Volume 61 - Number 2 - Summer 1995

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

61:20449 Baccaini, Brigitte. Migratory behavior and life cycles. [Comportements migratoires et cycles de vie.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1994. 61-74 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Migratory behaviours of individuals, described by mobility level and distances covered, vary strongly with age and according to historical background. In fact, such variation with age is the expression of more complex relations between mobility and family or professional life-cycle. Individual and longitudinal data produced by surveys as the INED's 'Triple Biographie' survey [in France] allow us to give prominence to these interactions."
Correspondence: B. Baccaini, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20450 De Jong, Gordon F. Choice processes in migration intentions and behavior. Population Research Institute Working Paper, No. 95-04, Jul 1994. 43, [3] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Choice behavior in migration, it is argued, centers on the intentions-behavior relationship which is fundamental to understanding migration decision-making. Placing this relationship in the context of a proposed basic model of migration decision-making is the strategy used in this paper to elaborate our understanding of why people move." Empirical evidence is provided from studies on the United States, Thailand, the Philippines, and Kenya.
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20451 Di Comite, Luigi. The demographic transition and migration. [Transizione demografica e fenomeni migratori.] Rassegna Economica, Vol. 58, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1994. 341-54 pp. Naples, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
The author suggests that the main factors influencing current global migration trends are the differences between the rich and demographically stagnant developed countries and the developing world, which is experiencing both poverty and rapid population growth. "In this paper, the author provides a demographic interpretation of the above phenomenon, stressing that the different degree of population growth, being interpreted as a demographic transition, has contributed, is contributing and will contribute, at least in the near future, to determine such migratory flows and, consequently, a progressive dissemination of third-country nationals in EC member countries."
Correspondence: L. Di Comite, Universita degli Studi di Bari, Palazzo Ateneo, 70121 Bari, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20452 Faini, Riccardo; Venturini, Alessandra. Migration and growth: the experience of southern Europe. CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 964, May 1994. [iv], 29, [4] pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research [CEPR]: London, England. In Eng.
The links between migration and economic growth are explored in the context of southern Europe over the period 1962-1988. The authors argue that an increase in wages in poor sending countries will have a positive impact in the propensity to migrate, whereas the same increase in receiving countries will tend to decrease migration. "We predict, therefore, a steady decline in the propensity to migrate from South European countries. Similarly, our results highlight the possibility that the pressure to migrate from North African countries and other developing countries may increase with further growth."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 25-28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20453 Friesen, Wardlow. Circulation, urbanisation and the youth boom in island Melanesia. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1994. 225-36 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Recent censuses have shown that fertility rates are declining in high fertility Melanesian countries such as Vanuatu and Solomon Islands. However, the population will continue to grow for some time, especially the youth cohorts. This 'youth boom' is of considerable concern at a time when pressure on educational and other services is already high, and when potential new entrants in the wage labour force far outnumber the new jobs available. The young, especially males, have always had a high level of involvement in population circulation, and this process is likely to concentrate potential problems in urban areas in the future. This paper considers the relationship between population and mobility in the countries of Island Melanesia: Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia."
Correspondence: W. Friesen, University of Auckland, Department of Geography, 10 Symonds Street, Auckland 1, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20454 Hugo, Graeme. Migration and the family. United Nations Occasional Papers Series, No. 12, 1994. iii, 37 pp. UN Secretariat: Vienna, Austria. In Eng.
"The present paper explores some aspects of the role of the family in population movement as well as the influence of migration upon changing patterns of family structure and functioning....Most attention is placed upon developing countries, especially in Asia...."
Correspondence: United Nations Secretariat, Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20455 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The Third Migration Survey, 1991. Institute of Population Problems Survey Series, No. 6, Aug 31, 1993. 300 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Results are presented from the Third Migration Survey carried out in Japan in 1991.
Correspondence: Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20456 Korcelli, Piotr. On interrelations between internal and international migration. Innovation, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1994. 151-63 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Eng.
"International migration represents just one type of spatial population mobility, along with inter-regional, rural-urban, or intra-urban migration. The possible connections among various forms of migration are, however, only rarely traced in the professional literature on the political and social determinants as well as consequences of international migration. Against this background, an attempt is made in the present paper to identify possible associations between internal and international migration in the case of Poland."
Correspondence: P. Korcelli, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20457 Lim, Lin Lean; Abella, Manolo. The movement of people in Asia: internal, intra-regional and international migration. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2-3, 1994. 209-50 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The comprehensive overview of Asian-Pacific migration summarizes early population movements during the colonial period and describes the major types of contemporary Asian population movements: (1) environmental refugees, (2) political refugees, (3) internal population movements, (4) contract labor migration, (5) migration of permanent settlers, (6) business related movements and tourism. Projections of net international migration are given. Population growth, employment absorption and emigration pressures are likely to contribute to a large mobility potential for Asia, with significant implications for Australia."
Correspondence: L. L. Lim, International Labour Organisation, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20458 Mitchneck, Beth; Plane, David. Migration patterns during a period of political and economic shocks in the former Soviet Union: a case study of Yaroslavl' Oblast. Professional Geographer, Vol. 47, No. 1, Feb 1995. 17-30 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines migration in Russia during the period that preceded the breakup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) and during the current transition period....A regional case study of migration in Yaroslavl' Oblast from 1989 through 1992 is used to examine the relevance of expected outcomes given standard theories of migration, empirical regularities found in capitalist economies, and past trends in the FSU. The data clearly show a migration system undergoing political and economic shocks. A significant decline of the volume of flows and a relative increase in the importance of interrepublic movement indicate disruptions. Increased relative mobility for those in the later years of the working-age population and increased importance of urban-to-rural migration flows are also important changes evident in this migration system undergoing shock."
Correspondence: B. Mitchneck, University of Arizona, Department of Geography and Regional Development, Hervill Building, Box 2, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (SG).

61:20459 Ruthven, Orlanda; David, Rosalind. Benefits and burdens: researching the consequences of migration in the Sahel. IDS Bulletin, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan 1995. 47-53 pp. Brighton, England. In Eng.
The consequences of rural out-migration for women and natural resource management are analyzed for four locations in the Sahel region of Africa, located in Burkina Faso, Senegal, Sudan, and Mali. The results show that "the impact of migration on women's management of natural resources varies considerably depending on prevailing gender divisions and relations of labour, of land access and control, and of responsibilities towards family and personal production."
Correspondence: O. Ruthven, SOS Sahel, 1 Tolpuddle Street, London N1 OXT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20460 Shields, Michael P. Time, hedonic migration, and household production. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 35, No. 1, Feb 1995. 117-34 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A hedonic migration model is developed where regional amenities are viewed as influencing household production within the framework of the new demand theory. The inputs to household production are goods, time and housing. It is shown that economic growth in the economy as a whole will increase the relative attractiveness of regions that are relatively time-saving, in the sense that they have a lower time elasticity of household production. Hence, migration will flow into time saving regions and housing costs in those regions will rise as real GDP grows." The implied geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: M. P. Shields, Central Michigan University, Department of Economics, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20461 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA] (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). Patterns, causes and consequences for development planning of female migration in selected ECA member states. No. ECA/POP/TP/94/3(b)/2, Dec 1994. iii, 90 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Eng.
"This paper focuses on the patterns, trends, causes and consequences of female migration in Africa, by presenting a general review as well as a case study of Lesotho, Namibia and Zimbabwe." Both the determinants of female migration and its consequences are analyzed. The report suggests that marriage is the primary reason for female migration, and that the economic consequences of such migration are largely negative.
Correspondence: UN Economic Commission for Africa, P.O. Box 3001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

