policy and the Immigration and Naturalization Service. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1994. 425-44 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The present study targets the implementation process of IRCA [the U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act] as it impacted on amnesty and seeks to address the general question, 'Could INS implementation have been more effective?' The more specific question is: 'Did INS regulatory interpretations of IRCA and subsequent procedures serve to (a) exacerbate an already confusing programme and (b) distort the intent of Congress?'"
Correspondence: W. Arp, Louisiana State University, Department of Political Science, Baton Rouge, LA 70803. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20774 Bosswick, Wolfgang. The impact of reforms in German asylum law. People and Place, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1993. 18-24 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
The author discusses changes in asylum law in Germany since the 1980s. Aspects considered include the legal basis for asylum in Germany, countries of origin of asylum seekers, the political response, the impact of asylum processing reforms, and appeal and expulsion procedures.
Correspondence: W. Bosswick, Universitat Bamberg, European Forum for Migration Studies, Feldkirchenstrasse 21, 8600 Bamberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20775 Briggs, Vernon M. U.S. asylum policy and the New World Order. People and Place, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1993. 1-9 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
The author discusses asylum policy in the United States, with a focus on global changes resulting from the end of the Cold War. He outlines the creation of an asylum policy, the issue of mass asylum, and pending policy reforms. The role of the rapid growth of international migration is considered.
Correspondence: V. M. Briggs, Cornell University, New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20776 Brown, David L. Human ecological perspectives on spatial distribution policy in the United States. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 94.01, 1994. 15, [2] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"I will develop the conventional conceptualization of spatial distribution policy in the United States, indicating the overall rationale for such public intervention, and the varieties of goals and approaches such policies can take. Then, using rural development policy as a specific example, I will discuss how human ecological analysis can contribute to a deeper understanding of the need for public sector intervention to guide the spatial redistribution of population and economic activities. My overriding point is that such redistribution is not solely an economic process."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20777 Gesano, Giuseppe. Nonsense and unfeasibility of demographically-based immigration policies. Genus, Vol. 50, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 47-63 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"Using a forecasting model for several parallel populations and based on a set of hypotheses concerning differential population behaviour and integration, the author investigates a series of alternative [policies] regarding the size and composition of the immigration flows which should be allowed, in order to achieve stability. For each case, the final and current effects on the base population (Italian population in 1991) are calculated. Any inconsistencies in the hypothetical mechanisms are highlighted, and attempts are made to identify the most obvious problems involved in these hypothetical policies."
Correspondence: G. Gesano, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Viale Beethoven 56, 00144 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20778 Hollingsworth, William G. Population, immigration, and a believable future. Population and Environment, Vol. 16, No. 3, Jan 1995. 285-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author criticizes the U.S. response to the continued world population explosion, which has been "to try to absorb more and more of it through a numerically permissive and thus presumptively magnanimous immigration policy."
Correspondence: W. G. Hollingsworth, University of Tulsa, College of Law, 3120 East Fourth Place, Tulsa, OK 74104-2499. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20779 Low, Linda. Migration and Singapore: implications for the Asia Pacific. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2-3, 1994. 251-63 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"A crude hypothesis is that the wider the spatial inequalities in wages and incomes, accompanied by trade, capital and technology flows and globalization, the more significant is migration. The challenge in the Asia Pacific region is to unravel and synthesize the sociopolitical, legal and institutional aspects with the help of better theoretical and empirical inputs. This case study of Singapore shows that it has managed to balance sociopolitical sensitivities with economic and even demographic objectives. However, the model is not easy to replicate as the control mechanisms combine levies and quotas for foreign workers and strictly meritocratic criteria for emigrants."
