Volume 61 - Number 2 - Summer 1995

J. Characteristics

Primarily references to descriptive studies. Official tabular material will be found under S. Official Statistical Publications . Items that are primarily analytical, but that also contain information on characteristics, will be found under K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations and Natural Resources or L. Demographic and Noneconomic Interrelations , as appropriate.

J.1. General Demographic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to various demographic characteristics, including age, sex, sex ratios, and marital status. Studies on demographic aging are also included.

61:20584 Adlakha, Arjun; Rudolph, David J. Aging trends: Indonesia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan 1994. 99-108 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors discuss causes and consequences of aging trends in Indonesia. Aspects considered include median age and support ratios; life expectancy; marital status and living arrangements; health, mobility, and disability; education; and work and income.
Correspondence: A. Adlakha, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, Washington, D.C. 20233-3700. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20585 Alvarez Edo, M.; Sanchez Compadre, E. Biodemographic alterations derived from reservoir building in a rural settlement in Spain. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan 1995. 61-70 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In the mountainous regions of Palencia in the north of Spain, three dams have been built this century. This paper analyses the biodemographic modifications in the settlement directly affected by the construction of these dams, and compares it with nearby control settlements with similar demographic and social structure, in order to establish the effects of the flooding of extensive areas....It is concluded that emigration has been the most significant demographic phenomenon in the two settlements studied. This emigration has had a direct effect on the demographic variables of birth, death and marriage rates, and at the same time has transformed the age structure of the populations to give them a high mean age....But it is concluded that the direct effect of building the Camporredondo and Compuerto dams has been slight, since neither the demographic patterns nor the demographic variables show any important significant statistical differences between the two localities which have been compared."
Correspondence: M. Alvarez Edo, University of Leon, Department of Animal Biology, Anthropology Section, Campus Universitario de Vegazana, 24071 Leon, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20586 Bourdelais, Patrice. Demographic aging: a current issue or an out-of-date concept? [Le vieillissement de la population: question d'actualite ou notion obsolete?] Debat, No. 82, Nov-Dec 1994. 173-92 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines the concept of demographic aging and its relevance to modern conditions, with particular reference to contemporary France. He suggests that the belief that demographic aging leads to a number of economic and social problems is based on an outmoded concept of what aging means, and that the elderly today are healthier, richer, and more willing and able to contribute to society than in the past. He suggests that it would make sense to redefine the concept of old age to restrict it to those over age 80, and to consider those over age 60 as potential contributors to, rather than dependents on, society's resources.
Correspondence: P. Bourdelais, 8 rue des Fontaines, 78125 Hermeray, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20587 Chakravarty, Satya R.; Chakravarty, Sumita. A general index of aging. Demography India, Vol. 22, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1993. 89-96 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The construction of an aging index requires the undertaking of two distinct exercises: (i) the identification of the set of old persons in the population, and (ii) aggregation of the information available on the ages of the old persons into an indicator that will quantify the extent of oldness....The purpose of this paper is to suggest some additional important properties for an aging index. We also propose a new general index that satisfies all these properties along with continuity and monotonicity....[We present] a numerical illustration of the general index using age data of Indian population for the year 1981...."
Correspondence: S. R. Chakravarty, Indian Statistical Institute, Economic Research Unit, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20588 Doilicho, Beyene. Rural urban and regional variations in the sex structure of Ethiopia's population. Eastern and Southern Africa Geographical Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jul 1993. 35-49 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
"This paper examines the sex structure of the population of Ethiopia with emphasis on the sex structure of the urban population which is somewhat unique in Africa. An attempt is made to show rural-urban and north-south differences in sex structure using sex [ratio] classes and [the] 'Rural-Urban Sex Ratio Gap'....Some possible factors and implications of the situation are stated." Data are from a number of official sources, including the preliminary report from the 1984 census.
Correspondence: B. Doilicho, Addis Ababa University, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