61:20462 Abella, Manolo I. International migration as a solution to labour shortage in low fertility countries. In: Low fertility in East and Southeast Asia: issues and policies. Aug 1994. 183-200 pp. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs [KIHASA]: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This chapter considers the situation of Japan and the Asian Newly Industrialised Countries (NICs) which in the late 1980s became net receivers of migrants to help overcome persistent labour shortages. The dimensions of labour shortages and of labour migration are examined." Sections are included on immigration policies of labor-short countries in Asia; the impact of declining fertility on the labor force; the initial expansionary effect of fertility decline; female labor force participation; the aging of the work force; dimensions and causes of labor shortage; new migration flows within East and Southeast Asia; and immigration as a tool for economic adjustments.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20463 Asch, Beth J.; Reichmann, Courtland. Emigration and its effects on the sending country. ISBN 0-8330-1485-4. LC 93-42320. 1994. xix, 210 pp. RAND: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
This report focuses on the economic impact of contemporary international migration on the sending countries. It is based on a review of the published literature, and case studies undertaken in the Philippines, Ireland, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. "Based on the findings of the studies, we cautiously conclude...that emigration generally has a positive net effect on the country of origin. The large flows of remittances that raise the standard of living of emigrant families and improve the country's trade balance, the reduced unemployment and higher wages, and the income derived from ethnic tourism appear to outweigh the negative effects."
Correspondence: RAND, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20464 Awasthi, S. P.; Chandra, Ashoka. Migration from India to Australia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2-3, 1994. 393-409 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The article examines the contemporary trends and future prospects of migration from India to Australia. The focus is on Indian Settlers and Temporary Entrants admitted to Australia for employment and Indian students admitted to Australia for higher studies. The volume of emigration for permanent residence during the early 1990s has made India one of the leading source countries of migration to Australia. A majority of Indians admitted as Settlers every year join the labor force. Recent data indicate that, among Indian Settlers, there is a preponderance of unsponsored Independent Skilled Migrants. Given the anticipated growth in the number of Indian students, the coming years are likely to witness a spurt in Skilled Temporary Workers from India."
Correspondence: S. P. Awasthi, Institute of Applied Manpower Research, Indraprastha Estate, Ring Road, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20465 Bedford, Richard. Pacific Islanders in New Zealand. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1994. 187-200 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper is about New Zealand's population of Pacific Islanders in the early 1990s....The first section outlines briefly the sources of data on international migration and immigrant populations in New Zealand. The second section describes changes in patterns of migration between Pacific Island countries and New Zealand between April 1986 and March 1994. The third section focuses on the populations of Pacific Island ethnic descent resident in New Zealand at the time of the Census of Population and Dwellings in March 1991."
Correspondence: R. Bedford, University of Waikato, Department of Geography, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20466 Brym, Robert J. The emigration potential of Jews in the former Soviet Union. East European Jewish Affairs, Vol. 23, No. 2, Winter 1993. 9-24 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Results are presented from a 1993 survey conducted in Moscow, Kiev, and Minsk, involving 1,000 Jews and their potential for emigration. The results indicate that, although nearly all Jews would emigrate if conditions worsened significantly, 57% of those interviewed did not currently plan to emigrate, 14% were undecided, and 29% planned to leave. Of those planning to leave, about half hoped to go to the United States, and only one-quarter planned to go to Israel.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20467 Campos, Jose E. L.; Lien, Donald. Political instability and illegal immigration. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1995. 23-33 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"Economic theory suggests that transnational migration results from the push-pull effect of wage differentials between host and source countries. In this paper, we argue that political instability exacerbates the migration flow, with greater instability leading to relatively larger flows. We conclude then that an optimal solution to the illegal immigration problem requires proper coordination of immigration and foreign policies by the host country. A narrow preoccupation with tougher immigration laws is wasteful and may be marginally effective." Emphasis is on the United States as a host country.
Correspondence: J. E. L. Campos, World Bank, Country Economics Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20468 Canada. Quebec (Province). Conseil des Communautes Culturelles et de l'Immigration (Quebec, Canada). Statistics: demography, immigration, and cultural communities in Quebec since 1871. 1993 edition. [Statistiques: demographie, immigration et communautes culturelles au Quebec depuis 1871. Edition 1993.] ISBN 2-550-29048-8. Apr 1994. iv, 109 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
This report presents a selection of tables and charts concerning the immigrant population in the Canadian province of Quebec. The first chapter presents general information on demography and migration in Quebec and Canada. The second chapter gives information on immigrant characteristics. The third chapter examines more specific aspects, such as linguistic characteristics of immigrants, the size of minority groups, spatial distribution, and religion of immigrants.
For a previous report for 1992, see 59:20548.
Correspondence: Conseil des Communautes Culturelles et de l'Immigration, C.P. 158, Tour de la Place-Victoria, Bureau 418, Montreal, Quebec H4Z 1C3, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20469 Castillo, Didimo. End of the borders? Undocumented migration from Mexico to the United States. [Fin de las fronteras? La migracion indocumentada de Mexico hacia Estados Unidos.] Problemas del Desarrollo, Vol. 24, Apr-Jun 1993. 95-119 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This is an analysis of trends in illegal labor migration between Mexico and the United States from 1924 to 1986. Data are primarily from the 1984 Encuesta a Trabajadores Indocumentados Devueltos de Estados Unidos, supplemented by more recent studies.
Correspondence: D. Castillo, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Ciencias Politicas y Sociales, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20470 de Beer, J.; Sprangers, A. H. Forecast of international migration, 1994-2010. [Migratieprognose 1994-2010.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 43, No. 2, Feb 1995. 13-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The estimated number of immigrants [in the Netherlands] for 1994 is 104 thousand, implying a decrease of some 15 thousand compared to the preceding year....There were approximately 79 thousand emigrants, a slight increase (4 thousand) compared to 1993. The resulting net migration decreased from 44 thousand persons in 1993 to 25 thousand persons in 1994. In 1995 a temporary increase of (net) immigration is expected, due to the increase of the number of asylum seekers in 1994....After 1995 projected net migration rapidly declines to 35 thousand."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20471 Drbohlav, Dusan. International migration in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the outlook for East Central Europe. Czech Sociological Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 1994. 89-106 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Eng.
This article "is devoted to the international migration issue in the Czech Republic and Slovakia (Czechoslovakia). Besides the contemporary trends, the international migration situation is briefly traced back to the communist era. The probable future scenario of international migration development--based especially on migration patterns that Western Europe has experienced--is also sketched, whilst mainly economic, social, political, demographic, psychological and geographical aspects are mentioned." Some consideration is also given to other countries in Eastern Europe. The different types of migration are analyzed, including illegal migration, labor migration, and refugees and asylum seekers.
Correspondence: D. Drbohlav, Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20472 Espenshade, Thomas J. Does the threat of border apprehension deter undocumented U.S. immigration? Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1994. 871-92, 922-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The study explores whether U.S. Border Patrol enforcement actively discourages undocumented migration at its source. Two models are compared. One includes such familiar determinants of undocumented migration as relative economic conditions between the United States and Mexico, the size of the Mexican young-adult population, and implementation of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. An alternative model relates the magnitude of undocumented migration to lagged monthly values of estimated apprehension probabilities, on the assumption that migrants form expectations about the apprehension risks they will face on the basis of experiences of other recent undocumented migrants. The study shows not only that both models have some explanatory power, but also that the influence of perceived risks of apprehension all but disappears when both sets of predictor variables are combined into a single model."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Princeton University, Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20473 Fassmann, Heinz; Munz, Rainer. European migration in the late twentieth century. Historical patterns, actual trends, and social implications. ISBN 1-85898-125-5. LC 94-21838. 1994. xiii, 287 pp. Edward Elgar: Brookfield, Vermont/Aldershot, England; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
"This book contains both quantitative and policy-related information on international migration within and to Europe. It focuses on the main sending and receiving countries in the second half of the twentieth century. Originally the chapters of the book were presented as papers at a workshop organized by the editors in March 1992 within the framework of a conference in Laxenburg, Austria, on Mass Migration in Europe." Following an introductory overview, Section 2 covers migration to and from Western Europe, and Section 3 concerns migration to and from east-central Europe.
Correspondence: Edward Elgar Publishing, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hants GU11 3HR, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20474 Findlay, Allan; Lelievre, Eva; Paddison, Ronan; Boyle, Mark. Skilled labour migration in the European context: Franco-British capital and skill transfers. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1994. 85-94 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"International skilled migration has been identified as an increasingly salient component of the internationalization of firms and the world-economy. This paper investigates how such transfers take place within firms operating in Europe, specifically of French firms with capital investments within the U.K. Using a channel approach, and focussing on movements of French skilled labour within the internal labour market of the firm, it is shown that the scale of such transfers varies between different types of enterprise. Several explanations are offered, some of which suggest that alternative methodological approaches to the channel framework may be necessary in order to understand the incidence of such international transfers."
Correspondence: A. Findlay, University of Glasgow, Department of Geography and Topographic Science, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20475 Flores, Carlos. The southern border and international migration from the perspective of NAFTA. [La frontera sur y las migraciones internacionales ante la perspectiva del Tratado de Libre Comercio.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 8, No. 2, May-Aug 1993. 361-76, 485 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Constitution of a trade bloc between Mexico, the United States and Canada through the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in this decade has called attention to...the role of Mexico's southern border, Central American conflicts and migrations from that era. Relevant adjustments have been made to Mexico's policy in approaching problems regarding its southern neighbors. These changes respond largely to the perception held by larger economic blocs and migration generated by unequal development levels within these regions and countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20476 Freeman, Gary P.; Jupp, James. Nations of immigrants: Australia, the United States, and international migration. ISBN 0-19-553483-2. 1992. xi, 250 pp. Oxford University Press: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
This is a collective work in which the immigration experiences and policies of Australia and the United States are compared. "The major issues considered by 17 Australian and American experts include the problems of controlling settlement; the economic impact of immigration; settlement policy and the experience of new arrivals; and the creation of pluralist, multicultural societies." The general conclusion of the studies presented is that "while both countries have gone through comparable phases of migration and have sought to limit prejudice and ease integration, differences in historical background, population diversity, state and internal social structures, and geographical size and proximity to other nations have made their immigration experiences vastly different."
Correspondence: Oxford University Press, 253 Normanby Road, South Melbourne, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20477 Funkhouser, Edward. Remittances from international migration: a comparison of El Salvador and Nicaragua. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 77, No. 1, Feb 1995. 137-46 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"I use household data from El Salvador and Nicaragua to examine the determinants of remittances from international migration. Nearly twice as many households in San Salvador, the capital of El Salvador, receive remittances from relatives abroad than do households in Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, and of those who receive remittances, the average remittances received in San Salvador is over double that in Managua--$119/month to $45/month....The difference is explained by differences in the behavioral coefficients and by differences in the self-selection bias of those who remit out of the pool of emigrants between the two countries."
Correspondence: E. Funkhouser, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20478 Giblin, Beatrice. Immigration and the nation: a geopolitcal problem. [L'immigration et la nation: un probleme geopolitique.] Herodote, Vol. 69-70, No. 2-3, 1993. 9-29 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Some of the problems associated with recent immigration in France are discussed. The author notes that immigration has brought populations of different nationalities closely into contact with each other, because some immigrant groups tend not to assimilate and to live in distinct locations, and family reunification has transformed temporary labor migration into permanent settlement. Immigration has thus developed into a geopolitical issue in France.
Correspondence: B. Giblin, Universite de Paris VIII, Centre de Geopolitique, 2 rue de la Liberte, 93526 St. Denis Cedex 02, France. Location: Stanford University Library, Stanford, CA.

61:20479 Glazer, Nathan. Immigration and the American future. Public Interest, No. 118, Winter 1995. 45-60 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a general review of current immigration to the United States and its consequences for the country's future. The author notes the changes in the ethnic composition of the population and considers the impact of changes in immigration policy. He also examines the environmental and cultural impact of immigration. He concludes that there is probably no practical alternative to continuing to allow approximately one million immigrants to enter the country each year.
Correspondence: N. Glazer, Public Interest, 1112 16th Street NW, Suite 530, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