Correspondence: L. Low, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 0511. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20780 Marmora, Lelio. Sustainable development and migration policies: their treatment within the Latin American economic integration blocks. [Desarrollo sostenido y politicas migratorias: su tratamiento en los espacios latinoamericanos de integracion.] Revista de la OIM sobre Migraciones en America Latina/IOM Latin American Migration Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1-3, Apr-Dec 1994. 5-93 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
This study is about the relationship between migration and socioeconomic development in Latin America. "In the 1990s migration policy in Latin America began to be redefined as a result of moves to open trade to world markets, towards economic integration and in keeping with the principle of sustained development. There are three areas where economic integration is occurring: the Andean Region, the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) in the Southern Cone, and Central America. More progress has been made in this area during the last three years than in the previous several decades. The move to include the migration variable in the process of economic integration constituted a new axis for future migration policy in the region."
Correspondence: L. Marmora, International Organization for Migration, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20781 Reyna Bernal, Angelica. Migration policies and population distribution in Mexico: regional implementation and impact. [Politicas de migracion y distribucion de poblacion en Mexico: ejecucion e impactos regionales.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1991. 583-611, 780-1 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"The author begins by analyzing the legal framework of migration and population redistribution policies in Mexico since 1973, when the General Law on Population was passed....She discusses demographic planning in this field, and conducts a follow-up on implementation based on reports from the institutions involved and official documents. To conclude, she examines practical applications of policy instruments, comparing the behavior of governmental variables that had a bearing on the phenomenon before and after the implementation of said policy (1970 to 1990)."
Correspondence: A. Reyna Bernal, El Colegio de Mexico, Centro de Estudios Demograficos y de Desarrollo Urbano, Camino al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20782 Ruddick, Elizabeth; Burstein, Meyer. New directions for the management of the Canadian immigration program. People and Place, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1993. 24-9 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
The authors discuss recent changes in the goals of Canada's immigration policy. "Over the last few years, the rationale for the 'economic component' of immigration has shifted from the view that independent immigration benefits Canada through scale economies (Canada on its own being a relatively small market in the global scene) to the view that independent immigrants must contribute to higher productivity through their skills, knowledge and experience."
Correspondence: E. Ruddick, Department of Citizenship and Immigration, Ottawa, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20783 Stycos, J. Mayone; Duarte, Isis. Parks, resettlement and population: a case study in the Dominican Republic. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 94.14, 1994. 21 pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The authors discuss possible solutions to the deterioration of protected areas. "In the present paper, I try to illustrate the kinds of information obtained in a small social survey that might benefit policy makers and the concerned population around a threatened national park. The survey was carried out in 1992 in four communities adjacent to Los Haitises National Park in the Dominican Republic....Such information might help a program decide on how much and what kinds of education would be needed, how villagers might react to resettlement or to population planning, and how homogeneous or segmented the target population is likely to be."
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20784 Tsokhas, Kosmas. Immigration and unemployment in Australia. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1994. 445-66 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force....The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive....Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability."
Correspondence: K. Tsokhas, Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, Canberra, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20785 United States. Commission on Immigration Reform (Washington, D.C.). 1994 report to Congress. U.S. immigration policy: restoring credibility. ISBN 0-16-045373-9. Sep 1994. xxxix, 250 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is an interim report from the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform concerning the implementation and impact of U.S. immigration law. The basic message contained in the report is that the United States needs a credible immigration policy that deters unlawful immigration while supporting the national interest in legal immigration. One major recommendation involves the development of a new system for verifying that individuals are authorized to work in the United States involving a computerized registry based on social security numbers. "In addition to our recommendations for the worksite, we also call for improved border management, a consistent policy regarding eligibility for public benefits, a willingness and ability to remove those who have no right to remain in the country, with particular focus on criminal aliens, an enhanced capacity to respond to immigration emergencies, an effective strategy to reduce the pressures for immigration in sending countries, and more reliable data for making and implementing policy."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402-9328. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20786 Widgren, Jonas. Immigration policies: a comparative overview. People and Place, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1994. 1-8 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
"This is a short comparative overview of the present immigration policies of certain Western countries which, as regards questions of migration, are comparable. It is based on data provided by the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) in Vienna....It covers the following European countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, Sweden and the United Kingdom. For comparative purposes it also covers three countries overseas which are regarded as typical countries of immigration: Australia, Canada, and the U.S.A."
Correspondence: J. Widgren, International Centre for Migration Policy Development, Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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