61:20589 Francese, Peter. America at mid-decade. American Demographics, Vol. 17, No. 2, Feb 1995. 23-31 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"The charts and graphs on the following pages were chosen to convey some of the complexity of the American marketplace in the mid-1990s. The main points appear under the headings The People, The Places, The Money, and The Mood." The demographic characteristics considered include households, educational status, employment, age distribution, migration, and income distribution. Data are primarily from the March 1994 U.S. Current Population Survey.
Correspondence: P. Francese, American Demographics, 127 West State Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20590 Fratczak, Ewa. Population aging in Poland--selected aspects. ISBN 92-9103-019-8. 1993. 114 pp. International Institute on Aging [INIA]: Valletta, Malta; Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography [CICRED]: Paris, France. In Eng.
This is one in a series of country monographs on the demographic and socioeconomic aspects of population aging. This report concerns Poland, and has chapters on population aging, the determinants of population aging, households and housing, socioeconomic characteristics of the elderly, the aging family and individual life courses, and mortality and health aspects.
Correspondence: International Institute on Aging, 117 St. Paul Street, Valletta VLT 07, Malta. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20591 Grundy, Emily. Socio-demographic change and support for the elderly in developed countries. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 151-80 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This chapter makes a quantitative assessment of some of the demographic dimensions of the elderly populations in developed countries, considers changes in their demographic characteristics relevant to the supply of potential family support, and reviews recent changes in household and family patterns, including inter-generational exchanges, and their possible implications."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20592 Gu, Baochang; Xu, Yi. A comprehensive discussion of the birth gender ratio in China. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1994. 417-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article posits that the increasing gender ratio for newborns in China since the 1980s is related to child-bearing women's educational level, place of residence, nationality, and gender of their previous children; withholding the exact number of children from census-takers, cases missed, and errors made in birth statistics are an important reason for the lop-sided birth gender ratio; to a certain extent, unlawful use of ultra-sound to detect the fetus' gender, which leads to gender choice based abortion, also affects the gender ratio at birth; the illegal practice of drowning of female infants, though not a main reason, occurs with some frequency in remote areas and calls for serious attention and efforts to eliminate this phenomenon."
Correspondence: B. Gu, China Population Information and Research Center, P.O. Box 2444, Beijing 100081, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20593 Jacquot, Alain. The impact of migration on uneven aging in rural and urban areas: a study of Brittany and Lorraine. [Les migrations et l'inegal vieillissement des zones rurales et des zones urbaines: une etude sur la Bretagne et la Lorraine.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1994. 985-1,013 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The object of this paper is to assess the relative contribution of migration and natural increase to the ageing of the French population at the regional or local levels. The method is applied to 22 French regions on the mainland, and for two of these regions--Brittany and Lorraine--also to two sets of local areas defined by the proportion urban. In both regions, migration had a negative effect on the ageing of populations in the main cities and in local areas which have benefited from the process of counter-urbanisation, and a positive effect on the ageing of smaller cities. At the regional level, the impact of migration, measured in terms of changes in the average age, has always been smaller than that of natural increase, except in the Ile-de-France region which includes the Paris area."
Correspondence: A. Jacquot, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20594 Lopez Jimenez, Juan J. The process of demographic aging in Spain. [El proceso de envejecimiento demografico en Espana.] Revista Internacional de Sociologia, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1992. 127-46 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
A retrospective analysis of the ways that various disciplines have taken to the study of demographic aging is presented. The author concludes by considering gerontology as a science and as the point of convergence for the various disciplines concerned with demographic aging.
Correspondence: J. J. Lopez Jimenez, Centro de Estudios Sociales, Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20595 Nishimura, Hiroko; Klinger, Andras. The ageing in Hungary and Japan: comparative studies about the developments in the two countries. ISBN 963-7109-48-X. 1995. iv, 239 pp. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal: Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
This publication is the product of a cooperative venture between Hungarian and Japanese scholars on the common experience of both countries in coping with the aging of their populations. The 12 papers included deal with the demographic characteristics of the two aging populations, as well as such issues as the employment of the elderly, family life, pensions, care of the elderly, health issues, and suicide.
Correspondence: Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Keleti Karoly Utca 5-7, 1525 Budapest II, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20596 Otto, Johannes. The aging society: German Society for Demography, Twenty-Seventh Working Meeting on February 25-27, 1993, in Bad Homburg vor der Hohe. [Die alter werdende Gesellschaft: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, 27. Arbeitstagung vom 25. bis 27. Februar 1993 in Bad Homburg v.d. Hohe.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 80, 1993. 238 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany. In Eng; Ger.
This publication contains 12 papers presented at the February 1993 meeting of the German Society for Demography. The papers focus on demographic aging and its implications in Germany and the European Community. One paper is in English, and the rest are in German. Individual papers deal with the determinants of population aging in Germany from 1871 to 2060, regional aspects of demographic aging, health aspects, financing old-age security in the former East Germany, living conditions of older people in the European Community, socio-demographic characteristics of the older foreign population in Germany, and elderly women.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20597 Park, Chai Bin; Cho, Nam-Hoon. Consequences of son preference in a low-fertility society: imbalance of the sex ratio at birth in Korea. Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 1, Mar 1995. 59-84, 217, 219 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"In this article we present empirical evidence of...these changes in the sex ratio at birth, focusing on [South] Korea. Then we discuss possible demographic, social, health, and other implications of the changes....We do not consider female infanticide and failure to report female births, both prevalent in China according to some authors, to be factors in Korea....Fearing a wide practice of sex-selective abortion in the country, the Korean government is now enforcing strong measures to curb the use of technologies for the sex determination of fetuses."
Correspondence: C. B. Park, University of Hawaii, School of Public Health, 1960 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20598 Rossner, Thomas. Trends in population structure in the Republic of South Africa. [Zur Entwicklung der Bevolkerungsstruktur in der Republik Sudafrika.] Zeitschrift fur den Erdkundeunterricht, Vol. 45, No. 5, May 1993. 162-70 pp. Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
Information is presented on the population structure of South Africa, including the effects of apartheid on socioeconomic differences between individual population groups. Data are from the Development Bank of Southern Africa and the 1991 population census.
Correspondence: T. Rossner, Universitat Fridericiana Karlsruhe, Institut fur Regionalwissenshaften, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany. Location: New York Public Library, New York, NY.