61:20480 Gooneratne, Wilbert; Martin, Philip L.; Sazanami, Hidehiko. Regional development impacts of labour migration in Asia. UNCRD Research Report Series, No. 2, ISBN 4-906236-13-8. 1994. ix, 334 pp. United Nations Centre for Regional Development [UNCRD]: Nagoya, Japan. In Eng.
This report includes papers presented at a UNCRD-sponsored conference held in Nagoya, Japan, in November 1990, on aspects of labor migration in Asia. The focus is on the experiences of both sending countries, such as the Philippines, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, and South Korea, and on receiving countries, including Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Japan.
Correspondence: United Nations Centre for Regional Development, Nagono 1-47-1, Nakamura-ku, Nagoya 450, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20481 Guidi, Marta. Is migration really a survival strategy? The case of northern Oaxacan Mixteca. [Es realmente la migracion una estrategia de supervivencia? Un ejemplo en la Mixteca Alta Oaxaquena.] Revista Internacional de Sociologia, No. 5, May-Aug 1993. 89-109 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Since the 1950s more than 15 million Mexicans predominantly from the southern states of Guerrero and Oaxaca have...migrated to the United States. The article describes the patterns of migration in a Mixteco community of Oaxaca, where 90% of the men and a growing number of women migrate once a year to the United States for illegal seasonal work. The analysis of the causes and effects of migration focuses on the non-economic aspects of this phenomenon and emphasizes the ideological and social motives for migrating, especially those related to ethnic identity and to the establishment of indigenous communities in the Mexican Nation-State."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20482 Gunatilleke, Godfrey. The impact of labour migration on households: a comparative study in seven Asian countries. Pub. Order No. E.92.III.A.1. ISBN 92-808-0794-9. 1992. v, 313 pp. United Nations University Press: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This is the third and final volume in a series concerning Asian labor migration to the Arab world. "The central issue in the present study is the impact of labour migration at the household level. To assess household impact and determine the factors contributing to the success or failure of the household in coping with migration, in-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted with approximately 50 households in each of the 7 countries [Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand]. The success or failure of migration was evaluated against such criteria as (1) economic performance, (2) quality of life, (3) family adjustment, (4) intra-family relations, and (5) community relations."
For a previous volume in this series, published in 1991, see 59:20599.
Correspondence: United Nations University Press, Toho Seimei Building, 15-1 Shibuya 2-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20483 Hing, Bill O. Making and remaking Asian America through immigration policy, 1850-1990. Asian America, ISBN 0-8047-2118-1. LC 92-25507. 1993. xiv, 340 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
This study examines immigration to the United States from Asia, and the influence of changes in immigration policies on the demographic characteristics of this immigrant population. The focus is on six communities: Filipinos, Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Vietnamese, and Asian Indians. Particular attention is given to the impact of the changes in U.S. immigration law adopted in 1965, and to how Asian Americans have adapted to life in the United States.
Correspondence: Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20484 Hirschman, Charles. Problems and prospects of studying immigrant adaptation from the 1990 population census: from generational comparisons to the process of "becoming American" International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 4, Winter 1994. 690-713 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines alternative methods to measure the status of 'second-generation immigrants' with data from the 1990 [U.S.] Census of Population. The first method tests the assumption that the cross-classification of ethnic and race data with nativity can identify the native-born children of the new immigrants from Asia and Latin America....The second method is to examine the status of immigrants who arrived in the United States as children....This second method is illustrated with a comparison of the school enrollment rates of teenagers and the marriage patterns and the nonmarital fertility of young adults across more than 40 country-of-origin populations....This preliminary analysis shifts the analytical question from intergenerational change to the impact of 'becoming American' (length of exposure to American society). Although there is support for assimilation theory that predicts social and economic gains with longer exposure to American society, there is also substantial variation by country of origin and the type of socioeconomic outcome."
Correspondence: C. Hirschman, University of Washington, Department of Sociology, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20485 Ireland, Patrick R. The policy challenge of ethnic diversity: immigrant politics in France and Switzerland. ISBN 0-674-68375-7. LC 93-28583. 1994. xiv, 327 pp. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
The ways in which modern, economically advanced democracies are coping with increased levels of ethnic diversity and the presence of a significant immigrant population are explored. The emphasis is on how a democracy deals with members of society it does not view as citizens, and the role of immigrants in the politics of that society. The study focuses on the situation in France and Switzerland, and on how immigrant populations in those two countries "have supported a vibrant autonomous political life to fulfill their emotional, social, and welfare needs. And in contrast to the earlier, absorbed waves of immigrants, these more recent arrivals have given rise to an identifiable 'second generation' with its own, often quite different political demands and organizational traits."
Correspondence: Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20486 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Immigrant population from former USSR, 1990-1992: demographic trends. Central Bureau of Statistics Special Series, No. 990, Mar 1995. [xlix], 43, xxviii pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
Preliminary data are presented on demographic trends among Israeli immigrants from the former USSR. "Three kinds of data are presented: (a) based on components of growth of this population, estimates were compiled according to year of immigration, sex, age, marital status and geographical distribution. Population estimates presented here are for the end of 1990, 1991 and 1992, and as well the average population of these years; (b) data on population movements during three years of immigration to Israel, information began to accumulate on demographic movements of this population in Israel as regards fertility, mortality, marriage, divorce and migration....(c) an appendix presenting immigration rates by sex and age, based on the Jewish population data from the Census of population carried out in USSR (former) in the beginning of 1989."
Correspondence: Central Bureau of Statistics, Hakirya, Romema, Jerusalem 91130, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20487 Ito, Shoichi; Iguchi, Yasushi. Japanese direct investment and its impact on migration in the ASEAN 4. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2-3, 1994. 265-94 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to show the relationship among Japanese direct investment...,domestic labor markets, and international labor migration in ASEAN-4 countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand). The effects of foreign direct investment on skilled labor migration are also considered."
Correspondence: S. Ito, Osaka Prefectural University, Osaka, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20488 Jandl, Michael. Is migration supply--or demand--determined? Some remarks on the ideological use of economic language. International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1994. 467-76 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author briefly discusses debate on the question of "whether international migration is essentially 'supply-determined' or 'demand-determined'....In general, the supply school holds that there are any number of migrants willing to move (usually from poor to rich countries) irrespective of demand conditions in their destination countries, whereas the demand school claims that migration actually emerges out of specific demand conditions in prospective immigration countries....By explicitly applying economic concepts of supply and demand to migration analysis--restricting attention to the situation in receiving countries--migration can rarely be called supply--or demand--determined alone, but will usually depend on the interaction of these forces."
Correspondence: M. Jandl, International Centre for Migration Policy Development, Vienna, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20489 Jensen, Leif; Chitose, Yoshimi. Today's second generation: evidence from the 1990 U.S. census. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 4, Winter 1994. 714-35 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"The prospects for today's second generation will be considerably shaped by their current social, economic and demographic status. This article provides a statistical portrait of children of immigrants by analyzing data from the 1990 U.S. Census of Population and Housing. With the second generation defined as children under age 18 with at least one foreign-born parent, the study describes place of residence; household demographic, social and economic circumstances; household head's socioeconomic status; and characteristics of children themselves. Data on second-generation children are broken down by year of immigration of parents and child's nativity. Data for children with native-born parents are provided for comparison."
Correspondence: L. Jensen, Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6411. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20490 Kee, Pookong. Asia-Pacific migration to Australia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2-3, 1994. 203-509 pp. Scalabrini Migration Center: Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This special issue of the Asian and Pacific Migration Journal contains a selection of papers presented at the Conference on Asia-Pacific Migration Affecting Australia: Temporary, Long-Term and Permanent Movements of People held in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia on 14 to 17 September 1993....The aim of the conference was to promote the exchange of research findings and policy development experience concerning the movement of people across national boundaries. Although the main attention was on international migration that has affected the economy, society, culture and relations of countries in the region, a number of papers also considered the increasingly important flow of temporary labor, professionals, students, and tourists across national boundaries. The conference attempted to unravel the causes, processes, and consequences of these permanent, long-term, and short-term movements from the perspective of sending and receiving countries."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Scalabrini Migration Center, P.O. Box 10541, Broadway Centrum, 1113 Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20491 Kee, Pookong; Shu, Jing; Dang, Trevor; Khoo, Siew-Ean. People movements between Australia and Asian-Pacific nations: trends, issues and prospects. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2-3, 1994. 311-37 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article examines the growth and diversification of...permanent, long and short-term movements of people from Asia and the Pacific and the growth in immigrant and local-born Australians departing Australia to live and work in Asia. The occasional controversies surrounding the growth of Asian arrivals and Australia's current push to integrate with the booming Asian economies are examined. The article concludes with a general discussion of the economic, social, cultural, and international consequences of the two-way movements of people between Australia and its Asian and Pacific neighbors."
Correspondence: P. Kee, Victoria University of Technology, Centre for Asia-Pacific Studies, P.O. Box 14428, MMC, Melbourne, 3000 Victoria, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20492 Khoo, Siew-Ean; Kee, Pookong; Dang, Trevor; Shu, Jing. Asian immigrant settlement and adjustment in Australia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2-3, 1994. 339-72 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article provides a broad assessment of the settlement and adjustment of people born in the many countries of Asia who are resident in Australia, based on recently available data from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing. It examines some indicators of economic adjustment such as performance in the labor market, and some indicators of social adjustment, such as acquisition of English language proficiency."
Correspondence: S.-E. Khoo, Bureau of Immigration and Population Research, P.O. Box 659, South Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20493 Klusmeyer, Douglas B. Aliens, immigrants, and citizens: the politics of inclusion in the Federal Republic of Germany. Daedalus, Vol. 122, No. 3, Summer 1993. 81-114 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Some issues concerning the impact of immigration on Germany are examined. In particular, "this essay will examine the struggles that the Federal Republic has had in expanding its definition of civic membership to encompass the diversity in its society. It will focus on the development of the 'foreigner problem' in the Federal Republic from the end of World War II to the present."
Correspondence: D. B. Klusmeyer, University of Minnesota, Department of History, 267 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20494 Kultalahti, Olli. Internationalization and migration pressure. Siirtolaisuus/Migration, No. 3, 1994. 7-25 pp. Turku, Finland. In Eng.
The author first develops the concept of migration pressure, which is defined as the growth in the number of people wishing to migrate and the barriers preventing them from so doing. Both macro- and micro-level factors affecting migration pressure are identified. Historical trends in migration pressure in Finland are then discussed. The author then applies this concept to the analysis of current Finnish migration trends. The primary focus is on international migration.
Correspondence: O. Kultalahti, University of Tampere, Department of Regional Studies, P.O. Box 607, 33101 Tampere, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20495 Kultalahti, Olli. Recent emigration from Finland. In: Finlandska Samhallsgeografiska Forskningsperspektiv, edited by Bo Forsstrom, Monica Nyholm, and Jan-Ake Tornroos. Ekonomisk-Geografiska Institutionen, Serie A, No. 400, 1993. 170-85 pp. Abo Akademi, Ekonomisk-Statsvetenskapliga Fakulteten: Turku, Finland. In Eng.
Recent trends in international migration affecting Finland are analyzed over the period 1987-1991, with particular attention given to regional differences within Finland affecting emigration, and to the educational status of migrants. Attention is also given to return migration. The author notes that, over the course of the period studied, immigration levels exceeded emigration, and that the net gain to Finland was 26,000 migrants.
Correspondence: O. Kultalahti, University of Tampere, Department of Regional Studies, P.O. Box 607, 33101 Tampere, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20496 Lebon, Andre. The situation concerning immigration and the presence of foreigners in France, 1993-1994. [Situation de l'immigration et de la presence etrangere en France, 1993-1994.] ISBN 2-11-088543-2. Dec 1994. 139 pp. Ministere des Affaires Sociales, de la Sante et de la Ville, Direction de la Population et des Migrations: Paris, France. Distributed by La Documentation Francaise, 29-31 quai Voltaire, 75334 Paris Cedex 07, France. In Fre.
This is one in a series of annual reports on immigration in France. It presents data for 1993 and the first six months of 1994 on immigration. Chapters are included on reasons for immigration and naturalization, the characteristics of the resident foreign population, and on new legislation affecting migration adopted during this period. Extensive statistical data are included.
For a previous report for 1992-1993, see 60:20442.
Correspondence: Ministere des Affaires Sociales, de la Sante et de la Ville, Direction de la Population et des Migrations, 8 avenue de Segur, 75350 Paris 07 SP, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20497 Lukomskyj, Oleh; Struik, Andrew; Khoo, Siew-Ean. Longitudinal Study of Immigrants to Australia Project. People and Place, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1993. 6-13 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
The authors report on the Prototype Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia (PLSIA), which was begun in 1991. "Topics covered...include demographic and geographic characteristics, plus employment, education and housing, both in Australia and prior to migration. Other sections cover immigrants' experiences of government programs and services, health, welfare, income and internal migration. A special feature is the attention given to immigrants' expectations of life in Australia."
Correspondence: O. Lukomskyj, Bureau of Immigration Research, P.O. Box 25, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20498 Maani, S. A. Are young first and second generation immigrants at a disadvantage in the Australian labor market? International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 4, Winter 1994. 865-82 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the assimilation hypothesis for young adult first- and second-generation immigrants in Australia. Models of the total weeks of unemployment and the number of spells of unemployment are examined as indicators of relative labor market conditions. The study differs from earlier work by focusing on young first- and second-generation immigrants and by utilizing information over four consecutive years of the Australian Longitudinal Survey (ALS) data, a comprehensive data set compiled for 1985-1988. The results consistently indicate that even when controlling for qualifications, both first- and second-generation immigrants are at a disadvantage."
Correspondence: S. A. Maani, University of Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20499 Macura, Miroslav; Coleman, David. International migration: regional processes and responses. UN/ECE Economic Studies, No. 7, Pub. Order No. GV.E.94.0.25. ISBN 92-1-100688-0. 1994. xii, 200 pp. UN Economic Commission for Europe [ECE]: Geneva, Switzerland; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]: New York, New York. In Eng.
This volume contains papers presented at an informal expert group meeting on international migration held in Geneva, Switzerland, July 16-19, 1991. Papers are included on international migration as it affects receiving countries in Europe and North America; international migration in Latin America; labor migration in Asia; refugees in Asia; and international migration and its effects on sending countries in the Middle East.
Correspondence: United Nations, Sales Section, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20500 Massey, Douglas S.; Arango, Joaquin; Hugo, Graeme; Kouaouci, Ali; Pellegrino, Adela; Taylor, J. Edward. An evaluation of international migration theory: the North American case. Population and Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1994. 699-751, 921, 923 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The article reviews empirical studies of international migration within the North American migratory system in order to evaluate the various theories that seek to explain the initiation and perpetuation of international movement. The review uncovers significant support for all theories, suggesting that they constitute complementary rather than competing explanations of migration. One criticism is that far too much research is focused on Mexico, whose unique relationship to the United States may make it unrepresentative of broader patterns and trends in migration. After discussing salient gaps in the research record and outlining promising directions for future study, the article attempts to construct a comprehensive model for understanding immigration into North America."
Correspondence: D. S. Massey, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Sociology, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6299. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20501 Meissner, Doris M.; Hormats, Robert D.; Garrigues Walker, Antonio; Ogata, Shijuro. International migration challenges in a new era: policy perspectives and priorities for Europe, Japan, North America and the international community. Triangle Papers, No. 44, ISBN 0-930503-69-4. LC 93-30078. 1993. xvi, 116 pp. Trilateral Commission: New York, New York/Paris, France. In Eng.
This report is the product of a cooperative effort examining the implications of current international migration trends for developed countries. It includes chapters on international migration in general, Canada and the United States, the European Community, Japan, and the refugee situation. It concludes with a framework for migration policy in the receiving countries.
Correspondence: Trilateral Commission, 345 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20502 Menjivar, Cecilia. Salvadorian migration to the United States in the 1980s: what can we learn about it and from it? International Migration, Vol. 32, No. 3, 1994. 371-401 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This study investigates "why and how Salvadorian migrants came to the United States, and the implications of their migration....First, it presents evidence that the dichotomy used to distinguish economic and political migrations may not be adequate for examining current migration trends....Second, it illustrates the importance of social networks in international migrations from politically conflictive regions....Third, it points out that assumptions regarding the viability of social networks as sources of support among immigrants may also need revision."
Correspondence: C. Menjivar, University of California, Department of Sociology, 410 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20503 Miao, Jian Hua. International migration in China: a survey of emigrants from Shanghai. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2-3, 1994. 445-63 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Migration trends have been largely unexamined in China, due to restrictive government policies and lack of data. This article presents the results of two surveys on emigrants from Shanghai, the largest source of emigrants and the only province with official migration records since 1958. Using information from the 1990 census, passport applications, and a survey of emigrant families in one city ward, the study concludes that migration policies, structural economic and social factors, and individual characteristics and needs shape migration patterns in Shanghai."
Correspondence: J. H. Miao, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Institute of Population Development Studies, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20504 Miles, Robert; Thranhardt, Dietrich. Migration and European integration: the dynamics of inclusion and exclusion. ISBN 0-85567-210-3. LC 94-34100. 1995. ix, 209 pp. Pinter Publishers: London, England; Associated University Presses: Cranbury, New Jersey. In Eng.
This collective work includes revised editions of papers presented at three workshops, held at the University of Leiden, the Netherlands, in April 1993, which concerned the interrelationship between the social and political consequences of international migration in Western Europe. A primary theme is the conflict between the economic need of European countries for immigrant labor and the growing political opposition to immigration and antagonism toward immigrant communities in many countries. The contributors also consider the implications of the move, toward closer union among the countries of the European Community and of proposals to expand the membership of the Community. The work includes both general studies and case studies of specific countries.
Correspondence: Pinter Publishers, 25 Floral Street, Covent Garden, London WC2E 9DS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20505 Miles, Robert; Kay, Diana. The politics of immigration to Britain: East-West migrations in the twentieth century. West European Politics, Vol. 17, No. 2, Apr 1994. 17-32 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This analysis places recent interest in East/West migration in a historical perspective. It argues that East/West migration to Britain is not a new phenomenon: Russian Jews arrived at the turn of the twentieth century and members of the Polish Armed Forces and Displaced Persons in the mid-to late 1940s. Official responses to these refugee movements varied as did the ideological representations of the incomers. In particular, prevailing political and economic considerations as well as 'race-thinking' informed official responses. Current British policy towards refugees from former Yugoslavia reinforces the argument that refugee status is socially determined, rather than inherent in a particular set of circumstances."
Correspondence: R. Miles, University of Glasgow, Department of Sociology, Adam Smith Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20506 Morokvasic, Mirjana; Angenendt, Steffen; Fischer, Andrea. East-West migration and its place in political and scientific debate in France and Germany. [Les migrations Est-Ouest dans le debat politique et scientifique en France et en Allemagne.] Revue d'Etudes Comparatives Est-Ouest, Vol. 25, No. 3, Sep 1994. 135-60, 202 pp. Ivry-sur-Seine, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to compare the main lines of discussion and research carried out in France and Germany on migratory movements from Central and Eastern Europe....Our analyses show that research is heavily dependent on the political element, but also on differences of approach in the two countries. In both cases, there has undoubtedly been an opening-up of the dialogue, but the questions addressed in France embrace a broader perspective, a European one, while Germany remains more focused on herself, and the problems which beset her."
Correspondence: M. Morokvasic, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CRESPO-IPIE, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20507 Munz, Rainer; Korte, Hermann; Wagner, Gert. International migration: Twenty-Eighth Working Meeting of the German Society for Demography, February 16-18, 1994, in Bochum. [Internationale Wanderungen: 28. Arbeitstagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, 16.-18. 2. 1994 in Bochum.] Demographie Aktuell, No. 5, 1994. 185 pp. Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Philosophische Fakultat III, Institut fur Soziologie, Lehrstuhl Bevolkerungswissenschaft: Berlin, Germany. In Ger.
This publication contains 12 papers from a 1994 conference of the German Society for Demography. The papers focus on international migration, with an emphasis on Germany. Topics covered include migration causes, consequences, and policy strategies; East-West migration in Europe and in Germany; the emigration of ethnic Germans from Romania; sequential migration decisions; the impact of migration on the Ruhr area; ethnic groups in multicultural societies; demographic and political trends in the centers of the Western European and North American migration systems since World War II; migration and conflict; refugees in Germany; and the effect of return migration on countries of origin, using Italy as an example.
Correspondence: Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Philosophische Fakultat III, Institut fur Soziologie, Lehrstuhl Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20508 Oberg, Sture. Spatial and economic factors in future South-North migration. In: The future population of the world. What can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1994. 361-85 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria; Earthscan Publications: London, England. In Eng.
"The objective of this chapter is to estimate future migration flows between less developed countries and more developed countries....The estimated figures are based on three factors that determine the probabilities of future migration. The first is present trends as they are measured by the UN....The second is an estimate of public attitudes toward immigrants. The assumption is that these attitudes do not change easily over time....The third factor examines the proximity of push and pull regions, present contacts between people living in rich and poor regions, and the welfare gap between regions."
Correspondence: S. Oberg, Uppsala University, Department of Social and Economic Geography, Norbyvagen 18 B, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20509 Oropesa, R. S.; Landale, Nancy S. Immigrant legacies: the socioeconomic circumstances of children by ethnicity and generation in the United States. Population Research Institute Working Paper, Rev. ed. No. 95-01R, Apr 1995. 33, [5] pp. Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute: University Park, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
"Using a child file created from the five percent Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 U.S. Census, this paper documents the socioeconomic circumstances of [immigrant] children by ethnicity and generation in the United States. Immigrant children from Latin America are shown to be highly disadvantaged, relative to immigrant children from Asia. Nonetheless, generational comparisons within origin groups generally suggest improvements in children's circumstances as their families spend additional time in this country."
Correspondence: Pennsylvania State University, Population Research Institute, 601 Oswald Tower, University Park, PA 16802-6211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20510 Pang, Eng Fong. Regionalisation and labour flows in Pacific Asia. OECD Development Centre Studies, ISBN 92-64-14008-5. 1993. 92 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], Development Centre: Paris, France. In Eng.
"This study analyses the characteristics, causes and consequences of labour flows in the East and the Southeast Asian region. It examines the impact of individual, corporate and state reactions to these flows on the competitive position of Pacific Asia in the world economy." Separate consideration is given to the migration of unskilled and skilled labor. One of the study's conclusions is that "unskilled labour migration will not recede, and is likely to create new tensions within the receiving countries as well as between them and the sending countries, but it will also extend the competitive life of many labour-intensive industries in labour-importing countries."
Correspondence: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Publications Service, 2 rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20511 Peter, Matthew W. The use of the ORANI model in the immigration debate. People and Place, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1993. 27-34 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
"Since 1985, three influential studies on the economic effects of immigration have been based on the ORANI model of the Australian economy. The results have generally been interpreted as showing that the economic effects of immigration are favourable. Critics of the use of ORANI...argue that the model's results are too dependent on assumptions either built into the model or imposed on it for particular experiments. In this paper, the [three] studies are examined with special attention to the influence of critical assumptions."
Correspondence: M. W. Peter, Monash University, Department of Economics, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20512 Poirine, Bernard. Emigration in Oceania: a socioeconomic theory. [L'emigration oceanienne: une theorie socio-economique.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1994. 213-23 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"In the Oceanian context, just as everywhere, international migrations depend on legal and macroeconomic factors, such as the wage differential between the sending and the receiving country. But there is also a microeconomic aspect: it is necessary to explain why emigrants send home remittances permanently, and why only some members of the family emigrate. A standard microeconomic model fails to explain this....[Our model] maximizes a family utility function, not an individual one. Furthermore, the utility function depends not only on material welfare, but also on 'socio-cultural' welfare, or the 'quality of life', which in turn depends on two variables: the amount of leisure, and the cultural environment (occidental, or Oceanian), where the leisure is spent."
Correspondence: B. Poirine, Universite Francaise du Pacifique, Centre Universitaire de Polynesie Francaise, B.P. 6570, Faaa, Tahiti, French Polynesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20513 Portes, Alejandro. The new second generation. International Migration Review, Vol. 28, No. 4, Winter 1994. 629-956 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
This special issue is a collection of articles on the growth and adaptation of second-generation immigrants in the United States. "Together these studies contribute to fill the present knowledge gap on this subject. They offer broad overviews of the geographical distribution and demographic characteristics of the new second generation and detailed descriptions of the dilemmas that their members face and the social and psychological challenges that they must overcome. In substantive terms, the articles divide fairly evenly between analyses of sociodemographic traits, linguistic knowledge and preferences, self-identity and self-esteem, and the role of immigrant communities in school performance and career plans."
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20514 Pugliese, E. Restructuring of the labour market and the role of third world migrations in Europe. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, Vol. 11, No. 5, Oct 1993. 513-22 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper is an analysis of the way in which the changes in the labour market and in the occupational structure in Europe affect the situation and the role of Third World migrants." Changes in European labor migration patterns since the 1960s are first analyzed. The author notes that "intra-European migrations were industrial migrations because manufacturing and building industries were the most important and growing economic activities....Present-day migrations are postindustrial migrations. Immigrants work mostly in service activities and not infrequently in the informal economy. In any case migrant workers are located in the secondary labour market. The picture is made more complex by the fact than many immigrants are alegal or illegal because of the restrictive immigration policies in European countries."
Correspondence: E. Pugliese, Universita di Napoli, Department of Sociology, Largo S. Marcelino 10, 80138 Naples, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20515 Rallu, Jean L. Australia and Pacific Islander migration. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2-3, 1994. 431-43 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"The net migration gains of Pacific Islands-born to Australia increased steeply from 1986, mostly due to migration from Fiji in 1987-1988 after the coups. This is reflected in the differing migration trends and characteristics of the Fiji-born compared to other Islander migrants. Australia also receives secondary migrants from New Zealand, facilitated by the free movement of residents allowed by the Trans-Tasman Agreement. Due to poor job opportunities in the Islands and economic restructuring in the countries of the Pacific rim, Island states seem to have adopted a policy of increased brain drain to ensure remittances flows. This could also be related to changing fertility rates in the Islands in the 1980s."
Correspondence: J. L. Rallu, University of the South Pacific, P.O. Box 1168, Suva, Fiji. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20516 Rallu, Jean-Louis. Recent migration trends in the South Pacific area. [Tendances recentes des migrations dans le Pacifique Sud.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1994. 201-12 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"International migration in the South Pacific is mainly linked with ex-colonies. From 1980, patterns of migration have changed due to economic recession and restrictive migration policies. People more often migrate to Australia, directly from island countries or via New Zealand, or to smaller migration countries like American Samoa. A few Polynesian populations count less people in the islands than in migration countries. Migration from Melanesia remains small....Expensive living conditions hinder agricultural production and development of [the] secondary sector, but do not prevent brain drain."
Correspondence: J.-L. Rallu, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20517 Ramirez, Nelson. Dominican emigration. [La emigracion dominicana hacia el exterior.] Serie Monografica, No. 1, Jun 1993. 40 pp. Asociacion Dominicana Pro-Bienestar de la Familia [PROFAMILIA], Instituto de Estudios de Poblacion y Desarrollo [IEPD]: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
Emigration from the Dominican Republic is analyzed using data from the 1991 Demographic and Health Survey. Chapters are included on emigration trends and differentials, family emigration, migration characteristics, and return migration.
For a related report by the same author on internal migration, also published in 1993, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Asociacion Dominicana Pro-Bienestar de la Familia, Instituto de Estudios de Poblacion y Desarrollo, Socorro Sanchez No. 64, Zona 1, Apartado Postal 1053, Santo Domingo, DN, Dominican Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20518 Redor, Dominique. The brain drain from central Europe to the European Community: analysis and perspectives. [Les migrations de specialistes hautement qualifies entre l'Europe centrale et l'Union Europeenne: analyse et perspectives.] Revue d'Etudes Comparatives Est-Ouest, Vol. 25, No. 3, Sep 1994. 161-78, 203 pp. Ivry-sur-Seine, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Factors affecting the migration of highly skilled personnel are examined in the context of the possible expansion of the European Community to include countries in eastern and central Europe. Theoretical aspects of such migration are also examined, including the role of multinational firms in the international labor market of the highly skilled.
Correspondence: D. Redor, Universite de Lille I, CEPE, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20519 Rudolph, Hedwig; Morokvasic, Mirjana. Bridging states and markets: international migration in the early 1990s. ISBN 3-89404-129-3. 1993. 330 pp. Sigma: Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
This is a selection of papers, many of which were originally presented at a conference sponsored by the Social Science Research Center, held in Berlin, Germany, in May 1991. The focus is on international migration as it affects the developed countries. The 13 papers are grouped under four main topics, concerning social aspects, such as migration policy, political participation by immigrants, and the impact of immigration on national homogeneity; labor force impacts of immigration; gender aspects of migration; and emerging trends, such as East-West migration, repatriation and guest workers, and regional migration within countries.
Correspondence: Edition Sigma, Heimstrasse 14, 10965 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20520 Samuel, T. John. Asian and Pacific migration: the Canadian experience. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2-3, 1994. 465-95 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article examines the characteristics of landed immigrants (permanent settlers) from Asia [to Canada] and explores their settlement, adaptation, and integration experience. Asian immigration has grown by leaps and bounds since the universalization of Canadian immigration policy. The skills content, capital inflow, and entrepreneurial impacts of Asian immigration have been significant. Generally speaking, Asian immigrants have adapted and integrated well. Yet access to Canadian territory as permanent residents, or access to Canadian citizenship, does not necessarily mean access to equal opportunity in the economy and society, though to a certain extent, Canada may have succeeded more than Australia."
Correspondence: T. J. Samuel, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20521 Schnapper, Dominique. Migrants and foreigners in France. People and Place, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1994. 1-9 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
The author reviews trends in migration to France, and focuses on the number of foreigners, the growth in the numbers of people seeking French citizenship, and motivation for migration.
Correspondence: D. Schnapper, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 44 rue de la Tour, 75116 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20522 Shafik, Nemat. Integration by migration? Digest of Middle East Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2, Spring 1994. 37-56 pp. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"In terms of trade and capital flows, the Middle East is one of the least economically integrated regions of the world. The major exception is labor mobility, where intraregional migration flows are extensive. The explanation for this pattern lies in the extreme differences in factor endowments across the region and development policies adopted by both labor-importing and exporting countries. Because the obstacles to trade in goods have been greater than the obstacles to migration, labor mobility and its associated capital flows have been the most important mechanism through which the benefits of the oil windfall have been spread to the poorer states of the region. There is evidence that incomes across the Middle East have become more equal."
Correspondence: N. Shafik, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