61:20599 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). 1990 population and housing census. Subject report No. 2: population ageing in Thailand. ISBN 974-8095-52-5. 1994. [x], 51, 59 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This is an analysis of demographic aging in Thailand based on sample data from the 1990 census. The demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the elderly population are described. The living arrangements and household composition of the elderly are also examined, as is life expectancy.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20600 Ulizzi, L.; Zonta, L. A. Factors affecting the sex ratio in humans: multivariate analysis of the Italian population. Human Biology, Vol. 67, No. 1, Feb 1995. 59-67 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Several studies have shown that the human secondary sex ratio is affected by a wide range of biological and environmental factors. Here, we describe a partitioning of the sex ratio variability as observed in the Italian population over the last two generations. This period has seen drastic changes in the environmental conditions of Italy. As a consequence, demographic and biological variables that can affect the sex ratio have also changed dramatically. In an attempt to isolate any specific effect, we used a stepwise multiple regression to analyze the covariation over time of the sex ratio and of relevant parameters, such as stillbirth rate, maternal age, firstborn proportion, and birth order. The results show that a quadratic function of the firstborn proportion and mother's age is a fairly good predictor of sex ratio values."
Correspondence: L. Ulizzi, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.2. Biological Characteristics

Descriptive studies of menarche and menopause, longevity, and increasing the life span, as well as other biological characteristics such as sex selection. Studies that are concerned with menarche and menopause as they specifically affect fertility are coded under F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility .

61:20601 Yang, Ji. On the Bama longevity zone and the local environment for survival. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1994. 333-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Based on the author's long and in-depth social investigations in Bama County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, [China], one of the world's well-known longevity zones, this article looks at the longevity group and the favorable environment for their survival in an attempt to gain a better understanding of the issue both theoretically and empirically."
Correspondence: J. Yang, Institute of Population Research, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.3. Economic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of income differentials, earnings, career mobility, and other economic characteristics if allocated according to demographic groups. Analytical studies are classified under K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population , and studies concerned with employment and labor force are classified under K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation .

61:20602 Bradford, M. G.; Robson, B. T.; Tye, R. Constructing an urban deprivation index: a way of meeting the need for flexibility. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 27, No. 4, Apr 1995. 519-33 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the use of census data to construct an urban deprivation index for the United Kingdom, with special attention given to the need for flexibility. "A single index is rejected in favour of a matrix of results which captures the complex geography of deprivation. The matrix of districts includes measures of the degree of deprivation, its spatial extent, its intensity, and the spatial distribution of deprivation at the enumeration district scale. The profiles of various districts are discussed to illustrate the use of the matrix."
Correspondence: M. G. Bradford, University of Manchester, Department of Geography, Mansfield Cooper Building, Manchester M13 9PL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20603 Calot, Gerard. Tax law, marital status, and number of children. [Droit fiscal, etat matrimonial et nombre d'enfants.] Population, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1994. 1,473-500 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This article analyses certain aspects of French direct taxation in 1992 and 1993 according to marital status, number of children and income. It appears that the various provisions added to the family splitting rule are the cause of a significant difference between the number of fiscal units according to the legislation based on the number of children and the actual number, particularly in low-income families. Marriage is only advantageous for married couples with one breadwinner....The increase in the rate of the new social tax...combined with the reduction in income tax has increased the tax burden for almost all households and this is detrimental to low-income families."
Correspondence: G. Calot, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 boulevard Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20604 Denton, Frank T.; Mountain, Dean C.; Spencer, Byron G. Fertility, age distribution, and the aggregate production function. QSEP Research Report, No. 310, Nov 1994. 32 pp. McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population: Hamilton, Canada. In Eng.
"Our purpose in this paper is to explore one important aspect of changes in age distribution, namely the way in which they alter input availability and output capacity, and hence average real income levels....We specify a multilevel aggregate production process, assign plausible values to its parameters, and obtain steady-state solutions under a range of alternative fertility assumptions. The central issue can be put as follows: Abstracting from all other considerations, does an economy with an 'old' or a 'young' population have a markedly different capacity for generating output and income per capita than one with a less extreme age distribution?" The geographical focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20605 Ermisch, John F. Impact of low fertility on family income and investment. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 214-30 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"It has been shown that the relationships among fertility, family income and investments in children and other assets are complex, making simple associations misleading. Studies which have attempted to measure the impact of exogenous variation in fertility suggest that lower fertility leads to a modest increase in parental human capital investment in children, and to substantial increases in family income and asset accumulation by raising women's labour force participation and their earnings." The geographical focus is on Asia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20606 Li, Wei. Human resources development and poverty alleviation: a study of 23 poor counties in China. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep 1994. 3-18 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"In recent years, poverty has become a serious issue in the socioeconomic development of China. One of the most important features of poverty is 'poor population quality', a factor that also causes poverty. Human resources development (HRD) strategies have been used as a weapon against poverty in many developing countries; some have proven to be quite effective. This article, which researches the relationship between HRD indicators and poverty status, finds that enhancement of education levels, improvement of health status, the gaining of skills and experience, increasing time away from home and choosing suitable occupations, all can contribute greatly to the reduction and alleviation of poverty."
Correspondence: W. Li, Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Demography Program, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20607 Nelissen, Jan H. M. Lifetime income redistribution by social security. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1995. 89-105 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper discusses the redistributive impact of the Dutch social security system on lifetime basis. Net benefits appear to be positive for the birth generations up to 1960. Social insurances show a declining net benefit, whereas for occupational pensions the reverse holds. It is generally assumed that flat-rated social security schemes are more redistributive ones than wage-related schemes. However, the Dutch social security system shows that on a lifetime basis the redistributive impact of flat-rated general insurances does not necessarily largely differ from the wage-related employee insurances. Social assistance schemes result in a very large income redistribution in view of the small amounts involved. Social insurances and social assistance schemes have an income equalizing effect. On the contrary, occupational pensions increase income inequality."