61:20523 Silverman, Maxim. Deconstructing the nation: immigration, racism and citizenship in modern France. Critical Studies in Racism and Migration, ISBN 0-415-04483-9. LC 92-2779. 1992. viii, 204 pp. Routledge: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a study of the immigration question in modern France. "By situating recent developments in France in the context of a historical perspective on the modern nation-state, it attempts to show how questions of immigration and racism highlight the problematic and ambivalent nature of the nation form. The ambivalence of the discourse of nation traverses social relations and runs, like a fault-line, across right- and left-wing politics, and across the state and civil society." The focus of the study is on the period from the late 1960s to the early 1990s. The author examines such issues as assimilation, the acquisition of French citizenship by immigrants, and the implications of the role of France in the European Community.
Correspondence: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20524 Solomon, Hussein. Migration in Southern Africa: a comparative perspective. Africa Insight, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1994. 60-71 pp. Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
"This article is concerned with setting out, in a comparative perspective, the causes and effects of migration [in Southern Africa]. It also intends to suggest possible ways in which mass movement of people can be successfully managed."
Correspondence: H. Solomon, University of the Western Cape, Centre for Southern African Studies, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20525 Stalker, Peter. The work of strangers: a survey of international labour migration. ISBN 92-2-108521-X. 1994. xii, 327 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This study analyzes recent trends in international labor migration around the world. "The author brings together a vast amount of evidence on the many issues raised by labour migration--its volume, characteristic effects, the reactions it provokes and the policies it requires. He addresses such hotly debated questions as defending national borders, assimilation versus cultural autonomy, and exclusion of migrants. The book is organized in two parts. Part I paints the global picture, starting with the slave trade and indentured labour and examining why people move today, as well as the costs and benefits of migration. Topics such as naturalization, the role of religion, attracting entrepreneurs into a country, and illegal migration are explored. Part II examines the recent experience of some 20 countries and several regions of the world--North America, Eastern and Western Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, sub-Saharan Africa, the Gulf States and Asia. The text is illustrated with numerous charts and statistical tables, including a comprehensive 'global economic migration table'."
Correspondence: International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20526 Steinmann, Gunter; Ulrich, Ralf E. The economic consequences of immigration to Germany. Studies in Contemporary Economics, ISBN 3-7908-0796-6. 1994. 177 pp. Physica-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany. In Eng.
"This book contains some recent studies by German and American scholars on the economic effects of immigration to Germany. It deals with the impact on the labour market, on the income of natives and on the public purse. Empirical as well as theoretical methods of analysis are applied. The book contains a rich set of tables and charts. The reader gets an insight into the complex discussion on the pros and cons of immigration. The case of Germany is analysed in its specific features as well as in its general relevance."
Correspondence: Physica-Verlag, c/o Springer-Verlag, Auftragsbearbeitung, Postfach 31 13 40, 10643 Berlin, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20527 Thomas-Hope, Elizabeth M. Explanation in Caribbean migration. Perception and the image: Jamaica, Barbados, St. Vincent. Warwick University Caribbean Studies, ISBN 0-333-53505-0. 1992. viii, 184 pp. Macmillan Caribbean: Basingstoke, England. In Eng.
International migration from the Caribbean is analyzed using data from surveys and in-depth interviews carried out in Jamaica, Barbados, and Saint Vincent. The author suggests that Caribbean migration is "fundamentally circular and self-perpetuating" and has become institutionalized in Caribbean societies. "Migration behaviour is a response to Caribbean circumstances and is an intrinsic part of the formation of the image of self and the life chances of the individual. This image, conditioned by the particular location of the individual in relation to the national and international system, is the key element in explaining the complex interplay of global, societal and personal factors resulting in the propensity to move and in the actual move itself."
Correspondence: Macmillan Caribbean, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 2XS, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20528 Thomas-Hope, Elizabeth M. Small island environments and international migration: the Caribbean. Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol. 109, No. 3, Dec 1993. 142-51 pp. Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
"Societies of small islands develop either a sense of self-sufficiency or a sense of the need to establish linkages and expand their limited space. Migration, and through this, the establishment of transnational communities, has been the chief way in which Caribbean people have been able to incorporate other places and extend their environments of opportunity beyond the physical limitations and societal constraints of their small islands."
Correspondence: E. M. Thomas-Hope, University of Liverpool, Department of Geography, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20529 Weidenfeld, Werner; Hillenbrand, Olaf. How can Europe deal with immigration? Possibilities and limitations of defining immigration. [Wie kann Europa die Immigration bewaltigen? Moglichkeiten und Grenzen eines Einwanderungskonzepts.] Europa Archiv, Vol. 49, No. 1, Jan 10, 1994. 1-10 pp. Bonn, Germany. In Ger.
The problem of massive immigration from Eastern Europe and the third world to the countries of the European Union is discussed, and prospects for dealing with the problem are examined.
Correspondence: W. Weidenfeld, Universitat Mainz, Forschungsgruppe Europa, 6500 Mainz, Germany. Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