Correspondence: J. H. M. Nelissen, Tilburg University, Department of Social Security Studies, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20608 Razin, Assaf; Yuen, Chi-Wa. Utilitarian tradeoff between population growth and income growth. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1995. 81-7 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"This paper extends the comparison of classical and average utilitarianism from a static to a dynamic and endogenously growing economy. Using a stylised endogenous growth framework, it confirms that the Benthamite population growth rate exceeds the Millian growth rate. In terms of the rate of growth of per capita income, the reverse is true. Having the standard of living often increasing under the Benthamite criterion, our results thereby depart significantly from 'the repugnant conclusion' levelled against classical utilitarianism."
Correspondence: C.-W. Yuen, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Department of Economics, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20609 Stolzenberg, Ross M.; Tienda, Marta. English proficiency, education and the conditional economic assimilation of Hispanic and Asian origin men. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 94-7, Jul 1994. 28, [6] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"We consider the hypothesis that earnings of Asian and white Hispanic men follow a pattern called conditional economic assimilation: white Hispanic and Asian men who do not speak English well and who have little schooling tend to earn less money than white nonHispanic men who also do not speak English well and who also have little schooling, but Asians and white Hispanics who are fluent in English and have completed high school tend to earn about as much as nonHispanic whites with similar schooling and English fluency....A mathematical model indicates that conditional assimilation is produced by higher rates of return to English language fluency and schooling for Asians and white Hispanics than for white nonHispanics. Analyses of 1980 U.S. Census Public Use Microdata Samples dramatically support that model. We also consider theoretical differences between race and ethnicity, and differences between the mechanisms which produce race and ethnicity effects on minority earnings."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20610 Tawanda, Michael. Children's gender composition and intergenerational wealth flows: a case study of Senegal using 1986 Senegal DHS data. Population Studies Program Demographic Working Paper, No. DWP/004/94, [1994]. 32 pp. University of Zimbabwe, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Program: Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
"In this study, we utilize 1986 Demographic Health Survey data for Senegal, to examine the proposition that children's gender composition has independent effects on the flow of wealth from children to parents....The results provide moderate support for the hypothesis that households with a masculine children's gender composition have higher living standards than households with a feminine children's gender composition."
Correspondence: University of Zimbabwe, Department of Sociology, Population Studies Program, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20611 Tienda, Marta; Hsueh, Sheri. Earnings consequences of employment instability among minority men. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 94-11, Jun 1994. 41, [8] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes the 1986 and 1987 Panels of the [U.S.] Survey of Income and Program Participation to evaluate the influence on monthly earnings of employment instability and underemployment. We hypothesize that observed race and ethnic differences in earnings reflect the operation of two mechanisms: (1) a sorting mechanism, whereby minority men are at greater risk of experiencing labor force instability or protracted inactivity during a given year; and (2) a discrimination mechanism, reflected in unequal earnings among men whose annual labor force experiences are similar. On the sorting mechanism we find that, relative to white men, black men were more likely to experience protracted labor force inactivity while Hispanic men were more likely to experience unstable employment activity. On the discrimination mechanism, we find large effects of utilization states on monthly earnings for both stably and unstably employed men and more pronounced race and ethnic effects on earnings for stably employed compared to unstably employed men."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20612 Tienda, Marta; Singer, Audrey. Wage mobility of undocumented workers in the United States. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 94-9, Jul 1994. 30, [16] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This study addresses two fundamental questions about the economic assimilation of undocumented immigrants in the United States: 1) How different are recently legalized immigrants from all foreign-born persons and native-born whites?; and 2) Do wages of undocumented immigrants improve as they acquire greater amounts of U.S. experience, and if so, are these improvements comparable to those of immigrants in general? We analyze the Legalized Population Survey and the Current Population Survey to assess the returns to U.S. experience and find positive returns to U.S. experience for both undocumented migrants and all foreign-born men. Returns to U.S. experience depend on region of origin."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20613 Vijverberg, Wim P. M.; Zeager, Lester A. Comparing earnings profiles in urban areas of an LDC: rural-to-urban migrants vs. native workers. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 45, No. 2, Dec 1994. 177-99 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"We use Tanzanian data to test a recently proposed hypothesis that rural-to-urban migrants have an incentive to supply greater work effort than native urban workers, because of the migrants' positive probability of returning to the low-wage rural areas. We treat the choice between public- and private-sector employment as endogenous and, for theoretical and empirical reasons, distinguish migrants with access to rural land from those without access. Our results show that migrants in both sectors face lower initial wage offers than native urban workers. But, the wage gap is eliminated within a decade or less, and thereafter, migrants surpass the wage offers of native workers."
Correspondence: W. P. M. Vijverberg, University of Texas at Dallas, School of Social Sciences, Richardson, TX 75083-0688. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