61:20530 Wendt, Hartmut. Migration to and within Germany, particularly East-West migration. [Wanderungen nach und innerhalb von Deutschland unter besonderer Berucksichtigung der Ost-West Wanderungen.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1993-1994. 517-40 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Up to reunification of the two Germanys the migration processes developed in opposite directions: almost continuous migration gains in the Federal Republic of Germany (of foreign citizens, ethnic Germans, and of Germans from the former GDR), and considerable migration loss in the GDR. In the reunified Germany the migration processes again are more determined by foreigners. An 'internationalization' of the demographic development in Germany seems to be inevitable. [This article] provides an overview on the development, extent and the areas of origin of migration to Germany, whereby special attention is paid to East-West migrations, [especially] to ethnic Germans and asylum seekers."
Correspondence: H. Wendt, Bundesamt fur die Anerkennung Auslandischer Fluchtinge, Zollhausstrasse 95, 90469 Nurnberg, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20531 Wong, Siu-lun. Roaming yuppies: Hong Kong migration to Australia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2-3, 1994. 373-92 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"Hong Kong has been the top source for Asian migration to Australia in recent years. The majority of the Hong Kong migrants are young, educated professionals. Using survey data conducted in Hong Kong on emigration tendencies, this article analyzes why they are leaving Hong Kong, what attracts them to Australia, and what impact this influx has on Australian society. It is speculated that this movement may create an enduring change in the identity of emigrant Hong Kongers and have a wider significance in the contradictory currents of geopolitics and geoeconomics which are simultaneously encouraging and resisting migration."
Correspondence: S.-l. Wong, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20532 Yang, Philip Q. Post-1965 immigration to the United States: structural determinants. ISBN 0-275-95001-8. LC 94-33262. 1995. xvi, 229 pp. Praeger: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This study examines why countries of origin differ substantially in the number of legal permanent migrants sent to the United States since 1965, even though the discriminatory national origin quota system was abolished in that year. Data are primarily from the computerized records of the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service and the Public Use Microdata Sample from the 1980 U.S. census. Post-1965 immigration trends to the United States are first described and cross-national variations identified. The major theories concerning the structural determinants of immigration are then reviewed and a revised theoretical approach proposed. Next, data availability and analytical strategies are discussed. Finally, the empirical results of the analysis of the structural determinants of cross-national differences in the size of U.S. immigration are presented using data for 137 sending countries. The author argues that "cross-national differences in the size of post-1965 immigration to the United States can be explained by cross-country differences in the level of the source countries' development, the degree of U.S. involvement...,the amount of potential immigrants' migration resources, and the extent of permissiveness of sending countries' emigration policy...."
Correspondence: Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, P.O. Box 5007, Westport, CT 06881. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20533 Yap, Mui Teng. Brain drain or links to the world: views on emigrants from Singapore. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2-3, 1994. 411-29 pp. Quezon City, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article will present a general picture of emigration and emigrants from Singapore, with specific references to Australia where the data permit. The first section presents some flow data on the magnitudes of emigration from Singapore....It is necessary to place this outflow against the background of the constraints imposed by the country's small size. This is discussed in the second section, together with the economic policies and strategies adopted to overcome these constraints. The third section documents the public debate on emigration and the responses to the 'problem.' This is followed in the last section by a prognosis for the future, particularly with regard to the implications for Australia. The article ends with a discussion of the relationship between emigration and nation building, using Singapore as a case study."
Correspondence: M. T. Yap, Institute of Policy Studies, Singapore. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20534 Zhu, Guohong. A preliminary study of international migration of the Chinese people. Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1994. 403-15 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper outlines the origin and development of international migration of the Chinese people, covering roughly five developmental stages from Qin and Han dynasties up until the Republic of China....Based on an analysis of the scale of Chinese migration and the special characteristics of the population, the author holds that Chinese international migration occurred as a result of general motivations for all types of migrations and, at the same time, had its own unique mechanisms and forms. The paper concludes with a discussion of the place Chinese international migration holds and the effects it has on the world system of migration."
Correspondence: G. Zhu, Fudan University, Institute of Population Research, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20535 Zlotnik, Hania. Migration to and from developing regions: a review of past trends. In: The future population of the world. What can we assume today? edited by Wolfgang Lutz. 1994. 321-60 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria; Earthscan Publications: London, England. In Eng.
"This chapter provides a comprehensive view of the main migration flows either originating in or directed toward seven developing regions, namely, sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and West Asia, South Asia, China, the rest of developing Asia (called East and Southeast Asia), Central America and the Caribbean, and South America." Problems concerning the availability and quality of data are discussed. Most of the quantitative analysis presented is based on data originating from developed countries. The focus is on the period since 1960.
Correspondence: H. Zlotnik, UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

61:20536 Abe, Takashi. The time lag between dominant streams and reverse streams within internal migration in Japan. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 17, May 1994. 33-40 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This is an analysis of trends in internal migration in Japan over the period 1959-1991.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

61:20537 Barker, Ross. Interstate migration to south east Queensland: an analysis. People and Place, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1993. 30-7 pp. Monash, Australia. In Eng.
"There is increasing evidence that south east Queensland is emerging as the growth centre of Australia during the 1990s as a result of an accelerating redistribution of Australia's population....This paper highlights the magnitude and characteristics of internal migration impacting on Queensland and south east Queensland based on an examination of migration data from the 1991 Census. In addition, some more recent data on the level and distribution of migration are presented."
Correspondence: R. Barker, Australian Population Association, P.O. Box 583, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20538 Benoit, Daniel; Sevin, Olivier. Javanese emigration: myths and realities. [L'emigration javanaise: mythes et realites.] Annales de Geographie, Vol. 102, No. 571, May-Jun 1993. 255-76 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine the extent of migration from the island of Java to the rest of Indonesia in the period since World War II. They conclude that the impact of government-sponsored migration is fairly small, even in Sumatra, the island most affected by the program. They also find little evidence of population pressure as a cause of out-migration from Java.
Correspondence: D. Benoit, Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, 213 rue Lafayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20539 Bopda, Athanase; Grasland, Claude. Migrations, regionalizations, and regionalisms in Cameroon. [Migrations, regionalisations et regionalismes au Cameroun.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1994. 109-29 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The analysis of migrations between 49 departements of Cameroon provides a regionalisation of this state and reveals the existence of three main integrated regions and a wide interstitial area. This spatial organization is partly determined by the [unequal] repartition of population density inside the state and by the localization of the main towns. But the use of a gravity model reveals also significant barrier effects between West and East along the former historical and linguistic boundary. Secondary barrier effects appear also between North and South."
Correspondence: A. Bopda, Universite de Yaounde, B.P. 755, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20540 Boyle, Paul J.; Halfacree, Keith H. Service class migration in England and Wales, 1980-81: identifying gender-specific mobility patterns. Regional Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1, Feb 1995. 43-57 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"Gendered patterns of service class migration were observed between the metropolitan counties and regional remainders within England and Wales using 1981 Census data. Observed flows were analysed in terms of the north-south migration divide and counterurbanization, and were compared to estimates derived from gravity models. More service class men than expected moved from metropolitan to non-metropolitan areas and between non-metropolitan areas. Women were less likely to move into non-metropolitan areas and were especially attracted to metropolitan destinations, notably London. These women were also more mobile within the South than service class men. It is suggested that these contrasting patterns reflect the differential geography of women's employment."
Correspondence: P. J. Boyle, University College of Swansea, Department of Geography, Migration Unit, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20541 Cisse, Ibrahima. Agricultural migration in Mali. [Les migrations agricoles au Mali.] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 18, ISBN 2-87209-333-8. Dec 1993. 73 pp. Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Distributed by Academia-Erasme, Grand rue 25/115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa; Dut; Ara; Chi.
An analysis of migration trends in Mali is presented. The author notes that the general trend is for migration to take place from the underpopulated Sahel region in the north to the more densely populated south. The causes are identified as including climate, overpopulation, political choices, and international factors. The prospects of affecting these trends through development and migration policies are considered.
Correspondence: Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20542 Cribier, Francoise. Retirement migration of Parisians: biographical survey of cohorts. [La migration de retraite des Parisiens: l'apport des enquetes biographiques par cohortes.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1994. 75-83 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The aim of this article is to show how analysis of biographical surveys of two cohorts [in Paris, France] born around 1908 and 1922 can contribute to the study of retirement migration. Data on residential, family and occupational history were collected, for those retirees who moved to the Provinces as well as for those who remained in [the] Paris area. Analysis of these data, along with those of census and other INSEE national surveys, have enabled us to gain further understanding of the relationship between people and places."
Correspondence: F. Cribier, Universite de Paris VII, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Equipe de Geographie Sociale et Gerontologie, 191 rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20543 Decressin, Jorg W. Internal migration in West Germany and implications for east-west salary convergence. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv/Review of World Economics, Vol. 130, No. 2, 1994. 231-57 pp. Tubingen, Germany. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
"Using a simple model of gross migration [in West Germany], the paper shows that provided economic agents are sufficiently risk averse, migrational flows are likely to be procyclical. The econometric results confirm that flows are highly procyclical. They further indicate that changes in regional economic disparities significantly affect migrational flows. However, given the widening of regional disparities in the 1980s accompanied by a worsening in aggregate conditions, migration seems least effective in offsetting the differentiated impact of labor market shocks when it would be most useful. The paper concludes by applying the results to the issue of east-west migration and salary convergence."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20544 Desplanques, Guy. To know migration. [Connaitre les migrations.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1994. 31-9 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"As there are no population registers in France, most of the information on [geographic] mobility is given by censuses. Although this source is very rich...it only measures mobility over a long period of time....Other statistical surveys can give information on this topic. Among them, the Labour Force survey is the best one. Because it is undertaken every year, because it measures mobility during the last year, and collects information on the situation before migration it can be used to appreciate the evolution of mobility and to understand the migratory behaviours. It is [therefore] possible to analyse interaction between activity and mobility." Differences in migration behavior between men and women are considered.
Correspondence: G. Desplanques, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20545 Dribe, Martin. Migration, security and economic fluctuations: family migration from Halmstad 1801-1860. Lund Papers in Economic History, No. 40, 1995. 32 pp. Lund University, Department of Economic History: Lund, Sweden. In Eng.
"This study should be viewed as...a first attempt to examine the out-migration of families from Halmstad parish in Scania in southern Sweden, during the period 1801 to 1860, and the factors that are important in explaining why people migrated....The main focus is placed on short-term, rather than on long-term changes in migration behavior, and on the causes behind these changes." Data are from the Scanian Demographic Database.
Correspondence: Lund University, Department of Economic History, P.O. Box 7083, 220 07 Lund, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20546 Frey, William H. Immigration and internal migration "flight": a California case study. Population and Environment, Vol. 16, No. 4, Mar 1995. 353-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper evaluates immigration-induced out-movement from California, based on an analysis of recently released migration data from the 1990 U.S. census. The results presented here suggest that California's out-migration consists of two different migration systems: first, an immigration-induced 'flight' that exports lower income and less-educated Californians, primarily, to the nearby states of Washington, Oregon, Nevada and Arizona. And second, a more conventional migration exchange with the rest of the United States that involves the redistribution of better educated, higher income migrants."
Correspondence: W. H. Frey, University of Michigan, Population Studies Center, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20547 Grimmeau, Jean-Pierre. The gravity model and the scale factor: application to internal migration in Belgium, 1989-1991. [Le modele gravitaire et le facteur d'echelle: application aux migrations interieures de la Belgique 1989-1991.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1994. 131-41 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"One of the...difficulties in the transposition of Newton's law to migration results from the division of the migratory space which is arbitrary and ordered hierarchically. The level is generally chosen according to the scale of analysis. If we add the observed fluxes in each commune of one arrondissement to each commune of another one, we find of course the total fluxes from the first to the second arrondissement. The gravity model does not [reproduce] this basic property....By comparing the estimations of the fluxes between the Belgian arrondissements, computed respectively to the level of the arrondissements and of the communes, we remark that differences can double or vary more."
Correspondence: J.-P. Grimmeau, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Seminaire de Geographie, Campus de la Plaine, C.P. 246, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20548 Guest, Philip; Uden, Aree. Religion and migration in southern Thailand: evidence from the 1970, 1980 and 1990 censuses. IPSR Publication, No. 175, ISBN 974-587-782-4. 1994. v, 33 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper has two main aims. The first is to document religious differentials in migration [in Thailand] over the last two decades....Our second aim is to examine whether differences in socioeconomic composition of major religious groups in the Southern region of Thailand account for the observed differences in probabilities of migration of these groups." The results of the study "show that, compared to Buddhists, there [are] much lower levels of migration of Muslims. It is suggested that this might result from wishes of Muslims to maintain ethnic identity by remaining in their communities. The study proposes a number of policy options that might be employed in order to overcome the problems stemming from the low and decreasing levels of migration of Muslims."
Correspondence: Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 25/25 Putthamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20549 Hoffman, Constance A.; Ritchey, P. Neal. Assessing the differences in distance of interstate migration, 1980. Sociological Focus, Vol. 25, No. 3, Aug 1992. 241-55 pp. Bowling Green, Ohio. In Eng.
"This study examines distance of 1975-80 interstate migration [in the United States] and several explanations for the relations between distance and characteristic of migrants and locations....Observations are individual records from the 1980 one-in-ten-thousand PUMS files. The sample is restricted to nonblack, noninstitutionalized head of households, age 25 to 64 in 1980....We find outmigration is shaped by characteristics of individuals; however, distance of migration is shaped by characteristics at locations. Findings lend support to an interpretation of distance reflecting psychic costs and information and are consistent with a cost/benefit view of factors contributing to distance of migration."
Correspondence: P. N. Ritchey, University of Cincinnati, Department of Sociology, Cincinnati, OH 45221. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20550 Kritz, Mary M.; Nogle, June M. Nativity concentration and internal migration among the foreign born in 1990. Population and Development Program Working Paper Series, No. 94.08, 1994. 11, [7] pp. Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper we explored how immigrant groups in the United States in 1990 differ in their rates of interstate and intrastate migration, social characteristics and contexts of residence. Our specific interest was to assess how a group's concentration level by state affects whether a member of that group migrates in-state or to another state....Our results...show that nativity concentration has a strong negative impact on the odds of interstate migration and that after controlling for differences between natives and immigrant groups in concentration levels and other factors, immigrants in all of the groups are significantly less likely to migrate than natives."
This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.
Correspondence: Cornell University, Department of Rural Sociology, Population and Development Program, 134 Warren Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-7801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20551 Laurent, Pierre-Joseph; Mathieu, Paul; Totte, Marc. Migration and land supply in Burkina Faso. [Migrations et acces a la terre au Burkina Faso.] Cahiers du CIDEP, No. 20, ISBN 2-87209-404-0. Jun 1994. 136 pp. Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement [CIDEP]: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Distributed by Academia-Erasme, Grand rue 25/115, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, and in France by L'Harmattan, 7 rue de l'Ecole-Polytechnique, 75005 Paris. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa; Dut; Ara; Chi.
Migration trends in Burkina Faso are analyzed, with particular reference to the impact of internal migration on the environment. The authors analyze migration from the Central Plateau to the more fertile and less densely populated regions in the south and southwest of the country. The growing potential for conflict between the indigenous and in-migrating populations is also examined.
Correspondence: Centre International de Formation et de Recherche en Population et Developpement, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20552 Li, Wen Lang; Li, Yuhui. Special characteristics of China's interprovincial migration. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 27, No. 2, Apr 1995. 137-51 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"This paper examines interprovincial migration in the People's Republic of China...during 1982-87 when China was going through economic restructuring. Chinese migration patterns bear some resemblances as well as dissimilarities with those generally observed in Western societies. In China, the age-specific migration rate does not vary much until the preretirement stage. Return to places of origin is obviously the most plausible explanation of Chinese migration patterns....Chinese women appear far behind Chinese men in their propensity to migrate, and the determinants of migration are quite different for Chinese women and Chinese men."
Correspondence: W. L. Li, Ohio State University, Department of Sociology, 190 North Oval Mall, 300 Bricker Hall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20553 Makinwa-Adebusoye, P. K. Women migrants in Nigeria. International Sociology, Vol. 9, No. 2, Jun 1994. 223-36 pp. Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
This article examines female migration in Nigeria using 1989 survey data. "The article is organised in six sections. After this introduction, the next section examines gender-based division of household responsibility and women's need for remunerative employment. The sample design and the urban locations of a survey of women migrants are described in section three. In section four, we begin the presentation of findings from the survey with a description of some characteristics of sampled migrant women and their self reported reasons for their move. The role of the family in facilitating the initial move and settlement in urban destinations are examined in section five. In section six, we present the conclusions and implications for overall socio-economic development."
Correspondence: P. K. Makinwa-Adebusoye, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, Division of Social Development, Population Research Unit, P.M.B. 5, Ojoo, Oyo Road, Ibadan, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20554 Mohlo, Ian. Migrant inertia, accessibility and local unemployment. Economica, Vol. 62, No. 245, Feb 1995. 123-32 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A labour-markets model is constructed in which migration may exhibit 'distance deterrence' and 'cumulative inertia'....The combination of these two processes yields higher equilibrium unemployment rates in remote areas. Fewer out-migration opportunities in remote areas generate longer residence durations which become self-perpetuating (via cumulative inertia). Such areas accumulate net in-migrants until the local unemployment rate rises sufficiently to balance inflows and outflows. In equilibrium, local unemployment rates compensate for (endogenous) variations in residence duration. Some evidence is presented for Britain which supports the prediction of higher unemployment in remote areas."
Correspondence: I. Molho, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20555 Pandey, Himanshu. Some probability models of rural hill migrants in India. [Nektere pravdepodobnostni modely pro migranty z horskych oblasti Indie.] Demografie, Vol. 36, No. 4, 1994. 258-61 pp. Prague, Czech Republic. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The main content of this paper is to model the numbers of single male migrants aged 15 years and above from the households in [a rural village in India. The] author proposes two probability distribution models...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20556 Poulain, Michel. Internal migration in Europe: which statistical data? [La mobilite interne en Europe: quelles donnees statistiques?] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1994. 13-30 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses problems involved in analyzing data on internal migration in Europe. The focus is on the different registration systems in each country and the difficulties encountered when attempting comparisons among countries.
Correspondence: M. Poulain, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie, 1 place Montesquieu, B.P. 17, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20557 Ramirez, Nelson. Internal migration in the Dominican Republic. [Las migraciones internas en Republica Dominicana.] Serie Monografica, No. 2, Jul 1993. 48 pp. Asociacion Dominicana Pro-Bienestar de la Familia [PROFAMILIA], Instituto de Estudios de Poblacion y Desarrollo [IEPD]: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
Trends in internal migration in the Dominican Republic are analyzed using data from the 1991 Demographic and Health Survey. Chapters are included on internal migration trends, the characteristics of migrants and non-migrants, and migration in the last five years.
For a related report by the same author on international migration, also published in 1993, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: Asociacion Dominicana Pro-Bienestar de la Familia, Instituto de Estudios de Poblacion y Desarrollo, Socorro Sanchez No. 64, Zona 1, Apartado Postal 1053, Santo Domingo, DN, Dominican Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20558 Sosa, Raul A. Ecuador: complete cumulative interprovincial migration up to the years 1974, 1982, and 1990. [Ecuador: migraciones interprovinciales absolutas acumuladas hasta los anos 1974, 1982 y 1990.] Jul 1994. 43, [5] pp. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos [INEC]: Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
The author presents an overview of interprovincial and interregional migration in Ecuador up to the years 1974, 1982, and 1990, with a focus on identifying areas of attraction and repulsion. The first part concerns conceptual aspects and data sources. The second part is an analysis of absolute interprovincial migration and the direction and intensity of migration flows. The third section focuses on interregional and intraregional movements. Data are from the 1974, 1982, and 1990 censuses.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, Avenida 10 de Agosto 229, Edificio San Luis, Quito, Ecuador. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20559 Stillwell, John; Boden, Peter; Rees, Philip. Internal migration trends in the United Kingdom from National Health Service reregistration data. Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 1, 1994. 95-108 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Although Britain lacks a comprehensive population registration system, information on the spatial redistribution of patients registered with the National Health Service is available from a central register. 'Movement' data from this source is increasingly important for understanding how internal migration in Britain changes between periodic censuses of population. This paper reviews the characteristics of the data and illustrates changes in the volume, structure and pattern of migration occurring at various geographical scales."
Correspondence: J. Stillwell, University of Leeds, School of Geography, Leeds LS2 9JT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20560 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Report of the 1992 Migration Survey. ISBN 974-8095-33-9. 1994. [vii], 53, 105 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
"This report presents the results of the 1992 Migration Survey. It is the first national migration survey which covered the whole kingdom. The National Statistical Office plans to conduct this type of survey...every two years....[It] provides data on the pattern of recent migration, migration streams, demographic and socio-economic characteristics of migrants as well as the reasons of migration at the national level." The period covered in the survey was 1990-1992.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Statistical Data Bank and Information Dissemination Division, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20561 Thomas, Alun. The influence of wages and house prices on British interregional migration decisions. Applied Economics, Vol. 25, No. 9, Sep 1993. 1,261-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The factors affecting choice of destination of U.K. internal migrants are analyzed using Labour Force Survey data. "A logit analysis of destination choice indicates that job movers are attracted to areas with high wages but are not affected by high house prices in such areas. In contrast, active non-job movers are deterred from areas of high house prices. Regional house price differences do not influence the destination choice of homemakers or the terminally sick but they do influence the destination choice of retirees. All groups prefer to travel the least distance when moving."
Correspondence: A. Thomas, International Monetary Fund, IS12-404, 700 19th Street, Washington, D.C. 20431. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20562 Walters, William H. Place characteristics in elderly migration research. Bulletin of Bibliography, Vol. 51, No. 4, Dec 1994. 341-54 pp. Westport, Connecticut. In Eng.
This is an index of the place characteristics that affect elderly migration in the United States, based on a review of the literature published since 1973. Each entry shows the reported effects of a particular characteristic, such as snowfall levels, cost of living, or crime, on the in-migration, out-migration, or net migration of the older population. Analyses of particular age or ethnic groups are shown separately.
Correspondence: W. H. Walters, Brown University, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20563 Westerlund, Olle; Wyzan, Michael L. Household migration and the local public sector: evidence from Sweden, 1981-1984. Regional Studies, Vol. 29, No. 2, Apr 1995. 145-57 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"In this paper, the relationship between public sector attributes and household characteristics, and Swedish household migration, 1981-4, is studied. We report results separately for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas because the per capita levels of the tax base and intergovernmental grants are theoretically important migration determinants where population is sparse, whilst the tax rate may be more important where population is dense. Because fiscal influences are likely to be stronger for short-distance migration, we apply multinomial logit to a three-way choice set: staying and migrating short and long distances. Empirical results support our fiscal hypotheses and are consistent with previous findings on household characteristics."
Correspondence: O. Westerlund, Umea University, Department of Economics, 901 87 Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