61:20614 Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf; Zweimuller, Josef. Immigration and the earnings of young native workers. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 936, Apr 1994. [iv], 33 pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
The impact of foreigners on the earnings of young native workers is explored using data for Austria for the period 1972-1992. "The results show no negative impact of foreign labour on young natives' earnings levels either in a regional or sectoral respect and at the firm level. The results for earnings growth in the period 1988-91 are mixed. For job changers a rise in the share of foreign workers tends to be positive, whereas for workers staying with the same firm we find significant negative effects."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20615 Wright, Robert E. Household structure and poverty. Genus, Vol. 50, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1994. 133-50 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper proposes a method for controlling for compositional factors in the measurement of poverty. The method is based on the notion of 'direct standardisation', used extensively in the field of demography....With this class of standardised measures, it [is] possible to examine underlying differences in poverty while controlling for compositional factors known to be correlated with the incidence and intensity of poverty. The method is illustrated by examining the relationship between household structure and poverty in seven European countries: France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland and Great Britain. The data are centered around 1985 and form part of the Luxembourg Income Study."
Correspondence: R. E. Wright, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.4. Social Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations according to literacy and educational attainment, cultural background, religious affiliation, residential characteristics and segregation, and the like. Studies on social mobility are also coded under this heading.

61:20616 Bootsma, Hans G. The influence of a work oriented lifestyle on residential location choice of couples. PDOD Paper, No. 28, Nov 1994. 16 pp. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Postdoctorale Onderzoekersopleiding Demografie [PDOD]: Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper the hypothesis has been tested that by studying attitudes on female labour force participation a better basis for explaining residential choice of couples is derived....An important idea...is that those couples [for whom] paid labour of women is regarded as important and not subordinate to the work of the husband or to unpaid labour, are choosing an urban residential location." Data are from surveys conducted in the Netherlands.
Correspondence: H. G. Bootsma, University of Amsterdam, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, Department of Planning and Demography, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20617 Dorling, D. Visualizing changing social structure from a census. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 27, No. 3, Mar 1995. 353-78 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper it is shown how new visualization techniques are being used to analyze the first results of the British 1991 Census and other large data sets." The focus is on new ways to show how localities develop over time. The author suggests that this cannot be done effectively using traditional quantitative techniques. "Pictures are needed to show how different processes occur in different places, and holistic patterns need also to be seen without generalizing out the detail. Neither traditional thematic mapping nor commercial geographic information systems can do this well. Spatial visualization is an alternative approach in which the researchers choose what they wish to see and how they wish to view it. Many problems require new methods of visualization for their exploration. A new census presents us not only with new statistics, but also with the opportunity and impetus to develop radically different ways of envisioning information to reveal more fully the human facts contained within a mass of social statistics."
Correspondence: D. Dorling, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Department of Geography, Daysh Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20618 Klepinger, Daniel H.; Lundberg, Shelly; Plotnick, Robert D. Adolescent fertility and the educational attainment of young women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 27, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1995. 23-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors investigate the relationship between adolescent childbearing and educational attainment in the United States. "Analyses based on a sample of 2,795 women interviewed annually from 1979 through 1991 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show that early childbearing lowers the educational attainment of young women. After controls for an extensive set of personal and community characteristics are taken into account, having a child before age 20 significantly reduces schooling attained by almost three years among whites, blacks and Hispanics. Having a child before age 18 has a significant effect only among blacks, reducing years of schooling by 1.2 years."
Correspondence: D. H. Klepinger, Battelle Institute, Human Affairs Research Center, 4000 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20619 Lillard, Lee A.; Willis, Robert J. Intergenerational educational mobility: effects of family and state in Malaysia. Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 29, No. 4, Fall 1994. 1,126-66 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"In this paper we explore evidence concerning the relationship between parents' and children's education using a new body of data, the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS-2), which contains information on the education of as many as four generations within a given family. These data allow us to study the spread of education in Malaysia over much of this century by examining the educational attainment of birth cohorts from 1910 to 1980. More significantly, we use these data to study the effects of parental education on the progress of their children through elementary, secondary, and post-secondary school within a sequential discrete-time hazard model which allows for correlations among unmeasured family and individual-specific components."
Correspondence: L. A. Lillard, RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20620 Macourt, M. P. A. Using census data: religion as a key variable in studies of Northern Ireland. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 27, No. 4, Apr 1995. 593-614 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"For the first time since a question on religion was first included in the Census of Population (in 1861), the recently published results of the 1991 Census show that less than half of the population of Northern Ireland declared themselves as belonging to a Protestant Christian denomination. Discussions surrounding the future political and constitutional arrangements for Northern Ireland frequently include evidence adduced about the relative size of the two 'tribes' widely identified by the labels 'Protestant' and 'Catholic'. The major source of that evidence comes from the question on religion contained in the Northern Ireland Census, and this paper is concerned with the nature and use of that data. The legitimacy of certain uses of the data is questioned; the reliability of the data is considered; and certain tentative findings are presented based on the data published in the (hard copy) reports."
Correspondence: M. P. A. Macourt, University of Northumbria, Faculty of Social Science, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20621 Parish, William L.; Zhe, Xiaoye. Education and work in rural China: opportunities for men and women. Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series, No. 95-5, Feb 1995. 14, [9] pp. University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center [NORC], Population Research Center: Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The economic reforms in the Chinese countryside since 1978...provide a major natural experiment in the social and economic consequences of the transition from planned to market systems. This paper provides a beginning assessment of some of those changes with new 1993 data on rural China. Our emphasis is on changing [educational] opportunities for men and women and the ways in which this education produces human capital that leads to significant new work and income rewards."
Correspondence: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, Population Research Center, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20622 Pong, Suet-Ling. Educational policy outcomes and intentions in Malaysia. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 95-03, Feb 1995. 22, [6] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"This paper shows the outcomes of education policies in Malaysia that were intended to affect the educational inequality between the country's three ethnic groups. Using data from the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey, it can be seen that these policies increased educational attainment for all three groups. At the same time, these policies reversed previous ethnic stratification in education by sponsoring Malays' upward mobility."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20623 Silverstein, Merril. Stability and change in temporal distance between the elderly and their children. Demography, Vol. 32, No. 1, Feb 1995. 29-45 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Drawing on a developmental model of late-life migration, this paper investigates how older people's health and social characteristics influence stability and change in their temporal distance from their children. Data from the [U.S.] Longitudinal Study of Aging are used to examine both discrete transitions and continuous change in distance over a four-year period. Decline in older parents' physical health increased the propensity of parents and children to become temporally closer to each other. Among those parent-child pairs who had become closer, the conjunction of declining health and widowhood increased both the degree of non-coresident proximity and the likelihood of transition to coresidence. The findings portray a geographically resilient family that adjusts to the changing needs of its older members."
Correspondence: M. Silverstein, University of Southern California, Andrus Gerontology Center, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0191. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

J.5. Ethnic Characteristics

Descriptive studies of populations on the basis of race, ethnic group, language, and national origin.