61:20564 White, Michael J.; Mueser, Peter R. Changes in the demographic determinants of U.S. population mobility: 1940-1980. Review of Regional Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3, Winter 1994. 245-64 pp. Knoxville, Tennessee. In Eng.
Changes in U.S. internal migration patterns are examined over the period 1940-1980 using U.S. census microdata. "We demonstrate that the effects of age and education differ, sometimes appreciably, by type of mobility. There has been little change in the impacts of demographic characteristics on the propensities to make particular types of moves. Instead, we find that the increasing share of longer distance movement has been due to secular changes, most likely traced to improvements in transportation and communication, and a favorable shift in population composition, especially increased educational attainment. The association of demographic characteristics with intercounty and interstate change of residence has remained stable."
Correspondence: M. J. White, Brown University, Department of Sociology, Box 1916, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

61:20565 Arzt, Donna E.; Zughaib, Karen. Return to the negotiated lands: the likelihood and legality of a population transfer between Israel and a future Palestinian state. New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, Vol. 24, No. 4, Summer 1992. 1,399-513 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article begins by outlining the dimensions of the Palestinian-Israeli population problem in its demographic, political, and historical contexts. It then examines the principles of international law concerning the consensual, nonconsensual, unilateral, and bilateral transfer of populations. This is followed by a selective survey of some recent population transfers outside the Middle East. Next, the article explores the likelihood of voluntary migration by Palestianians and Jews in light of their respective acceptance of a 'two-state solution.' Finally, it considers some of the necessary components of a multi or bilateral treaty concerning the human dimension of the two-state solution."
Correspondence: D. E. Arzt, Syracuse University, College of Law, Syracuse, NY 13244. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20566 Masalha, Nur. Expulsion of the Palestinians: the concept of "transfer" in Zionist political thought, 1882-1948. ISBN 0-88728-235-0. LC 92-9654. 1992. iii, 235 pp. Institute for Palestine Studies: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study examines the Zionist concept of "transfer", defined as the organized removal of the indigenous population of Palestine to neighboring countries, and the consequent development of Israel as a Jewish state. "The study will trace the evolution of the concept of transfer and describe a number of unpublished plans put forward in the thirties and the forties within the context of unfolding events. Finally, the book will discuss the realization of Zionist goals during the 1948 war, with special reference to the leadership's discussions of transfer rather than to the military dimension per se."
Correspondence: Institute for Palestine Studies, P.O. Box 25697, Georgetown Station, Washington, D.C. 20007. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

61:20567 Shami, Seteney. Population displacement and resettlement: development and conflict in the Middle East. 1994. xi, 326 pp. Center for Migration Studies: Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
This collective work is the product of two study groups held at the Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology at Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan, in 1990 and 1991. "This volume brings to the interested reader results of research on the phenomena of population displacement and resettlement in the Middle East. It aims to draw attention to the social implications of these processes, as well as to the different approaches and methodologies that social scientists have used in addressing the underlying issues." Chapters are included on urban renewal, removal, and conflict; agrarian policies, rural resettlement, and labor migration; diaspora, identity, and the state; and the Gulf crisis and displacement. An annotated bibliography of works in English and Arabic is included.
Correspondence: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, NY 10304-1199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

61:20568 Akkerman, Abraham. The urban household pattern of daytime population change. Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1995. 1-16 pp. Secaucus, New Jersey/Berlin, Germany. In Eng.
"A matrix representation of places of residence and places of commuting destination in a metropolis, is coupled with evidence regarding spatio-temporal change in average household size. This approach allows the average number of persons per household who commute to be hierarchically ordered in a square matrix which shows attributes associated with a well-known class of matrices. Based on these attributes it is shown that any given spatial distribution of households implies a bounded range of vectors representing the spatial distribution of commuters....The proposed methodology is applied to thirty four subareas throughout the city of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan."
Correspondence: A. Akkerman, University of Saskatchewan, Department of Geography, 283C Arts Building, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 0W0, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20569 Dupont, Veronique; Dureau, Francoise. The role of circular migration in urban dynamics: examples from Ecuador and India. [Role des mobilites circulaires dans les dynamiques urbaines: illustrations a partir de l'Equateur et de l'Inde.] Revue Tiers-Monde, Vol. 35, No. 140, Oct-Dec 1994. 801-29 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Using the examples of Ecuador and India, this article examines different forms of circular migration affecting the dynamics of urban populations, and considers their impact on how cities function. The authors look at the strategies of temporary migrants and commuters regarding how they fit into the geographic and occupational spaces available in cities, their residence characteristics, how they affect urban investment and infrastructure, and their contribution to the labor force.
Correspondence: V. Dupont, Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, Departement des Societes, Urbanisation, Developpement, 213 rue Lafayette, 75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20570 Hansen, Christian. Cross-border commuting between Denmark and Germany. [Pendling over den dansk-tyske graense.] Nationalokonomisk Tidsskrift, Vol. 132, No. 1, 1994. 86-91 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
International commuting between Denmark and Germany is analyzed in this study. The author notes that the amount of cross-border commuting is small despite an open border, and concludes that cultural and linguistic factors are responsible.
Correspondence: C. Hansen, Institut for Graenseregionsforskning, Aabenraa, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

61:20571 Kalter, Frank. Commuting versus moving? Choice and stability in place of residence versus place of work. [Pendeln statt Migration? Die Wahl und Stabilitat von Wohnort-Arbeitsort-Kombinationen.] Zeitschrift fur Soziologie, Vol. 23, No. 6, Dec 1994. 417-33 pp. Stuttgart, Germany. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The development of internal migration in the Federal Republic of Germany during the last few decades shows that commuting is becoming more and more a substitute for moves over long distances....This paper tries to explain this 'mobility transition' by means of a model of individual choice between commuting and moving. The model is also able to account for changes in structural components. The decision-model is empirically tested by using methods of event history analysis with the data of the Socio-Economic Panel."
Correspondence: F. Kalter, Mannheimer Zentrum fur Europaische Sozialforschung, Steubenstrasse 46, 68131 Mannheim, Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

61:20572 Merriman, David; Ohkawara, Toru; Suzuki, Tsutomu. Excess commuting in the Tokyo metropolitan area: measurement and policy simulations. Urban Studies, Vol. 32, No. 1, Feb 1995. 69-85 pp. Abingdon, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, Tokyo's commuting patterns are examined to determine the extent to which the volume of commuting is an inevitable result of the functioning of such a vast interconnected economic system and the extent to which it is the result of inefficient matching of workers and jobs." Some comparisons are made to the situation in Los Angeles. Several simulations are used to examine the effect of decentralisation of employment on commuting behaviour and it is found that commuting time could be significantly reduced by decentralising jobs or centralising workers."
Correspondence: D. Merriman, Loyola University, Department of Economics, 820 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

61:20573 Chan, Kam Wing. Migration controls and urban society in post-Mao China. Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper, No. 95-2, Jan 1995. 20, [4] pp. University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center: Seattle, Washington; Battelle Seattle Research Center: Seattle, Washington. In Eng.
The author examines social changes and migration in post-Mao China. The paper "first explains the Chinese hukou system and its relationship with mobility and social stratification, and then analyzes the changes in the mobility in the reform era and the socio-economic characteristics of the newly emergent social urban structure."
Correspondence: Seattle Population Research Center, c/o University of Washington, Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology Library, Department of Sociology DK-40, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20574 Day, Lincoln H.; Ma, Xia. Migration and urbanization in China. Studies in Chinese Environment and Development, ISBN 1-56324-338-5. LC 93-29350. 1994. xvii, 253 pp. M. E. Sharpe: Armonk, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This book presents a collection of papers based on data from a large-scale survey conducted in 1986 on urban migration in China. The survey involved over 25,000 households and some 100,000 individuals in 74 cities and towns in 16 provinces. The primary focus of the papers is on rural-urban migration and its consequences. Papers are also included on the 1986 migration survey, internal migration in general, permanent and temporary migration differentials, migrant characteristics, economic adjustment of urban migrants, migration and fertility, changing urban migration patterns, and comparisons with other Asian countries.
Correspondence: M. E. Sharpe, 80 Business Park Drive, Armonk, NY 10504. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20575 Mukherji, Shekher. Poverty-induced migration and urban involution in India: causes and consequences. IIPS Research Report Series, No. 11, 1994-1995. 137 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences [IIPS]: Bombay, India. In Eng.
This study examines the relationships among migration, urbanization, and development in India. The author concludes that "there has been massive migration of landless agricultural labourers, peasant and village operatives for marginalised rural areas directly to [the] largest and over congested metropolises; often they bypass local small towns, cities, [and] headquarters. That is, these unskilled and illiterate distressed migrants are compelled to make quantum jumps from stagnated rural areas to metropolitan areas, leading to urban over-congestion, urban atrophy, proliferation of urban informal sectors, urban unemployment, and frequent break down of essential urban services."
Correspondence: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

61:20576 Wong, Linda. China's urban migrants--the public policy challenge. Pacific Affairs, Vol. 67, No. 3, Fall 1994. 335-55 pp. Vancouver, Canada. In Eng.
The problems posed by rural-urban migration in China since the late 1980s are explored. "The paper first analyzes the problems and contributions brought by urban migrants. Second, using Guangdong as an example, the paper examines the measures taken by state agencies and their effectiveness. The final section discusses the problems and prospects related to urban migration. The paper concludes that current policy is plainly inadequate and that urban migrants are still relegated to the margins of Chinese society. It is argued that unless their claims are recognized, urban migrants are likely to remain a thorn in governance and a threat to social stability."
Correspondence: L. Wong, City Polytechnic of Hong Kong, Department of Publishing and Social Administration, Hong Kong. Location: Princeton University Library (SF).

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