61:20624 Abrahamse, Allan F.; Morrison, Peter A.; Bolton, Nancy M. Surname analysis for estimating local concentration of Hispanics and Asians. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1994. 383-98 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Surname analysis is a potentially useful technique for identifying members of particular racial, ethnic, or language communities within a population. We review the existing state of the art for identifying persons of Hispanic or Asian origin [in the United States], based on surnames distinctive of each group. We describe the logic of surname analysis, profile several available surname dictionaries, and illustrate their applications in local redistricting. Results of our ongoing validation studies suggest promising future directions for improving accuracy and broadening applications."
This article is based on a paper presented at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: P. A. Morrison, RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20625 Bennett, Claudette E. The black population in the United States: March 1994 and 1993. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 480, Jan 1995. vi, 137, [36] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents a statistical portrait of the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of [U.S.] Blacks based primarily on the March 1993 and 1994 Supplements to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Data from other supplements to the CPS, the Survey of Income Program and Participation, and the decennial census also are included. Topics covered included population growth and geographic distribution, marital status, family type and composition, educational attainment, employment, unemployment, occupational distribution, family income, earnings, poverty status, and the tenure of householders."
Correspondence: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20626 Bonvalet, Catherine; Carpenter, Juliet; White, Paul. The residential mobility of ethnic minorities: a longitudinal analysis. Urban Studies, Vol. 32, No. 1, Feb 1995. 87-103 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
This study examines alternative approaches to the study of ethnic minorities in urban settings other than the use of data from population censuses, particularly a method that uses individuals instead of geographic areas as the unit of research. "This possibility exists for the study of ethnic minority residential mobility in the Paris region through the secondary analysis of a major survey carried out in 1986 by the French National Demographic Research Institute (INED). The results of such an analysis lead to a questioning of certain established ideas on the importance of the inner city for residence, but provide confirmation of higher-than-average mobility rates."
Correspondence: C. Bonvalet, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20627 Dragunskii, Denis V. Imposed ethnicity. Russian Social Science Review, Vol. 36, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1995. 71-82 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
Some issues concerning ethnicity in the Soviet Union and its successor states are explored, with reference to the rules concerning the allocation of individuals to specific ethnic groups and how those rules have changed over time. Particular attention is given to the changing situation in post-Soviet Russia. The author concludes that "ethnic divergence and the associated phenomenon of 'imposed ethnicity' will continue to have an influence on the political situation in Russia for a long time to come."
Translated from the Russian article by Polis in Politicheskie Issledovaniya, 1993, No. 5, pp. 24-30.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20628 Gladney, Dru C. China's ethnic reawakening. Asia Pacific Issues, No. 18, Jan 1995. 8 pp. East-West Center: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The author discusses the recent increase in the number of groups seeking minority status in China, with a focus on the cultural differences among them. "These differences may increase under economic pressures such as inflation, the growing gap between rich and poor areas, and the migration of millions of people from poorer provinces to those with jobs. Chinese society is also under pressure from the officially recognized minorities such as Uygurs and Tibetans. For centuries, China has held together a vast multicultural and multiethnic nation despite alternating periods of political centralization and fragmentation. But cultural and linguistic cleavages could worsen in a China weakened by internal strife, inflation, uneven growth, or a post-Deng struggle for succession."
Correspondence: East-West Center, Office of Public Programs, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20629 Hirst, John. National pride and multiculturalism. People and Place, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1994. 1-6 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
The author traces trends in attitudes toward ethnic assimilation and multiculturalism in Australia. "'Hard multiculturalism' was promoted by the left-liberal intelligentsia. It valued separate ethnic cultures and denigrated mainstream Australia. It is now being supplanted by 'soft multiculturalism' which values tolerance, acceptance and inclusion, values that have long been central to mainstream Australia."
Correspondence: J. Hirst, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20630 McDaniel, Antonio. The dynamic racial composition of the United States. Daedalus, Vol. 124, No. 1, Winter 1995. 179-98 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This study examines actual and projected changes in the racial composition of the U.S. population over the period 1810-2050. The author notes that "projections show that over the next sixty years the U.S. population will grow more slowly than ever before and the racial distribution will change dramatically. Non-whites and Hispanics are projected to dominate future population growth." The focus of the study is on how these changes affect race relations in the United States.
Correspondence: A. McDaniel, University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20631 Min, Pyong-Gap; Kolodny, Andrew. The middleman minority characteristics of Korean immigrants in the United States. Korea Journal of Population and Development, Vol. 23, No. 2, Dec 1994. 179-202 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper examines the middleman minority characteristics of Korean immigrants in the United States. Like middleman groups in other societies, Korean immigrants in the United States are heavily concentrated in small business. A large proportion of Korean-owned businesses distribute merchandise to minority customers on behalf of large corporations. Korean merchants, like other middleman groups, maintain strong ethnic cohesion, which facilitates their commercial activities....We conclude that Korean immigrants in the United States exhibit middleman minority characteristics."
Correspondence: P.-G. Min, City University of New York, Queens College, Department of Sociology, 65-30 Kissena Boulevard, Flushing, NY 11367. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20632 Owen, David. Spatial variations in ethnic minority group populations in Great Britain. Population Trends, No. 78, Winter 1994. 23-33 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article is concerned with contrasts in the geographical distribution of people from the white and ethnic minority groups within Great Britain. It begins by describing regional variations in ethnic composition and maps the distribution of ethnic minority groups at the local authority district scale. The article then demonstrates that most people from the white ethnic group live in wards with very small populations from ethnic minority groups, while people from ethnic minority groups tend to be found where the share of minorities in the resident population is relatively high. The focus then switches to the neighbourhood (enumeration district) scale, at which a very marked degree of spatial segregation in the distribution of ethnic groups is revealed."
Correspondence: D. Owen, University of Warwick, Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, Coventry CV4 7AL, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20633 Rao, N. Madhusudana. Ethnogenesis of a "visible minority"--Asian Indians in the U.S. Population Review, Vol. 38, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1994. 46-64 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
"This paper has three objectives: to examine within a particular spatial context fusion and fission processes among Asian Indians [in the United States]; to examine the significance of the deterring elements like language, religion and regional origins of ethnic Indians; and to develop a theoretical framework to examine the ethnogenic processes among Asian Indians in the U.S."
Correspondence: N. M. Rao, Bridgewater State College, Earth Sciences and Geography, Bridgewater, MA 02325. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20634 Rees, P.; Phillips, D.; Medway, D. The socioeconomic geography of ethnic groups in two northern British cities. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 27, No. 4, Apr 1995. 557-91 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"For the first time the 1991 British Census has not only provided data on ethnicity but has also cross-classified ethnic status by a variety of socioeconomic indicators. This paper is an exploration of the patterns revealed by these new data." The focus is on a comparative analysis of six ethnic groups living in the northern cities of Bradford and Leeds with regard to 30 demographic, household, employment, education, social class, and housing and consumption indicators. A picture of the relative situation of advantage and disadvantage among the ethnic groups considered is revealed.
Correspondence: P. Rees, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20635 Sanguin, Andre-Louis. Ethnic minorities in Europe. [Les minorites ethniques en Europe.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1994. 279-372 pp. Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, UFR de Geographie: Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This special issue contains nine articles on ethnic minorities in Europe. Articles are included on the geographical classification of ethnic minorities, and on ethnic minorities in Bulgaria, Slovenia, Austria, Poland, Italy, and Switzerland, as well as on Gypsies in Europe as a whole.
Correspondence: Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Lille, UFR de Geographie, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20636 Tas, R. F. J. Non-Dutch nationals in the Netherlands on January 1, 1994. [Niet-Nederlanders op 1 januari 1994.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 42, No. 12, Dec 1994. 9-21 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"On 1 January 1994, 780 thousand non-Dutch nationals lived in the Netherlands, i.e. 5.1% of the total population. These figures only relate to people in Dutch municipal population registers who do not possess the Dutch nationality, thus excluding Dutch citizens born elsewhere." Data are provided on nationality, population growth, region of residence, immigration, motivation for migration, asylum seekers, marriage patterns, and non-Dutch nationals obtaining Dutch nationality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20637 Tolts, Mark. Changes in the composition of the Jewish population of the USSR: aging and the marriage market. [Shinuyim be-herkev ha-ukhlusiya ha-yehudit be-Brit ha-Moatsot: hizdaknut ve-shuk ha-nisuin.] Yahadut Zemanenu/Contemporary Jewry, Vol. 9, 1994. 243-58 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Heb; Eng.
"This article investigates the composition of the Jewish population of the USSR by age and sex as the consequence, and simultaneously a determinant, of demographic dynamics in the period after the Second World War." Separate consideration is given to the aging of the Jewish population and to marriage patterns, and to their impact on the decrease in the size of this population.
Correspondence: M. Tolts, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Division of Jewish Demography and Statistics, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20638 Zvidrins, Peteris. Changes of ethnic composition in the Baltic States. Nationalities Papers, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1994. 365-77 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this article is to analyze changes in the ethnic structure in the Baltics. The publication of the results of the 1989 Census data allows one to analyze the dynamics of ethnic structure in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania since the 1920s." The author notes that "as a result of significant changes in all demographic processes in the 90s, the proportion of the titular nationalities in all three Baltic States has increased for the first time, while the proportion of Slavs, particularly of Russians, decreased."
Correspondence: P. Zvidrins, University of Latvia, 19 Rainis Boulevard, 1098 Riga, Latvia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

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